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Sample records for watermelon citrullus lanatus

  1. Antibacterial activity of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) seed against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of extraction methods on the antibacterial activity of Citrullus lanatus seed extract. C. lanatus (watermelon) is a popular fruit consumed all over the world. Three solvents were used for the extraction process: chloroform, methanol and distilled water while two extraction conditions- ...

  2. Technical efficiency of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to measure the level of technical efficiency, its determinants in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production and the constraints in the production system in Yewa North Local Government of Ogun State using a stochastic frontier production function. A combination of purposive and random sampling ...

  3. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-08-01

    Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries CE were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century CE and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century CE present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  4. Effects of Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Seed on Blood Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, with its associated complications, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of citrullus lanatus seed extract on blood glucose concentration and electrolyte parameters. Citrullus lanatus is an antioxidant and has been shown to reduce oxidative stress (Khaki et al., 2013). Effects ...

  5. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-01-01

    .... The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population...

  6. Partial leaf chemical profiles of a desert watermelon species (Citrullus colocynthis) and heirloom watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and aphids [Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] are serious threats to watermelon by direct feeding and by transmitting viruses of important virus diseases. The desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) has been shown to exhibit resistance t...

  7. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolut...

  8. Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the quality and quantity of oil from water melon (Citrilus lanatus) seeds was conducted. The water melon ... oven-dried sample relative to the sun-dried sample; whereas other chemical properties were not affected. Free Fatty .... Fig 5: comparison of the physical parameters of the two samples. 0. 20. 40. 60. 80. 100. 120. S.

  9. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  10. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx and supplementation (Tx groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P<0.05. Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  11. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity...... into aspects of phloem-based vascular signaling in common between watermelon and cucumber and identified genes crucial to valuable fruit-quality traits, including sugar accumulation and citrulline metabolism....

  12. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  13. Characterization of seed oils from different varieties of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.] from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood, Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the physicochemical characteristics of the seed oils from different varieties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in Pakistan, namely Sugar Baby, Q-F-12, D-W-H-21 and Red Circle-1885. The oil and crude protein contents from watermelon seeds, within the range of 28.25 to 35.65% and 20.50 to 35.00%, respectively, varied significantly (p -1 of oil, saponification index (190.20-205.57 mg KOH g-1 of oil, unsaponifiable matter (0.54-0.82% and color (1.12-4.30 R + 12.20-33.40 Y. The oils revealed a reasonable oxidative parameter range as depicted by the determinations of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (2.90-4.40 and 2.05- 3.09, respectively, p-anisidine value (5.60-7.70 and peroxide value (2.90-5.06 meqO2 kg-1 of oil. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid found in all the seed oils with contributions of 45.30-51.80% of the total fatty acids (FA. Other fatty acids detected were known to be oleic acid (20.2- 23.5%, palmitic acid (15.1-16.9% and stearic acid (11.5- 14.4%. The contents of α- and δ-tocopherol in the oils accounted for 120.6-195.6 and 9.1-58.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The physicochemical attributes of the watermelon seed oils showed a wider variation among the varieties tested. The results of the present study indicate that the seeds of the tested watermelon varieties from Pakistan are a potential source of high-linoleic oil and thus can be explored for commercial use and value addition.Se presentan las características físico-químicas de aceites de diferentes variedades de semillas de sandías (Citrullus lanatus cultivadas en Pakistán: Sugar Baby, QF-12, DWH-21 y Círculo rojo-1885. El aceite y el contenido de proteína cruda de las semillas de sandía están dentro de los rangos: 28,25-35,65% y 20,50-35,00%, respectivamente y varian significativamente (p -1 de aceite, índice de saponificación (190,20-205,57 mg de KOH g-1 de aceite, insaponificable (0,54-0.82% y color (1.12-4.30 de I + 12.20- 33.40 y

  14. Influência do agrotêxtil sobre a densidade populacional de Monosporascus cannonballus em solo cultivado com melancia (Citrullus lanatus Influence of the row cover on the population density of Monosporascus cannonballus in soil cultivated with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Valente de Medeiros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Monosporascus cannonballus é um importante patógeno radicular que ocasiona a síndrome denominada colapso em cucurbitáceas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se, avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de planta com agrotêxtil branco de 15 g m-2, sobre a densidade populacional de M. cannonballus, em solo cultivado com melancia [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsu & Nakai]. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por utilização ou não do agrotêxtil e as subparcelas pelas épocas de coleta de solo (0, 12, 24, 36, 48 dias após o transplantio. As variáveis analisadas foram densidade de ascósporos, temperatura do solo e do ar. Não houve influência da utilização da cobertura de agrotêxtil perante a densidade de ascósporos de M. cannonballus, no solo cultivado com melancia, mesmo que tenha proporcionado redução nas temperaturas médias do ar e do solo, sendo uma alternativa eficaz de manejo, na produção da melancia Mickylee.The fungus M. cannonballus is an important root pathogen that causes collapse in cucurbitaceas. The present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the row cover with white polypropylene of 15 g m-2 on the population density of M.cannonballus in soil cultivated with watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsu & Nakai]. The experimental design was of randomized blocks using parcels subdivided scheme with three replications. The parcels consisted of use or not row cover and subparcelas through the time of soil collected (0, 12, 24, 36, 48 days after the transplanting. The variables evaluates were ascospores density, soil temperature and air temperature. There was not influence of the characteristics gotten for the row cover before the ascospores density of M. cannonballus, in the soils cultivated with watermelon and proportioning reduction of soil temperature means and air temperature means

  15. Analytical Characterization of Pure and Blended Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus oil: Impact of Blending on Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqar Azeem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L. kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B1, B2, B3 and B4 and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil. All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28oC for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The α tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. δ tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO2/kg in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil.

  16. Performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. in response to organic and NPK fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eifediyi Ehiokhilen Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil of North-Central Nigeria is home to many plant products that are used as industrial raw materials, and after processing their waste are often left in drainage channels, which ultimately find their way into rivers and streams where they pollute these water bodies, and sometimes some of these materials are burnt, which further aggravates global warming. In addition, the soil of the region is characterized by low organic matter content because of annual bush burnings, which reduce the low humus content of soils. Watermelon requires a fertile soil, which is high in organic matter content, while infertile soils yield an increased production of male flowers at the expense of female flowers, which results in low fruit set. Therefore, a study was carried out at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria, during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014 to assess the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of watermelon. The factors imposed were a control, NPK fertilizer and five organic materials (neem seed cake (NSC, jatropha seed cake (JSC, poultry manure (PM, compost manure (CM, and cow dung (CD. The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD replicated thrice. Data collected on soil physico-chemical properties were: organic matter content, soil pH, organic carbon, total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, bulk density (BD, micro porosity (MIP, macro porosity (MAP, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS. Plant parameters evaluated include growth (vine length and number of leaves and yield (number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, and yield ha−1. Results indicated that the organic matter content increased after the first year’s cropping and declined at the end of the study. The amended plots showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 with respect to most soil physical properties (MIP, (MAP, and (KS, except the BD, where the values were lower. The bulk density particularly

  17. Phytochemical composition and radical scavenging activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus seed constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Otutu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that antioxidant phytochemicals in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Watermelon seed constituents (whole meal, shelled and shells flours were evaluated for phytochemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity to determine the potential practical applications in food and other related areas. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring its DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and ABTS (2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline- 6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability as well as FRAP method (ferric reducing power. Quantitative estimation of the constituents showed cardiac glycosides (9.94-14.35 mg/g and saponins (11.62-32.48 mg/g as the most concentrated phytochemicals in the constituents, while alkaloids (47.2-95.8 mg/g, total phenol (5.63-8.40 mg GAE/g, flavonoids 3.51-7.76 mg QE/g. A positive radical scavenging ability of the constituents against ABTS and DPPH free radicals ranged from 0.02 to 0.04 mg Trolox equivalent /g seed flour and 39.89 to 61.11 mg ascorbic acid equivalent /g seed flour respectively. There was a considerable ferric reducing power and higher activity was observed in whole meal than shelled seeds and shells. The significant antioxidant capacities of the seed constituents underline the potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds for therapeutic purposes.

  18. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  19. KEANEKARAGAMAN KULTIVAR SEMANGKA [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB. MATSUM. & NAKAI] DI SENTRA SEMANGKA NUSAWUNGU CILACAP

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    Utari Dwi Kusumastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is a plant of Cucurbitaceae family which is include in an annual plant. In Indonesia, watermelon has diversity in its cultivar as can be seen from the stem, leaf, flower, and fruit morphology. This research is aimed to find out the diversity and the similarity relationship of watermelon cultivar in Nusawungu, Cilacap. A survey method was used in this research by taking the samples with a random sampling technique (purposive sampling. This research parameter consisted of stem, leaf, flower, and fruit morphology of each watermelon cultivar. Data of watermelon cultivar morphology were analyzed descriptively and then analyzed based on the similarity relationship with UPGMA method (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean using the MEGA 5.05 software. The result of this research showed that there were five watermelon cultivars namely C. lanatus ‘Farmers Giant’, C. lanatus ‘Nina’, C. lanatus ‘Black Orange’, C. lanatus ‘Torpedo’, and C. lanatus ‘Bintang’. There were two groups of watermelons based on phenetic analysis namely group I consisting of C. lanatus ‘Torpedo’, C. lanatus ‘Black Orange’, and C. lanatus ‘Nina’ cultivars, group II consisting of C. lanatus ‘Bintang’ and C. lanatus ‘Farmers Giant’. The closest similarity was between C. lanatus ‘Farmers Giant’ and C. lanatus ‘Bintang’ cultivars with the dissimilarity index of 0,516. While the most distantly related was between C. lanatus ‘Nina’ and C. lanatus ‘Farmers Giant’ cultivars with the dissimilarity index of 2,338.

  20. Effect of Long Term Administration of Citrullus Lanatus on Fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to highlight the diverse benefits of Citrullus lanatus (egusi melon) seeds with the principal focus on its highly nutritive and calorific values. This makes Citrullus lanatus necessary in diet and in the fight against malnutrition. It also indicated the effect of Citrullus lanatus on Follicle Stimulating Hormone ...

  1. In vitro assessment of physiological changes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) upon iron oxide nanoparticles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Hu, Jing; Dai, Zhaoyi; Li, Junli; Huang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, developing nano iron fertilizer is an important strategy to alleviate Fe deficiency and elevate Fe fertilization effect in agricultural applications. In this study, watermelon seedlings were grown in soil amended with iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) at different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 mg/L). The content of soluble sugar and protein, content of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes of watermelon leaves were determined in five successive weeks to evaluate the physiological changes of watermelon plants after γ-Fe2O3 NPs exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter root cell of watermelon. Results showed that 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs didn't cause any oxidative stress on watermelon and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs could increase soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in the growth of plants. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs caused oxidative stress on watermelon leaves, but this NP-induced stress was removed with the growth of watermelon. It is noteworthy that we found γ-Fe2O3 NPs might possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The variation trend of physiological parameters was correlated with the nutritional requirements of plants. It can be concluded that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations have the ability to improve iron deficiency chlorosis and promote the growth of watermelon plants. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in long-term experiment of watermelon plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yang

    Full Text Available Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III and five subgroups (IIa-IIe in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  3. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman; Marufa Khatun; Mohammad Harunur Rashid; Mominul Islam Sheikh; Shamima Akhtar Sharmin; Iftekhar Alam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73%) of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA). Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the multipli...

  4. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Upe Francisca Babaiwa1, Osayemwenre Erharuyi2, Abiodun Falodun2 and John. O Akerele1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria, 2Department of.

  7. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  8. Deficit Irrigation Effects on Yield, Yield Components and Seed Production of Three Cultivas of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsum and Nakai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study (2005 - 2006 was carried out to explore the effect of deficit irrigation treatments according to evaporation from a class A basin, including ET= 1 (T1, ET = 0.75 (T2, and ET = 0.5 (T3, on yield, yield components and seed yield of three varieties of watermelon (Charleston Gray, Sugar Baby and Crimson Suite in the Varamin Agricultural Research Center of Iran. A randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement with four replications was used. The results showed that fruit yield, yield components and seed yield were not significantly different in T1 and T2 treatments in contrary to T3 treatment. Among the yield components, number of fruits per plant most suffered from the negative impact of severe water stress (T3 (1.20 fruit per plant. Rind thickness, percent soluble solids in fruit and seed yield were not affected by water stress. According to phenotypic traits, and correlation coefficients, a significant positive correlation (1% probability level was observed between the weighted average, and the number of fruit with the fruit yield. Crimson Suite cultivar produced the highest yield (2533 kg ha-1 compared to the cultivars Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. Sugar Baby and Crimson Suite cultivars, with 311.7 and 298.2 kg ha-1, respectively, produced the highest amount of seed. Crimson Suite cultiavr had the highest percentage of soluble solids in fruit (1.35. Rind thickness in Crimson Suites, Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby cultivars were 1.35, 1.13 and 1.10 cm, respectively. The results of this study showed that under a moderate moisture stress condition (ET = 0.75, fruit and seed yield could be similar to the no-water stress conditions.

  9. Produtividade de sete genótipos de melancia em Dourados Yield of seven genotypes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus in Dourados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane A.K. Leonel

    2000-11-01

    a dystrophic Red Latosol of clay texture, after liming. Dourados county has an average altitude of 430 m and it is located at 22º 13' 16" S latitude and 54º 17' 01" W longitude. The climate of Dourados region is classified as Wet Mesothermic, with an annual average temperature varying from 20 to 24ºC and an annual average precipitation, ranging from 1,250 mm to 1,500 mm. About 90% of watermelon crop in Mato Grosso do Sul is basically cultivated with the 'Crimson Sweet' genotype. For this reason this research has had the objective to evaluate the yield and quality of the following watermelon genotypes: Crimson Glory, Jetstream, Madera, Rubi, Starbrite, Verona and Crimson Sweet. The trial was carried out in a randomized block with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of a crop row with five plants, spaced 2 m apart. The main crop parameters measured at harvest as a function of fruits weight and number were total yield; commercial and non-commercial yield, and total soluble solid contents (°Brix of all fruit classes. Total yield of Rubi and Jetstream hybrids were superior to the others and only Crimson Glory was significantly different. Rubi hybrid produced 87% of commercial fruits, the highest yield, and it was superior in 429% to Crimson Glory yield, which had the smallest yield. In general, hybrids presented higher commercial yield than Crimson Sweet variety. The Rubi hybrid produced 77% more commercial fruits and it provided 214% profit higher than the Crimson Sweet cv. The total soluble solid contents of the fruits were dependent on genotypes and fruit classes. Verona and Starbrite hybrids presented the sweetest pulp.

  10. Antioxidant effect of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Antioxidant effect of Citrullus Vulgaris (Watermelon) extract was evaluated against lipid oxidation in freshly caught fishes during cooking. GC-MS analysis of Hexane and total phenolic extract of Citrullus Vulgaris flesh reveals that the extracts contain 55 compounds which includes 5- hydroxymethyl furfural, ...

  11. Optimized system for plant regeneration of watermelon (Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to establish an efficient and reproducible in vitro plant regeneration for. Citrullus lanatus cv. Zaojia. .... To determine the regional effects of cotyledon for shoot formation, five explants were tested in this ... micro- and macronutrients in culture tubes. After 3 weeks on rooting ...

  12. Morphological diversity in oleaginous watermelon (Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbotto

    analyze variations in plant, fruit and seed morphology in. C. lanatus oleaginous type collection from Côte d'Ivoire. This represents the first study on collection and characterization of C. lanatus oleaginous type germplasm in Nangui Abrogoua University. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant and collection sites. In this study ...

  13. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  14. Effects of the methanolic extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    phenylhydrazine +500 mg/kg of extract; Group 5 received phenylhydrazine + 0.23 ml/kg of. Bioferon®: positive controls. ... given on day 1 of the experiment; the extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus and Bioferon were both administered orally .... N-acetyl cysteine, a known ROS scavenger (Hill and. Thornalley 1982, Clemens ...

  15. Effects of the methanolic extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The possible ameliorative effects of the methanolic extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus on some erythrocyte parameters, serum superoxide dismutase and malonaldehyde concentrations were investigated following phenylhydrazine administration using wistar rats as models. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats ...

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of watermelon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zaojia) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 containing the plasmid pRD400 carrying Pti4 gene was studied in this work. Proximal cotyledons as explants were pre-cultivated for two day in the dark and it was found that the best condition for transformation of watermelon was the use of bacteria at a concentration ...

  17. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

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    Michael Ndikau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE, and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE. The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy exhibiting a λmax at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of 17.96±0.16 nm.

  18. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

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    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Mansf. on Artemia salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three extracts and twelve fractions namely: ethanol soluble extracts, chloroform soluble fractions, water soluble fractions, methanol soluble fractions and petroleum ether soluble fractions from stem leaves and seeds were subjected to the brine shrimp test. The ethanol extracts and water fraction of the seeds of C. lanatus ...

  20. A GBS-SNP-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Farnham, Mark W; Patrick Wechter, W

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 Mb interval using a high-density GBS-SNP linkage map, the first map of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides. Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, does not exist in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Cll) and has been well described in a few plant introductions of the wild subspecies of watermelon, C. lanatus var. citroides (Clc). Clc provides a vital source of genetic diversity, as well as resistance to numerous diseases. Unfortunately, both genetic diversity and disease resistance are lacking in Cll due to the narrow genetic base. Despite the importance of Clc to continued watermelon improvement, intra-variety genetic studies are lacking. Here, we present the first Clc genetic linkage map, generated with 2495 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and use it to identify quantitative trait loci associated with Fon race 2 resistance. Multiple QTL mapping in a Clc F2:3 population (N = 173) identified one major and four minor QTL. The major QTL explained 43% of the variation in Fon race 2 resistance and was delimited to a 1.2-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region spanning 44 genes.

  1. Antibacterial activity of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr Akande

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Phytochemical screening. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the various extracts was carried out according to standard procedure (Trease and Evans,. 1989; Evans et al., 2002) to ascertain the qualitative composition of the seed. Phytochemicals screened include alkaloids, phenols/ tannins, saponins ...

  2. A tonoplast sugar transporter underlies a sugar accumulation QTL in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism controlling accumulation of soluble sugars in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit, a trait associated with sweet-dessert watermelon domestication, is still unknown. We re-sequenced 96 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between sweet and unsweet watermelon accessi...

  3. Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Germination in Lead Polluted Petri Dish of Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chidozie Ogwu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg Matsumura and Nakai is a tropical fruit vegetable. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA is a popular phytohormone while lead (Pb is a common environmental pollutant in urban and sub-urban centers. C. lanatus were obtained from Benin City with a view to study the effects of IAA on their germination in Pb polluted environment.  Germination percentage without IAA and Pb treatment in petri dish was significant after ten days. Hastened germination was observed when IAA and lead were used. About 100 % germination was recorded after seven days. This suggests that water melon seeds can initiate growth even in lead polluted environment. Optimum level of 5 ppm IAA with the different levels of lead treatments may be recommended. Most important was that higher concentrations of Pb in the control (without IAA did not inhibit seedling shoot nor root growth. Longest seedling shoot length (cm was 10.33 ± 1.24 and 12.13 ± 2.06 on the seventh and eighth day respectively with the combined treatment levels of 1 ppm IAA and 15 ppm Pb. On the ninth day, 15.27 ± 0.96 was obtained from 1 ppm IAA and 20 ppm Pb. Longest seedling root length (cm values were recorded from the combined treatment levels of 0 ppm IAA and 10 ppm Pb for the seventh (9.10 ± 0.47 and ninth (10.37 ± 1.81 day respectively and 0 ppm and 15 ppm Pb on the eighth (9.37 ± 0.84 day. Significant means were also obtained with the treatment level of 0 and 20 ppm IAA. This present study suggest the germination of C. lanatus under Pb polluted environment may be rescued with optimum IAA.

  4. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae in Rats

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    Okunrobo O. Lucky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals; flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg. The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001. Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Beginning in Guayaquil, the road north through Nobol, Palestina, and Balzar to Velasco-Ibarra (Empalme); (ii...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus) may be imported into the United States from Ecuador only in accordance with this paragraph and all...

  6. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

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    Swapnil Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.

  7. Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Water Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein and amino acids composition of seeds and pulp of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus were analyzed using Kjeldahl method and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) respectively. The protein contents (% dry matter) of seeds and pulp were found to be 24.23 and 1.05% respectively. The results of amino acids ...

  8. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  9. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-12-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

  10. USVL-380, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-380’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] resistant to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated with ZYMV-resis...

  11. Extraction And Isolation Of Lycopene From Solanum Lycopersicum And Citrullus Lanatus For Bioplastic Colouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes water melon and other fruits mostly red coloured. Due to its structure lycopene gives its deep red colour owing to its strong colour and non- toxic in nature. Lycopene is non-polar in nature due to which it stains any porous material including plastic. Lycopene diffuses into plastic making it difficult to remove with hot water or detergent. Since lycopene is insoluble in water but can be dissolved in organic solvent and oil. Extracting lycopene from natural source like tomato and watermelon which contains the highest amount of lycopene leads to a non-toxic colouring agent which can be used in bioplastic colouring. Identification of lycopene was carried out using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and HPLC. The lycopene content was found to be 5.50 and 11.1 mgkg fresh wt in tomato and watermelon respectively. The peaks of lycopene in UV-Visible spectrophotometer were found at 459 nm and 468 nm for tomato and watermelon respectively. HPLC of lycopene was carried out which showed the amp955Max at 473 nm for tomato and 471 nm for watermelon. The extracted lycopene was added while preparing the bioplastic as the colouring agent. Hence lycopene proves to be a potent biocolour for the bioplastic colouring.

  12. Composition, physical properties and drying characteristics of seed oil of Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S. A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Abdullah, M.; Elham, O. S. J.; Mamat, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    A study to investigate the effect of different drying methods for the pre-treatment process on the quality and quantity of oil extracted from Citrulllus lanatus seeds was conducted. The red type Citrulllus lanatus seeds from local supermarket in Shah Alam is used in this experiment. The amount of seed was divided into two portions; one portion was subjected to sun drying while the other portion was subjected to oven drying (at a temperature of 70°C). After the drying process, the seeds were ground in a laboratory grinder to turn them into powder. The ground seeds then will be fed to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide unit (SC-CO2) for extraction. Once the extracted oil is obtained, it will be analysed by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Results indicated that the amount of the moisture content from the sun-dried was lower compared to oven-dried. The results also indicated that, there were no significant difference in the quantity of oil obtained from both samples of oven-dried and sun-dried. However, the acid value and other component content in the sample were higher in the sun-dried sample relative to the oven-dried sample. Linoleic acid is the only compound that was found in the oven-dried sample, whereas linoleic acid and oleic acid were found in the sun-dried sample. Based on the results, it shows that the drying effect were important when the quality of oil was to be considered. The other compounds like Naphtalenol, 9-17-Octadecadeinal, 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, and Carboxin also are found in the sun-dried sample. Other that that, drying method does not give any effect to the physical appearance of the extracted oil, as similar color and other physical appearance was produced by the both sample.

  13. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  14. Evapotranspiración del cultivo de sandía (Citrullus lanatus en la costa de Hermosillo, Sonora, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Román Román

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La sandía (Citrullus lanatus es una hortaliza que para su manejo demanda una mayor necesidad de agua; sin embargo no existen estudios que muestren las cantidades utilizadas de agua con cierta precisión y menos que utilicen técnicas como la covarianza de vórtices para medir la evapotranspiración (ET, debido al alto costo de la instrumentación. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la ET en sandía (Citrullus lanatus para una región árida en la Costa de Hermosillo Sonora (29° 00´ N y 111° 08´ O. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante los meses de agosto a Noviembre de 2014. Se utilizó la técnica de covarianza de vórtices para medir ET y se empleó la ecuación Penman-Monteith para determinar la evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo. El predio constaba de un sistema de riego por goteo, en el cual se aplicaron 166.1 mm de agua y tuvo una aportación por precipitación de 291.5 mm. La ET fue de 214.4 mm para todo el ciclo del cultivo, mientras que la ETo fue de 498.3 mm. Se observaron valores de Kc de 0.15, 0.65 y 0.35 para etapa inicial, intermedia y final del cultivo respectivamente.

  15. Characterization of Acanthosicyos horridus and Citrullus lanatus seed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus, respectively. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the different extraction methods in the characteristics studied. Physicochemical characteristics of the melon seed oils were saponification value, 180.48-189.86 mg KOH/g oil; iodine value, 108.27-118.62 g I2/100 g oil; acid value, 0.643-1.63 mg KOH/g oil; peroxide value; 1.69-2.98 mequiv/kg oil; specific gravity, 0.901-0.922; and refractive indices, 1.4676-1.4726. The dominant tocopherol was γ-tocopherol with total tocopherol in the range 27.61-74.39 mg/100 g. The dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid in the range 52.57-56.96%. The favorable oil yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  16. Damage functions and thermal requirements of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita on watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Manuel; Giné Blasco, Ariadna; Vela Delgado, María Dolores; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Talavera Rubia, Miguel Francisco; Verdejo Lucas, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the initial (P-i) and final (P-f) population densities of Meloidogyne javanica and yield of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, cv. Sugar Baby were determined in pot and field experiments. In the pots, the maximum reproduction rate of the nematode was 14, and the equilibrium density was 49400 eggs/100cm(3) of soil. Yield data represented as fresh top weight fitted the Seinhorst damage function (P

  17. Glyoxysomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons : I. Molecular properties of the purified isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, R A; Michaeli, S; Hock, B

    1977-01-01

    Molecular properties of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37; L-malate: NAD(+) oxidoreductase) from watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) were investigated, using completely purified enzyme preparations. The apparent molecular weights of the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial isoenzymes were found to be 67,000 and 74,000 respectively. Aggregation at high enzyme concentrations was observed with the glyoxysomal but not with the mitochondrial isoenzyme. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis each isoenzyme was found to be composed of two polypeptide chains of identical size (33,500 and 37,000, respectively). The isoenzymes differed in their isoelectric points (gMDH: 8,92, mMDH: 5.39), rate of heat inactivation (gMDH: τ1/2 at 40°C=3.0 min; mMDH: stable at 40°C; τ1/2 at 60°C=4.5 min), adsorption to dextran gels at low ionic strenght, stability against alkaline conditions and their pH optima for oxaloacetate reduction (gMDH: pH 6.6, mMDH: pH 7.5). Very similar pH optima, however, were observed for L-malate oxidation (pH 9.3-9.5). The results indicate that the glyoxysomal and mitochondrial MDH of watermelon cotyledons are distinct proteins of different structural composition.

  18. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  19. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  20. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  1. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-06-05

    Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded

  2. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  3. Transcriptome analysis of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruits in response to Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaodong Li; Mengnan An; Zihao Xia; Xiaojiao Bai; Yuanhua Wu

    2017-01-01

    .... Functional annotation analysis showed that several DEGs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone biosynthesis and signaling transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interactions...

  4. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

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    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  6. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Wang

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris, semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus. Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED, Cla005404 (NCED, Cla020673 (CYP707A, Cla006655 (UGT and Cla020180 (SnRK2, varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A and one single SNP (-701, G/A in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2 exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into

  7. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  8. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  9. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC, β-actin (ClACT, and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5 as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1, a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  10. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon.

  11. Co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus seeds improved testicular functions in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

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    G.I. Onyeso

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seed extract have hypoglycemic effect and may consequently ameliorate the impaired testicular general architecture and inhibits sperm death or testicular damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  12. De novo-based transcriptome profiling of male-sterile and fertile watermelon lines.

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    Sun-Ju Rhee

    Full Text Available The whole-genome sequence of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, a valuable horticultural crop worldwide, was released in 2013. Here, we compared a de novo-based approach (DBA to a reference-based approach (RBA using RNA-seq data, to aid in efforts to improve the annotation of the watermelon reference genome and to obtain biological insight into male-sterility in watermelon. We applied these techniques to available data from two watermelon lines: the male-sterile line DAH3615-MS and the male-fertile line DAH3615. Using DBA, we newly annotated 855 watermelon transcripts, and found gene functional clusters predicted to be related to stimulus responses, nucleic acid binding, transmembrane transport, homeostasis, and Golgi/vesicles. Among the DBA-annotated transcripts, 138 de novo-exclusive differentially-expressed genes (DEDEGs related to male sterility were detected. Out of 33 randomly selected newly annotated transcripts and DEDEGs, 32 were validated by RT-qPCR. This study demonstrates the usefulness and reliability of the de novo transcriptome assembly in watermelon, and provides new insights for researchers exploring transcriptional blueprints with regard to the male sterility.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  15. Microbiological evaluation of watermelon juice treated with serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit is among numerous fruits that has a high moisture content and is therefore desirable for human consumption. In order to ensure its availability all through the year, processing into juice and other valuable processes are being carried out in order to reduce the rate of spoilage and watermelon juice losses. The high moisture content in fruits makes them highly susceptible to spoilage. Watermelon juice and extract of serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii were blended together in the following ratios: sample A (100 ml+10 ml, sample B (100 ml+20 ml, sample C (100 ml+30 ml, sample D (100 ml+40 ml, and sample E (100 ml+50 ml respectively, while pure watermelon juice served as a control sample. Microbial and sensory analyses of the samples were evaluated over twelve weeks of storage. Over the period of storage, the results showed that microbial load of the control sample ranged between 1.1x105-9.7.6x107 cfu/ml, while treated samples ranged between 0.2 x105- 1.4x105 cfu/ml, with some of the treated samples having negligible growth <10 cfu/ml. Results from the study confirmed that pure watermelon juice was highly susceptible to a microbial attack due to the absence of a preservative, and large volume of microbial loads was recorded, while the treated samples that included serendipity berry extract, which functioned both as a sweetener and a preservative, had fewer microbial loads over same period of storage. The sensory evaluation result showed that sample C (100 ml watermelon juice + 30 ml of serendipity berry extract was rated the best in terms of taste, aroma and general acceptability, while sample D (100 ml watermelon juice + 40 ml of serendipity berry extract was rated highest for colour.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus (WmCSV) from Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S.; Jamous, Rana M.; Mallah, Omar B.; Abu-Zeitoun, Salam Y.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[PAL]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for WmCSV-[PAL] infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA). Disease incidence ranged between 25%–98% in watermelon fields in the studied area, 77% of leaf samples collected from Jenin were found to be mixed infected with WmCSV-[PAL] and SLCV. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis of virus genomes showed that DNA-A and DNA-B had 97.6%–99.42% and 93.16%–98.26% nucleotide identity with other virus isolates in the region, respectively. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Palestinian isolate of WmCSV shared the highest nucleotide identity with an isolate from Israel suggesting that the virus was introduced to Palestine from Israel. PMID:24956181

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-03

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel genes to extend the available reference gene set. Second, 3958 genes in COS and 3503 genes in LSW177 showed at least two-fold variation in expression, and a large number of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during fruit ripening were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone pathways, and sugar and cell wall metabolism. Third, we noted a correlation between ripening-associated transcripts and metabolites and the key function of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. The results revealed several ripening-associated actions and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening.

  18. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals key genes potentially related to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhao, Shengjie; Lu, Xuqiang; He, Nan; Zhu, Hongju; Dou, Junling; Liu, Wenge

    2018-01-01

    Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening. The watermelon cultivar '203Z' and its near-isogenic line (NIL) 'SW' (in the '203Z' background) were used as experimental materials. The results suggested that soluble sugar consist of fructose, glucose and sucrose while malic-, citric-, and oxalic acids are the primary organic acids in watermelon fruit. Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to soluble sugar- and organic acid accumulation and metabolism were identified. These include the DEGs encoding raffinose synthase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPSs), insoluble acid invertases (IAI), NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-cyt MDH), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), and citrate synthase (CS). This is the first report addressing comparative transcriptome analysis via NILs materials in watermelon fruit. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanism that leads to soluble sugar and organic acid accumulation and metabolism during watermelon fruit development and ripening.

  20. EFFECT OF SPACING AND NPK 20:10:10 FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WATER MELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS IN ENUGU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment to investigate the effect of spacing and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on the growth and yield of watermelon was conducted at the teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The experiment was carried out in a 2 x 3 factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six (6 treatments replicated three (3 times using and ldquo;crimson sweet and rdquo; as a test crop. Parameters measured were vine length, number of fruits per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruit yield (ton/ha, and number of marketable fruits. 400kg/ha fertilizer in spacing 30cm x 30cm plots recorded the highest vine length of 193.8 cm which significantly deferred from the other treatment means. This was followed by 200kg/ha fertilizer in spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm which recorded vine length of 151.50 cm that significantly deferred from the rest of the treatment means. There were no significant differences between 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm pots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15 cm plots on vine length. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots recorded the highest mean number of 34.33 fruits per plant which deferred significantly from the rest of the treatment means. The following treatments produced the same effects on the number of fruits per plant and ndash; 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 1 5cm x 15cm plots. On fruit yield (ton/ha 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm plots, and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots produced the highest yield of 13.44 ton/ha and 13.22 ton/ha respectively which were not significantly different except the controls and ndash; O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm and O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots which

  1. Serological Identification of Virus in Watermelon Production Fields in the Tocantins State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the world, has its largest output in China, and then, according to FAO data, Turkey, Iran and Brazil, being one of the main crops cultivated in State of Tocantins, Brazil. In this work was investigated the occurrence and distribution of the watermelon viruses, totaling 752 samples taken in a stratified experimental design in four representative regions of production: Gurupi (150, Lagoa da Confusao (232, Formoso do Araguaia (265 and Porto Nacional (105. The sampling and collecting the leaves of plants with the presence of symptoms were performed once a week during the entire cultivation cycle. As a result, were observed by Dot-ELISA method, different types of viruses, such as Papaya ringspot W (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (potyvirus, Cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV (Cucumovirus and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV (Tospovirus. Of these, PRSV-W was predominant (22%, followed by WMV (15%, ZLCV (11%, CMV (5% and ZYMV (4%. Mixed infections with PRSV-W + WMV and PRSV-W + ZLCV were also observed around 20% frequency (expressed with symptoms differently from a single infection. The results provide important support for the program management viruses.

  2. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Grafted Watermelon by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs) and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and rootstock in grafted

  4. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  5. (5) Otunaiya A.O Watermelon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    lanatus) production and the constraints in the production system in Yewa North Local Government of Ogun ... As with other vine crops in this family, watermelon can require considerable space, depending on the production method (Rhodes and Zhang,. 1999). Costs of .... institutional training or contacted extension.

  6. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  7. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  8. Notes on Citrullus spp.: Pollen morphology, C values, and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  9. Morphological diversity in oleaginous watermelon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal component analysis on 11 traits revealed 81.19% of the total variability and pointed out variations among accessions, mainly on the basis of fruit size and weight. The dendrogram and factorial discriminant analysis clustered the accessions in four groups. The multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant ...

  10. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  11. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  12. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  13. Antifungal effect of eugenol and carvacrol against foodborne pathogens Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium roqueforti in improving safety of fresh-cut watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela and #352;imovi and #263;

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil components eugenol and carvacrol (ranging between 100 and 200 ppm for carvacrol and between 250 and 750 ppm for eugenol were tested for antifungal activity against foodborne pathogenic fungal species A. carbonarius A1102 and P. roqueforti PTFKK29 in vitro and in situ conditions. In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and carvacrol was evaluated by macrobroth method, while watermelon Citrullus lanatus L. Sorento slices were used for antifungal assays in situ. Selected components, eugenol and carvacrol showed significant inhibitory effect against tested fungi (A. carbonarius A1102 and P.roqueforti PTFKK29 in YES broth, as well as in in situ conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of eugenol against A. carbonarius A1102 determined by macrobroth method was 2000 ppm, while against P.roqueforti PTFKK29 determined MIC was 1000 ppm. Carvacrol inhibited growth of A. carbonarius A1102 at minimal concentration of 500 ppm, while against P.roqueforti PTFKK29, MIC was 250 ppm. The assays in real food system and #8211; watermelon slices for eugenol and carvacrol show that inhibitory effect against both selected fungal species was concentration dependent. Furthermore, our results showed that antifungal effect of carvacrol as well as eugenol applied on watermelon slices in all concentrations was a result of effective synergy between an active antifungal compound and lower incubation temperature (15 and deg;C in inhibition of A. carbonarius A1102. The present study suggests that the use of eugenol and carvacrol is promising natural alternative to the use of food chemical preservatives, in order to improve safety and quality of fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruits. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 91-96

  14. DNA extraction protocols for Citrullus lanatus and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular breeding is a tested technique for developing disease-resistant varieties of species. A fundamental step to any molecular biology study is the capability to isolate pure genomic DNA. Many of the published plant DNA extraction protocols are not suitable for all plants due to the presence of secondary metabolites.

  15. Neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histology showed that HgCl2 caused degeneration of neurons of the frontal cerebral cortex when compared with the control. Co-treatment of HgCl2 with CLSE and VIT E showed histological features of protection of cerebral neurons from mercury damage. CLSE and VIT E mitigated HgCl2–induced degeneration of frontal ...

  16. The phenology of flowering in Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Mansf. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At floral induction, flower buds were tagged to monitor the number of male to female flower ratio, sequence of flower development and pollen rating from 5.00 to 19.00 hrs. The result of the study showed that, there were 50 - 100 males to 1 female flower. Flowers opened at a relatively fast rate in the morning till mid-day and ...

  17. DNA extraction protocols for Citrullus lanatus and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... quantities of pro-vitamin A, C, B (B1, B2, B3), k, calcium, iron,zinc and fibre. Two species are widely grown in. Nigeria and these include C. frutescens which is pungent. It has two varieties, bird pepper commonly called. 'atawere' in Nigeria and Cayenne pepper or red pepper popularly known as 'Sombo'.

  18. Substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost in watermelon seedling production combined with fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papamichalaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in reusing organic residues as substrate medium in nurseries has increased worldwide as peat availability has been reduced over time. In this study, the effect of fertigation and/or a partial substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC on the emergence, growth, and nutrition of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. seedlings were tested. The MSWC extracts (MSWC:water at 10-1 and 10-2 dilutions maintained seedling germination. Under nursery conditions, six media prepared from commercial peat and MSWC were further assessed in conjunction with nutrient application as basic fertilizer (BF or hydro fertilizer (HF. Adding MSWC to the substrate inhibited seed emergence and mean germination time, whereas fertigation maintained seed emergence in 15% MSWC but decreased in 45% MSWC. Adding 45% MSWC reduced seedling height, leaf number, and fresh weight. The HF increased fresh weight (up to 44% and growth in seedlings cultivated in 15% MSWC. Leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased (up to 2.6-fold in MSWC-based (< 45% MSWC substrates, but no differences were observed in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoid content, and leaf fluorescence. The HF reduced chlorophyll a and total carotenoids, but increased chlorophyll b content. The K, N, and Na content increased (ranging from 2- to 5-fold when adding MSWC, whereas P content did not differ. Fertigation benefits seedling nutritive status. Low content (15% to 30% of MSWC may act as an alternative substitute for peat with more positive effects if minerals are provided through HF.

  19. studies on in vitro evaluation of antidiabetic potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Hence the current work focuses on investigating the anti-diabetic activity of fruit peel of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) and Punica granatum. (pomegranate) using the above mentioned assays. Our results suggested that methanol extract of Citrullus lanatus and Punica granatum peels showed potential anti-diabetic activity.

  20. Fontes de resistência em melancia aos principais potyvírus isolados de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste brasileiro Sources of resistance in watermelon to the main cucurbit potyvírus isolated in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanuzia B. de Oliveira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A melancia, Citrullus spp., pode ser infetada por várias espécies de vírus, dentre as quais se destacam as pertencentes à família Potyviridae. Visando identificar fontes de resistência a potyvírus, foi iniciado na UFC um programa de indexação do banco de germoplasma de melancia da Embrapa Semi-Árido. Foram utilizadas as espécies de potyvírus, isoladas de cucurbitáceas no Nordeste: Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W; Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV-2 e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. Dos 50 acessos de melancia avaliados, 37 pertencem a Citrullus lanatus, 9 a C. lanatus var. citroides e 4 a C. colocynthis. Em casa-de-vegetação foram inoculadas 4 plantas envasadas de cada acesso com PRSV-W, 4 com WMV-2 e 4 com ZYMV, ficando 4 sem inoculação. As inoculações foram efetuadas 8 dias após o plantio, e 15 dias depois. As plantas assintomáticas foram reinoculadas. As plantas que persistiram sem sintomas, após um período de 25 dias após a primeira inoculação, foram testadas por ELISA contra os anti-soros correspondentes. Dentre os acessos avaliados, 5 mostraram-se resistentes aos 3 vírus, um resistente somente ao PRSV-W, 21 resistentes somente ao ZYMV e nenhum com resistência isolada ao WMV-2. No entanto, 45 acessos apresentaram resistência ao ZYMV isoladamente ou em combinação com outro potyvírus. Os acessos suscetíveis, apresentaram sintomas 10 dias após a primeira inoculação enquanto que os resistentes permaneceram sem sintomas após a segunda inoculação e com resultados negativos em ELISA. Alguns acessos poderão ser cruzados visando obter populações segregantes para a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos recessivos e, juntamente com os acessos com resistência tripla identificados, ampliar a variabilidade genética de fontes quanto a características de planta e fruto.The watermelon, Citrullus spp., can be infected by several virus species from the Potyviridae family. In the Universidade Federal do Cear

  1. Níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira em dietas para ovinos Levels of forage watermelon meal in diets for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz Nunes Vaz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a inclusão de 20, 35, 50, 65 ou 80% de farelo de melancia forrageira (Citrullus lanatus cv. citroides (FMF em dietas à base de feno de guandu (Cajanus cajan, foi realizado um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando-se 20 cordeiros com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo de 11,2 ± 1,2 kg. O experimento constou de 20 dias de adaptação e 5 de coleta total de sobras e de fezes. O farelo de melancia forrageira e o feno de guandu apresentaram 95,3 e 95,75% de matéria seca (MS, 18,7 e 16,8% de proteína bruta (PB e 38,8 e 64,3% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira determinaram aumento quadrático nos consumos de MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA, hemicelulose e carboidratos totais. O consumo de extrato etéreo não foi alterado, mas o consumo de CNF teve aumento linear conforme aumentaram os níveis de farelo de melancia forrageira. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS (58%, PB (69%, FDN (41% e EE (85% não foram influenciados pelo nível de farelo de melancia forrageira. As digestibilidades de MO (54 a 62%, FDA (36 a 49% e carboidratos totais (47 a 58% variaram linear e positivamente, enquanto a digestibilidade da hemicelulose teve comportamento inverso. As dietas proporcionaram consumo de matéria seca que atendeu a exigência dos animais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade observados foram satisfatórios. O farelo de melancia forrageira pode ser indicado para compor dietas à base de feno de guandu em níveis de 35 a 66% da matéria seca.In order to study the inclusion of forage watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides meal (FWM in pigeon pea hay based diets (Cajanus cajan (PPH, a digestibility trial in sheep was carried out for testing five levels of FWM (20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%. Twenty lambs with an average age of six months and live weight of 11.2 kg (± 1.2 were used. The experimental period was twenty days for adaptation and five days for total refuses and feces collection. The chemical

  2. Effect of nitrogen doses on disease severity and watermelon yield Influência de doses de nitrogênio na severidade de doenças e na produtividade da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is an important step for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus production due to its influence over yield, fruit quality, and disease severity. Currently, the gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis can be taken as the most important watermelon diseases, since they impose severe impairment to the crop. Furthermore, studies focusing on plant responses to nitrogen fertilization regarding fruit yield and quality, and disease resistance are rare. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen doses on fruit yield and quality, and on disease prevalence in watermelon. Two experiments were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Tocantins, employing sprinkler irrigation, in an area previously used to grow watermelon. The experimental design was blocks at random, with five treatments (N doses, applied twice as side-dressing, in kg ha-1, as follows: T1= control treatment without N, T2= 20, T3= 40, T4= 80, and T5= 120, and four replications. Urea (45% N was used as the N source. In the first assay, the highest fruit yield and average weight were observed when 40 kg ha-1 of N were applied. The highest severity of the gummy stem blight was observed when the highest nitrogen doses were applied (80 and 120 kg ha-1. In the second assay, the highest severity levels of the gummy stem blight, as well as of mildew, were observed again when N doses were the highest (80 and 120 kg ha-1. The lowest severity levels for both diseases were observed in the control treatment.A adubação nitrogenada é importante para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus por afetar diretamente a produtividade, a qualidade dos frutos e a severidade de doenças. Atualmente, o crestamento gomoso (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis podem ser consideradas as doenças mais importantes da melancia devido aos prejuízos que podem causar na lavoura. Estudos envolvendo a aplicação de

  3. In vitro organogenesis in watermelon cotyledons Organogênese in vitro em cotilédones de melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziela Zagatto Krug

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in vitro organogenesis of Citrullus lanatus, by the induction of adventitious buds in cotyledon segments cultured in medium supplemented with cytokinin. Explants were collected from one, three and five-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings, considering the distal and proximal cotyledon regions. The data obtained showed that in vitro organogenesis of watermelon occurred with higher efficiency, when cotyledon segments from the proximal region collected from three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in medium MS, supplemented with BAP (1 mg L-1 and coconut water (10%. The histological study showed that the organogenesis occurs directly, without callus formation, on epidermal and subepidermal layers of the explants. Adventitious shoots were characterized by the development of shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. The formation of protuberances, that do not develop into adventitious buds, was also observed.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a organogênese in vitro de C. lanatus, pela indução de gemas adventícias, em segmentos de cotilédones, cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com citocinina. Os explantes consistiram de segmentos das regiões distal e proximal de cotilédones, coletados de plantas germinadas in vitro com um, três e cinco dias de idade. Os dados obtidos mostram que a organogênese de melancia, in vitro, ocorre com maior eficiência em segmentos da região proximal dos cotilédones, coletados de plântulas com três dias de idade e cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com a combinação BAP (1 mg L-1 e água de coco (10%. Pelo estudo histológico, verificou-se que a organogênese ocorre diretamente, sem a formação de calo, na epiderme e subepiderme do explante. As gemas adventícias foram caracterizadas pela presença de meristema apical e primórdios foliares. Observou-se, também, o desenvolvimento de protuberâncias que não se desenvolvem em gemas adventícias.

  4. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  5. Effects of drying methods on properties of watermelon (Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying by sun as expected was gradual as compared to the oven drying method which was faster and more rapid. The dried seeds (sun-dried or oven-dried) were de-husked, dry-milled into fine crumbs using hand milling machine. The powdered product from the mill was then subjected to oil extraction using hexane as ...

  6. Herança da resistência a Watermelon mosaic virus em melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Maria da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças que ocorrem na cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus, a virose ocasionada por Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV se destaca entre as principais, sendo a resistência genética a forma mais indicada de controle. Dessa forma, é importante o conhecimento do controle genético da resistência que se pretende trabalhar. Objetivando estudar a herança da resistência ao WMV em melancia, foram realizados cruzamentos entre o cultivar Crimson Sweet (CS suscetível e a linha L26 resistente. Populações segregantes e não segregantes obtidas dos cruzamentos foram inoculadas com um isolado de WMV e avaliadas quanto ao aparecimento de sintomas e à presença do vírus por testes de ELISA indireto contra antissoro específico para WMV. A hipótese de herança monogênica foi avaliada em diferentes graus médios de dominância e pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Foram obtidas variâncias genética (σ²G, ambiental (σ²E, fenotípica (σ²F2, aditiva (σ²A e de dominância (σ²D, herdabilidades nos sentidos amplo (h²a e restrito (h²r. A herança monogênica foi rejeitada. O grau médio de dominância indicou efeito de dominância completa. As herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram baixas; portanto, constatou-se que o controle da resistência a WMV nas populações de melancia estudadas é do tipo oligogênica, com presença de efeitos aditivos e não aditivos e presença de genes maiores e poligenes.

  7. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  8. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  9. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious.

  10. Effects of the methanolic extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    oxidative status in phenylhydrazine-treated male Wistar rats. A.T. Kolawole1, V.D. Dapper2* and C.I. Eziuzo2. 1Department of Physiology, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria and 2Haemorheology and. Immunology Unit, Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt,.

  11. Produtividade da cultura da melancia em função de fontes e doses de potássio Yield of watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em propriedades rurais próximas à cidade de Borborema - SP, nos períodos de outubro a dezembro de 2001 e de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de melancia (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Tide, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto KCl, nitrato (KNO3 e sulfato de potássio (K2SO4 e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg de K2O ha-1. Foram avaliados o peso médio de fruto, o número de frutos e produção por planta e produtividade. O maior número de frutos por planta estimado foi obtido nas doses de 190 e 300 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, nas fontes KNO3 e KCl. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses para K2SO4. Para o peso médio de fruto, houve diferença significativa entre as fontes apenas no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002, quando o KCl proporcionou maior peso. A maior produção por planta foi obtida com K2SO4, seguido por KNO3 e KCl. Entretanto, as doses de potássio para as máximas produtividades foram de 132, 193 e 205 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, para as fontes K2SO4, KNO3 e KCl. O plantio de outubro a dezembro de 2001 proporcionou maior peso médio, produção de frutos por planta e produtividade, ao passo que o maior número de frutos por planta foi obtido no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002.Two field experiments were conducted in Borborema, State of São Paulo, from periods of October to December of the 2001 and February to April of 2002, with the objective of evaluate the yield of watermelon (Tide hybrid (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai in function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and

  12. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  13. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant extracts and their constituents have a long history as antifungal agents, but their use in biotechnology as preservatives, due to the increasing resistance of fungi ... Citrullus colocynthis, methanolic extract, aqueous extract, phytochemical screening, antifungal activity, antimycotoxigenic activity, antiochratoxigenic activity.

  14. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  15. Moisture dependent of some physical and morphological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... properties of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam.), grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd.) seeds. J. Appl. Sci. 6(6): 1373-1379. Altuntas E (2007). Some physical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) seeds. Tarım Bilimleri. Dergisi. 14(1): ...

  16. Isolation and expression pattern of COR15b and KIN1 genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COR15b and KIN1 (COR 6.5) genes encode polypeptides of 15 KDa and 6.5 KDa, respectively. They are involved in the dehydration tolerance mechanisms and play important role under cold stress. cDNA sequences of COR15b and KIN1 genes were firstly isolated from leaves of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and ...

  17. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regards to germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai, cv. Crimson Sweet] were used to investigate the effects of different priming techniques on seed germination and early seedling growth. The seeds were soaked in solutions of 0.2% gibberellin (50 mg L–1 gibberellic acid), 0.2% cytokinin (90 mg L–1 kinetin) ...

  18. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... cultivars were placed on MB5 media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators (1.0 ... Key words: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), cotyledon, growth regulator, kanamycin, regeneration. ..... expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance ...

  19. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  20. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis...

  1. Local melatonin application induces cold tolerance in distant organs of Citrullus lanatus L. via long distance transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Chang, Jingjing; Zheng, Junxian; Dong, Yuchuan; Liu, Qiyan; Yang, Xiaozhen; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Xian

    2017-01-19

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous chemical substance that regulates plant growth and responses to stress. Several recent studies show that exogenous melatonin confers cold tolerance to plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that melatonin application at optimal dose, either on the leaves or the roots, not only induced cold stress tolerance in the site of application, but also systemically induced cold tolerance in untreated distant parts. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin increased the melatonin levels in untreated roots or leaves, respectively, under both normal and cold stress conditions, whereas rhizospheric melatonin treatment increased the melatonin exudation rates from the xylem. An increased accumulation of melatonin accompanied with an induction in antioxidant enzyme activity in distant untreated tissues alleviated cold-induced oxidative stress. In addition, RNA-seq analysis revealed that an abundance of cold defense-related genes involved in signal sensing and transduction, transcriptional regulation, protection and detoxification, and hormone signaling might mediate melatonin-induced cold tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin can induce cold tolerance via long distance signaling, and such induction is associated with an enhanced antioxidant capacity and optimized defense gene expression. Such a mechanism can be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production.

  2. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  3. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landraces in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Using this classification, the dessert watermelon and the. 'egusi watermelons', belong to var. ... bromide; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PIC, polymorphic information content; MDS, multi-dimensional scaling. .... a,According to Botstein et al., 1980; b, Levi et al., 2006; c, Joobeur et al., 2006. were rotated ...

  4. Production of biodiesel using Colocynthis citrullus L. oil over green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production and characterization of biodiesel fuel obtained by means of transesterification over green solid heterogeneous catalyst with Colocynthis citrullus ... The biodiesel was synthesized homogeneously using a three-necked round bottom flask at 333 K and the feedstock ratio of catalyst to methanol to oil is 3:10:10.

  5. Intraspecific hybridization in “Egusi” melon, Colocynthis citrullus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrids BBXBW, BWXBB, SXBW and BW x S showed better parent heterosis for vine length at maturity. These findings may prove useful in future breeding work involving the crop. KEY WORDS: Colocynthis citrullus, Intraspecific Hybridization, Heterosis, Fruit colour inheritance. Global Jnl Pure and Applied Sciences ...

  6. Safety evaluation studies of Citrullus colocynthis for diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K Atole

    Full Text Available An experiment conducted in the department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur reported Citrullus colocynthis to posses antidiabetic effect in rats at the rate of 50 mg/kg b.w and 100mg/kg b.w. So it was decided to also evaluate the safety of Citrullus colocynthis in rats at its antidiabetic dose. The experiment was conducted for 28 days .18 wistar rats were divided into three groups containing six rats in each group. Group T1 was maintained as normal control, whereas groups T2 and T3 received aqueous extract of Citrullus colocynthis @ 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Haematological and Biochemical estimations were done at the end of experiment i.e. on 29th day by using standard kits. Rats were then sacrificed and histopathological examinations were done. The results obtained showed that Citrullus colocynthis is safe at its antidiabetic dose and is safe for use as an antidiabetic remedy. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 423-425

  7. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satyavani, K; Gurudeeban, S; Ramanathan, T; Balasubramanian, T

    2011-01-01

    .... In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2) cell line...

  8. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  9. Growth and yield response of “Egusi” melon ( Citrulus lanatus L. ) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lanatus L) in ultisol of Anambra, South-east agro ecological Zone of Nigeria. The study involved the use of Organic and inorganic fertilizers applied at different ... (100kg ha-1) and was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD).

  10. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  11. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shouwei; Jiang, Linjian; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zong, Mei; Zhang, Haiying; Ren, Yi; Guo, Shaogui; Gong, Guoyi; Liu, Fan; Xu, Yong

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit genomic sequence and effectively create knockout mutations in T0 generation watermelon plants. Genome editing offers great advantage to reveal gene function and generate agronomically important mutations to crops. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing system using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been applied to several plant species, achieving successful targeted mutagenesis. Here, we report the genome of watermelon, an important fruit crop, can also be precisely edited by CRISPR/Cas9 system. ClPDS, phytoene desaturase in watermelon, was selected as the target gene because its mutant bears evident albino phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9 system performed genome editing, such as insertions or deletions at the expected position, in transfected watermelon protoplast cells. More importantly, all transgenic watermelon plants harbored ClPDS mutations and showed clear or mosaic albino phenotype, indicating that CRISPR/Cas9 system has technically 100% of genome editing efficiency in transgenic watermelon lines. Furthermore, there were very likely no off-target mutations, indicated by examining regions that were highly homologous to sgRNA sequences. Our results show that CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool to effectively create knockout mutations in watermelon.

  12. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques...

  13. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  14. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods.

  15. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  16. Genes expressed during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, A; Davis, A; Hernandez, A; Wechter, P; Thimmapuram, J; Trebitsh, T; Tadmor, Y; Katzir, N; Portnoy, V; King, S

    2006-11-01

    A normalized cDNA library was constructed using watermelon flesh mRNA from three distinct developmental time-points and was subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNA. Random cDNA clones of the watermelon flesh subtraction library were sequenced from the 5' end in order to identify potentially informative genes associated with fruit setting, development, and ripening. One-thousand and forty-six 5'-end sequences (expressed sequence tags; ESTs) were assembled into 832 non-redundant sequences, designated as "EST-unigenes". Of these 832 "EST-unigenes", 254 ( approximately 30%) have no significant homology to sequences published so far for other plant species. Additionally, 168 "EST-unigenes" ( approximately 20%) correspond to genes with unknown function, whereas 410 "EST-unigenes" ( approximately 50%) correspond to genes with known function in other plant species. These "EST-unigenes" are mainly associated with metabolism, membrane transport, cytoskeleton synthesis and structure, cell wall formation and cell division, signal transduction, nucleic acid binding and transcription factors, defense and stress response, and secondary metabolism. This study provides the scientific community with novel genetic information for watermelon as well as an expanded pool of genes associated with fruit development in watermelon. These genes will be useful targets in future genetic and functional genomic studies of watermelon and its development.

  17. EFECTO DE INOCULANTES MICROBIANOS SOBRE LA PROMOCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE MANGLE Y PLANTAS DE Citrullus vulgaris SAN ANDRÉS ISLA, COLOMBIA Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANIA GALINDO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal fueron: número de nodos, número de hojas y longitud del tallo. Los inoculantes (microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos -MSF- y bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno -BFN- se aplicaron en el material vegetal mencionado, efectuando mediciones durante tres meses. Los resultados muestran un efecto positivo de estimulación de crecimiento medido en longitud del tallo en las plantas tratadas con los inoculantes, específicamente en patilla y propágulos de A. germinans mantenidos en vivero.In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without

  18. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia Efecto de los inoculantes microbianos sobre la promoción de crecimiento de plantulas de mangle y plantas de Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Tania

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.Con el fin de probar la efectividad de dos inoculantes microbianos (aislados a partir de raicillas de mangle rojo y negro en el crecimiento y establecimiento de plántulas de mangle y de patilla, se realizaron cuatro pruebas en campo en San Andrés Isla, Colombia. Se aplicaron dichos inoculantes en: propágulos de Avicennia germinans colectados en un área de manglar y sembrados en macetas sobre sustrato solarizado (con el fin de disminuir la carga microbiana, plántulas de A. germinans y Rhizophora mangle colectadas en cercanía de árboles semilleros, plántulas de A. germinans y R. mangle sembradas y mantenidas en vivero y en semillas de patilla (Citrullus vulgaris sembradas en un cultivo libre de fertilizantes químicos. Las variables tomadas como indicativo de crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal

  19. 7 CFR 1210.516 - Exemption for organic watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certifying agent as defined in section 2103 of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 6502), a... include lack of demand for organic products, isolated use of antibiotics for humane purposes, chemical or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic watermelons. 1210.516 Section...

  20. Crown blight of melons and crown decline of watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  2. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  3. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  4. Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  5. Traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. in Bou Saada (Algeria

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    Madani SARRI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The study area called gate to the desert, the oasis is the closest to the Algerian coastline luxuriant vegetation, lies at the Monts Ouled Nail of the Saharan Atlas. The latter is characterized by the presence of a fairly specific Algeria dunes, presents a sizeable floristic and ecological diversity. Objective: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Materials and Methods: Our study consists in the elaboration of a survey concerning the traditional use in the Bou Saada region especially Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. species. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in the study area during 2011-2012. His research has been conducted in collaboration with healers, herbalists and ordinary users. Results: This analysis of Citrullus colocynthis (L. has revealed its use by 69 people of different ages. In addition, it has multiple uses such as: rheumatism (50%, diabetes (24%, inflammation of skin (8%, bacterial infections (7%, diseases of prostates (8% and female infertility (4%. Conclusion: This study shows that the colocynth is traditionally used by people of both sexes belonging to age groups and socioeconomic levels and different intellectuals. At the end of this work the observations on traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. can be useful to guide a research work in the chemical and clinical side.

  6. Investigation on Genetic Variation of Iran Watermelon Accession

    OpenAIRE

    majid reza kiyani; gholamhoseyn jahanbin

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine of genetic variation in germplasm of 120 watermelon accessions, a field trial conducted at agricultural and natural resource research center of khorasan . These Accessions with four commercial cultivars as control were planted in agnomental design with six replications. 15 quantitative morphological traits were measured and some statistical parameter and analysis include of Mean, Coefficient variance, cluster analysis, correlation regression coefficients were determine f...

  7. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural network modeling of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of watermelon production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine energy consumption, model and analyze the input–output, energy efficiencies and GHG emissions for watermelon production using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the Guilan province of Iran, based on three different farm sizes. For this purpose, the initial data was collected from 120 watermelon producers in Langroud and Chaf region, two small cities in the Guilan province. The results indicated that total average energy input for watermelon production was 40228.98 MJ ha–1. Also, chemical fertilizers (with 76.49% were the highest energy inputs for watermelon production. Moreover, the share of non-renewable energy (with 96.24% was more than renewable energy (with 3.76% in watermelon production. The rate of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy was calculated as 1.29, 0.68 kg MJ−1 and 11733.64 MJ ha−1, respectively. With respect to GHG analysis, the average of total GHG emissions was calculated about 1015 kgCO2eq. ha−1. The results illustrated that share of nitrogen (with 54.23% was the highest in GHG emissions for watermelon production, followed by diesel fuel (with 16.73% and electricity (with 15.45%. In this study, Levenberg–Marquardt learning Algorithm was used for training ANNs based on data collected from watermelon producers. The ANN model with 11–10–2 structure was the best one for predicting the watermelon yield and GHG emissions. In the best topology, the coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated as 0.969 and 0.995 for yield and GHG emissions of watermelon production, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the seed and human labor had the highest sensitivity in modeling of watermelon yield and GHG emissions, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  10. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  11. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Wayne W; Bruton, Benny D; Russo, Vincent M

    2009-08-26

    Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v) directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 micromol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene), but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 micromol/ml amino nitrogen) in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar) or up to 35% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results of this investigation indicate that watermelon

  12. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ling

    Full Text Available Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON, but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  13. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cecilia Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Katia Leani [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman [Embrarad Ltda. Av. Cruzada Bandeirante, 269, 06700-000 Cotia, SP (Brazil); Teresa Destro, Maria [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, Mariza [Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 B.14, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2008-06-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  14. Thrips collected in watermelon crops in the semiarid of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewerton Marinho Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From August to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon production area with 10,000m2, using 20 Moericke traps. We captured a total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thripidae and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin (Phlaeothripidae. This is the first report of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil

  15. Watermelon rind-mediated green synthesis of noble palladium nanoparticles: catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, R.; Palakshi Reddy, B.; Sarada, N. C.; Chidambaram, K.; Khadeer Pasha, Sk.

    2015-02-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) by watermelon rind. The aqueous extract prepared from watermelon rind, an agro waste, was evaluated as capping and reducing agent for biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles. The formation of Pd NPs was visually monitored with change in color from pale yellow to dark brown and later monitored with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized Pd NPs were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, DLS, AFM and TEM techniques. The synthesized Pd NPs were employed in Suzuki coupling reaction as catalyst. The results reveal that watermelon rind, an agro waste, is capable of synthesizing spherical-shaped Pd NPs with catalytic activity.

  16. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  17. The performance of two varieties of water melon citrullus lanatus (thub) matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin lagenaria siceraria, zapallo cucurbita moschata, ahuyama cucurbita maxima and estropajo luffa cylindrica graftholders

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Juan Carlos; Tanaka N., Edgar; Bruzón C., Serapio F.

    2010-01-01

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre lo...

  18. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  19. QUALIDADE SENSORIAL DE GELÉIA MISTA DE MELANCIA E TAMARINDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAELLA MARTINS DE ARAUJO FERREIRA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of jelly is an alternative to the use of fruits that did not meet the classification standard, helping to reduce post harvest losses of up to 40% of total production. This study aimed to evaluate the sensory quality of jelllies produced mixed with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad. and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.. Six jelly formulations were prepared using pulp from watermelon and tamarind in different proportions: F1 (100% watermelon pulp, F2 (87.5% watermelon pulp and 12.5% tamarind pulp, F3 (75% watermelon pulp and 25% tamarind pulp, F4 (12.5% tamarind pulp and 87.5% water, F5 (25% tamarind pulp and 75% water and F6 (37.5% tamarind pulp and 62.5% water. All jellies containing pulp and sucrose in the ratio 1: 0.6 and the final soluble solids was 67 ºBrix. The attributes of color, texture, taste and preference of the jellies were evaluated by 50 untrained panelists using a hedonic scale of nine points (ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely". The worst consistency was found in F4 and the largest concentration of tamarind in jelly impaired color impacting negatively on the product acceptance. The jelly mixed F2 had the best score for taste and preference attributes that jelly F6.

  20. Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pinto, Cleovan; Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Visintin da Silva Galdino, Tarcísio; Silvestre Pereira, Poliana; Gomes Barbosa, Breno; Henrique Oliveira Lima, Carlos; Rodrigues da Silva, Nilson; Coutinho Picanço, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was sampling). This has not been reported for watermelon before. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L-1) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH-1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan), injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub) Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Juan Carlos; Bruzón C. Serapio F.; Tanaka N. Edgar

    1992-01-01

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby...

  3. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the varieties sown directly by seeds. The success of the graft system in the described patterns was 90%. The Lagenaria and Cucurbita graftholders produced greater amount of foliate area than Luffa which reduced it greatly. Graftholders did not reduce the organoleptic characteristics of the fruits from the two varieties. - Pests infection in fruits of plants over Cucurbita and Luffa graftholders were reduced.

  4. De-pulping and Seed Separation from Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Vishvambhar Dayal

    2017-09-01

    Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) contains spongy pulp in which seeds are embedded unevenly. Seeds contain about 26% fats and 13% protein. The process of seed separation is highly time consuming and labour intensive. Two weeks are required to separate its seeds with traditional methods. The developed prototype, for separating tumba seeds, mainly consists of chopper, de-pulping screw, barrel assembly and seed separation unit. The de-pulping screw and barrel assembly was divided in two sections i.e. conveying (feeding zone) and compression sections (de-pulping zone). The performance of developed machine was evaluated at different screw speed in the range of 40-100 rpm. Maximum pulp removal efficiency of 78.1% was achieved with screw speed of 60 rpm. Seed separation from the pulp was carried out by adding different chemicals. Use of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide produced seed separation up to 99%.

  5. De-pulping and Seed Separation from Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Vishvambhar Dayal

    2017-07-01

    Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis) contains spongy pulp in which seeds are embedded unevenly. Seeds contain about 26% fats and 13% protein. The process of seed separation is highly time consuming and labour intensive. Two weeks are required to separate its seeds with traditional methods. The developed prototype, for separating tumba seeds, mainly consists of chopper, de-pulping screw, barrel assembly and seed separation unit. The de-pulping screw and barrel assembly was divided in two sections i.e. conveying (feeding zone) and compression sections (de-pulping zone). The performance of developed machine was evaluated at different screw speed in the range of 40-100 rpm. Maximum pulp removal efficiency of 78.1% was achieved with screw speed of 60 rpm. Seed separation from the pulp was carried out by adding different chemicals. Use of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide produced seed separation up to 99%.

  6. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  7. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Adhikari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB, which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22, Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27 showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose, chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22 and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27 as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon.

  8. Genetic differentiation of watermelon landrace types in Mali revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Andersen, Sven Bode; Jensen, Brita Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the genetic differentiation of a collection of 134 watermelon landrace accessions from Mali, representing red fleshed dessert and white fleshed seed and cooking type watermelons from five regions, plus three commercial dessert type cultivars with red flesh. The material...... the accessions into use groups (dessert, cooking, seed processing) explained 25 % of the variation. When categorising the accessions further into 10 landrace types, differentiated on the basis of use groups, local accession name, flesh colour and seed phenotype, these landrace types explained 26...... % of the variation. Analysis with the software Structure revealed that the accessions with confidence could be separated into two major genetic groups, related to flesh colour (red and white) of the watermelon fruits. The same analysis further indicated that the material may be differentiated into eight genetic sub...

  9. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Igiri, Bernard; Udeh, Chinyere Blessing; Edenta, Chidi; Gauje, Balli

    2017-01-01

    The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS), respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents. PMID:29051437

  11. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  13. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30-80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues.

  14. Quantitative understanding of nanoparticle uptake in watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30 to 80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues.

  15. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV): a new potyvirus species in the PRSV cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, Soumaya; Lecoq, Hervé; Desbiez, Cécile

    2008-08-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in Algeria in 1986. Biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as H4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). To establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of H4, its full-length genome sequence was established. H4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with MWMV and PRSV, respectively, indicating that H4 is a distinct species of the PRSV cluster. The name Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus species.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Song, Yu-Rim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kang, Jum-Soon; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to minimize economic damage by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infected seeds, such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the real-time PCR have a critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. A hyperspectral Vis/NIR reflectance imaging system (spectral region of 400-1000 nm) was constructed to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images for 336 bacteria-infected watermelon seeds, which were then subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to classify bacteria-infected watermelon seeds from healthy watermelon seeds. The developed system detected bacteria-infected watermelon seeds with an accuracy > 90% (PLS-DA: 91.7%, LS-SVM: 90.5%), suggesting that the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system is effective for quarantining bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. The results of the present study show that it is possible to use the Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging system for detecting bacteria-infected watermelon seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats

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    Omolola R. Oyenihi

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of watermelon juice for fifteen (15 days prior to ethanol intoxication, significantly reduced the concentration of MDA in the liver and brain of rats. In addition, water melon pre-treatment increased the concentration of GSH and normalized catalase activity in both tissues in comparison to the ethanol control group. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and steroids in watermelon juice. Our findings indicate that watermelon juice demonstrate anti-oxidative effects in ethanol-induced oxidation in the liver and brain of rats; which could be associated with the plethora of antioxidant phyto-constituents present there-in.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer of Colocynthin, An Effective Tool for Quality Control of Citrullus colocynthis Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ramezani; Mahnaz, Khanavi; Ardekani Mohammad Reza, Shams; Börje, Sellergren; Mahdieh, Eftekhari; Hossein, Rastegar; Maryam, Shekarchi

    2017-01-01

    Different parts of Colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad., are used in traditional phytotherapy and homeopathy. In our new approach, a molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized to absorb colocynthin, the major plant marker, and its capability was evaluated using HPLC-UV. A new method was considered to achieve optimal conditions. FT-infrared, N2 adsorption porosimetry, fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric profile of the polymers were studied. The imprinted polymer was applied as molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction sorbent to enrich colocynthin from colocynth oil extract, a traditional medicine dosage form. The imprinted polymer showed high capacity and affinity toward colocynthin. Physical assessments demonstrated no major differences between imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. The imprinted polymer was able to absorb colocynthin more efficiently than non-imprinted and control simple solvent extraction from the real sample. In conclusion, this polymer is capable of being applied as a promising adsorbent for analysis of colocynth traditional medicine products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  20. Effect of saffron petal extract on retention quality of fresh-cut watermelon cubes

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    hamed kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is considered as a valuable produce by producers and traders. Unfortunately, the use of its floral by products like petal which have proven to be antioxidant, antimicrobial and nutritional value is limited. In order to investigate the application of saffron petal extracts as an ameliorative on postharvest and processing quality of fresh-cut ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon, a completely randomized designed investigation was done on watermelon cubes with 1cm diameter (1±0.5 gram mean weight. Prepared watermelon cubes were divided into four groups and treated with saffron petal extract (10 % V/V for 10 minutes, UV irradiation (maximum wavelength 253.4 nm and 15W for 5 minutes, 10 minutes of saffron petal extract then UV irradiation for 5 minutes and control. After the application of treatments, fresh-cut watermelon cubes were stored at 5±0.5 ºC for 14 days. Sampling and observation of the studied characteristics (physiological loss in weight, soluble solid content, lycopene, microbial load and color quality (Chroma Hue was done every two days to find the trend of changes during the retention period. The results of experiment showed that petal extract of saffron could not decrease weight loss but it was significantly effective in lowering microbial load and increasing color quality, and prevention of lycopene degradation (P≤5%. Although treatment of UV+SPE had better efficiency to suppress microbial load significantly (P≤5%.

  1. The effect of l-citrulline and watermelon juice supplementation on anaerobic and aerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Gadomski, Stephen J; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2015-01-01

    Citrulline has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, leading to an interest in watermelon given its high citrulline concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single, pre-exercise dose of l-citrulline, watermelon juice, or a placebo on the total maximum number of repetitions completed over 5 sets, time to exhaustion, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold, and flow-mediated vasodilation. A randomised double-blind within-participants study design was used to examine these effects among 22 participants (n = 11 males). Supplementation included either a 7.5% sucrose drink containing 6 g of l-citrulline, 710 mL of watermelon juice (~1.0 g citrulline), or a 7.5% sucrose placebo drink. Supplementation was administered 1 or 2 h before exercise testing to investigate a timing effect. There was no significant effect between the three supplements for the total number of repetitions, time to exhaustion, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, or flow-mediated vasodilation. There was also no interaction observed relative to gender or supplement timing (P > 0.05). A single dose of l-citrulline or watermelon juice as a pre-exercise supplement appears to be ineffective in improving exercise performance; however, greater doses of l-citrulline have been shown to be safe and are currently left unexamined.

  2. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in watermelon in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  3. Factors associated with Leguminous Green Manure Incorporation and Fusarium wilt suppression in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  4. Volatile profile and physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in fresh cut watermelon during storage

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    Andréa Luiza Ramos Pereira Xisto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing data about the aroma of fresh-cut watermelon and the metabolic changes that occur with minimal processing are scarce. Given the close relationship that exists between aroma, texture, and quality characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the changes in the volatile profile and texture of watermelon, a fruit extensively sold in supermarket chains throughout Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the volatile profile using solid phase microextraction (SPME as well as texture changes in fresh-cut watermelon stored at 5 °C for ten days. Chromatography associated with sensory analysis (sniffing led us to conclude that 9-carbon (C9 alcohols and aldehydes are the major responsible for the flavor and aroma of minimally processed watermelon stored at 5 ± 1 °C/90 ± 5% RH for ten days, and also that the aroma diminishes in intensity with storage, but it does not affect the final quality of the product. It was noted that the amount of drained liquid, soluble pectin, and weight loss increased during storage concurrently with a reduction in firmness and a structural breakdown of the cells. Pectin methyl esterase activity remained constant and polygalacturonase activity was not detected.

  5. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  6. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... file a written petition with the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) if they believe that the Plan...

  7. Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs pesticide residues such as pyroquilon (pyn), boscalid (bd), and dimethomorph (di) in amides (AM) and cinosulfuron (ci) in ureas (UR) may have been overestimated for the pesticides owing to increased alpha-error risk, whereas the amounts of pesticide residues, such as imibenconazole (ie) in the triazoles (TR) and fenpyroximate (fee) in the imidazoles (IM), may have been underestimated as the result of increased beta-error risk. The current method allowed for the rapid quantitation and identification of low pesticide levels in the watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories.

  8. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Stefania; Piro, Gabriella; Lee, Je Min; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Giovannoni, James J; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2013-11-12

    Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g(-1) fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening.

  9. Preliminary toxicity study on the individual and combined effects of Citrullus colocynthis and Nerium oleander in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, M A; AL-Farhan, A H; Adam, S E

    2000-08-01

    The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Nerium oleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning. Organ lesions were accompanied by leucopenia, anaemia and alterations in serum AST, ALT and ALP activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, bilirubin and other serum constituents. Feeding the mixture of C. colocynthis and N. oleander caused more marked effects and death of rats.

  10. Sustainable techniques used in food preparation | Técnicas sustentáveis ​​utilizadas na preparação de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the globe, in the 21st century, millions of people are in malnutrition. In parallel, in the different food production units, as well as in the domestic environment, large losses occur from production to consumption. Studies have been conducted to minimize this serious scenario, which profoundly undermines sustainability and worsens the situation of vulnerable populations. The globalized world allows the contact and exchange of different food experiences and, therefore, the possibility of adopting sustainable culinary techniques. This work aimed to insert in some preparations the traditional and secular knowledge of some cultures, minimizing food waste that is despised by the majority of the population. For this purpose, watermelon waste (Citrullus lanatus spp were used, using bleaching techniques and the improvement of the palatability with the addition of the bittersweet sauce enriched with umami flavor obtained through the incorporation of the Dashi broth.

  11. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

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    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  12. Effects of intermittent CO2convection under far-infrared radiation on vacuum drying of pre-osmodehydrated watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajat; Mondal, Pijus

    2017-08-01

    Watermelon, a tropical seasonal fruit with high nutrient content, requires preservation through drying due to its perishable nature. Nevertheless, drying of watermelon through conventional processes has a negative impact either on the drying time or on the final product quality. In this work, osmotic dehydration of watermelon followed by far-infrared radiation-assisted vacuum drying (FIRRAVD) was optimized to develop dehydrated watermelon with minimum moisture content. Significantly, during FIRRAVD, an attempt was made to further intensify the drying rate by forced convection through intermittent CO 2 injection. Drying kinetics of each operation and physicochemical qualities of dried products were evaluated. FIRRAVD was a viable method of watermelon drying with appreciably high moisture diffusivity (D eff,m ) of 4.97 × 10 -10 to 1.49 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1 compared to conventional tray drying. Moreover, intermittent CO 2 convection during FIRRAVD (ICFIRRAVD) resulted in appreciable intensification of drying rate, with enhanced D eff,m (9.93 × 10 -10 to 1.99 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1 ). Significantly, ICFIRRAVD required less energy and approximately 16% less time compared to FIRRAVD. The quality of the final dehydrated watermelon was superior compared to conventional drying protocols. The novel CO 2 convective drying of watermelon in the presence of far-infrared radiation demonstrated an energy-efficient and time-saving operation rendering a dehydrated watermelon with acceptable quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

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    T Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2 cell line. Methods The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2, while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1. This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment.

  14. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyavani, K; Gurudeeban, S; Ramanathan, T; Balasubramanian, T

    2011-09-26

    An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2) cell line. The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2), while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1). This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment.

  15. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  16. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

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    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  17. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles ( d p plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  18. Multifocal Gastric Neoplasia after Recurrent Laser Therapy for the Watermelon Stomach

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    Charles N Bernstein

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated laser therapy has become an accepted therapeutic approach in the treatment of watermelon stomach, and to date no important negative sequelae have been reported. The case of a patient who underwent repeated sessions of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG laser therapy over a five-year period for the treatment of the watermelon stomach is presented. Postlaser therapy the patient developed deep ulcerations that would heal; however, he ultimately developed a nodular antrum. Random biopsies of antral nodules revealed carcinoma-in-situ. A Billroth I gastrectomy revealed two foci of carcinoma-in-situ/high grade dysplasia and multiple foci of lower grades of dysplasia. This case suggests a possible association between use of laser therapy and development of gastric neoplasia.

  19. Investigation on Morphological and Physiological diversityof Iranian Watermelon (CitrulluslanatusThunb. Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad hajiali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Watermelon (CitrulluslanatusThunbbelongs to Cucurbita genus and Cucurbitaceaefamily. Some people know Watermelon native to India and othersthought of it as native to African countries. The greatest diversity can be seen in West Africa, China and parts of India. Near East and Mediterranean countries are also good places to find relatives and ancestors of watermelon. Like all Cucurbita genuscrops,, Watermelon has a variety of flowers including base, male and female separately located on one slip. In terms of production atglobal level, China is located in the first place followed by America, Iran and the Republic of Korea, respectively. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate genetic diversity among Iranian watermelon landraces by morphological traits, 16 landraces alongwith two commercial watermelon cultivars were planted in completely randomized block design with three replications inAgricultural Research Center of Urmia in 2013. Morphological markers can be an effective means to determine genetic relationsamong cultivars and among selections used in watermelon breeding programs. 18 traits including cotyledon length, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit mass, fruit skin, rind thickness, flesh thickness, yield, seed length, seed width, weight of 100 seeds, vitamin C, pH, TSS, EC, chlorophyll content and plant length were assessed in the studied genotypes. During the fruit ripening,four fruits were selected randomly from each plot and according to the International Institute germplasms (IBPGR / IBGRI,solidscontent (TSSwas measured by using refractometer, pH by using pH meter, and fruit and seed weight by using digital scale. The amount of vitamin C (milligram per 100 grams was measured using iodometry. Results and Discussion: Results of variance analysis showed that there were significant differencesamong watermelon cultivars in terms of cotyledon length, fruit length, fruit weight, flesh weight, yield, seed length, seed width, seed

  20. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

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    José E. S. B. da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet, irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67 and 100%, and four replicates of 108 seedlings. Watermelon seeds were sown in plastic trays filled with commercial substrate and irrigated with different solutions of biosaline water. Seedlings were harvested for biometric analysis at 14, 21 and 28 days after sowing. The use of biosaline water did not affect emergence and establishment of seedlings until 14 days after sowing, the period recommended for transplantation. However, the use of biosaline water affected the development of seedlings with longer exposure time.

  1. Comprehensive Mineral Nutrition Analysis of Watermelon Grafted onto Two Different Rootstocks

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    Yuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is a widely used practice in fruit-bearing vegetables. However, why grafting affects plant growth, fruit yield, and quality, especially from the aspect of mineral nutrition, remains unclear. In this study, watermelon cultivar ‘Zaojia 8424’ was grafted onto bottle gourd ‘Jingxinzhen 1’ (Lagenaria siceraria and pumpkin ‘Qingyanzhen 1’ (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata. Non-grafted plants were used as the control. Results show that rootstock grafting significantly increases plant growth and single fruit weight of watermelon. Watermelon grafted onto rootstocks, especially pumpkin, exhibits significantly higher root volume, root surface area, and number of root tips and forks in comparison with non-grafted plants. Fruit flesh, rind firmness, and rind thickness were enhanced by grafting. However, fruit soluble solids and taste significantly decreased in plants grafted onto pumpkin. The total uptake (mg ⋅ plant−1 and concentration (mg ⋅ g−1 DW of N, K, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in root, stem, leaf, fruit rind, and flesh were generally higher in grafted plants compared to non-grafted ones, especially for N of pumpkin rootstock-grafted plants. The total uptake of nutrients of plants grafted onto bottle gourd and pumpkin was increased by 30.41% and 49.14% at fruit development stage and by 21.33% and 47.46% at fruit maturation stage, respectively, compared with non-grafted plants. We concluded that watermelon grafting onto suitable rootstocks can increase the uptake of mineral nutrition, especially for N in the pumpkin rootstock grafted plants, thereby affecting plant growth, fruit yield, and quality.

  2. Stability of fruit quality traits in diverse watermelon cultivars tested in multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Mahendra; Wehner, Todd C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Hassell, Richard; Price, Daniel S; Boyhan, George E; Olson, Stephen M; King, Stephen R; Davis, Angela R; Tolla, Gregory E; Bernier, Jerome; Juarez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a naturally occurring red carotenoid compound that is found in watermelon. Lycopene has antioxidant properties. Lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance are subject to significant genotype×environment interaction (G×E), which makes breeding for these fruit quality traits difficult. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the influence of years and locations on lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance for a set of watermelon genotypes, and (ii) identify genotypes with high stability for lycopene, sugar, and hollowheart resistance. A diverse set of 40 genotypes was tested over 3 years and 8 locations across the southern United States in replicated, multi-harvest trials. Lycopene was tested in a subset of 10 genotypes. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate stability statistics (BLUP-GGE biplot) using SASGxE and RGxE programs. There were strong effects of environment as well as G×E interaction on watermelon quality traits. On the basis of stability measures, genotypes were classified as stable or unstable for each quality trait. 'Crimson Sweet' is an inbred line with high quality trait performance as well as trait stability. 'Stone Mountain', 'Tom Watson', 'Crimson Sweet' and 'Minilee' were among the best genotypes for lycopene content, sugar content and hollowheart resistance. We developed a stability chart based on marketable yield and average ranking generated from different stability measures for yield attributes and quality traits. The chart will assist in choosing parents for improvement of watermelon cultivars. See http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wmelon/wmelonmain.html.

  3. Molecular characterization and coat protein serology of watermelon leaf mottle virus (Potyvirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, P B; Hiebert, E; Purcifull, D E

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA library was generated from purified RNA of watermelon leaf mottle virus (WLMV) (Genus Potyvirus). Two overlapping clones totaling 2,316 nucleotides at the 3' terminus of the virus were identified by immunoscreening with coat protein antiserum. The sequence analyses of the clones indicated an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,050 nucleotides which encoded part of the replicase and the coat protein, a 243-nucleotide non-coding region (3'UTR), and 23 adenine residues of the poly (A) tail. The taxonomic status of WLMV was determined by comparisons of the sequence of the cloned coat protein gene and 3'UTR with potyvirus sequences obtained from GenBank. The nucleotide sequence identities of WLMV compared with 17 other potyviruses ranged from 55.6 to 63.5% for the coat protein, and from 37.2 to 48.3% for the 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein region and the 3'UTR indicated that WLMV did not cluster with other potyviruses in a clade with high bootstrap support. The coat protein gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared to the expressed coat protein. In immunodiffusion tests, WLMV was found to be serologically distinct from papaya ringspot virus type W, watermelon mosaic virus 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus. In Western blots and ELISA, serological cross-reactivity with other cucurbit potyviruses was observed. Serological and sequence comparisons indicated that watermelon leaf mottle virus is a distinct member of the Potyvirus genus.

  4. Effects of Dual/Threefold Rootstock Grafting on the Plant Growth, Yield and Quality of Watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoguo QIN; Cuiqin YANG; Jialong XIA; He, Jing; Ma, Xiaoli; Chuanyang YANG; Yangxia ZHENG; Lin, Xia; Zhongqun HE; Huang, Zhi; Zesheng YAN

    2014-01-01

    To test the feasibility of multi-rootstock grafting, bottle gourd and pumpkin were used as rootstocks in a comparative analysis of the effects of single, dual, and threefold rootstock grafting on the plant growth, fruit yield, and quality of watermelon. Results showed that different grafts have significant effects on the abovementioned properties. The appropriate dual/threefold rootstock grafting allowed for higher survival rates. The combined rootstock of bottle gourd and pumpkin can enhance...

  5. The effect of watermelon frost on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in inflamed pulp tissue (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulp inflammation can be marked by the increase of prostaglandin E2(PGE2 level compared to normal pulp. The increase of PGE2 may lead to vasodilatation, increase of vascular permeability, pain and bone resorption. Watermelon frost has been well known in Chinese society for pain relief and inflammation in oral cavity and teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level. Method: 27 samples of pulp tissues used in this in-vitro study, were extirpated from the patients’ teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis referred to clinic of Conservative Dentistry, RSPGM Faculty of Dentistry, USU. Trial materials were applied to 27 samples i.e. watermelon frost as a trial material and commercial watermelon frost and eugenol to observe their effect on PGE2. PGE2 level of each material was detected through ELISA method by measuring and comparing the absorbance reading of the wells of the samples against standards with a micro plate reader at W1 = 650 nm and W2 = 490 nm. Result: The result showed the biggest effect was found in the third group (eugenol, mean 4.6933, followed by the first group (watermelon frost as a trial material, mean 18,1578 then the second group (commercial watermelon frost, mean 82,2689. OneWay ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among all trial materials (p < 0.001 on PGE2 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level in inflamed pulp tissue and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and natural products as an alternative form of dental care.

  6. Feasible sampling plan for Bemisia tabaci control decision-making in watermelon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Ho; Sarmento, Renato A; Pereira, Poliana S; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Santos, Fábio A; Silva, Joedna; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-11-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6th most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique. Crop pest densities fitted the negative binomial distribution and had a common aggregation parameter (Kcommon ). The sampling plan consisted of evaluating 103 samples per plot. This sampling plan was conducted for 56 min, costing US$ 2.22 per sampling and with a 10% maximum evaluation error. The sampling plan determined in this study can be adopted by farmers because it enables the adequate evaluation of B. tabaci populations in watermelon fields (10% maximum evaluation error) and is a low-cost (US$ 2.22 per sampling), fast (56 min per sampling) and feasible (because it may be used in a standardized way throughout the crop cycle) technique. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  8. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weining [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States); Tarafdar, Jagadish C. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute (India); Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d{sub p} < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  9. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  10. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as

  11. Energy-use pattern and carbon footprint of rain-fed watermelon production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Mohammadi-Barsari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy-use patterns and carbon footprint is useful in achieving sustainable development in agriculture. Energy-use indices and carbon footprint for rain-fed watermelon production were studied in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Data were collected from 58 farmers using a self-structured questionnaire during the growing season of 2013. The Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the effects of energy input on rain-fed watermelon yield. The findings demonstrated that chemical fertilizers consumed the highest percentage of total energy input (75.2%, followed by diesel fuel (12.9%. The total energy input was 16594.74 MJ ha−1 and total energy output was 36275.24 MJ ha−1. The results showed that the energy-use ratio was 2.19, energy productivity was 1.15 kg MJ−1, energy intensity was 0.87 MJ kg−1, and net energy gain was 19680.60 MJ ha−1. Direct and indirect energy for watermelon production were calculated as 2374.4 MJ ha−1 (14.3% and 14220.3 MJ ha−1 (85.7%, respectively. The share of renewable energy was 1.4%. This highlights the need to reduce the share of non-renewable energy and improve the sustainability of rain-fed watermelon production in Northern Iran. The study of carbon footprint showed that the chemical fertilizer caused the highest percentage of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG followed by machinery with 52.6% and 23.8% of total GHG emissions, respectively. The results of the Cobb–Douglas model and sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing one MJ of energy input of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, biocides, and seed changed the yield by 1.03, 0.96, 0.19, −0.97, 0.16, and 0.22 kg, respectively, in the Kiashahr region of Northern Iran. Providing some of the nitrogen required for crop growth through biological alternatives, renewing old power tillers, and using conservation tillage machinery may enhance energy efficiency and mitigate

  12. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon, a traditional fermented food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI-SHENG CHEN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Young watermelon fruit was peeled and pickled for fermentation to produce a unique fermented food named xi-gua-mian (fermented watermelon in Taiwan. In this study, we investigated the LAB microflora in xi-gua-mian. A total of 176 LAB isolates were identified; 118 cultures were isolated from the xi-gua-mian sample collected from three different farmers markets and 58 from six young watermelon fruit samples. These isolates were characterized phenotypically and then divided into seven groups (A to G by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA and other genotypic analysis. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in xi-gua-mian samples collected in southern Taiwan, Tainan City and Pediococcuspentosaceus was the most abundant LAB in northern Taiwan, Taoyuan County. We found that LAB stains are similar in samples collected in the same geographic region but significant variationswere observed between samples collected among different regions. On the other hand, a greater LAB diversity was observed in the young watermelon fruit samples. In addition, 10 Lactococcuslactis subsp. lactis showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain L. sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T. This is the first report describing the distribution and varieties of LAB existing in the xi-gua-mian and the young watermelon fruits.

  13. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  14. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogy...

  15. The concentration of trans-lycopene in postharvest watermelon: An evaluation of analytical data obtained by direct methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrovski, D.; Bicanic, D.D.; Luterotti, S.; Twisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the newly proposed laser-based optothermal window (OW) method and colorimetry for quantification of trans -lycopene in 10 watermelon homogenates has been evaluated. Reverse phase HPLC served as an established reference method. Both, OW and colorimetry are direct methods as they,

  16. Coupling of the chemical niche and microbiome in the rhizosphere: implications from watermelon grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SONG,Chen ZHU,Waseem RAZA,Dongsheng WANG,Qiwei HUANG,Shiwei GUO,Ning LING,Qirong SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is commonly used to overcome soil-borne diseases. However, its effects on the rhizodeposits as well as the linkages between the rhizosphere chemical niche and microbiome remained unknown. In this paper, significant negative correlations between the bacterial alpha diversity and both the disease incidence (r = -0.832, P = 0.005 and pathogen population (r = - 0.786, P = 0.012 were detected. Moreover, our results showed that the chemical diversity not only predicts bacterial alpha diversity but also can impact on overall microbial community structure (beta diversity in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, some anti-fungal compounds including heptadecane and hexadecane were identified in the rhizosphere of grafted watermelon. We concluded that grafted watermelon can form a distinct rhizosphere chemical niche and thus recruit microbial communities with high diversity. Furthermore, the diverse bacteria and the antifungal compounds in the rhizosphere can potentially serve as biological and chemical barriers, respectively, to hinder pathogen invasion. These results not only lead us toward broadening the view of disease resistance mechanism of grafting, but also provide clues to control the microbial composition by manipulating the rhizosphere chemical niche.

  17. Biochemical and histological contributions to textural changes in watermelon fruit modulated by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, Georgios A; Siomos, Anastasios S; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Rouphael, Youssef; Georgiadou, Soteria; Kyriacou, Marios C

    2017-12-15

    Increased watermelon fruit flesh firmness is systematically incurred with grafting on Cucurbita hybrid rootstocks (heterografting). Possible differences in mesocarp cell wall constitution and histology between heterografted, homeografted (self-grafted) and non-grafted watermelon were examined, as well as their contributions to fruit texture. Firmness correlated positively (r=0.78, p<0.001) with cell density (cellsmm -2 ) which was higher in heterografts (5.83) than homeografts (4.64) and non-grafted controls (4.69). Mean cell size was smallest in heterografts and correlated negatively (r=-0.75, p<0.001) with firmness. Cell wall material, particularly the water-insoluble pectin fractions associated with firmness, were highest in heterografts. No associations with firmness were found for cell wall neutral sugars and membrane permeability. Higher parenchymatic cell density with higher content of alcohol insoluble residue and more abundant water-insoluble pectin fractions underscore enhanced firmness in heterografts. Possible implication of osmolytes in rootstock-mediated cell pressure regulation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB.

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  20. Sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutant agents 60Co and EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Velkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutagenic agents was carried out in 2013-2014. The goal was to establish effective doses for mutagenic treatment of dry seeds with 60Co gamma rays (80, 100, 200, 250, 350 and 450 Gy and swollen seeds with water for 24 hours were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS at a concentration of 2%. Dominant mutations were not observed in the M1 generation. Morphological changes in 14 of 1395 M2 plants were observed. Phenotypic variations changes were the colour of the seed coat, chlorophyll disorders of cotyledons, leaves, petals, and alterations of the location of the fruit set in the central stem. Visible changes of the morphological characteristics of the fruit were not observed. The doses induced certain morphological changes, however, higher doses or combined gamma rays 60Co and EMS treatments would induce mutations more efficiently. Subsequent experiments are required to obtain mutants with changes that affect flowers and fruits. The results are important for increasing mutation efficiency in watermelon breeding.

  1. 1 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 18, 2013 Cytotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    A study on cytotoxicity of Citrullus lanatus (water melon) extracts on Artemia salina (Brine shrimp test (BST) was carried out using extraction and cytotoxicity standard procedures, to determine cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts . The stems, leaves and seeds of light bark variety of C. lanatus were collected from karfi ...

  2. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  3. Comparative evaluation of protein and amino acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of melon (Citrullus vulgaris) and water melon (Citrullus lanatus) from Nasarawa town in Nasarawa State and Shagari town in Sokoto State, Nigeria were respectively analyzed for their crude protein and amino acids contents. The crude protein compositions of the melon and water melon seeds were found to be ...

  4. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo; Edgley Soares da Silva; João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto; Luciana Baú Trassato; Roberto Dantas de Medeiros; Dilacy Sales Porto

    2015-01-01

    Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Bo...

  5. Morphological observation, RNA-Seq quantification, and expression profiling: novel insight into grafting-responsive carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping; Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Hou, Qian; Zhu, Lingli; Huang, Ying; Xiong, Aisheng

    2017-03-01

    Watermelon is an important and economical horticultural crop in China, where ~20% of the plants are grafted. The development of grafted watermelon fruit involves a diverse range of gene interactions that results in dynamic changes in fruit. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced fruit quality change are unclear. In the present study, we measured the lycopene content by high-performance liquid chromatography and used RNA-Seq (quantification) to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of fruits from watermelon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock (pumpkin-grafted watermelon, PGW), self-grafted watermelon (SGW), and non-grafted watermelon (NGW). The results showed variation in the lycopene content in the flesh of PGW fruits, first increasing and then decreasing in the four stages, which was different from the trend in the flesh of NGW and SGW fruits. The transcriptome profiling data provided new information on the grafting-induced gene regulation of lycopene biosynthesis during fruit growth and development. The expression levels of 33 genes from 8 gene families (GGPS, PSY, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYb, LCYe, and CHY) related to lycopene biosynthesis, which play critical roles in fruit coloration and contribute significantly to fruit phytonutrient values, were monitored during the four periods of fruit development in watermelon. Compared with those of NGW and SGW, 14 genes were differentially expressed in PGW during fruit development, suggesting that these genes possibly help to mediate lycopene biosynthesis in grafted watermelon fruit. Our work provides some novel insights into grafting-responsive carotenoid metabolism and its potential roles during PGW fruit development and ripening. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Seleção de linhagens de melancia resistentes ao Watermelon mosaic virus e ao Papaya ringspot virus Selection of resistant watermelon lines to Watermelon mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 20 linhagens de melancia, provenientes do cruzamento da cultivar comercial suscetível Crimson Sweet e da introdução PI 595201 resistente ao Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV e Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W. As linhagens, e os parentais foram inoculados com o WMV ou com o PRSV-W em casa-de-vegetação distintas. Aos 35 e 49 dias após a primeira inoculação (DAI, as plantas foram avaliadas por meio de uma escala de notas, em que 1 (ausência de sintomas a 5 (intenso mosaico e deformações foliares. Pelos resultados infere-se que, aos 35 DAI, as linhagens 1, 2 e 20 apresentaram resistência tanto para o WMV como para o PRSV-W, com médias de 1,95, 1,80 e 2,25 para o WMV, e de 2,50, 2,30 e 2,50 para o PRSV-W, respectivamente. As linhagens 5, 7 e 13 foram resistentes somente ao WMV e as plantas das linhagens 3, 10 e 18 para o PRSV-W. A reação das linhagens permaneceu em geral pouco alterada aos 49 DAI. A existência de linhagens resistentes somente ao WMV e somente ao PRSV-W, ao lado de linhagens resistentes a ambos os vírus, é indicativo de que as resistências ao WMV e ao PRSV-W não são controladas pelos mesmos genes.Twenty advanced watermelon breeding lines, derived from the cross between cv. Crimson Sweet (susceptible and PI 595201 (resistant to WMV and PRSV-W, were screened for resistance to both potyviruses. The twenty lines, among with Crimson Sweet and PI 595201, were inoculated with either WMV or PRSV-W, in two different greenhouse trials. Plants were evaluated for symptoms 35 and 49 days after the first inoculation (DAI, using a scale from 1 (no symptoms to 5 (severe mosaic and foliar distortion. Evaluations at 35 DAI indicated that lines 1, 2 and 20 had good levels of resistance to both WMV and PRSV-W, with ratings of 1,95, 1,80 and 2,25 for WMV, and of 2,50, 2,30 and 2,50 for PRSV-W, respectively. Lines 5, 7 and 13 were resistant to WMV only, whereas lines 3, 10 and 18 were resistant to PRSV-W only. The reaction of

  7. Novel Pathogenic Strain of Watermelon mosaic virus Occurred on Insam (Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kwon Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease, supposedly caused by a virus, was observed from Insam (Panax ginseng fields of Punggi in year 2006. It has long believed to be a physiological disorder. However, the incidence of the disease has increased every year. When several samples were observed under electron microscope, filamentous virus-like particles were observed. The nucleotide sequences of the virus were analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primer sets derived from the results of DNA chip. The results indicated that the disease was caused by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. It revealed that the result of the biological assay by the virus was different from that of WMV previously found in other crops. Therefore, this is the first report that WMV causes the disease in P. ginseng and the virus is named to be WMV-Insam.

  8. REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND DIFFERENT MULCH TYPES ON FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD OF WATERMELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEITON ROCHA SARAIVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the pulp resistance, soluble solids and yield of watermelon fruits grown under different irrigation managements (determined by the ISAREG model and mulches, and their interactions. After a survey carried out on local producers, two experiments were conducted, using a completely randomized block design in split - plot arrangement with four replications, in the Teaching, Research and Extension Unit (UEPE of the Federal Institute of Ceara (IFCE, Jaguaribe - Apodi Irrigation District (DIJA, State of Ceara, Brazil. The treatments consisted of four irrigation managements in the plots, M1 (100% of the available - water capacity (AWC of the soil, M2 (80%, M3 (60% and M4 (average water depth used by local producers and four mulch types in the sub - plots, without mulching (C0 with rice husk (C1, white plastic (C2 and black plastic (C3 as mulches. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and significant results were subjected to regression (irrigation managements, average test (mulches and trend graphs (interaction between the factors. The irrigation management practiced during the watermelon crop cycle by the local producers of the Irrigation District of Jaguaribe - Apodi (DIJA in the State of Ceara, Brazil, is not appropriated, since they usually apply more water than the highest water depth determined by the ISAREG model (100% of the AWC. The plants grown under irrigation water depth of 365.20 mm (M1 and soils with mulches of rice husk or white plastic had the highest yields and fruits with better quality of soluble solids and pulp resistance.

  9. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  10. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  11. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of Watermelon Juice Enriched in l-Citrulline and Pomegranate Ellagitannins Enhanced Metabolism during Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Alacid, Fernando; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Fernández-Lobato, Bárbara; Ramos-Campo, Domingo J; Aguayo, Encarna

    2017-06-07

    l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19). Enrichment juices maintained basal levels of blood markers of muscle damage, such as lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin, and showed a significant maintenance of force during the exercise and a significant decrease in the rating of perceived exertion and muscle soreness after exercise. A positive effect was observed between l-citrulline and ellagitannins, improving the ergogenic effect of watermelon juice.

  13. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications

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    Susan Azizi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27–85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  14. Green Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: Characterization and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Mahdavi Shahri, Mahnaz

    2017-02-16

    In this paper, a green microwave-assisted combustion approach to synthesize ZnO-NPs using zinc nitrate and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruit, seed and pulp) extracts as bio-fuels is reported. The structure, optical, and colloidal properties of the synthesized ZnO-NP samples were studied. Results illustrate that the morphology and particle size of the ZnO samples are different and depend on the bio-fuel. The XRD results revealed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-NPs with mean particle size of 27-85 nm were produced by different bio-fuels. The optical band gap was increased from 3.25 to 3.40 eV with the decreasing of particle size. FTIR results showed some differences in the surface structures of the as-synthesized ZnO-NP samples. This led to differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, and more significantly, antioxidant activity through scavenging of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In in vitro cytotoxicity studies on 3T3 cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 0.26 mg/mL was shown for ZnO-NP samples. Furthermore, the as-synthesized ZnO-NPs inhibited the growth of medically significant pathogenic gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous) and gram-negative (Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacteria. This study provides a simple, green and efficient approach to produce ZnO nanoparticles for various applications.

  15. The Protective Role of Starch on Modulating Toxic Effects of Citrullus Colocynthis on Rat Liver and Intestine

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    Neda Eskandarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite using Citrullus colocynthis on treatment of various diseases, serious gastrointestinal disorders like bleeding are reported. In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM, administering equal weights of starch with this plant is suggested to produce more tolerable preparations from it. Hence, we assessed histopathological changes in rat liver and intestine after using starch as corrective agent. Methods: We designed three experiments in Veterinary Medicine School of Shahid Bahonar University in Kerman, Iran in 2016. The procedure was applied in 2016 for 15 days. In the first experiment, group No. 2 and 3 received single daily dose of alcoholic pulp extract of C. colocynthis at 300 and 600 mg/kg extract consecutively. In the second experiment, group No. 4 and 5 received 300 and 600 mg/kg extract plus the same amount of starch consecutively. In the third experiment, group No. 6 and 7 received extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg plus the three times weight of starch consecutively. The live rats were euthanized and their liver and intestine were removed for histopathology examination. The samples were stained with hematoxyline-eosin (H&E. Results: Rats in all of the groups died from bleeding and diarrhea except for group No.6 that showed no symptoms seen in other rats. Microscopic examination of their intestine showed no histopathological lesions or other degenerative changes of the epithelium. Conclusion: Clearly further works in modern phytotherapy will be required to delineate the role of starch in reducing C. colocynthis toxicity. Consumption of adequate weight of starch with the toxic dose of C. colocynthis make it safe for digestive system but could not prevent necrotic changes in the liver.

  16. Phytochemical characteristics of grafted watermelon on different bottle gourds (Lagenaria siceraria) collected from Mediterranean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇANDIR, Elif; YETİŞİR, Halit; KARACA, Fatih; ÜSTÜN, Durmuş

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid content of Crimson Tide watermelons grafted onto bottle gourd genotypes collected from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The experiment was carried out during the 2008 and 2009 growing season. Grafting on the local bottle gourd rootstocks improved the total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS/TA ratio, sugar, organic acid, and carotenoid (beta-carotene and lycopene) contents of Crimson Tide fru...

  17. Structure, evolution and functional inference on the Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family in three cultivated Cucurbitaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovieno, Paolo; Andolfo, Giuseppe; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Catalano, Domenico; Ricciardi, Luigi; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-12-29

    The powdery mildew disease affects thousands of plant species and arguably represents the major fungal threat for many Cucurbitaceae crops, including melon (Cucumis melo L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). Several studies revealed that specific members of the Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family act as powdery mildew susceptibility factors. Indeed, their inactivation, as the result of gene knock-out or knock-down, is associated with a peculiar form of resistance, referred to as mlo resistance. We exploited recently available genomic information to provide a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family in Cucurbitaceae. We report the identification of 16 MLO homologs in C. melo, 14 in C. lanatus and 18 in C. pepo genomes. Bioinformatic treatment of data allowed phylogenetic inference and the prediction of several ortholog pairs and groups. Comparison with functionally characterized MLO genes and, in C. lanatus, gene expression analysis, resulted in the detection of candidate powdery mildew susceptibility factors. We identified a series of conserved amino acid residues and motifs that are likely to play a major role for the function of MLO proteins. Finally, we performed a codon-based evolutionary analysis indicating a general high level of purifying selection in the three Cucurbitaceae MLO gene families, and the occurrence of regions under diversifying selection in candidate susceptibility factors. Results of this study may help to address further biological questions concerning the evolution and function of MLO genes. Moreover, data reported here could be conveniently used by breeding research, aiming to select powdery mildew resistant cultivars in Cucurbitaceae.

  18. Simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon under field conditions by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Di; Zhang, Haizhen; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Fei; Shi, Lihong; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan

    2017-11-01

    An optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes. The recoveries of the fungicides in watermelon, pulp and soil were 72.32-99.20% for difenoconazole, 74.68-87.72% for trifloxystrobin and 78.59-92.66% for trifloxystrobin acid with relative standard deviations of 1.34-14.04%. The dissipation dynamics of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin in watermelon and soil followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives of 3.2-8.8 days in both locations. The final residue levels of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were below 0.1 mg/kg (maximum residue level [MRL] set by China) and 0.2 mg/kg (MRL set by European Union), respectively, in pulp samples collected 14 days after the last application. These results could help Chinese authorities to establish MRL of trifloxystrobin in watermelon and provide guidance for the safe and proper application of both fungicides on watermelon. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  20. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  2. Regulation of Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidation and Osmosis by an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in Watermelon Seedlings under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanling; Wang, Yongqi; Yang, Ruiping; Zheng, Junxian; Liu, Changming; Li, Hao; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and [Formula: see text] compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes

  3. Regulation of plant growth, photosynthesis, antioxidation and osmosis by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in watermelon seedlings under well-watered and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eMo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that influences the growth and production of watermelon. Previous studies found that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization improved the fruit yield and water use efficiency of watermelon grown under water stress; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the effects of Glomus versiforme symbiosis on the growth, physio-biochemical attributes, and stress-responsive gene expressions of watermelon seedlings grown under well-watered and drought conditions were investigated. The results showed that AM colonization did not significantly influence the shoot growth of watermelon seedlings under well-watered conditions but did promote root development irrespective of water treatment. Drought stress decreased the leaf relative water content and chlorophyll concentration, but to a lesser extent in the AM plants. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal plants had higher non-photochemical quenching values, which reduced the chloroplast ultrastructural damage in the mesophyll cells and thus maintained higher photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, AM inoculation led to significant enhancements in the enzyme activities and gene expressions of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and MDHAR in watermelon leaves upon drought imposition. Consequently, AM plants exhibited lower accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and O2- compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Under drought stress, the soluble sugar and proline contents were significantly increased, and further enhancements were observed by pre-treating the drought-stressed plants with AM. Taken together, our findings indicate that mycorrhizal colonization enhances watermelon drought tolerance through a stronger root system, greater protection of photosynthetic apparatus, a more efficient antioxidant system and improved osmoregulation. This study contributes to advances in the knowledge of AM-induced drought tolerance.

  4. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  5. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Chen

    Full Text Available Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding, feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  6. Effect of watermelon silver mottle virus on the life history and feeding preference of Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Te; Tseng, Chien-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospovirus, Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), to examine the effect of virus infection on its vector, Thrips palmi. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits and feeding preference of T. palmi were examined. The survival rate and developmental time of the WSMoV-infected larval thrips did not differ significantly from those of the virus-free thrips. Comparing the developmental time of larval thrips fed on the healthy plants, thrips-damaged plants, and thrips-inoculated plants (the WSMoV-infected plants caused by thrips feeding), feeding on the thrips-damaged plants reduced the developmental time, and the WSMoV infection in host plants partially canceled the effect of thrips damage on the developmental time. In addition, no significant variations between the virus-free and WSMoV-infected adult thrips regarding longevity and fecundity were observed. These results implied that WSMoV did not directly affect the life history traits of T. palmi, but the WSMoV infection indirectly affected the development of T. palmi through the virus-infected plants. Furthermore, feeding preference tests indicated that T. palmi preferred feeding on either the thrips-damaged plants or the thrips-inoculated plants to the healthy plants. The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors.

  7. Impact of different hyperbaric storage conditions on microbial, physicochemical and enzymatic parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Moreira, Sílvia A; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Santos, Mauro D; Vidal, Mafalda; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2017-09-01

    Hyperbaric storage (HS) of raw watermelon juice, up to 10days at 50, 75, and 100MPa at variable/uncontrolled room temperature (18-23°C, RT) was studied and compared with storage at atmospheric pressure (AP) under refrigeration (4°C, RF) and RT, being evaluated microbiological (endogenous and inoculated), physicochemical parameters, and enzymatic activities. Ten days of storage at 50MPa resulted in a microbial growth evolution similar to RF, while at 75/100MPa were observed microbial load reductions on endogenous and inoculated microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, whose counts were reduced to below the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/mL), resulting in a shelf-life extension compared to RF. The physicochemical parameters remained stable at 75MPa when compared to the initial raw juice, except for browning degree that increased 1.72-fold, whilst at 100MPa were observed higher colour variations, attributed to a lycopene content decrease (25%), as well as reductions on peroxidase residual activity (16.8%) after 10days, while both polyphenol oxidase and pectin methylesterase residual activities were similar to RF. These outcomes hint HS as a reliable alternative to RF as a new food preservation methodology, allowing energy savings and shelf-life extension of food products. This is the first paper studying the effect of HS on inoculated microorganisms and on a broad number of physicochemical parameters and on endogenous enzymatic activities, for a preservation length surpassing the shelf-life by RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Adler, B B; Harrison, M D; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to determine D values of acid-adapted and unadapted cells of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice. Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, S. enterica serotype Saphra, two strains of E. coli O157:H7, and two strains of L. monocytogenes were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1% glucose for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Decimal reduction times (D values) of cells suspended in unpasteurized cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice were determined. Acid-adapted cells of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes, had increased thermal tolerance compared with cells that were not acid-adapted. There was no correlation between soluble solids content of the two types of juice and thermal resistance. Growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe juice, watermelon juice, or other acidic milieu, either in preharvest or postharvest environments, may result in cross protection to heat. The pasteurization conditions necessary to achieve elimination of pathogens from these juices would consequently have to be more severe if cells are habituated to acidic environments. Insights from this study provide guidance to developing pasteurization processes to eliminate Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

  9. Genetic mapping and identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 1 and 2 in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). Fon race 1 is most prevalent throughout the U.S. while race 2 is more virulent. Our overall objective is to identify and utilize ...

  10. Antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and clove oil: effect on selected foodborne pathogens in model food systems and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, S; Anusha, B A; Ashwini, L S; Negi, P S

    2015-09-01

    Natural additives for the control of microbial growth are in demand because consumers prefer them over synthetic ones. In the present investigation, the antibacterial activity of two natural preservatives, cinnamaldeyde and clove oil alone or in combinations was studied, and their potential as food preservative in model food systems and watermelon juice was evaluated. The cinnamaldehyde and clove essential oil showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at or below 5000 mg/l, and fractional inhibitory studies using both the oils showed synergistic effect. In artificially inoculated barley model food system and cabbage model food system, 2 MIC of oils was able to reduce the growth of the tested bacteria (more than 5 log) during 4 weeks storage at 37 °C, and similar reduction was also observed when combinations of oils were used at one eighth of MIC against Bacillus cereus and Yersinia enterocolitica, and one fourth of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Natural contaminants of watermelon juice were also reduced by the combination of one fourth of MIC of the oils, which was more effective than individual 2 MICs. These findings may be useful for food applications, but their effect on sensory quality of various foods need to be studied.

  11. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  12. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2012-01-01

    morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting......On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... this landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  13. Inheritance of resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W in ‘Whitaker’ summer squash line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero B Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic control of the PRSV-W (Papaya Ringspot Virus – Watermelon Strain resistance in Cucurbita pepo ‘Whitaker’ line. Plants of parental lines Whitaker (resistant and Caserta (susceptible, and of the generations F1, F2, BC11 and BC12 were evaluated for their reactions to PRSV-W. Caserta plants showed severe mosaic symptoms, while Whitaker grew vigorously and remained almost totally symptom-free. Most of the F1, F2and backcross plants also presented severe mosaic symptoms. Data were used to test a hypothesis of monogenic inheritance under different presumed degrees of dominance, and genetic models were tested using maximum likelihood tests of genetic control. Broad-sense heritability was of 0.57 for the first evaluation. Resistance to PRSV-W in C. pepo ‘Whitaker’ is due to a major gene effect summed to polygenic effects.

  14. Genetic diversity in the 3'-terminal region of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates from watermelon in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Osama A; Ali, Akhtar

    2012-03-01

    The 3'-terminal region (1191 nt) containing part of the NIb gene, complete coat protein (CP) and poly-A tail of 64 papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) isolates collected during 2008-2009 from watermelon in commercial fields of four different counties of Oklahoma were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities ranged from 95.2-100% and 97.1-100%, respectively, among the Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PRSW-W isolates clustered according to the locations where they were collected within Oklahoma, and each cluster contained two subgroups. All subgroups of Oklahoman PRSV-W isolates were on separate branches when compared to 35 known isolates originating from other parts of the world, including the one reported previously from the USA. This study helps in our understanding about the genetic diversity of PRSV-W isolates infecting cucurbits in Oklahoma.

  15. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  16. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  17. Conversion of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum magna to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist by gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Ranson, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hygromycin-resistant transformants of the cucurbit pathogen Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna) were generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. A rapid pathogenicity assay involving watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was developed and 14,400 REMI transformants were screened and assessed for their ability to cause disease, colonize plant tissues, and confer disease resistance against wild-type C. magna. A total of 176 nonpathogenic REMI mutants capable of colonizing cucurbit plants were isolated and assigned to three groups based on their ability to confer disease resistance: phenotype A, 80 to 100% disease protection; phenotype B, 10 to 65% disease protection; and phenotype C, 0 to 4% disease protection. Molecular and genetic analyses of one REMI mutant (R1) indicated that the nonpathogenic phenotype A resulted from a single-site integration. R1 showed a 1:1 segregation of hygromycin resistance and nonpathogenicity and all hygromycin-resistant progeny were nonpathogenic. The integrated vector and 5.5 kb of flanking fungal genomic DNA were isolated from R1 and designated pGMR1. To verify that pGMR1 contained pathogenicity gene sequences, a wild-type isolate of C. magna was transformed with pGMR1 to induce gene disruptions by homologous integration. Approximately 47% of the pGMR1 transformants expressed phenotype A, indicating homologous integration and gene disruption.

  18. De novo comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in fruit morphology of pumpkin cultivars with extreme size difference and development of EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Manioudaki, Maria; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Michailidou, Sofia; Kalivas, Apostolos; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-30

    The genetic basis of fruit size and shape was investigated for the first time in Cucurbita species and genetic loci associated with fruit morphology have been identified. Although extensive genomic resources are available at present for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), genomic databases for Cucurbita species are limited. Recently, our group reported the generation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) transcriptome databases from two contrasting cultivars with extreme fruit sizes. In the current study we used these databases to perform comparative transcriptome analysis in order to identify genes with potential roles in fruit morphology and fruit size. Differential Gene Expression (DGE) analysis between cv. 'Munchkin' (small-fruit) and cv. 'Big Moose' (large-fruit) revealed a variety of candidate genes associated with fruit morphology with significant differences in gene expression between the two cultivars. In addition, we have set the framework for generating EST-SSR markers, which discriminate different C. pepo cultivars and show transferability to related Cucurbitaceae species. The results of the present study will contribute to both further understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating fruit morphology and furthermore identifying the factors that determine fruit size. Moreover, they may lead to the development of molecular marker tools for selecting genotypes with desired morphological traits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Diverse Watermelon Cultivars Reveal the Role of Fruit Associated Microbiome in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Ripening of Mature Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangasamy Saminathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and changes in the plant microbiome can alter the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the quality of end produce. Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. We used 16S metagenomics and RNAseq metatranscriptomics for analysis of red (PI459074, Congo, and SDRose and yellow fruit-flesh cultivars (PI227202, PI435990, and JBush of geographically and metabolically diverse watermelon cultivars. Metagenomics data showed that Proteobacteria were abundant in SDRose and PI227202, whereas Cyanobacteria were most abundant in Congo and PI4559074. In the case of metatranscriptome data, Proteobacteria was the most abundant in all cultivars. High expression of genes linked to infectious diseases and the expression of peptidoglycan hydrolases associated to pathogenicity of eukaryotic hosts was observed in SDRose, which could have resulted in low microbial diversity in this cultivar. The presence of GH28, associated with polygalacturonase activity in JBush and SDRose could be related to cell wall modifications including de-esterification and depolymerization, and consequent loss of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars. Moreover, based on the KEGG annotation of the expressed genes, nine α-galactosidase genes involved in key processes of galactosyl oligosaccharide metabolism, such as raffinose family were identified and galactose metabolism pathway was reconstructed. Results of this study underline the links between the host and fruit-associated microbiome in carbohydrate metabolism of the ripe fruits. The cultivar difference in watermelon reflects the quantum and diversity of the microbiome, which would benefit watermelon and other plant breeders aiming at the holobiont

  20. Contribution à l’étude de l’effet antidiabétique des extraits de graines de Citrullus colocynthis Chez le rat Wistar rendu diabétique par la streptozotocine

    OpenAIRE

    BENARIBA, Nabila

    2014-01-01

    L’ethnopharmacologie, une discipline qui se partage entre la tradipratition et l’expérimentation aux laboratoires, a pour but d’argumenter scientifiquement les effets thérapeutiques des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Parmi ces plantes Citrullus colocynthis ou coloquinte, plante de la famille des cucurbitacées, anciennement utilisée par la population de diabétiques, sous forme d’infusion des graines ou du fruit entier pour traiter le diabéte sucré. De ce fait, l’obje...

  1. Influence of treatment time and pulse frequency on Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes populations inoculated in melon and watermelon juices treated by pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Melgar, Jonathan; Raybaudi-Massilia, Rosa M; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2007-06-30

    Consumption of unpasteurized melon and watermelon juices has caused several disease outbreaks by pathogenic microorganisms worldwide. Pulsed electric field (PEF) has been recognized as a technology that may inactivate those bacteria present in fluid food products at low temperatures. Hence, PEF treatment at 35 kV/cm, 4 mus pulse duration in bipolar mode and square shape were applied on Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations inoculated in melon and watermelon juices without exceeding 40 degrees C outlet temperatures. Different levels of treatment time and pulse frequency were applied to evaluate their effects on these microorganisms. Treatment time was more influential than pulse frequency (Pjuices. Populations of S. Enteritidis, E. coli and L. monocytogenes were experimentally reduced and validated in a single process up to 3.71+/-0.17, 3.7+/-0.3 and 3.56+/-0.26 log(10) units, respectively, in melon juice when 1440 micros and 217 Hz were used; whereas reductions up to 3.56+/-0.12, 3.6+/-0.4 and 3.41+/-0.13 log(10) units of those microorganisms, respectively, were reached in watermelon juice treated for 1727 micros at 188 Hz. Although PEF treatment reduced the populations of the three microorganisms, L. monocytogenes was more resistant to PEF than S. Enteritidis and E. coli in both juices when treated at the same processing conditions.

  2. Combination of high-intensity pulsed electric fields with natural antimicrobials to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of melon and watermelon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Melgar, Jonathan; Raybaudi-Massilia, Rosa M; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2008-05-01

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) combined with citric acid (0.5-2.0%, w/v) or cinnamon bark oil (0.05-0.30%, w/v) against populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in melon and watermelon juices were evaluated. Microbiological shelf-life and sensory attributes were also determined. Populations of E. coli O157:H7, S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were reduced by more than 5.0log(10)CFU/ml in HIPEF-processed melon (35kV/cm for 1709 micros at 193Hz and 4 micros pulse duration) and watermelon (35kV/cm for 1682 micros at 193Hz and 4 micros pulse duration) juices containing 2.0% and 1.5% of citric acid, respectively, or 0.2% of cinnamon bark oil. In addition, these treatments were also able to inactivate mesophilic, psychrophilic and, molds and yeasts populations, leading to a shelf-life of more than 91 days in both juices stored at 5 degrees C. Hence, the microbiological quality and safety of these fruit juices by combining HIPEF and citric acid or cinnamon bark oil were ensured. However, the taste and odor in those HIPEF-treated melon and watermelon juices containing antimicrobials were significantly affected. Therefore, further studies are needed to decrease the impact on the sensory attributes by using antimicrobials.

  3. Suppression of Powdery Mildew Using the Water Extract of Xylogone ganodermophthora and Aqueous Potassium Phosphonate Solution on Watermelon under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylogone ganodermophthora (Xg is an ascomycetous fungus that causes yellow rot on cultivated Ganoderma lucidum. Previously, we reported in vitro antifungal activities of a Xg culture extract against several watermelon pathogens. In 2014, we conducted greenhouse experiments to evaluate the control efficacy of a water extract of cultured Xg on watermelon powdery mildew (WPM. The test material (stock solution, ca. 4,000 µg/ml was prepared by an autoclaved Xg culture in water at a ratio of 800 g of culture per 6 liter of water, and then filtering it through filter paper. Six foliar applications of the solutions (diluted 100- and 1,000-fold significantly suppressed the formation of conidiophores and conidia. The inhibitory effect of aqueous potassium phosphonate solution on the disease and its phytotoxicity was tested. Phytotoxicity on watermelon plants was observed at concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 µg/ml as irregular brownish spots. The control efficacies against WPM were 91.9% at 2,000 µg/ml, 64.9% at 1,000 µg/ml, and 62.2% at 500 µg/ml.

  4. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Barzegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrullus colocynthis (CCT is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. Objective: We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats’ model. Materials and Methods: 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly, and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III, 50mg/kg metformin (group IV, and CCT extract+ metformin (group V for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter. Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Conclusion: Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS

  5. RAPD and ISSR marker assessment of genetic diversity in Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: a unique source of germplasm highly adapted to drought and high-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kumar Sambhav; Ul Haq, Shamshad; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2017-10-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) shows high levels of variation in fruit color, fruit stripe pattern, seed coat color, and size. Thirty-eight accessions of C. colocynthis plants from different parts of semi-arid Rajasthan were collected and genetic diversity was assessed using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 65 RAPD decamer primers, 50 primers produced 549 scorable bands of which 318 were polymorphic. Polymorphic banding patterns with the number of amplified fragments varied from 5 (OPA-08 and OPF-9) to 19 (OPT-20) in the molecular size range of 150-6000 bp. Percent polymorphism ranged from 22.2% (OPA-09) to 83.3% (OPE-12) with 55.14% polymorphism. Out of the 20 ISSR primers screened, 13 primers produced 166 amplification products, of which 99 were polymorphic. The number of bands amplified per primer varied between 9 (UBC-807, 802) and 16 (UBC-803, 812) with average band size between 250 and 4000 bp. Percent polymorphism ranged from 45.4% (UBC-815) to 73.3% (UBC-814) with 65.05% polymorphism. Dendrogram constructed on the basis of RAPD + ISSR polymorphism separated the accessions into four distinct clusters at 72% variation with Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranging from minimum 0.64 to 0.95. The matrices for RAPD and ISSR were also compared using Mantel's test and obtained correlation value (r = 0.7947). Discriminating power of RAPD and ISSR markers was assessed by calculating polymorphic information content, multiplex ratio, marker index, and resolving power. Approx. 50% RAPD and ISSR markers showed PIC value and heterozygosity (H) ≥ 0.50, indicating marker as informative. The primers that showed higher polymorphism had higher RP, MR, and MI values.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and radical-scavenging capacities of Citrullus colocynthes (L) and Artemisia absinthium extracts using promethazine hydrochloride radical cation and contemporary assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Khan, I Ullah; Bano, N

    2011-10-01

    A new, quick and economical decolorization assay based upon the generation of a radical cation made from promethazine hydrochloride (PMZH) is described for screening of antioxidant activity of plants/herbal extracts. PMZH radical cations, produced through a reaction between PMZH and potassium persulfate (K(2)S(2)O(8)) in phosphoric acid medium, have maximum absorption at 515 nm in their first-order derivative spectrum. Theconcentrations of chromagen and K(2)S(2)O(8) were optimized (final concentration of PMZH and K₂S₂O₈ were 0.166 mM and 0.11 mM, respectively) for better stability and sensitivity of the radical cation produced. Agood linear correlation was found between the percentage inhibition and the increasing amounts of standard antioxidants, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.989 to 0.999. The newly developed assay was employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Citrullus colocynthes L. and Artemisia absinthium extracts. The proposed assay involved a more stable radical cation and required only 1 h for preparation of a working solution in comparison to the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorizaion assay, which was reported to be less sensitive at low pH and almost 12-16 h were required for preparation of a working ABTS solution. Other assays employed to evaluate the antioxidant potential andradical-scavenging capacities of the extracts were the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, total phenolic contents assay, total flavonoid contents and metal-chelating activity assays, and the lipid peroxidation value in linoleic acid emulsion systems. The results indicate that boththe plants have potent free radical-scavenging activity and the ability to prevent lipid peroxidation and radical chain reactions.

  7. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

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    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    populações de plantas prolíficas e de frutos pequenos.Genetic dissimilarity among 31 watermelon genotypes was evaluated through the canonic analysis and cluster analysis (Tocher Method and Ward Method based on Mahalanobis distance (D²ii' Thirty lines obtained from accesses collected in the Northeast of Brazil and the cultivar Crimson Sweet were evaluated to determine the number of days to appearance of the first male and female flower (NDM and NDF; number of shoots to the appearance of the first male and female flower (NGM and NGF; number of fruits per plant (NFP; length of the main vine (CRP; fruit mean weight (PMF; total solid soluble content (TSS; transversal and axial fruit diameter (DTF and DLF and rind thickness average (EMC. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replicates and seven plants per plot. The characteristics that contributed more to the genetic dissimilarity among the genotypes were number of fruit per plant, axial diameter of fruit, total solid soluble content and fruit mean weight. Three clusters were formed by Tocher's optimization method and by the Ward Method, while four clusters were formed by the graphic dispersion, based on two first canonic variables. In the last case, cluster I was composed of seven lines from Pernambuco and one line from Bahia; cluster II was formed by all the 21 lines from Maranhão; clusters III and IV were composed of line 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco and of 'Crimson Sweet', respectively. Lines 87-019.021 and 87-019.022 were the closest related, while line 87-019.023 and Crimson Sweet presented the biggest dissimilarity by the Mahalanobis distance (D²ii'. The hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from the cluster II will be the most promising. Hybridization among 'Crimson Sweet' and the lines from cluster I will be interesting to obtain populations of prolific plants, which give small fruits.

  8. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION METHODS AND NITROGEN FORMS WITH VARIOUS AMOUNTS ON THE YIELD AND SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS OF WATERMELON

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    Ulas SENYIGIT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out at Research and Production Farm of Agricultural Faculty, Cukurova University during 1996 and 1997 growing season. In this experiment, different irrigation methods (S: Sprinkler; D: Drip, nitrogen forms (L: Liquid; G: Granule with various amounts (based on applied line source sprinkler irrigation method, N1; N2; N3 kg/da and two varieties of watermelon (P: Paladin; M: Madera were studied. Free water surface evaporation was used to determine irrigation water amount. In only SL and SGL treatments, three different nitrogen levels were formed providing gradient situation during the irrigation season. Based on the results, irrigation water ranged from 119.2 mm (first year to 350.5 mm (second year. Nitrogen applications varied from 5.1 kg da-1 (SL to 10 kg da-1 (SG in the all treatments. Total yield changed between 1325 kg da-1 (first year and 5013 kg da-1 (second year depending on year and treatments. Although, the highest yield was taken from treatments in which liquid fertilizers were applied for both of the varieties in the first year. The varieties have different response to form and amounts of nitrogen in the second year. In this year, the highest yield was obtained from SG treatment in Paladin variety. The yield decreased only by 12% in SL treatments that nitrogen was applied in liquid form. In Madera variety, the highest yield was taken from SGL treatments that granule and liquid fertilizer were applied together. The effects of irrigation methods and nitrogen levels on some quality parameters of watermelon were found to be insignificant (P>0.05. However, fruit diameter of Madera was larger than Paladin variety. The longest fruit length was measured in Paladin-DL treatment. As a result, it was determined that watermelon yield was increased by nitrogen which was applied through irrigation water. Therefore, it could be said that watermelon yield increased considerably with applying nitrogen together with irrigation

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azo'o Ela, M. Vol 6, No 1 (2010) - Full Articles Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii and its impact on pollination, fruit and seed yields of Citrullus lanatus at Nkolbisson (Yaoundé, Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1816-0573. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    The discovery of plant hormones and their ability regulate all aspect of plant growth and developm were defining moments in vegetables productio. Their impact on plants has nowhere more vivi chronicled than in tree fruits. However, fruit vegetables like Okra (Abelmeschus esculentus water melon (Citrullus lanatus L.) are ...

  12. Author Details

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    Chike, CPR. Vol 9, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effect of Long Term Administration of Citrullus Lanatus on Fertility Hormones of Male sand Female Albino Rats. Abstract · Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus rattus) liver. Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2012) - Articles Effect of long ...

  13. Some haematological and biochemical profile of blood of Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus replacement levels with soybean meal, respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic.

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    Ado, A. Vol 18 (2013) - Articles Cytotoxicity of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Mansf. on Artemia salina (brine shrimp test) Abstract PDF · Vol 18 (2013) - Articles Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice extracts. Abstract PDF · Vol 18 (2013) - Articles Dough rising ability of Tamarindus indica, Citrus ...

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    Citrullus Lanatus) Seeds, Abstract. A Usman, M Haruna, .... Vol 3, No 3 (2009), Studies on the Fungi Associated with Soft Rot of Carrot (Daucus Carota) in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria, Abstract. JE Amadi. Vol 4, No 3 (2010), Study ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of lemon juice on the reproductive hormones of female wistar rats (Rattus rattus) Abstract · Vol 9, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effect of Long Term Administration of Citrullus Lanatus on Fertility Hormones of Male sand Female Albino Rats. Abstract · Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles The effect of long term administration of lemon ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dede, EB. Vol 9, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effect of Long Term Administration of Citrullus Lanatus on Fertility Hormones of Male sand Female Albino Rats. Abstract · Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus rattus) liver. Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2012) - Articles Effect of long term ...

  18. Somatic chromosome counts and yield performance of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation in 20 accessions of Citrullus lanatus ('egusi' melon) revealed somatic chromosome counts ranging from 18 to 24 with 2n = 22 being the most frequent. Polyploid counts of 2n = 40 and 2n =44 were made for accessions DD98/4 and L6, respectively. Diploid chromosome counts varying from 2n = 22 suggest ...

  19. Optimization of ISSR marker for African edible-seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a molecular approach using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers on three African edible-seeded cucurbits (Citrullus lanatus L. Matsumura and Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii L. Naudin and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L. Naudin). To obtain clear and reproducible bands on 1.5% agarose gels, we ...

  20. 864-IJBCS-Article-Dr Gbogouri Crobi A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Three indigenous cucurbit seeds from Ivory Coast namely Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides (Thrumb.) Matsum & Nakai and Cucumis melo var. Agrestis were investigated for the physicochemical properties. Thermal properties of their crude oils extracted by a cold solvent method were also tested.

  1. Comparative study of physicochemical and thermal properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three indigenous cucurbit seeds from Ivory Coast namely Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides (Thrumb.) Matsum & Nakai and Cucumis melo var. Agrestis were investigated for the physicochemical properties. Thermal properties of their crude oils extracted by a cold solvent method were also tested.

  2. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-08-22

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  3. Host Reaction of Watermelon mosaic virus Isolates Infecting Melon from Different Geographical Origins in Xinjiang of China

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    Dong WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is one of the major viruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Although WMV is very common worldwide, little is known about the biological traits of WMV isolates from China. Hence, this study aimed to characterize 11 WMV isolates infecting melon from different geographical origins in Xinjiang based on experimental hosts. Sap inoculation of the 11 WMV isolates onto a range of 13 plant species revealed some differences compared to the WMV isolates collected from other countries. Our results showed that, overall, there were no obvious correlations of host responses to inoculation with WMV isolates from different geographical origins. However, isolate JS-1 caused mild mosaic on Cucurbita moschata, whereas the remaining 10 isolates were asymptomatic on this plant species. Moreover, in Datura stramonium, isolate TYG-1 induced mosaic, whereas the remaining 10 isolates did not infect this species. All isolates infected systemically Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis melo plants, causing severe symptoms. All isolates did not induce any symptoms on Cucumis sativus, but the virus could be detected using RT-PCR. Additionally, all isolates infected systemically Nicotiana tabacum plants, causing mild mosaics. Chenopodium amaranticolor and Chenopodium quinoa reacted to all isolates by chlorotic local lesions in the inoculated leaves, and the virus was detected in the inoculated leaves using RT-PCR. In addition, the attempts to transmit the isolates to Luffa cylindrica, Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata or Pisum sativum failed as confirmed by negative RT-PCR. Our results would be useful for understanding the biological variability of WMV.

  4. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  5. Antifungal Activity and Action Mode of Cuminic Acid from the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum (FON Causing Fusarium Wilt on Watermelon

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    Yang Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a novel biofungicide, the antifungal activity and action mode of cuminic acid from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON on watermelon was determined systematically. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC50 value for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53 μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, the mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin (Bike1, Bike2 and Bike3 and fusaric acid (FUB1, FUB2, FUB3 and FUB4 both were downregulated compared with the control, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content were observed after in vivo cuminic acid treatment on watermelon leaves. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.

  6. Metodologia para determinação das necessidades nutricionais de melão e melancia Metodology for assessment of nutritional requirements of melon and watermelon

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    José A. de A. Paula

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho visando definir a necessidade nutricional de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio de melão e melancia, em função da produtividade esperada, a partir de dados médios citados na literatura, e validá-los com dados obtidos em experimentos com melão e melancia, realizados no Agropolo Assu/Mossoró. O experimento com melão seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3 x 3 + 3, que constou da combinação de três doses de N (N1 = 42, N2 = 84 e N3 = 126 kg ha-1 e de K (K1 = 106, K2 = 212 e K3 = 322 kg ha-1, mais três tratamentos adicionais (N0K0, N0K2 e N2K0, sendo que N0 e K0 não receberam N nem K. O experimento com melancia seguiu o mesmo delineamento experimental, modificando as doses de N (N1 = 45, N2 = 91 e N3 = 136 kg ha-1 e de K (K1 = 78, K2 = 156 e K3 = 234 kg ha-1, havendo dois tratamentos adicionais (N0K2 e N2K0. O modelo que melhor se ajustou, tanto para a melancia como para o melão, seguiu a relação produtividade (kg planta-1 x nutrientes exportados (g planta-1. Os índices de concordância observados entre os valores estimados pelo modelo de absorção total de N e K e valores obtidos experimentalmente, são considerados aceitáveis, tanto para melancia como para melão.This work was carried out aiming to determine nutritional requirements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for melon and watermelon, as a function of estimated yield, and validate them with experimental data obtained from melon and watermelon trials carried out in Assu-Mossoró region. Melon trial followed a randomized block design, in a 3 x 3 + 3 factorial scheme with three replications, which consisted of combination of three doses of N (N1 = 42, N2 = 84 and N3 = 126 kg ha-1 and of K (K1 = 106, K2 = 212 and K3 = 322 kg ha-1, and three additional treatments (N0K0, N0K2 e N2K0, where N0 and K0 had no application of N and K. Watermelon trial followed the same design, with modification of doses of

  7. Evaluation of Nutritional and Physical Properties of Watermelon Juice during the Thermal Processing by Using Alumina Nano-fluid in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

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    Farinaz Saremnejad Namini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Thermal processing is an effective method in preventing microbial spoilage but high heat transfer in a long time process that leads to quality loss and increased energy consumption. Also it is important to consider sensitive nature of food products during the thermal processing. Due to the nano-fluids' unique thermo–physical properties compared with the conventional fluids (steam and hot water, their use in various industries to enhance the efficiency of equipment and energy optimization has increased. Materials and Methods: The effects of alumina–water nano-fluids (0, 2, and 4% concentrations on some nutritional properties (lycopene and vitamin C content, and some physical properties (color, pH and TSS of watermelon juice treated by high temperature–short time (75, 80, and 85°C for 15, 30, and 45 seconds in a shell and tube heat exchanger were evaluated. Results: In compared with water, process time reduced by 24.88% and 51.63% for 2% and 4% nano-fluids, respectively. It had a significant effect on improving the properties of watermelon juice (P<0.05. Under the treatment conditions (75°C and 15s, with 0, 2, and 4% nano-fluids, 81.15, 84.81, and 91.28% of lycopene and 61.11, 63.70 and 67.04% of vitamin C were maintained, respectively. &DeltaE* values for the fruit juices processed with 0, 2 and 4% nano-fluids were 3.26, 2.21 and 1.14, respectively. Also pH and TSS changed in the range of 5.58–5.82 and 9.00–9.40%, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that qualitative and nutritional properties of watermelon juices processed with nano-fluids in terms of lycopene and vitamin C retention, and color were, respectively, 9.89, 6.18 and 50.38% better than the samples processed with water.

  8. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

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    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  9. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  10. A major latex-like protein is a key factor in crop contamination by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sawada, Mami; Goto, Junya; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Noriko; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-04-01

    This is the first report, to our knowledge, to reveal important factors by which members of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), squash (C. pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo), are selectively polluted with highly toxic hydrophobic contaminants, including organochlorine insecticides and dioxins. Xylem sap of C. pepo ssp. pepo, which is a high accumulator of hydrophobic compounds, solubilized the hydrophobic compound pyrene into the aqueous phase via some protein(s). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of xylem sap of two C. pepo subspecies revealed that the amount of 17-kD proteins in C. pepo ssp. pepo was larger than that in C. pepo ssp. ovifera, a low accumulator, suggesting that these proteins may be related to the translocation of hydrophobic compounds. The protein bands at 17 kD contained major latex-like proteins (MLPs), and the corresponding genes MLP-PG1, MLP-GR1, and MLP-GR3 were cloned from the C. pepo cultivars Patty Green and Gold Rush. Expression of the MLP-GR3 gene in C. pepo cultivars was positively correlated with the band intensity of 17-kD proteins and bioconcentration factors toward dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Recombinant MLP-GR3 bound polychlorinated biphenyls immobilized on magnetic beads, whereas recombinant MLP-PG1 and MLP-GR1 did not. These results indicate that the high expression of MLP-GR3 in C. pepo ssp. pepo plants and the existence of MLP-GR3 in their xylem sap are related to the efficient translocation of hydrophobic contaminants. These findings should be useful for decreasing the contamination of fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family as well as the phytoremediation of hydrophobic contaminants.

  11. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. Methods We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Key Results and Conclusions Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the

  12. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-06-01

    Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the six surviving archetypic manuscripts.

  13. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  14. Optimization of the most important operational parameters of a pneumatic seeder using real-time monitoring for Cucumber and Watermelon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Abdolahzare

    2016-04-01

    devices for online measurement of various parameters, including: the actual forward speed, wheel sleep percent, drawbar pull, motor RPM, and fuel consumption. Wheel drive of the seed metering mechanism was equipped with Rotary Encoder model S48-8-0360ZT (TK1 to determine the seed disk rotation. For more precise vacuum pressure monitoring, a Vacuum Transmitter model BT 10-210 was used to measure relative pressure from 0 mbar to -1000 mbar. Investigation of seed falling trajectories was conducted using the AVI video acquisition system consisted of CCD (charge-coupled device camera (Fuji F660EXR capable of capturing images with a constant speed of 320 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 320×240 pixels. All data were transmitted to a data logger and displayed online on the PC's screen. For optimization of the factors affecting the performance of the pneumatic planter, the experiments were conducted with: two ranges of forward speeds [3 to 4 km h-1, and 6 to 8 km h-1; three levels of vacuum pressure [-2.5kPa, -3.5kPa and -4.5 kPa]; and two types of seed [cucumber and watermelon], keeping a three-factor factorial experimental design. The tests were replicated three times. The uniformity of seed spacing was measured with indicators described by kachman and smith (1995 which are defined as: I_miss=N_1/N×100 (1 I_mul=N_2/N×100 (2 I_qf=100-(I_mul+I_miss (3 P=s_d/x_ref (4 Which for planting distance of 45 cm, N1 is number of spacing > 1.5Xref; N2 is number of spacing ≤ 0.5Xref and N is total number of measured spacings, Sd is standard deviation of the spacing more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set spacings Xref, Imiss is the miss index, Imul is the multiple index, quality of feed index Iq is the percentage of spacings that are more than half but not more than 1.5 times, the set planting distance and P is error index. Results and Discussion: According to the studies on both watermelon and cucumber, the ‘quality of feed index’ value in forward speed

  15. 105 - 110_Karanbonde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The Antioxidant effect of Citrullus Vulgaris (Watermelon) extract was evaluated against lipid oxidation in freshly caught fishes during cooking. ... formed, flavor modifications are caused by hydroxyl acids, the colour darkens as a result of ..... Protective effects of natural antioxidants against Lipid oxidation during.

  16. Quantification and localization of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Geminiviridae in populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae with differential virus transmission characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Kollenberg

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius is one of the economically most damaging insects to crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Severe damage is caused by feeding and more seriously by transmitting viruses. Those of the genus begomovirus (Geminiviridae cause the most significant crop diseases and are transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent circulative mode, a process which is largely unknown. To analyze the translocation and to identify critical determinants for transmission, two populations of B. tabaci MEAM1 were compared for transmitting Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. Insect populations were chosen because of their high and respectively low virus transmission efficiency to compare uptake and translocation of virus through insects. Both populations harbored Rickettsia, Hamiltonella and Wolbachia in comparable ratios indicating that endosymbionts might not contribute to the different transmission rates. Quantification by qPCR revealed that WmCSV uptake and virus concentrations in midguts and primary salivary glands were generally higher than TYLCV due to higher virus contents of the source plants. Both viruses accumulated higher in insects from the efficiently compared to the poorly transmitting population. In the latter, virus translocation into the hemolymph was delayed and virus passage was impeded with limited numbers of viruses translocated. FISH analysis confirmed these results with similar virus distribution found in excised organs of both populations. No virus accumulation was found in the midgut lumen of the poor transmitter because of a restrained virus translocation. Results suggest that the poorly transmitting population comprised insects that lacked transmission competence. Those were selected to develop a population that lacks virus transmission. Investigations with insects lacking transmission showed that virus concentrations in midguts were reduced and only negligible virus amounts

  17. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  18. Effet de la Saison de Culture et de la Densité des Plants sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la Saison de Culture et de la Densité des Plants sur les. Adventices et la Production de la ... adventices et à faible densité pour obtenir des effets bénéfiques au niveau de son rendement. Mots-clés : Citrullus lanatus – densité ...... Newman J.C., Robinson D. & Hall L.M., 2001. Barley seeding rate influences the ...

  19. Seletividade e eficiência agronômica de herbicidas no controle de capim-colchão na cultura da melancia Selectivity and agronomic efficiency of herbicides over Digitaria horizontalis control in the watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber D.G. Maciel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a seletividade e a eficiência agronômica dos herbicidas clethodim e sethoxydim, no controle de Digitaria horizontalis (capim-colchão na cultura da melancia (cv. Crimson Sweet. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, no município de Floresta, PR, em 1995/96, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram clethodim nas doses de 84; 96 e 108 g i.a./ha adicionado de 1,0 L/ha de óleo mineral (Dytrol, sethoxydim na dose de 230 g i.a./ha adicionado de 1,0 L/ha de óleo mineral (Assist e testemunhas com e sem capina. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pós-emergência, quando a melancia apresentava ramas com 1,4 m e a D. horizontalis em estádio de três folhas a três perfilhos e densidade de 240 plantas/m². Para a aplicação dos herbicidas utilizou-se pulverizador costal de pressão mantida por injeção de CO2, equipado com pontas de jato plano XR110.02 e volume de calda de 200 L/ha. As avaliações de seletividade (Escala E.W.R.C. e controle das plantas daninhas (0 - 100% foram efetuadas aos 7; 15 e 30 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos. Os resultados indicaram que o herbicida clethodim, a partir de 96 g i.a./ha, controlou eficientemente a D. horizontalis, sendo estatisticamente superior ao herbicida sethoxydim e à testemunha sem capina. Nenhum dos tratamentos químicos causou fitotoxicidade que afetasse o desenvolvimento e a produção da melancia. A D. horizontalis interferiu no desenvolvimento da cultura, causando redução média de 36,0% da produção da melancia.The selectivity and agronomic efficiency of clethodim and sethoxydim herbicides on D. horizontalis control in watermelon crop was evaluated. The experiment was carried out at Floresta, Paraná State, Brazil, in 1995/96. The watermelon cultivar used was Crimson Sweet and the experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. The treatments evaluated were clethodim (240 g/L in the dosage of 84; 96, 108 g i

  20. Características produtivas da melancia em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Yield characteristics of watermelon in different planting spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes espaçamentos de plantio foram avaliados na produção de melancia em experimento da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina, de outubro a dezembro de 1998. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, consistindo de dois espaçamentos entre linhas (2,50 e 3,00 m e três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,40; 0,60 e 0,80 m e 3 repetições, sendo utilizada a cultivar Crimson Sweet. O espaçamento entre linhas de 3,00 m apresentou maior produção (42,46 t/ha, sendo que entre plantas os espaçamentos de 0,60 e 0,80 m alcançaram as maiores produções com 42,50 e 45,29 t/ha, respectivamente, não mostrando diferenças entre si. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para produção de frutos refugo nos espaçamentos entre linhas. No entanto, o menor espaçamento entre plantas proporcionou maior produção com 20,21 t/ha, seguido pelos espaçamentos de 0,60 m (12,86 t/ha e 0,80 m (8,62 t/ha. O incremento dos espaçamentos, tanto entre linhas como entre plantas, resultou em frutos de maior tamanho, tendo o espaçamento 3,00 x 0,80 m apresentado a maior massa fresca do fruto (8,83 kg/fruto. O maior número de frutos por planta (1,35 frutos foi obtido com o espaçamento de 3,00 x 0,80 m.The yield of watermelon as a result of different planting space was evaluated, from October to December 1998 in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized blocks in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, with three replications. The cultivar Crimson Sweet was planted in 2.5 and 3.0 m row spacing and in 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m inside the row. The 3.0 m row spacing resulted in the highest marketable yield with 42.46 t ha-1. Higher yields (42.50 and 45.29 t ha-1 were obtained with the 0.2 and 0.4 m plant spacing, with no difference between them. No significant differences were observed for unmarketable fruit yield in the row spacings. However, the smallest plant spacing (0.4 m showed the highest yield

  1. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... Dilution plating was used as isolation technique (Pitt and Hocking, ... Yellow gold. CYA 37°C. Yellow. G25N 25°C. Yellow the two extracts (C. colocynthis seeds) was added to 50 ml of YES medium but to varying final concentrations are in the ..... pulses, feed, Paris:technical and documentation (Lavoisier).

  2. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    mecano twin-screw extruder:a study of the aqueous lipid extraction and shaping of a raffinate by theromoulage biomaterials. INRA Toulouse France. pp:12-25. Ezzat SM, Sarhan MM (1991). Effect of different concentrations of.

  3. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of some Fruit Seeds

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    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of secondary plant metabolite with an antioxidant character are present in the vegetal extracts, such as: tocopherols, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc. These compounds intervene in the cellular defense mechanisms against the free radicals and oxidative stress, as they possess anticancer and anti mutation effect. The aim of this work was to study the antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content of methanolic extracts obtained from seeds of fruits: Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Citrullus lanatus. Grape seeds have a high content of antioxidants and polyphenols compounds, due to this, it is recommended their used in obtaining functional food with benefit on the human body.

  4. Qualidade de frutos de melancia em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

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    Leilson Costa Grangeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em propriedades rurais próximas à cidade de Borborema (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001 e de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia, híbrido Tide, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo avaliadas as fontes cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses de 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT. Os sólidos solúveis não foram influenciados por fontes e doses de potássio, mas apenas pela época de cultivo, sendo maior no plantio de fevereiro a abril de 2002. A acidez titulável aumentou até um ponto máximo com o incremento nas doses de potássio, enquanto que a relação SST/ATT apresentou uma redução até um ponto mínimo.Two field experiments were carried out in Borborema, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October to December 2001 and from February to April 2002, to evaluate the quality of watermelon fruits, hybrid Tide, as a result of potassium sources and doses. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme with three replications. The treatments consisted of the three potassium sources (chloride, nitrate and sulphate and four potassium doses (50; 100; 200 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and TSS/TTA ratios were evaluated. Soluble solids were influenced by the growing season with higher values from February to April. Total titratable acidity increased and TSS/TTA ratio decreased when increasing the potassium doses.

  5. Exportação de nutrientes pelos frutos de melancia em função de épocas de cultivo, fontes e doses de potássio Nutrients recruitment of watermelon fruits in relation to seasons, potassium sources and doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em propriedades rurais, localizadas próxima a cidade de Borborema (SP, de outubro a dezembro/2001 e de fevereiro a abril/2002, com o objetivo de determinar as quantidades exportadas de nutrientes pelos frutos de melancia, em função de fontes e doses de potássio, em duas épocas de cultivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3x4, com três repetições, sendo avaliados as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Com exceção do Mg, as maiores exportações de nutrientes pelos frutos foram obtidas no cultivo de outubro a dezembro. A massa seca e as exportações de N, P, K, e Ca aumentaram de forma quadrática com as doses de potássio. A aplicação KCl aumentou respectivamente, de forma quadrática e linear, as exportações de S e Cl pelos frutos de melancia.Two field experiments were conducted in Borborema, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October to December 2001 and February to April 2002, to evaluate the nutrients recruitment of watermelon fruits, Tide hybrid, as a result of potassium sources and doses. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3x4 factorial scheme, the sources being evaluated: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses of 50; 100; 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Greater recruitment of N, P, K, Ca, S and Cl by watermelon fruits was obtained in the first trial, while the recruitment of Mg was observed in the second trial. The dry mass and recruitment of N, P, K, and Ca increased with potassium doses. S and Cl of the watermelon fruits increased with the increase of KCl doses in a quadratic and linear form, respectively.

  6. Volatile profile and physical, chemical, and biochemical changes in fresh cut watermelon during storage Perfil volátil e alterações físicas, químicas e bioquímicas na melancia minimamente processada durante o armazenamento

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    Andréa Luiza Ramos Pereira Xisto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing data about the aroma of fresh-cut watermelon and the metabolic changes that occur with minimal processing are scarce. Given the close relationship that exists between aroma, texture, and quality characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the changes in the volatile profile and texture of watermelon, a fruit extensively sold in supermarket chains throughout Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the volatile profile using solid phase microextraction (SPME as well as texture changes in fresh-cut watermelon stored at 5 °C for ten days. Chromatography associated with sensory analysis (sniffing led us to conclude that 9-carbon (C9 alcohols and aldehydes are the major responsible for the flavor and aroma of minimally processed watermelon stored at 5 ± 1 °C/90 ± 5% RH for ten days, and also that the aroma diminishes in intensity with storage, but it does not affect the final quality of the product. It was noted that the amount of drained liquid, soluble pectin, and weight loss increased during storage concurrently with a reduction in firmness and a structural breakdown of the cells. Pectin methyl esterase activity remained constant and polygalacturonase activity was not detected.Existe pouca informação a respeito do aroma de melancia minimamente processada e das alterações metabólicas que ocorrem com o processamento mínimo. Sabendo-se que há estreita relação entre aroma característico, textura e qualidade torna-se necessário o conhecimento a respeito das alterações do perfil volátil e textura deste produto, que é intensamente comercializado nas redes de supermercados do Brasil. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o perfil volátil utilizando a técnica de microextração em fase sólida (SPME e as modificações relacionadas à textura de melancia minimamente processada armazenada a 5 °C, por dez dias. A cromatografia associada com análise sensorial ('sniffing' permitiu concluir que os

  7. Avaliação do número e posição de frutos de melancia produzidos em ambiente protegido Evaluation of the number and position of watermelon fruits cultivated in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santino Seabra Júnior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a produção de melancia, cultivar New Kodama, avaliando 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 8º e 11º nó e 1 ou 2 frutos por planta fixados nos ramos entre o 13º e 16º nó, no sistema tutorado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido na UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2000. Avaliou-se a produção total de frutos por planta, peso médio de frutos e teor em sólidos solúveis totais (ºbrix. A produção foi menor (2,04 kg/planta quando manteve-se apenas um fruto fixado do 8º ao 11º nó, do que quando manteve-se dois frutos (2,57 kg/planta, mas não houve diferença significativa quando manteve-se um ou dois frutos fixados do 13º ao 16º nó, produzindo cerca de 2 kg por planta. Observou-se também maior peso médio de frutos (2,05 kg/fruto e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,78ºbrix quando mantidos apenas um fruto por planta e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,21ºbrix nos frutos mantidos do 8º ao 11º nó.The fruit production of watermelon, cultivar New Kodama, grown in two positions along the stem (8th-11th node and 13th-16th node, with one or two fruits per position was evaluated, under protected cultivation. The experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, from October to December, 2000. The total fruit production (kg/plant, the average fruit weight (kg/fruit and the total soluble solids were evaluated. When only one fruit was allowed to grow between the 8th and 11th node, total fruit production was lower (2,04 kg/plant than keeping two fruits (2,57 kg/fruit. However, the fruit production was similar (2,0 kg/plant to one or two fruits when they were allowed to grow between the 13th and 16th node. The average fruit weight (2,05 kg/fruit and total soluble solids (8,78ºbrix were higher in fruits grown from plants with only one fruit, than two fruits per plant. Total soluble solids were also higher in fruits grown from 8th to 11th (8,21ºbrix

  8. Injúrias mecânicas e seus efeitos na qualidade de melancias armazenadas em condição ambiente Effect of mechanical injuries on the quality of watermelon stored at room temperature

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    Maria Fernanda Berlingieri Durigan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As injúrias mecânicas constituem uma das principais causas de perdas pós-colheita dos produtos hortícolas. Avaliou-se os efeitos de diferentes injúrias mecânicas sobre a qualidade de melancias 'TopGun®'. Foram testados três tipos de lesões: impacto (os frutos caíram de uma altura de 20 cm; compressão (os frutos ficaram sob a pressão de um peso de 294 N durante 10 horas; corte (feito com lâminas apropriadas. Após esses tratamentos, os frutos injuriados e os do controle (intactos foram armazenados em condições de ambiente (25±1°C, 65±5% UR. As avaliações foram feitas a cada 4 dias, determinando-se a aparência, a perda de massa fresca, os teores de sólidos solúveis, de acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, coloração interna e atividade respiratória. Durante o armazenamento de 15 dias, as lesões mostraram-se prejudiciais à qualidade e à aparência dos frutos, em especial naqueles submetidos ao corte e ao impacto. Notou-se também escurecimento na polpa destes frutos. Perda de massa fresca também foi observada durante este período e foi agravada quando os frutos foram submetidos ao impacto. O teor de sólidos solúveis e o ácido ascórbico diminuíram ao longo do período de armazenamento. A atividade respiratória aumentou logo nas primeiras horas em frutos submetidos às injúrias de corte e impacto.Mechanical injuries are the main cause of losses in the post harvest of horticultural products. The effect of different mechanical injuries was evaluated on the quality of watermelons 'TopGun®'. The impact was evaluated when the injury was made by allowing the product to fall from 20 cm height on a hard and plane surface, compression of fruits under a weight of 294N and cutting the fruits with an appropriate blade. After this, the injuried and intact fruits were stored at room temperature (25+1ºC, 65+5%RH. The evaluations were performed every 4 days, for appearance, loss of fresh mass, the content of soluble solids

  9. AHP 6: Story: A Bleeding Watermelon

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    Nor bzang ནོར་བཟང་།

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There were three dormitory rooms for me, an Art Department freshman, to choose from on 1 September 2003. I chose the one on the eighth floor. The four-boy room looked new and comfortable. Nobody had moved in yet. I was really pleased with the choice I had made. I went near the only window of this room, opened it, and looked out. I had a grand view of the university campus- green trees rustled in a gentle breeze, charming flowers beckoned with nodding heads, and students strolled energetically about in colorful clothing. Everything seemed peaceful. I stretched out my head and looked down from the window to concrete pavement. Acrophobia made me nervous and uncomfortable. I drew back, told myself to relax, and then set to work making up my bed, which I finished in a couple of minutes. I lay down, hoping I would have nice roommates. Somebody knocked on the door, opened it, and in came a tall, thin, long-haired young man wearing a black leather jacket. He put down an enormous backpack and asked, "Is this a dorm room for students in the Art Department?" Yes," I replied. It's a nice dormitory room, isn’t? What's your name?" he asked, offering a cigarette. Dorji," I answered, waving my left hand, signaling I did not smoke. "Yours?" Norbu," he replied. The door opened again as Norbu and I were introducing ourselves. Two boys came in and asked the same question that Norbu had asked and, once sure they were in the right room, quickly made up their beds... ...

  10. Effect of Chemical Refining on Citrullus Colocynthis and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... iodine value (25.59 and 27.37), saponification value (13.46 and 13.43), peroxide value (65.76 and 59.64) was observed in C. colocynthis and P. pinnata oil, which is helpful in increasing the oxidative stability and susceptibility towards trans-esterification. Unsaponifiable matter in C. colocynthis and P. pinnata was reduced ...

  11. effect of chemical refining on citrullus colocynthis and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... Bio-diesel production from conventional vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, safflower, palm and rapeseed) has progressively stressed food uses, price, production and availability of these oils. Consequently, this has ignited the search for additional/ non-conventional, regional oil yielding raw materials to ...

  12. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus) and gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus luteus) bacteria and various Candida spp. (Candida glabrata, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and ...

  13. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption isotherms had positive correlation with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and their r2 values ranged from 0.911 – 1.00. Experimental data were also evaluated to find out kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. Adsorption process for the heavy metal ion was found to follow pseudo-second ...

  14. Germination and In-Vitro Regeneration in 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1M NaOH and 3.5g Gelzan). The highest germination percentages after five days were observed for the accessions DD98/4 and A22. Regenerated cotyledon explants 14 days after plating in MS medium showed accession A22 producing the highest regeneration frequency. The study revealed that DD98/4 and A22 had the ...

  15. Pyrolysis kinetics of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) seed husk

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the thermochemical fuel characteristics and kinetic decomposition of melon seed husks (MSH) under inert (pyrolysis) conditions. The calorific value, elemental composition, proximate analyses and thermal kinetics of MSH was examined. The kinetic parameters; activation energy E and frequency factor A for MSH decomposition under pyrolysis conditions were determined using the Kissinger and isoconversional Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods. The values of E for MSH ranged from 146.81 to 296 kJ/mol at degrees of conversion {\\alpha} = 0.15 to 0.60 for FWO. The decomposition of MSH process was fastest at {\\alpha} = 0.15 and slowest at {\\alpha} = 0.60 with average E and A values of 192.96 kJ/mol and 2.86 x 1026 min-1, respectively at correlation values of 0.9847. The kinetic values of MSH using the Kissinger method are E = 161.26 kJ/mol and frequency factor, A = 2.08 x 1010 min-1 with the correlation value, R2 = 0.9958. The results indicate that MSH possesses important characteristics ...

  16. EXTRACTION OF OIL SEED PIN (Citrullus vulgaris BY LEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of seed oil initially consisted in physicochemical study of the seed, in order to meet their nutritional content by performing various analyzes as moisture, ash, fat, phosphorus, proteins and carbohydrates. Then we proceeded with oil extraction equipment using solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet using hexane as a solvent using the factorial design of the type 23. After, the crude oil was characterized and refined by the methodology of COVENIN norms, where the oil presented potential properties to elaborate soap in the cosmetic industry. Finally, a lipid profile was obtained by a gas chromatographic, the results showed highly unsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and oleic that gives it the potential to be applied as a capable oil with excellent properties and quality to human consume.

  17. The effect of Colocynthis citrullus (Cucurbitaceae) seeds on body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples of the animals were collected, from which red blood cell count and white blood cell/differential counts were carried out. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the faeces of rats fed with 75% formulated diets were loose and the animals showed weight decreases compared with those fed with ...

  18. Germination and In-Vitro Regeneration in 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in order to determine the germination and in-vitro regeneration of five accessions of “egusi' melon. Seeds from de-coated melon were used for germination and in-vitro regeneration was carried out on excised pregerminated cotyledons in MS medium (4.43g of MS, 30g of sucrose, water of pH 5.8, ...

  19. extraction and characterisation of citrullus colocynthis seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content, free fatty acid content, idodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter content were 0.13 + 0.04%, 0.65 + 0.10%, 109 + 1.50, 213.8 + 4.895, and 1.05+0.06% respectively. The fatty acid composition determined by Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) showed individual unsaturated fatty ...

  20. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and Watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    GC–MS). Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 95.8% of the samples. ... government in general should ensure strict applications of laws that regulate pesticides in the country and develop effective educational programmes for farmers to ...

  1. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GC–MS). ... and TBS) and the government in general should ensure strict applications of laws that regulate pesticides in the country and develop effective educational programmes for farmers to apply good agricultural practices such as reducing ...

  2. Antimutagenic effects of red apple and watermelon juices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced genotoxicity in mice. ... Three groups of five mice each were given 100, 50 or 25% concentration of fruit juice ad libitum for 7 days; intraperitoneally (ip) injected with 40 mg/kg CP and sacrificed 24 h later for preparation of bone marrow ...

  3. Antimutagenic effects of red apple and watermelon juices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 77 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbiome of watermelon fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and alteration of the plant microbiome can increase the quality of agricultural products. Little is known about the microbial population in fruit development of plants. In this study, we aimed to understand the function of m...

  5. Quantitative understanding of nanoparticle uptake in watermelon plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Raliya; Christina Franke; Sanmathi Chavalmane; Remya Nair; Nathan Reed; Pratim Biswas

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce en...

  6. A new glucoceramide from the watermelon Begonia, Pellionia repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinggang; Liu, Yan; Qi, Huayi; Zhang, Guolin

    2004-10-01

    A new glucoceramide named pellioniareside (1) was isolated from the aqueous ethanolic extract of whole plants of Pellionia repens, together with lupeol (2), uracil (3), (22E,20S,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol (4), and daucosterol (5). The structure and relative configurations of pellioniareside were identified as (2S,3S,4R,6E,8E)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-[(2 R)-2-hydroxytetracosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol-6,8-diene by analysis of spectral data and by chemical evidence.

  7. Identification des sources de tolérance au stress hydrique sur des espèces sauvages de la famille des Cucurbitacées en cutlture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudou A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tolerance sources to the water stress on wild species of the cucurbitaceous family in in vitro culture. The objective of this survey is to identify sources of tolerance to the water stress. This will permit to choose the adequate material allowing the transfer of genes governing the drought tolerance to the gene pool of the main cultivated species. Indeed, a method has been developed to evaluate the water stress tolerance in vitro. It is based on the capacity of the calus recuperation after dehydration under a laminar flux hot until a loss of 50% of their fresh weight as a basis. The study included nine accessions of wild species and three cultivated varieties of the cucurbitaceous family. It comes out that the three cultivated varieties (melon, cucumber and watermelon, as well as some wild species accessions are sensitive to the water stress. The wild accessions of Cucumis africanus (L4, Cucumis dipsaceus, Citrullus colocynthis (Saudi Arabia and Citrullus colocynthis (Niger are obviously tolerant.

  8. Thumba (Citrullus colocynthis L. seed oil: a potential bio-lubricant base-stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakar, K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thumba seed oil, a minor, renewable tree borne oil, was exploited for the preparation of biolubricant base-stocks. The different base-stocks prepared were epoxy thumba oil (ETO, branched, 2-ethylhexyl ester (T2-EtHE, and polyol esters, namely, neopentyl glycol (TNPGE, trimethylolpropane (TTMPE and pentaerythritol (TPEE esters of thumba fatty acids. All the base-stocks were thoroughly characterized using spectral techniques. When evaluated for lubricant properties, ETO showed much higher viscosity (216.9 cSt, good oxidative stability (RBOT Method, ASTM D 2272 (20 min and weld load (ASTM IP 239 (180 kg behavior when compared to the branched and polyol esters. Polyol esters, T2-EtHE, TNPGE and TTMPE (−9 to −18 °C showed low pour points compared to ETO and TPEE. The thermal stabilities (Thermo gravimetric analysis, TGA of ETO and TPEE (425 °C were higher compared to other base-stocks. The lubricant properties of ETO matched well with ISO VG 220 and Aviation Grade 100 lubricant specifications, while polyol esters can be well exploited for hydraulic and metal working fluid applications.Las semillas de thumba producen un aceite de escasa importancia que ha sido explotado como base para la preparación de biolubricantes. Los diferentes derivados de thumba preparados fueron: éteres epoxi (ETO, éteres ramificados, éster de 2-etilhexilo (T2-ETHE, y los ésteres de poliol:, neopentil glicol (TNPGE, trimetilolpropano (TTMPE y pentaeritritol (TPEE. Todas las bases se caracterizaron en su totalidad utilizando técnicas espectrales. Cuando se evaluaron las propiedades del lubricante, ETO mostró una viscosidad mucho más alta (216,9 cSt, buena estabilidad a la oxidación (RBOT Método, ASTM D 2272 (20 min y buena carga (239 ASTM IP (180 kg en comparación con el comportamiento de los ésteres de poliol y los ramificados. Los ésteres de poliol, T2-EEl, TNPGE y TTMPE (−9 a −18 °C mostraron bajos puntos de fluidez en comparación con ETO y TPE. Las estabilidades térmicas (análisis termogravimétrico, TGA de ETO y TPE (425 °C fueron más altos en comparación con las otras bases. Las propiedades lubricantes de ETO coinciden bien con las especificaciones de los lubricantes, ISO VG 220 y Grado Aeronautica 100, mientras que los ésteres de poliol pueden aprovecharse bien para aplicaciones en fluidos hidráulicos y trabajos de metal.

  9. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  10. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L., mango (Mangifera indica L., papaya (Carica papaya L., muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb. were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05 differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC, were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05 change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05 but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  11. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA DE ACESSOS DE MELANCIA COLETADOS EM TRÊS REGIÕES DO ESTADO DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luciene da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The germplasm bank of cucurbitaceae, sited at Semi-Arid Embrapa in Petrolina-PE comprises different species of cucurbitaceae family, out of which 600 accessions of Citrullus spp. Forty two accessions from the germplasm bank plus the Crimson Sweet cultivar were submitted to morphological evaluation in order to study the genetic variability of accessions collected in three different regions from the State of Bahia (Chapada Diamantina; Irecê e Vitória da Conquista. The field trial was set in a randomized block design with three replications. Thirteen phenotypic descriptors to evaluate plant and fruit characteristics were used. The data were submitted to a variance analysis and the means were compared using Scott-Knott at 5% probability. The analysis of variance among accessions from different regions showed significant differences for eleven characters except number of stems per plant and rind thickness in the peduncle region. The accessions formed two different groups for most of the descriptions, but, fruit mean weight and sugar content presented four and three groups, respectively showing higher genetic variability, the variation among accessions within each region was significant. Irecê and Vitória da Conquista presented the higher and the smaller variation among the accessions, respectively. Therefore, the genetic variability of watermelon accessions in the tree regions of the State of Bahia and some accessions presented useful characters to be incorporated in watermelon breeding programs.

  12. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  13. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R; Weston, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) and camel melon (Citrullus lanatus) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis, possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum, is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare, exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders possessing

  14. Estratégias ótimas de irrigação para a cultura da melancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Júnior Aderson Soares de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar estratégias ótimas de irrigação para a cultura da melancia (Citrullus lanatus Thumb. Mansf., considerando a água como fator limitante da produção e diferentes valores para o preço do produto e custos da energia elétrica. Utilizou-se uma função de produção quadrática e função de custo linear obtidas para as condições edafoclimáticas dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Piauí. A irrigação com déficit proporcionou as maiores rendas líquidas, com significativa economia de água, no intervalo de variação de preços do produto de US$ 0,05 kg-1 a US$ 0,35 kg-1, nas três formas de tarifação da energia elétrica. Acima desse intervalo, deve-se utilizar a lâmina que maximiza a produção de frutos.

  15. DETERMINAÇÃO DA EVAPOTRANSPIRAÇÃO MÁXIMA E REAL E DO FATOR DE SENSIBILIDADE AO DÉFICIT HÍDRICO DA MELANCIA EM CANINDÉ, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Aires de Freitas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho foi desenvolvido sob condições de campo e teve como objetivo determinar a evapotranspiração máxima (ETm e real (ETr e o fator de sensibilidade da cultura (ky da melancia ( Citrullus lanatus Thumb. Mansf. cultivar "Crimson Sweet"; para tal, foi conduzido um experimento no município de Canindé, CE. Utilizaram-se oito tratamentos com quatro repetições cada um, adotando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos foram definidos em função da época de aplicação do déficit hídrico e o ky foi obtido através da relação entre a queda de rendimento relativo (1 - yr / ym e o déficit de evapotranspiração relativa (1 - ETr / ETm. As evapotranspirações máxima e real da melancia foram calculadas pelo método do balanço hídrico em volume de solo controlado em campo, que se apresentou confiável na determinação do consumo de água pela cultura. A sensibilidade ao déficit hídrico (ky em cada estádio variou na seguinte ordem decrescente: floração, desenvolvimento dos frutos e vegetativo.

  16. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  17. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mailafia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya, orange (Citrus sinensis, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, pineapple (Ananas comosus, and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean and analysis of variance (p<0.05. Results: Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence in pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species (10%, Fusarium solani (8%, and Aspergillus flavus (5%. The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species, P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5% from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34. Conclusion: The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health

  18. 76 FR 25619 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Importer Representation AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... addition, a new CFR section is added to reflect the importer representation on the Board. DATES: Comments... district boundaries provide more equitable representation for the producers, handlers, and importers who...

  19. 76 FR 42009 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Importer Representation AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... Regulation section is added to reflect the importer representation on the Board. DATES: Effective July 19... district boundaries provide more equitable representation for the producers, handlers, and importers who...

  20. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  1. Effect of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus on the Life History and Feeding Preference of Thrips palmi

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Te Chen; Chien-Hao Tseng; Chi-Wei Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause numerous plant diseases that produce severe economic losses worldwide. In the disease system, thrips not only damage plants through feeding but also transmit causative agents of epidemics. In addition, thrips are infected with tospoviruses in the course of virus transmission. Most studies on the effect of tospoviruses on vector thrips have focused on the Tomato spotted wilt virus-Frankliniella occidentalis system. Thus, we focused on another thrips-borne tospov...

  2. Metal Removal and Antimicrobial Properties of Watermelon rind modified with clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid development of industrial activity indirectly discharged pollutant into the local water stream. One of the harmful industrial wastes that enter public drainage is heavy metal owing to its toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. Improper treatment of domestic waste also will discharged high amount of microbial. Various types of technology were developed for removing pollutant in wastewater, but most of the technology employed to address on removing organic content in wastewater. Other pollutant namely, heavy metals and microbial indirectly treated at low concentration of pollutant loading. Among various available technologies for water treatment adsorption process is considered a promising technology as compared to other methods because of convenience, easy operational and low cost of treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate potential used of local fruit rind modified with herb as adsorbent material. The rind present strong potential due to its high content of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as active binding sites for metal sorption. Modified rind improves absorption by having anti microbial properties to kill pathogenic organisms. The concentration of heavy metal ions was analysed using ICP-MS. E. coli and total colifrm were plated out using chromocult agar. The results showed significant reductions of heavy metals and microbial concentration after wastewater was treated with clove modified rind.

  3. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., the Board administers a nationally coordinated program of research, development, advertising, and... ``marketer'' and defining it within the regulation to avoid repeating the terms ``producer,'' ``handler,'' and ``importer.'' The commenter believes using the term marketer would be easier for the reader to...

  4. The effects of mulching, tillage, and herbicides on weed control and watermelon yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently few producers in the Southeast US have adopted conservation tillage practices in specialty crop production. The lack of conservation adoption is likely due to the added challenges in producing vegetables in cover crop residues, especially high biomass cover crop systems. The objective of t...

  5. Drying kinetics, moisture diffusivity and lycopene retention of watermelon pomace in different dryers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oberoi, Davinder Pal Singh; Sogi, Dalbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    ... m2/s for fluidized bed and 0.347 × 10−8 to 0.868 × 10−8 m2/s for cabinet dryers. Arrhenius’s equation adequately explained the relationship between the drying rate constant/effective moisture diffusivity and drying air temperature...

  6. [Microbiological quality of street sold fruits in San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Arias, M L; Antillón, F; Utzinger, D

    1995-06-01

    The sanitary quality of street sold fruits was analyzed during the period from march 1990 thru march 1993 in San Jose, Costa Rica. It looked for the presence of Salmonella spp. Shigella spp., Escherichia coli as well as fecal coliforms in natural refreshments, fruit salads and the fruits most frecuently expended on streets, either in slices as the pineapple (Ananas comosus), papaya (Carica papaya), non-ripe mangoe (Mangifera indica) and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) and those that can be eaten without peeling, like nances (Byrsonima crassifolia) and jocotes (Spondias purpurea). 25 samples of each fruit, 50 natural refreshments and 50 fruit salads were processed according to rinse solution method, and the bacteriological determination was based in the methodology described by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. In the same way, it was used the Most Probable Number for 5 tubes described in the Standar Methods of Water and Wastewater in orden to analyze 15 samples of ready to use water by the fruit hawker. The nutritional value was studied according to the food composition tables for Costa Rica, Latin America and USA. The results show that more than 30% of fruit samples, 70% of natural refreshments and 96% of fruit salad presented fecal coliforms. Same time, all of them present important contamination indexes with E. coli. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were not isolated. The water analysis revelead that 53% contained fecal coliforms, probably due to the lack of hygiene in the utensils used to collect water. The nutritional evaluation shows that fruit portions (except watermelon) satisfy more than 100% of the diary recommendation of vitamin C (60 mg) and 4-7% of the recommended ingestion of dietetic fiber (30g).

  7. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga-Santos, M.H.; de Koe, T.; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste

  8. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafia, Samuel; Okoh, God’spower Richard; Olabode, Hamza Olatunde K.; Osanupin, Ramatu

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean) and analysis of variance (ptomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species), P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5%) from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34). Conclusion: The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health significance. A. niger causes black mold in certain fruits and vegetables. Some strains of A. niger have been reported to

  9. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3592 Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Horácio Couto Bittencourt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can provoke development changes in other plants or even in other organisms. The objective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays seedlings. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at a 1g 10 mL-1 (p/v concentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations

  10. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  11. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and citrinin in "egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seeds consumed in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Yinka; Akinyemi, Adeyemi; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Pietri, Amedeo

    2016-09-01

    The natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in melon seed samples obtained from retailers and households in Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) was evaluated. AFs and OTA were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection while CIT was analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. AFB1 was detected in all (100%) samples (mean = 9.7 μg kg(-1); range = 0.2-66.5 μg kg(-1)). Mean total AFs was 12.0 μg kg(-1) (range = 0.3-82 μg kg(-1)). Commercially retailed samples showed a significantly higher AFB1 contamination (p < 0.05) than the household samples. OTA occurred in 3 (13.6%) samples, while 4 (18.2%) were contaminated with CIT at very low levels. In this study, 68% of the melon seed samples were contaminated above the 2 μg kg(-1) EU limit for AFB1 in oilseeds. These results highlight the need for the development of strategies to reduce AF contamination in "egusi" for human consumption.

  12. Effect of maturity at harvest on lycopene content and antioxidant activity in 'Vanessa' personal-sized watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stage of maturity at harvest of fresh fruit has a profound effect on marketing and storage of a number of small to medium sized horticultural commodities. In many instances there are established USDA grades and maturity indices to assist growers and the produce industry alike. However, in the ...

  13. Genome wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in watermelon genome and their application in comparative mapping and genetic diversity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellite markers are one of the most informative and versatile DNA-based markers. The use of next-generation sequencing technologies allow whole genome sequencing and make it possible to develop large numbers of SSRs through bioinformatic analysis of genome da...

  14. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb, which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC and large (LSC single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb. A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb, Cucurbita pepo (983 kb and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes

  15. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; González, Víctor M; Benjak, Andrej; Martí, M Carmen; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2011-08-20

    The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non-conserved structure both in gene number

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of some Brazilian marsupials (Didelphidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casartelli, C; Rogatto, S R; Ferrari, I

    1986-01-01

    Three species of marsupials from the Amazon region (Marmosa cinerea, Caluromys lanatus, and Didelphis marsupialis) and two from the region of São Paulo (Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris) were studied. The G-banding pattern of the species with 2n = 14 (M. cinerea and C. lanatus) was...

  17. Programmed Proteome Response for Drought Avoidance/Tolerance in the Root of a C[sub]3 Xerophyte (Wild Watermelon) Under Water Deficits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazuya Yoshimura; Akiko Masuda; Masayoshi Kuwano; Akiho Yokota; Kinya Akashi

    2008-01-01

    .... Although some xerophytes are unique regarding their highly developed root architecture and the successful adaptation to arid environments, virtually nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms...

  18. Progresso do crestamento gomoso e perdas na cultura da melancia Disease progress and crop losses due to watermelon gummy stem blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R. dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O progresso do crestamento gomoso e as perdas na cultura da melancia foram estudados em ensaios de campo com inoculação artificial de Didymella bryoniae. Para o estudo do progresso da doença foram utilizadas duas áreas indenes, cada uma com 24 x 32 m, e nenhuma medida de controle foi adotada. Para obtenção das curvas de progresso, quantificou-se a percentagem média de área foliar afetada em uma área de 768 m², aos 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 74, 80 e 87 dias após o plantio (DAP. Ficou demonstrado que a doença progride segundo o modelo exponencial, mesmo sob condições não muito favoráveis, na ausência de chuvas e com baixo nível de inóculo inicial. Os valores máximos de severidade foram observados aos 87 DAP (12,5-13,6% da área foliar doente. No ensaio de perdas, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cinco níveis de doença foram obtidos pela aplicação de doses decrescentes da mistura clorotalonil e tiofanato metílico (g/100 L de água: (a 0,0 g i.a. (testemunha; (b clorotalonil 25 g + tiofanato metílico 10 g; (c clorotalonil 75 g + tiofanato metílico; 30 g; (d clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g; (e clorotalonil 250 g + tiofanato metílico 100 g. A doença foi avaliada uma única vez, aos 78 DAP por meio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 9, baseada na porcentagem de área foliar doente. A severidade máxima foi observada aos 78 DAP na testemunha (26,5% de área foliar doente. Houve alta (r=-0,96 correlação negativa entre os níveis da doença nas folhas e a produção de frutos, com redução de até 19,2% na produtividade da melancia devido ao crestamento gomoso do caule. O controle químico foi eficiente a partir da dosagem de clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g.Progress and losses due to gummy stem blight were studied in field plots artificially inoculated with Didymella bryoniae. For the temporal disease progress study, two fields (24 x 32 m were established in areas free of the disease, without any history of cucurbit cultivation, and no control measures were applied. Data for the disease progress curves were obtained from the mean diseased leaf area in an area of 768 m², at 45; 50; 55; 60; 65; 74; 80 and 87 days after planting (DAP. Disease progressed according to the exponential model, even under marginally favorable environmental conditions. Maximum severity values were observed 87 DAP (12.5-13.6% diseased leaf area. The crop loss experiment was laid out in a randomized completed block design with five disease levels and four replicates. Disease levels were obtained with the application of five fungicide doses (per 100 L of water of a mixture of active ingredients chlorothalonil and methyl thiophanate, as follows: (a 0 g a.i. (control; (b chlorothalonil 25 g + methyl thiophanate 10 g; (c chlorothalonil 75 g + methyl thiophanate 30 g; (d chlorothalonil 125 g + methyl thiophanate 50 g; (e chlorothalonil 250 g + methyl thiophanate 100 g. Disease severity was evaluated once, 78 DAP, with a disease scale ranging from 0 to 9, based on the percentage of diseased leaf area. Maximum disease levels were observed 78 DAP in control plots (26.5% diseased leaf area. There was high negative correlation (r=-0.96 between disease levels and fruit yield. Yield losses due to gummy stem blight reached 19.2% and chemical control reduced disease levels significantly.

  19. Respiracion del suelo en una comunidad sucesional de pastizal del bosque altoandino en la cuenca del rio Pamplonita, Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murcia-Rodriguez, Miguel Antonio; Ochoa-Reyes, Martha Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Se determino la respiracion del suelo (RS) en una comunidad sucesional de pastizal de Holcus lanatus y Anthoxanthum odoratum en la franja altoandina de la cuenca del rio Pamplonita, Norte de Santander, Colombia...

  20. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of immature fruit and seed aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory evaluation of immature fruit and seed aqueous extracts from several populations of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. B Marzouk, Z Marzouk, E Haloui, M Turki, A Bouraoui, M Aouni, N Fenina ...

  1. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 21, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN CYANIDE FROM RIVER WATER · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... SEEDS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE SEED OILS FROM CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS, COCCINIA GRANDIS, CUCUMIS METULIFERUS AND ...

  2. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Salah Ali Idan, Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi, Imad Hadi Hameed ...

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-4 - Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cucurbit family, (Cucurbitaceae). Kinds of seed: Citron, cucumber, West India gherkin, melon, pumpkin, squash, and watermelon. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves...

  4. Chick lit as the new woman’s fiction: inscriptions in Marian Keyes’s novel Watermelon. Naujųjų moterų literatūra: atspindžiai Marian Keys romane Arbūzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ragaišienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Straipsnyje aptariama nauja tendencija moterų literatūroje. Ši tendencija apibūdinama kaip komerciniu požiūriu sėkmingų romanų protrūkis. Šiuo romanus vienijanti tema – jaunų moterų pastangos suderinti sėkmingą karjerą ir emancipuotos moters asmeninius poreikius. Kritinėje šios literatūros recepcijoje vyrauja dvi nuomonės. Vieni kritikai naująjį žanrą tapatina su meilės romanu, skirtu vartojiškumo dvasios apimtai skaitytojų auditorijai, kiti teigia, kad šis žanras įkūnija realistinio romano sugrįžimą ir nurodo akivaizdžias sąsajas su jo žanrinėmis variacijomis. Šiuo požiūriu ši literatūra atspindi svarbiausius laikmečio faktorius, lemiančius tapatybės raidą. Marian Keyes romane Arbūzas pastebimi charakteringiausi aptariamojo naujojo literatūros žanro bruožai, straipsnyje analizuojami pasitelkiant šio žanro tyrinėtojų vertinimus.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of season on yield, viscosity and colour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the effect of production season on pulp yield, apparent viscosity and colour of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma VF), watermelon (Vitrullus vulgaris var. Babyblack) and pineapple (Ananascomosus var. Smooth cayennes) pulps. Tomato, watermelon and pineapple pulps from two harvesting ...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.313 - Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1210.313 Section 1210.313 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.313 Research. Research means any type of...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.302 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1210.302 Section 1210.302 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.302 Act. Act means the Watermelon Research and Promotion Act of 1985 (Title XVI, Subtitle C of Pub. L. 99-198, 99th Congress, effective...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.350 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1210.350 Section 1210.350 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Reports, Books, and Records § 1210.350 Reports. (a) Each... watermelons produced and handled by the handler. Handlers shall report to the Board at such times and in such...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any...

  10. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon...

  11. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris.

  12. Foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera adansonii and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. m. adansonii primarily foraged for nectar on C. lanatus throughout the whole blooming period of each plant and pollen collection was low. The mean maximum number of workers foraging at the same time was 331 ± 173 (n= 41) per 1000 flowers. The mean foraging speed was 10.20 ± 2.75 (n = 154) flowers per minute.

  13. AGRICULTURE DE CONTRE SAISON SUR LES BERGES DE L'OTI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    pastèque (Citrillus lanatus), l'arachide (Arachis hypogea), la concombre, etc. et les cultures maraîchères (l'oignon, la ... taux de germination des semences, certains paysans arrosent les semences et les jeunes pousses afin de favoriser leur germination et amorcer leur croissance. Cela s'observe généralement sur des ...

  14. SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN LIVING AND DEAD PLANT-MATERIAL IN A GRAZED GRASSLAND AS RELATED TO PLANT-SPECIES DIVERSITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHEERDT, GNJ; BAKKER, JP; DELEEUW, J

    (1) Grazing by sheep in a mixed grassland, reclaimed from heathland by ploughing and reseeding in the 1950s, resulted in heavily grazed Leontodon autumnalis stands, intermediately grazed Holcus lanatus stands and lightly grazed Agrostis capillaris stands. This pattern was constant in time and

  15. Diet selection by Nguni goats in the Zululand Thornveld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aseel

    2. Diet selection and intake. Grass For. Sci. 34, 45-53. Montossi, F., Hodgson, J. & Morris, S.T., 1997. Herbage intake, ingestive behaviour and diet selection, and effects of condensed tannins upon body and wool growth in lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Holcus lanatus swards in summer. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 40, 449-461.

  16. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study. All the plants were biologically active and were used for different types of ailments. Keeping in view their importance, this work was carried out to investigate the quantitative ...

  17. Agronomic evaluation and quality characteristics of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to evaluate some agronomical, physical and nutritional characteristics of seeds of three species of Cucurbitaceous, namely Citrulus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumeropsis edulus. Agronomic experiments were investigated over a two-year period during which, some agronomic ...

  18. Effects of the numbers of foliar insecticide applications on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... define an economically beneficial foliar insecticide application frequency to manage insect pests on the oleaginous C. lanatus in a woodland savannah zone of Côte d'Ivoire. Zero (control) to four sprays of a foliar carbamate-based insecticide (Cypercal EC 50) were applied at four plant growth stages (seedling emergence ...

  19. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with walnuts Watermelon salad with balsamic vinegar Grilled pineapple, peaches, or nectarines Poached pears Spinach and pear ... Whole-grain barley and vegetable soup Whole-wheat pizza with grilled vegetables and marinara sauce Popcorn with ...

  20. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella in melons)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    to indicate the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) programmes have been implemented. There are Food Safety Criteria for the absence of Salmonella in 25g samples placed on the market during their shelf life of ready-to-eat pre-cut melon and watermelon...... of whole melons or watermelons for this bacteriumcould be limited to instances where other factors indicate breaches in GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programmes....

  1. Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi dan Konsentrasi Gula Terhadap Mutu Manisan Kulit Semangka

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Gokma A. T.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of fermentation time and the concentration of sugar on quality of watermelon peel candy, supervised by Setyohadi and Ridwansyah. This research was conducted to determine the process of making watermelon peel candy with fermentation time and sugar concentration. This research was performed in April-juni 2012 at the laboratory of Food Technology, Agricultural Faculty.This research was using a factorial completely randomized design with two factors: the concentration of sugar (G...

  2. Changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory rotting of Egusi Fruits was completed in 120 hours. At this stage pulp became soft and the seeds were extracted easily with the fingers. The changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and titratable acidity during the controlled rotting of egusi fruit (Colocynthis citrullus L.) for the harvesting of ...

  3. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency and rapid regeneration protocol was developed from shoot tip explants of Citrullus colocynthis on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with N6-benzylamino-purine (BAP, 0.5 mg/l) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg/l). Highest number of shoots (23.0 ± 0.567) was obtained on MS ...

  4. Chemical and organoleptic evaluation of fermented maize (Zea mays)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    staples

    seed (Citrullus vulgaris) paste. Madukwe Edith U., Okoye V., Ayogu Rufina N. B. and Okechukwu Franca. Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Accepted 21 August, 2013. This work examined the chemical and organoleptic profile of fermented maize gruel enriched with.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 1255 ... Vol 10, No 4 (2004), Intraspecific hybridization in “Egusi” melon, Colocynthis citrullus L. Abstract. VO Ntui, EA Uyoh. Vol 8, No 2 (2002), Introduction Of Anthephora Species To The Tropical Rain Forest: Implications For Grazing Propagation And Breeding Of The Species, Abstract. A.N. Osuagwu, E.E. ...

  6. The influence of poultry manure application and plant density on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of poultry manure application and plant density on the growth and yield of egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus) on the Nsukka plains of south ... average fruit weight, 1000 - seed weight and seed yield ha-1 increased with increase poultry manure application giving seed yield increase of 51% and 41% for 5 and ...

  7. Effects of temperature on the germination, sporulation, and in - vivo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of temperature on the germination, sporulation, and in - vivo infection of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (powdery mildew) on water melon ( Citrullus lanathus . L) ... Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed among the temperature levels on mycelium length with highest length observed at 20°C, but least was at 40°C.

  8. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis. The identification of phytochemical compounds is ... of new compounds in pharmaceutical industry and need special consideration. ... The GC-MS analysis of the plant extract was made in a 7890. Agilent A instrument under ...

  9. Vegetation zonation along the geological and geo- morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... and Sinapsis arvensis and a lower most stratum of various plants: Citrullus colocynthis, Convolvulus prostratus,. C. dactylon, Euphorbia granulata, Heliotropium strigo- sum, Lactuca serriola, Launaea procumbens, Medicago polymorpha and Tribulus terrestris. In the dry season the annuals disappear ...

  10. Page 1 AJ Vav V V vuvu . . volume 1. Number l, january 200 rp. 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in fruit (inct sect production and this shots'c'd at trend of incr'ascadfruit canal seed it'll as foultry manure use is as increased 'ith increased plant (tensity rates. Key words. "Egusi' melon, poultry manure, plant density. INTRODUCTION. The 'egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus) is a member of the cucurbitaceae family.

  11. Soluble Nutrient Production During Fermentation of Three Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of soluble nutrient production (soluble sugars and free amino acids) in three varieties of melon seeds, Citrullus colocynthis (A), Cucumis melo (B) and Cucumeropsis mannii (C) during fermentation in Musa spp (M), Thaumatococcus danielli (D) and Carica papaya (P) leaves were investigated. Proximate ...

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... The crude methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit and Emex spinosa leaves were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant potentialities. The phytochemical analysis revealed presence of some bioactive principles, such as alkaloids, flavonoids and anthraquinones for E. spinosa and saponin,.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ortserga, DD. Vol 38, No 2 (2011) - Articles Effect of replacement of rice offal with graded levels of melon (Citrullus Vulgaris) seed offal on performance of growing rabbits. Abstract. ISSN: 0331-2062. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  14. CHEMICAL CONTENT OF THE SEEDS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis,Coccinia grandis, Cucumis metuliferus and Cucumis prophetarum belonging to the family of Cucurbitaceae. For each variety, the ash, protein, fat, calcium, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc ...

  15. Effect of drying method on the quality and storability of 'egusi\\' melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sun-, oven-, smoke- and solar drying on the physicochemical properties and storability of melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus L.) was investigated. Oven drying most significantly reduced the moisture content, followed by smoke drying and solar drying in decreasing order. The proximate composition of seeds was ...

  16. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... Celastraceae. 57. Maytenus undata L. Np. Mi. --. +. 20. Commelinaceae. 58. Commeina benghalensis L. Th. Na. –. +. 21. Convolvulaceae. 59. Convolvulus arvensis L. Th. Mi. –. +. 60. Ipomea eriocarpa R.Br. Th. Mi. –. +. 61. I. triflroa Forssk. Th. Mi. –. +. 22. Cucurbitaceae. 62. Citrullus colocynthis (L) Schard.

  17. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    inorganic fertilizer by crops will be of advantage and profit to farmers. Maize (Zea mays) and egusi-melon (Colocynthis citrullus) are important crops in Nigeria owing to their food values .... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution · License 4.0 ...

  18. chemical content of the seeds and physico-chemical characteristic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-30

    Niamey, Niger; 3Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie des Lipides, Institut de Biologie, Bd. Henri IV, Montpellier, France. (Received September 30, 2006; revised January 13, 2007). ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis,Coccinia grandis, Cucumis ...

  19. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Salah Ali Idan, Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi and Imad Hadi Hameed*. Department of Biology, Babylon University, Hilla City, Iraq. Received 1 September, 2015; Accepted 5 November, 2015.

  20. Feedstuffs potential of harvest by-products from two oleaginous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisateur de Microsoft Office

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... cucurbits of Côte d'Ivoire: a review of their genetic resources. Sci. Nat. 3:1-9. Zoro Bi IA, Koffi KK, Djč Y (2003). Botanical and agronomic characterization of three cucurbits species used in diet in Western. Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Biotechnol.

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In the present study we evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial and the antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from C. colocynthis roots as well as the latter phytochemical characterisation. Total phenolic and ...

  2. Nutritional, physico-chemical and sensory properties of Robo (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties of traditional snack prepared from melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) and sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) respectively were investigated. The colour of the snacks, peroxide and iodine values of extracted oil were also determined using standard analytical methods. On the average, the samples contained ...

  3. RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS DE MELANCIA EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM BRANCO DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a cucurbit, grown in almost all regions of the world, and it is enjoyed by most of the population. In Rio Grande do Norte the cultivation of watermelon has been increasing, because of the good climatic conditions in the region that provides adequate light and temperature throughout the year. In this con-text, the present study aimed at evaluating the yield and quality of watermelon cultivars in different planting dates in Mossoró-RN. The experiment was conducted in the garden didactic Department of Plant Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid in the period between June and December 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split plot design with four 3 x 3 repetitions. The plots consisted of three cultivars of watermelon (Crimson Sweet, Olympia and Denver and subplots were planting (June, Au-gust and October. It is concluded that the yield and fruit quality were influenced by planting dates. The water-melon sowing in August resulted in higher average fruit weight and commercial productivity, and the fruits of lower acidity and better palatability were collected in the June planting.

  4. 1217-IJBCS-Article-Nicaise Lepengue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    sur la germination des graines de trois variétés de pastèque (Citrus lanatus L.). Science et Changements Planétaires/. Sécheresse, 18(1): 51-55. Baeza MJ, Vallejo VR. 2006. Ecological mechanisms involved in dormancy breakage in ulex parviflorus seeds. Plant. Ecology, 183: 191-205. Heller R, Esnault R, Lance C. 2006.

  5. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  6. Identification, distribution and incidence of viruses in field-grown cucurbit crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bananej

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of viruses in the major cucurbit-growing areas of 17 provinces in Iran was conducted in 2005 and 2006. A total of 1699 leaf samples were collected from melon, squash, cucumber and watermelon plants showing various virus-like symptoms. Screening for 11 cucurbit viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR, found that 71% of the samples were infected by at least one virus, of which Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV was the most common overall, occurring in 49, 47, 40, and 33% of cucumber, squash, melon, and watermelon samples respectively. The second most common virus on melon and watermelon was Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (incidence 30–33%; on cucumber, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV(33%; and on squash, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV(38%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and Zucchini yellow fl eck virus (ZYFV in Iran. Mixed infections occurred in 49% of symptomatic samples. Mixed infections were relatively frequent in squash (58% and melon (55%. The most frequent double infections were WMV+CABYV and ZYMV+CABYV in melon, squash and cucumber, followed by WMV+ZYMV. In watermelon, the most frequent double infection was WMV+ZYMV, followed by WMV+CABYV. The high frequency of CABYV, WMV and ZYMV in the samples assayed on all four cucurbit crops and in all areas surveyed, as well as the detection of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV in northern and southern Iran, suggest that these viruses represent a potential threat to cucurbit crops in Iran.

  7. On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

  8. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    inoculum and a good control crop in nematode infested soils while the other four test crops (water-melon, green beans, tomato and green amaranthus) showed varying degrees of susceptibilities from the effect of the inoculum on all the parameters measured. ..... from investing in agriculture. Apart from root galling, reduced ...

  9. 77 FR 20334 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... metabolites in crops, including watermelon. EPTC is analyzed by extraction of the macerated samples with... the extract is purified through a solid phase extraction cartridge. The residues are then derivatized... 11 at 0.70 ppm; okra at 2.5 ppm; and vegetable, fruiting, group 8 at 2.5 ppm, as they will be...

  10. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    23] who reported maximum fruit yield in watermelon with an application of maleic hydrazide at 100 ppm. The yield increased from 7.22 tons/ha in the control to 13.1 tons/ha in the treatment with 100 ppm maleic hydrazide and ...

  11. An indigenous soil classification system for Bellona Island - a raised atoll in the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2010-01-01

    perceive the same four out of seven soil types as highly useful for cultivation and rank these soil types similarly according to their suitability for different crops such as yam, watermelon, cassava and sweet potato. It is concluded that the indigenous soil classification is in line with the soil...

  12. 76 FR 51027 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    .... Proposed Use(s): Brassica leafy greens, edamame, leaf lettuce, melons, turnip greens, and vine climbing... kiwifruit, gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, kale, leaf lettuce, maypop, mizuna, muskmelon, mustard greens, mustard spinach, rape greens, schisandra berry, turnip greens, vegetable soybean (edamame) and watermelon...

  13. Host-mediated effects of semipersistently transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) behavior and fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighting, settling and oviposition behavioral assays were conducted on Squash vein yellowing virus- (SqVYV-) infected and mock-inoculated squash and watermelon plants. Developmental time of immature stages, adult longevity, and fecundity were measured on SqVYV-infected and mock-inoculated squash p...

  14. Modelling the effect of temperature on seed germination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of germination percentage (GP) and germination speed (GS) of the seeds for some cucurbits (watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer squash, pumpkin and winter squash) was investigated by mathematical model based on temperature. The model, D = [a - (b x T) + (c x T2)] of Uzun et al. (2001), was adapted ...

  15. The ECP/GR Cucurbitaceae Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díez, M.J.; Maggioni, L.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Nuez, F.

    2007-01-01

    Cucurbits include various crops used as food all over the world, the most economically important being melons, cucumbers, watermelons and pumpkins. Cucurbit genetic resources are necessary for breeders, given the high susceptibility shown by these crops to many pathogens. The European Cooperative

  16. 76 FR 38037 - Mevinphos; Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... support the continuation of the tolerances for the pesticide mevinphos. Pesticide tolerances are... issues an order requiring the submission of various data to support the continuation of the mevinphos..., strawberries, grapes, lettuce, melons, watermelon, peas, peppers, summer squash, cucumbers, and tomatoes (40...

  17. First Report of Southern Blight on Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) caused by Sclerotium Rolfsii in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria [Mol.] Standl.) is an important rootstock in watermelon grafting in Asia and Middle East and is gaining momentum in the United States. We are currently testing bottle gourds for disease resistance. In the summer of 2007, symptoms of wilting and crown necrosis were...

  18. Study of Fruit Permittivity Measurement for Quality Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    — Permittivities of honeydew melons and watermelons, grown to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Measurements on fresh apples were also made over a ten-week storage period. Data were taken o...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.307 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 1210.307 Section 1210.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... transportation or delivery of field run watermelons by the producer thereof to a handler for grading, sizing or...

  20. calcium and iron levels in some fruits and vegetables commonly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usern

    ABSTRACT. Four different fruits and vegetables (i.e. Apple, Egg Plant, Pineapple, Watermelon, Cabbage,. Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of. Calcium was highest in ...

  1. Grafting as a tool to improve tolerance of vegetables to abiotic stresses : Thermal stress, water stress and organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Rouphael, Youssef; Colla, Giuseppe; Venema, Jan Henk

    2010-01-01

    Due to limited availability of arable land and the high market demand for vegetables around the world, cucurbit (cucumber, melon, and watermelon) and solanaceous (eggplant, pepper and tomato) crops are frequently cultivated under unfavourable soil and environmental conditions. These include thermal

  2. 7 CFR 1210.532 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1210.532... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Records § 1210.532 Confidential books, records, and reports. All information obtained from the books, records, and reports of handlers and importers...

  3. A Case of Mangoes and Oranges... Consider a basket containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using very simple examples, and this concept has been further extended to describe the molecular weights of high polymers. A Case of Mangoes and Oranges ... Consider a basket containing four difIe~ent types of fruits: plums, oranges, mangoes and watermelon. Just for ease of. Zahoor Ahmad. Department of Chemistry,.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makanju, TS. Vol 4, No 2 (2015) - Articles Analysis of Factors Affecting Watermelon Production in Ekiti State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2305-3372. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  5. Botany and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  6. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... irritation and moderate skin irritation. It is not a dermal sensitizer. The subchronic and chronic toxicity... consistent finding. Treatment related increase in tumor incidence is not observed in rat and mouse...%, Tomatoes 1%, Watermelons 5%. In most cases, EPA uses available data from United States Department of...

  7. At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugar…

  8. Identification et distribution géographique des virus responsables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMV), Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV), Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) et Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV)) a été menée dans 18 parcelles de Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima et Cucurbita pepo localisées à Abidjan, Bouaké, Daloa, ...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.351 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records. 1210.351 Section 1210.351... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Reports, Books, and Records § 1210.351 Books and... make available for inspection by employees of the Board or Secretary, such books and records as are...

  10. 961-IJBCS-Article- Dr Emuh Fidelis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    preponderant due to lack of synchronization of pollinators, at the peak of pollen integrity. Thus, the study therefore was designed to provide information on the floral behavior and to determine when intervention can be made using pollinators like bees for optimal fruit set in water-melon crop. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  11. Effects of the numbers of foliar insecticide applications on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, its impact on plant yield and some aspects of the biology of. Dacus bivitattus (Diptera: Tephritidae). Afr J. Agric Res 3 (5): 363-370. Foster R.E., & Brust G.E., 1995. Effects of insecticides applied to control cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on watermelon yields Crop Prot 14: ...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.343 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1210.343 Section 1210.343 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.303 - Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan. 1210.303 Section 1210.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Cucurbitaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome size for watermelon, melon, cucumber, and pumpkin is 425, 454, 367, and 502 Mbp, respectively, and considered medium size as compared with most other crops. Whole-genome duplication is common in angiosperm plants. Research has revealed a paleohexaploidy (') event in the common ancestor of...

  15. 75 FR 20841 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...; okra; pea eggplant; pepino; roselle; scarlet eggplant, including cultivars, varieties and/or hybrids of... ingredient: Spinosad. Proposed Use(s): Seed treatments on: bulb vegetables (crop group 3); dried shelled pea...); cantaloupe; pumpkin; watermelon; winter squash; edible-podded legume vegetables (subgroup 6A); field corn...

  16. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON...

  17. 7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cowpea 75 Cress, garden 75 Cress, upland 60 Cress, water 40 Cucumber 80 Dandelion 60 Dill 60 Eggplant 60..., India 75 Mustard, spinach 75 Okra 50 Onion 70 Onion, Welsh 70 Pak-choi 75 Parsley 60 Parsnip 60 Pea 80... Soybean 75 Spinach 60 Spinach, New Zealand 40 Squash 75 Tomato 75 Tomato, husk 50 Turnip 80 Watermelon 70...

  18. Valoración nutricional y emisión de gases de algunos recursos forrajeros del trópico de altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Apráez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la producción de gases (metano, AGVs en algunos forrajes herbáceos, arbóreos y arbustivos de la región lechera del municipio de Pasto, en altitudes comprendidas entre 2600 a 3200 m.s.n.m. Para ello, se tomaron veinte muestras de praderas, entre monocultivo y mezcla, y de otras plantas que utilizan como alimento del ganado, entre los que se destacan: Holcus lanatus L., Dactylis glomerata L., Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Pennisetum clandestinum, Lolium sp, Taraxacum officinale, Rumex crispus L., Phalaris sp, Plantago major L., Avena sativa L. y Smallanthus pyramidalis. Estas plantas fueron incubadas con heces bovinas frescas, los gases generados por esta fermentación se cuantificó utilizando un transductor de presión conectado a un lector digital. Las mediciones se realizaron a las 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 horas del proceso. La validación estadística se realizó mediante un modelo de medidas repetidas las medias fueron ajustadas y comparadas según la prueba de Tukey - Kramer. La pradera en mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens presentó la mayor producción de gas metano con 560 ml/ Kg MS, y el ensilaje de A. sativa, la menor con 30 ml/Kg MS. La mayor degradabilidad de materia seca (DMO se observó en A. sativa con 62,84%, y la menor en la mezcla de Lolium sp., T. repens con 29,79%. La mayor DMO se dio en la mezcla de P. clandestinum, H. lanatus y T. repens, con 91,34%, y en P. major con 82,50%. Los valores más altos de ácido propiónico se observaron en P. major, en Lolium sp., y en la mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens con 920, 860, 860 ml/L respectivamente.

  19. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bakhsh Tareen, Rsool; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on medicinal plants diversity documented for the first time in the area. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach, open ended questionnaire and personal observations. Results were analyzed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). In total of 102 plant species belonging to 47 families were reported for the medicinal purposes. Asteraceae was found to be dominant family in terms of species in the area with 11 species. The whole plant and leaves were noted as most frequently used parts (24%). Decoction (31% with 40 species) was the most commonly used preparation method. Highest ICF value (1) was recorded for antidote category. 100% fidelity level was found for four plant species i.e. Achillea welhemsii, Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, and Seripidium quettense. The highest use value was reported for the Acroptilon repens (0.5) while highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis (0.18). Highest use report was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta and Mentha longifolia with five use reports for each. The area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. However, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. This study provides basis for the conservation of the local flora, its use as food and medicine. It also provides various socio-economic dimensions associated with the common people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Omani Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Busafi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available n-Butanol extracts of nine medicinal plants, Cressa cretica, Ziziphus spina-christ, Acacia tortilis, Tephrosia haussknechti, Aristolochiae bracteolata, Citrullus colocynthis, Teucrium mascatense, Rhazya stricta and Nerium oleander, found in Oman were screened for their antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdenum complex assays and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays. Ocimumi basilicum, a plant with well documented antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. A. tortilis, and T. haussknechti extracts possessed very high antioxidant activity (AOA and high radical scavenging activity (RSA.

  1. Evaluation of resistance to Al toxicity in wild graminae of acid meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Poozesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, aluminium toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop and forage production. At soil pH < 5.0, Al solubility increases and Al appears to be rhizotoxic. The objectives of the present study were to compare Al tolerance among wild graminae of acid meadows and to evaluate the relation between a plant functional trait and the Al resistance, in nutrient solution. In addition, a sensitive Lolium perenne variety was included as a control. There was a great difference among the graminaceous species tested, when compared by relative root elongation and critical Al activity corresponding to 50% root elongation reduction. The {Al 3+}50 activities were 3, 13 , 14 et 26 µM for Lolium perenne, Molinia coerulea, Holcus lanatus and Danthonia decumbens, respectively. No relation was found between the functional trait leaf dry matter content (LDMC and Al resistance. Holcus lanatus, tolerant to Al toxicity, with a low LDMC, would deserve a further study of its nutritional qualities for cattle. The very tolerant D. decumbens, with a high LDMC, would present an interest for a later study of the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and possibly, for other applications like the protection of the very acid soils against erosion.

  2. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  3. Revegetation of the acidic, As contaminated Jales mine spoil tips using a combination of spoil amendments and tolerant grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Assunção, Ana G L; Teiga, Pedro M; de Koe, Tjarda; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2002-12-02

    A combination of metal immobilising agents and metal tolerant plants has been utilised in order to reduce the environmental impact of the acidic metal contaminated Jales mine spoil tips. The addition of Beringite (a modified aluminosilicate), steel shots (iron bearing material) and organic matter as spoil amendments resulted in changes in arsenate (As) concentrations and pH of spoil material and improved plant growth. The application of Beringite increased both pH and plant available As concentrations. A 4-year follow up of the spoil analysis demonstrated that the effect of the spoil treatments was stable following treatments, however, the effectiveness did not increase any more after 2 years. The use of metal tolerant grasses in combination with spoil treatments resulted in a rapid and effective revegetation of the As contaminated Jales mine spoils. Colonisation and reproduction of Agrostis castellana and Holcus lanatus was most successful when the substrate contained a combination of all three additives. Plant performances could be enhanced by supplementation of a phosphate fertiliser. The rapid reproduction of the two grass species makes them very suitable for revegetation purposes. Agrostis castellana and Holcus lanatus apparently exhibited a level of metal- and As-tolerance sufficient for survival on untreated spoil, but in the first stages of revegetation the use of spoil amendments was found to be essential. Organic matter in combination with Beringite and/or steel shots resulted in decreased As in the aboveground biomass, protecting possible grazers and predators from undesirable levels of As.

  4. Making Health Easier: Healthy Schools in Minnesota PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-05

    To bring healthier meals to students at the Dover-Eyota elementary school in Minnesota, school officials and parents started a partnership with local farmers. The farm-to-school program has brought better food, like watermelon and corn on the cob, to the children while building ties within the community.  Created: 6/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/5/2013.

  5. The Therapeutic Effects of a Medicinal Plant Mixture in Capsule Form on Catalase Levels in the Semen of Men with Oligospermia

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Hasti; Khaki Arash; Farzadi Laya; Nouri Mohammad; Ahmadi-Asrbadr Yadoulah; Seyed-Ghiasi Giti; Shahnazi Vahideh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, the therapeutic effects of mixed herbs (onion, ginger, basil, cinnamon, orange peel, yellow and red watermelon seeds, and carrot seed) on catalase levels in the semen of men with oligospermia were evaluated. About 50% of recognized infertility factors are male-related factors, and are mainly the result of oligospermia, astenospermia, and teratozoospermia. Materials and Methods: The study participants included 40 males with o...

  6. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunmei; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Changbao; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Shuhua

    2014-02-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was optimised for simultaneous determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Luna 5u NH₂ 100A column (250 mm × 4.60mm, 5 micron) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (82.5:17.5, v/v). Drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 82 °C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 L min⁻¹. The regression equation revealed good linear relationship (R = 0.9967-0.9989) within test ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for four analytes (peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits) were in the range of 0.07-0.27 and 0.22-0.91 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed HPLC-ELSD method was validated for quantification of sugars in peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits, and the results were satisfactory. The results showed that the contents of the four sugars varied among fruits. While fructose (5.79-104.01 mg g⁻¹) and glucose (9.25-99.62 mg g⁻¹) emerged as common sugars in the four fruits, sorbitol (8.70-19.13 mg g⁻¹) were only found in peach, apple and cherry fruits, and sucrose (15.82-106.39 mg g⁻¹) were in peach, apple and watermelon. There was not detectable sorbitol in watermelon and sucrose in cherry fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-04

    industrial construction of greenhouses and work on the technology and equipment for their installation and technical servicing; —working out the...television or driving cars. We would not be traveling by plane and using video equipment. Along with the watermelon and the tomato , the cucumber and the...the electromachinery industry continued their downward trend. There was also a strong regression in such areas of export as roller bearings, tools

  8. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  9. Penyisihan Zat Organik dan Warna pada Air Gambut dengan Koagulan Alami Campuran (Biji Jagung, Biji Kelor dan Biji Semangka)

    OpenAIRE

    Rehansyah, M Akhbar; HS, Edward; Elystia, Shinta

    2017-01-01

    Impurities in peat water in the form of high organic concentrations and dark brown to blackish color that cause negative impact on health if consumed in the long term. This condition encourages the emergence of new studies in peat water treatment. One of them by using natural coagulant with coagulation and flocculation process. In this study will utilize moringa seeds, corn kernels and watermelon seeds in comparing the effectiveness of single natural coagulant and natural coagulant mixture by...

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals from Drinking Water by Magnetic Carbon Nanostructures Prepared from Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Muneeb Ur Rahman Khattak; Muhammad Zahoor; Bakhtiar Muhammad; Farhat Ali Khan; Riaz Ullah; AbdEI-Salam, Naser M.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals contamination of drinking water has significant adverse effects on human health due to their toxic nature. In this study a new adsorbent, magnetic graphitic nanostructures were prepared from watermelon waste. The adsorbent was characterized by different instrumental techniques (surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TG/DTA) and was used for the removal of heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) from water. The adsorption parameters were determined for heavy metals adsorpti...

  11. Meloidogyne species in cucurbit crops : characterization and quantification of the host-parasite relationship

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Manuel Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The infection process of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica was compared on zucchini squash, cucumber, melon, pumpkin and watermelon in a growth chamber. All cucurbits were susceptible to the three isolates although M. javanica showed higher invasion rates, faster development and egg production than M. arenaria. Differences among cucurbits were primarily due to root invasion rates and formation of egg masses. Cucumber and melon were better hosts for nematode invasion and repro...

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  13. INCORPORACIÓN DE EDULCORANTES NO CARIOGÉNICOS Y CON BAJO ÍNDICE GLICÉMICO EN EL PROCESADO DE FRUTA (CÍTRICOS Y SANDÍA) Y MONITORIZACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS A LO LARGO DEL ALMACENAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO ARRAEZ, SUSANA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] As Hippocrates said in ancient Greece: "Let your food be your medicine". According to this thought, today's society shows a growing interest in healthy, safe and high quality nutritional and functional foods, such as fruits like watermelons and citrus. However, their fresh consumption carries the disadvantage of being perishable. Alternatively, their processing makes it possible to extend their marketability, maintaining certain characteristics of fresh products, using processes such as ...

  14. Combating Biological Terrorism from Imported Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    watermelons, and papayas at temperatures as low as 10°C (Golden, et al., 1993; Escartin, et al., 1989). E. coli. E. coli has been shown to be able to...be detected. The detection system must be rapid and sensitive enough to identify small clusters of illnesses. WHO recommends that existing...www.promedmail.org/pls/apex/f?p=2400:1950:399237180817968::NO:::> . ---. “Listeriosis, Cluster – USA (Virginia).” 22 July 2004. Retrieved 27 December

  15. Biomass, virus concentration, and symptomatology of cucurbits infected by mild and severe strains of Papaya ringspot virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco Davi Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-immunization with mild strains of Papaya ringspot virus - type W (PRWV-W has allowed the mosaic disease to be controlled in different cucurbit species, with increases in marketable fruit yield. The objective of this study was to compare virus concentration, biomass and symptomatology of 'Caserta' zucchini squash, 'Menina Brasileira' long-neck squash and 'Crimson Sweet' watermelon plants infected by three mild strains and one severe strain of PRSV-W. Plants were inoculated at the cotyledonary stage, under greenhouse conditions, sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI, and analyzed by PTA-ELISA. The severity of the symptoms was scored according to a scale from 1 to 5, and the fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part of the plants were evaluated at 40 DAI. Concentrations of the mild strains, based on absorbance values of the PTA-ELISA, were lower than the concentration of the severe strain for all species. The mild strains did not cause mosaic in infected plants of all species. Plants of zucchini squash and watermelon infected by the severe strain exhibited severe mosaic symptoms, but the same was not noticed for infected long-neck squash plants. Biomass values from zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the mild strains were 1.7 % to 12.4 % lower as compared to healthy plants. Biomass values of zucchini squash and watermelon plants infected by the severe strain presented greater reduction, varying from 29 % to 74 %. However, biomass values of long-neck squash plants infected by the mild and severe strains were similar for all treatments.

  16. Pathogenie Comparee De Quelques Souches De Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 souches de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F. o.vasinfectum) isolées du gombo et du cotonnier a été étudiée. L'agressivité des ... It was also revealed that this pathogen agent did not attack tomato, watermelon and common bean, but cause differential infections between okra cultivars. The pathogenicity of five ...

  17. DNA Methylation in Genomes of Several Annual Herbaceous and Woody Perennial Plants of Varying Ploidy as Detected by MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai; Hu, Bao-Quan; Xue, Zhen-Yi; Chen, Li; Wang, Wei-Xing; Song, Wen-Qin; Chen, Cheng-Bin; Wang, Chun-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidization is known to accompany altered DNA methylation in higher plants, which plays an important role in gene expression regulation and maintaining genome stability. While the characteristics of DNA methylation in different polyploid plants are still to be elucidated; here, status of genomic DNA methylation in a series of diploid, triploid, and tetraploid annual herbaceous plants (watermelon and Salvia ) and woody perennials (pear, Poplar , and loquat) were explored by methylation-specific amplified polymorphism analysis. The results indicated that levels of DNA methylation in triploid watermelon and Salvia were lower than their diploid parents. In triploid Poplar and pear, higher levels of DNA methylation were detected, and no significant difference was observed between triploid and tetraploid in all tested materials. Further data analysis suggested that about half of the total detected sites underwent changes of DNA methylation patterns in triploid watermelons and Salvia , as well as an obvious trend towards demethylation. However, the changes of DNA methylation patterns in three triploid woody perennials were only 17.54-33.40%. This implied that the characteristics of DNA methylation are significantly different during the polyploidization of different plant species. Furthermore, the results suggested that the level of DNA methylation was nonlinearly related to the ploidy level, and triploid plants displayed more interesting DNA methylation status. The characteristics and possible functions of DNA methylation in different ploidy series are further discussed.

  18. Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Souza Galatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Coroa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF, according to Oostenbrink (1966. To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2. The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

  19. Screening and evaluation of fruit samples for four pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Cristina; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of 4 pesticide residues, imidacloprid, carbendazim, methiocarb, and hexythiazox, was assessed in several fruits (oranges, tangerines, watermelons, and date plums) from the Valencian Community (Spain). A total of 227 samples--56 oranges, 134 tangerines, 13 watermelons, and 24 date plums--were taken from an agricultural cooperative representative of the area studied during 2001. The pesticides were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after sample extraction with ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Recoveries of 4 pesticides at 2 fortification levels (0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg), the lower of which was the quantification limit, ranged from 60 to 108%. Concentrations of imidacloprid, carbendazim, methiocarb, and hexythiazox ranged from 0.02 to 0.75 mg/kg in 184 samples (54 oranges, 119 tangerines, 3 watermelons, and 8 date plums). Nineteen samples contained methiocarb or hexythiazox residues that exceeded the maximum residue limits. Calculation of the estimated daily intakes of the 4 pesticides studied and their comparison with the Acceptable Daily Intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization demonstrated the safety of fruit consumption and showed the importance of monitoring for pesticide residues.

  20. Development of Nested-PCR Assay to Detect Acidovorax citrulli, a Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch at Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tak Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific and sensitive nested-PCR method to detect Acidovorax citrulli, a causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch on cucurbitaceae, was developed. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence which was obtained with the Next Generation Sequencing of A. citrulli KACC10651, and the nested-PCR primer set (Ac-ORF 21F/Ac-ORF 21R were selected by checking of specificity to A. citrulli with PCR assays. The selected nested-PCR primer amplified the 140 bp DNA only from A. citrulli strains, and detection sensitivity of the nested PCR increased 10,000 times of 1st PCR detection limit (10 ng genomic DNA/PCR. The nested PCR detected A. citrulli from the all samples of seed surface wash (external seed detection of the artificially inoculated watermelon seeds with 101 cfu/ml and above population of A. citrulli while the nested PCR could not detected A. citrulli from the mashed seed suspension (internal seed detection of the all artificially inoculated watermelon seeds. When the naturally infested watermelon seeds (10% seed infested rate with grow-out test used, the nested PCR detected A. citrulli from 2 seed samples out of 10 replication samples externally and 5 seed samples out of 10 replication samples internally. We believe that the nested-PCR developed in this study will be useful method to detect A. citrulli from the Cucurbitaceae seeds.

  1. Processamento e caracterização físico-química do suco misto melancia com pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Maceió Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A junção da melancia com pepino trás grandes benefícios na melhoria da composição físico-química do produto. O suco misto de frutas vem sendo estudado para revelar as características nutricionais e funcionais da mistura. Sendo a melancia rica em água, potássio, ferro, magnésio, zinco e vitamina C e o pepino apresentando baixo consumo de energia, baixo teor de calorias e pequenas quantidades de vitamina C, a elaboração desses combinados aumenta a possibilidade de efeitos benéficos ao organismo. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, elaborar suco misto de melancia com pepino em diferentes concentrações e caracterizar físico-químicamente as formulações. Com a obtenção das polpas, foram elaboradas as seguintes formulações: F1-100% pepino; F2-50% melancia e 50% pepino; F3- 70% melancia e 30% pepino; F4- 90% melancia e 10% pepino e F5- 100% melancia. Foram realizadas analises físico-químicas em triplicata em todas as formulações para a caracterização de cada tratamento quanto: pH, sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix, teor de água, cor, atividade de água (aw, açúcares totais, redutores e não redutores e cinzas. A melancia e o pepino apresentaram altos teores de água e atividade de água indicando alta suscetibilidade ao desenvolvimento de micro-organismos. Os sucos mistos de melancia com pepino podem ser considerados novos produtos e serem classificados como bebidas pouco ácidas (pH > 4,5  com razoável teor de  sólidos solúveis. As formulações F2 e F4 apresentaram maior quantidade de açúcares totais e o maior teor de minerais (cinzas foi da formulação F4. Todos os sucos mistos apresentaram cor atrativa, com predominância da intensidade de amarelo. Processing and characterization physico-chemical of watermelon juice mixed with cucumberAbstract: The junction of the watermelon with cucumber back great benefits in improving the physical and chemical composition of the product. Mix fruit juice has been studied to

  2. Root-induced decomposer growth and plant N uptake are not positively associated among a set of grassland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, S.; Mikola, J.; Ekelund, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Based...... on the hypothesis that root-induced growth of soil decomposers leads to accelerated decomposition of SOM and increased plant N availability in soil, we predicted that (1) among a set of grassland plants the abundance of soil decomposers in the plant rhizosphere is positively associated with plant N uptake from soil...... organic matter. To test this, we established grassland microcosms consisting of two plant individuals, a natural soil decomposer community and 15N-labelled plant litter as organic N source, and compared the rhizosphere decomposer communities and litter-N uptake of a grass Holcus lanatus, an herb Plantago...

  3. The share of roots, sward and stubble biomass in biological yield of selected grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacorzyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study assessed the share of harvested yield and share of root stem bases and stolon biomass in biological yield of 6 grass species grown in pure sowing. The biological yield included harvested yield from 3 regrowth and biomass of RSS (roots, sward and stubble, which was taken after 3 th cut. The highest biological yield was observed in Festuca rubra, next in Arrhenatherum elatiusand Poa pratensis, and the smallest in Holcus lanatus and Agropyron repens. In F. rubra harvested yield held 13.8% of biological yield, and RSS biomass held 86.2%. In contrast, in H. lanatusharvested yield was 44.7% and RSS biomass was 55.3% of biological yield.

  4. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Identificación de grupos funcionales de plantas en bordes de avance con potencial para la restauración de un Bosque Alto Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de grupos funcionales de plantas es una herramienta útil en la identificación de características de importancia en la restauración de una comunidad. El objetivo de este estudio es la definición de grupos funcionales de plantas en bordes de avance de un bosque alto andino y la evaluación de su importancia en el curso de la sucesión secundaria en pastizales dominados por Holcus lanatus. Con base en levantamientos de vegetación de
    10 x 10 m y en la revisión de atributos vitales de las especies registradas, se realizó una clasificación multivariante de las especies en grupos emergentes de plantas. Los atributos más importantes para la clasificación de los grupos emergentes fueron el método de dispersión y la ramificación del tronco en las especies leñosas. Se definieron cuatro grupos para las especies de estrato herbáceo y tres para las del estrato arbustivo-arbóreo, los
    cuales reúnen especies con estrategias de respuesta ante las condiciones que se presentan en los bordes estudiados.
    Dentro de los grupos definidos, las especies herbáceas dispersadas por diversos medios abióticos y las
    especies arbustivas dispersadas por viento y por aves parecen ser claves en la colonización del terreno dominado
    por H. lanatus y en la facilitación del establecimiento de especies de bosque secundario.

  6. Quantifying transfer rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 between fresh-cut produce and common kitchen surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-09-01

    Cross-contamination between foods and surfaces in food processing environments and home kitchens may play a significant role in foodborne disease transmission. This study quantifies the cross-contamination rates between a variety of fresh-cut produce and common kitchen surfaces (ceramic, stainless steel, glass, and plastic) using scenarios that differ by cross-contamination direction, surface type, produce type, and drying time/moisture level. A five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant Salmonella was used in transfer scenarios involving celery, carrot, and watermelon, and a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 was used in transfer scenarios involving lettuce. Produce or surface coupons were placed in buffer-filled filter bags and homogenized or massaged, respectively, to recover cells. The resulting solutions were serially diluted in 0.1% peptone and surface plated onto tryptic soy agar with 80 μg/ml rifampin and bismuth sulfite agar with 80 μg/ml rifampin for Salmonella or sorbitol MacConkey agar with 80 μg/ml rifampin for E. coli O157:H7. When the food contact surface was freshly inoculated, a high amount (>90%) of the inoculum was almost always transferred to the cut produce item. If the inoculated food contact surfaces were allowed to dry for 1 h, median transfer was generally >90% for carrots and watermelon but ranged from lettuce. Freshly inoculated celery or lettuce transferred more bacteria (lettuce was <0.01 to ∼5% and <1 to ∼5% for watermelon. Surface moisture and direction of transfer have the greatest influence on microbial transfer rates.

  7. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm2) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 107 CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm2 contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy. The popular notion of the "five-second rule" is that food dropped on the floor and left there for foods (watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy), four different contact times (food and the surface, are of equal or greater importance. Some transfer takes place "instantaneously," at times of <1 s, disproving the five-second rule. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCURBIT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND DISEASE PREVALENCE IN MUNICIPALITIES IN PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERFFESON THIAGO MOTA DE ALMEIDA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits have great economic, nutritional and social importance in the Brazilian semiarid region. In this region, many factors can result in reduced productivity of these crops, especially fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, knowledge of cucurbits is crucial for proper disease management. The objective of this work was to identify the major diseases of cucurbits grown in some municipalities in the Hinterland of the state of Pernambuco. Thus, plant samples were collected with symptoms in crops in the municipalities of Salgueiro, Serra Talhada, Floresta, Petrolândia, Ibimirim, Custódia and Inajá. A questionnaire was also applied to gather information about the production profile of producers. Seven fungal pathogens infecting cucurbits were identified: Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Colletotrichum sp., Podosphaera xanthii, Rhizoctonia solani, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium sp. e Alternaria sp., and three viruses as well: Papaya ringspot virus - watermelon strain (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. It was found that in small crops, there is limited search for technical information om cropping, and these crops originate mostly from native seeds, in contrast to medium and large producers, who use improved cultivars. The melon and watermelon crops are the most commercially exploited, while pumpkins are used in subsistence agriculture. As for plant health problems, most respondents reported knowing the main diseases that occur in crops and perform disease control based on personal experience and / or through the help of the technical assistance provided by agricultural stores. In a few cases, in large farms, there was an agronomist to assist in this type of control.

  9. GERMINATION TEST IN SEEDS OF MELOTHRIA CAMPESTRIS (NAUDIN H. SCHAEF. & S.S. RENNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CARINA DA SILVA CÂNDIDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado occupies 25% of the Brazilian territory and is the second largest biome in South America, second only to the Amazon Rainforest. Hence, studies on the native species of the Cerrado are important for implementing conservation strategies. In this context, knowledge of the requirements and conditions for germination of seeds of these native species is essential. The Cerrado watermelon ( Melothria campestris (Naudin H. Schaef. & S.S. Renner is a plant that is not cultivated, but has been used in revegetation projects in the countryside of the Cerrado because its fruits are fed upon by fauna in times of food shortage. The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate methodology for the germination of the Cerrado watermelon, by identifying the best - suited substrate, the optimal temperature, and the corresponding time taken for germination . The treatments consisted of four substrates: in a paper roll, on paper, in sand, and on sand; and four temperatures: 20, 25, and 30 °C (maintained constant, and a fourth temperature treatment that alternated 20 - 30 °C. The effect of the substrates and temperatures on seed performance was evaluated using the germination test, speed index, and average time for germination. The experimental design was fully randomized, with treatments distributed in a 4 × 4 (substrates × temperatures factorial scheme, with four replications. Our results show that the temperature of 20 °C had a negative influence on germination in all substrates. Further, we found that the germination of the Cerrado watermelon seeds was best in a paper roll or on sand substrate, maintained at a constant temperature of 30 °C, or when temperature was alternated 20 - 30 °C, and the time required for germination stabilization was 30 days.

  10. Documentation of hypoglycemic and wound healing plants in Kodiyampalayam coastal village (southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavani Kaliamurthi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the hypoglycemic and wound healing plant species especially halophytes and associates were carried out in the coastal village of Kodiyampalayam (Southeast coast of India. Methods: The data were collected during the month of December 2011 to November 2012 with personal interviews and group discussion of local coastal fisher women community and traditional practitioner. Results: The results indicated the traditional knowledge of 33 medicinal plant species, photographs, vernacular name, habit, active part and their mode of action. Among these, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia grandis, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera cylindrica, Excoecaria agallocha and Andrographis paniculata were discovered in huge number. Conclusions: This study concludes medicinal uses of halophytes and associates in the coastal area. It will be needed scientific validation for development of novel therapeutic agents.

  11. [Cucurbitacins as stathmokinetic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, J

    1971-03-01

    A synergism of colchicine and different cucurbitacins has been shown, to be a cause in the formation of ball-metaphases in Bryonia species. The bitter principles cucurbitacin L and I, dihydrocucurbitacin B, and tetrahydrocucurbitacin I, which were examined more closely with respect to their karyological effects, were shown to give rise to C-metaphases in Hordeum and Vicia at concentrations of about 0.016 per cent. On the one hand the number of mitotic stages is reduced, and on the other hand there is an increase of metaphase stages. Higher concentrations lead to pycnotic degenerations of nuclei and are toxic. When colchicine is applied together with cucurbitacins, ball-metaphases result. This could be demonstrated in plants lacking colchicine and cucurbitacins (Hordeum) when both substances were applied at the same time. Ball-metaphases also appear in plants containing cucurbitacins (Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocythis, Iberis amara) when they are treated with colchicine.

  12. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus in the Urmia, Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Zargaran, Arman; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh

    2014-09-01

    To collect and document information on anti-diabetic plants traditionally used in the treating of diabetes in Urmia at Northwest Iran because ethnomedicines are considered as valuable sources to find new potential drugs. We used the method of direct observation and interview (35 traditional healers) along with gathering herbarium specimens mentioned plants in site. There were 30 medicinal plants from 17 families for the treatment of diabetes. The family with most plants was Lamiaceae (20%). Leaves (20%) are often used and its form is decoction (70%). It was also found that Citrullus colocynthis has the most frequency of use among traditional healers. Furthermore, base on current findings many of the mentioned plants have potential active ingredients to influence diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Some Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Ertekin Filiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm. TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components in diet with the higher antioxidant properties.

  14. FRUITS AND SIMILES AND METAPHORS ON FRUITS IN CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE (DIVAN POETRY / DIVAN SIIRINDE MEYVELER VE MEYVELERDEN HAREKETLE YAPILAN TESBIH VE MECAZLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdülkerim GÜLHAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have surveyed 40 divans belonging differentcenturies and different regions in classical TurkishLiterature. Đn the works we have looked up, poets used fruitnames such as pear, quince, almond, hickory, apple, plum,filbert, peanut, date palm, jujube, oleaster, fig, coffee,watermelon, melon, apricot, cherry, lemon, pomegranate,peach, bitter orange, grape, morello, olive and mademetaphor regarding their trees, forms, tastes, colors, flowersand functions. Many characteristical features of “the lovedone” were given with word games on fruits.

  15. Insulin Resistance, IGFs and Energy Balance on the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    2001, pp 103-121 trial of the effectiveness of the PRO-SELF pain control pro- 127. ltuman Genome Project: Implications for human genetics. Am gram in...mg) was calculated based on data citrus fruit, 9.0 g/day; grapes, 2.3 g/day; banana, 2.4 g/day; peach, from the Chinese Food Composition Table. 29...vegetables (37%) (Table II). Total Citrus fruits9 20.2 ± 25.7 12.7 (3.6, 27.1) median fruit intake was 191 g/day with watermelon comprising Apples

  16. Grafting and Paladin Pic-21 for Nematode and Weed Management in Vegetable Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Hong, Jason C; Bausher, Michael G; McCollum, Greg; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2016-12-01

    Two years of field trials conducted in a Meloidogyne incognita- infested field evaluated grafting and Paladin Pic-21 (dimethyl disulfide:chloropicrin [DMDS:Pic] 79:21) for root-knot nematode and weed control in tomato and melon. Tomato rootstocks evaluated were; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha'. 'Florida 47' was the scion and the nongrafted control. A double crop of melon was planted into existing beds following tomato harvest. Melon rootstocks, C. metulifer and 'Tetsukabuto', were evaluated with nongrafted 'Athena' in year 1. In year 2, watermelon followed tomato with scion variety 'Tri-X Palomar' as the control and also grafted onto 'Emphasis' and 'Strongtosa' rootstocks. Four soil treatments were applied in fall both years under Canslit metalized film; Paladin Pic-21, methyl bromide:chloropicrin (MeBr:C33, 67:33), Midas (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50), and a herbicide-treated control. M. incognita J 2 in soil were highest in herbicide control plots and nongrafted tomato. All soil treatments produced similar tomato growth, which was greater than the herbicide control. All treatments reduced M. incognita J 2 in roots compared to the herbicide control. 'Multifort' rootstock produced the largest and healthiest roots; however, the number of M. incognita isolated from roots did not differ among the tomato rootstocks tested. Galling on tomato was highest in herbicide control plots and nongrafted plants. In melon, M. incognita J 2 in soil did not differ among melon rootstocks, but numbers isolated from melon rootstocks increased in 'Tetsukabuto' compared with C. metuliferus . 'Tetsukabuto' were larger root systems than nongrafted 'Athena'. All fumigants provided protection for all melon rootstocks against galling by M. incognita compared to the herbicide control. Galling on C. metuliferus rootstock was less in all fumigant treatments compared with nongrafted 'Athena' and 'Tetsukabuto'. In watermelon, M. incognita in soil and roots did not differ among soil treatments

  17. Mercenaries of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya; Utas, Mats

    2008-01-01

    and strategic motives behind ex-combatants’ choice to join the political campaigning and the alternatives (such as ‘watermelon politics’), and we also examine the deep distrust between politicians and ex-combatants. Focusing on politics as the domestication of violence, we shed light on the continuation of pre......-war and war-time mobilization of youth into politics and demonstrate how electoral moments can legitimize violence. In hindsight, the 2007 elections strengthened the democratic process in Sierra Leone, but this article shows on what fragile ground this success was built....

  18. Mercenaries of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maya Mynster; Utas, Mats

    2008-01-01

    motives behind ex-combatants' choice to join the political campaigning and the alternatives (such as 'watermelon politics'), and we also examine the deep mistrust between politicians and ex-combatants. Focusing on politics as the domestication of violence, we shed light on the continuation of pre......-war and war-time mobilization of youth into politics and demonstrate how electoral moments can legitimize violence. In hindsight, the 2007 elections strengthened the democratic process in Sierra Leone, but this article shows on what fragile ground this success was built. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. Ocorrência de patógenos em cultivos de melancia e abóbora no sertão da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. F. O. Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Por constituírem uma importante fonte de alimento, plantações de melancia e abóbora são comumente cultivadas no sertão paraibano, porém pouco se sabe sobre a ocorrência de patógenos causadores de doenças, os quais limitam a sua produtividade e renda aos produtores. Visando obter informações sobre a ocorrência dos patógenos virais e fúngicos em cultivos de abóbora e melancia situados em municípios produtores no sertão da Paraíba, amostras coletadas com sintomas de mosaico e deformação foliar, típicos de doenças virais foram analisadas pela técnica sorológica “enzime linked immuno sorbentassay” (Elisa indireto para Papaya ring spot virus, type watermelon (PRSV-W, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. O teste de dupla difusão em Agar foi utilizado para verificar a presença de Squash mosaic virus (SqMV. Em contrapartida, amostras coletadas com sintomas de doenças fúngicas foram analisadas pelo isolamento do patógeno e visualização de suas características morfológicas em microscópio óptico. Em abóbora, houve prevalência dos vírus ZYMV e PRSV-W em infecções simples e mistas, e maior incidência dos fungos Cladosporium spp., e Alternaria spp. Em melancia detectou-se infecção simples e mistas das espécies PRSV-W, WMV e ZYMV, e maior freqüência de Fusarium spp. e Alternaria spp.. Não foram detectados os vírus CMV e SqMV. Os resultados obtidos revelam a ocorrência de vários patógenos fúngicos e viróticos em cultivos de abóbora e melancia situados no sertão da Paraíba e ressaltam a importância da utilização de estratégias de manejo que reduzem os danos ocasionados por esses patógenos.Occurrence of pathogens in watermelon and pumpkin crops in the State of ParaibaAbstract: By constitute an important food source, watermelon and pumpkin plantations are commonly grown on Paraíba backlands, but little is known about the occurrence of disease

  20. Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    mango and papaya o o o o o o o o o 1/4 melon or 1 cup O o o Watermelon and red melon o o o o o o o o o 1 medium slice or 1 cup o o o All other...4. Waller, L.A., Turnbull, B.W., Clark, L.C, Nasca, P. "Examining Spatial Patterns of Disease Incidence Data to Detect Clusters in a Rare Disease: A...Statist. Assoc. Washington, D.C., 1993. 23. Waller, LA., Turnbull, B.W., Clark, L.C., Nasca, P. "Chronic Disease Surveillance and Testing of Clustering of

  1. A comparative mass spectrometric study of fatty acids and metals in some seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvar, Sonia Niculina; Bleiziffer, R; Podea, P; Iordache, A; Voica, C; Zgavarogea, R; Culea, M

    A major cause of cardiovascular diseases and cancer is diet content, so the optimization of micronutrients in food is very important. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for patients had beneficial effects on subjective global assessment score and metabolic profiles. Fatty acids content and the metal ions in different seeds (e.g. linseed, poppy, grape, hemp, nuts, pumpkin, sesame, watermelon, chia) recommended as food supplements, purchased on the Romanian market, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as an excellent technique for fatty acids identification and quantitation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for analytical measurements of metals.

  2. Sequence homology: A poor predictive value for profilins cross-reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki Nazanin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Profilins are highly cross-reactive allergens which bind IgE antibodies of almost 20% of plant-allergic patients. This study is aimed at investigating cross-reactivity of melon profilin with other plant profilins and the role of the linear and conformational epitopes in human IgE cross-reactivity. Methods Seventeen patients with melon allergy were selected based on clinical history and a positive skin prick test to melon extract. Melon profilin has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The IgE binding and cross-reactivity of the recombinant profilin were measured by ELISA and inhibition ELISA. The amino acid sequence of melon profilin was compared with other profilin sequences. A combination of chemical cleavage and immunoblotting techniques were used to define the role of conformational and linear epitopes in IgE binding. Comparative modeling was used to construct three-dimensional models of profilins and to assess theoretical impact of amino acid differences on conformational structure. Results Profilin was identified as a major IgE-binding component of melon. Alignment of amino acid sequences of melon profilin with other profilins showed the most identity with watermelon profilin. This melon profilin showed substantial cross-reactivity with the tomato, peach, grape and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen profilins. Cantaloupe, watermelon, banana and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass displayed no notable inhibition. Our experiments also indicated human IgE only react with complete melon profilin. Immunoblotting analysis with rabbit polyclonal antibody shows the reaction of the antibody to the fragmented and complete melon profilin. Although, the well-known linear epitope of profilins were identical in melon and watermelon, comparison of three-dimensional models of watermelon and melon profilins indicated amino acid differences influence the electric potential and accessibility of the solvent-accessible surface of

  3. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  4. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  5. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

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    Ratthaphol Charlermroj

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  6. The Therapeutic Effects of a Medicinal Plant Mixture in Capsule Form on Catalase Levels in the Semen of Men with Oligospermia

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    Alizadeh Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, the therapeutic effects of mixed herbs (onion, ginger, basil, cinnamon, orange peel, yellow and red watermelon seeds, and carrot seed on catalase levels in the semen of men with oligospermia were evaluated. About 50% of recognized infertility factors are male-related factors, and are mainly the result of oligospermia, astenospermia, and teratozoospermia. Materials and Methods: The study participants included 40 males with oligospermia and infertility. The studied medicine were 700 mg capsules containing onion, ginger, basil, cinnamon, orange peel, yellow and red watermelon seeds, and carrot seed (100 mg of each. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi method. Results: A significant increase was observed in catalase level in semen as a result of using the medicinal plant mixture (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Free radicals play an important role in male infertility. Antioxidants can prevent the damaging effects they have on sperm. Oxidative stress reduction can increase the chances of natural fertility or assisted reproductive technology (ART. Medicinal plants have low costs, complications, and easy availability, and cause an increase in semen plasma antioxidants and subsequent improvement in semen parameters. Thus, they can be the source of new hopes for the treatment of infertility.

  7. Sustainability of melon cultivation in São Romão settlement in Mossoró/RN: determination of indicators by the MESMIS methodology

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    Ivanildo Martins Formiga Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, agriculture is one of the most discussed topics in the theoretical field of sustainability. Debates regarding this issue are increasingly recurrent and put in question the model adopted from the post-war, the so-called green revolution. In the state of Rio Grande do Norte, the agricultural potential lies mainly in irrigated horticulture, where stands the agropolo Acu-Mossoró as one of the greatest watermelon producing regions of Brazil. The cultivation of watermelon, once dominated by large agricultural companies, is currently developed by agroecosystems whose management is characterized by family participation, including small farmers of rural settlements created by Incra. Aiming to assess the sustainability of this type of cultivation, was used the MESMIS methodology in the in São Romão settlement in Mossoró-RN, which is primarily engaged in the cultivation of irrigated melon. Seven critical points were determined and selected twenty-three indicators that directly affect the sustainability of the researched area.

  8. Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Seςil Kepil; Özgüςlü, Selcan

    2017-09-17

    There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. Patients were classified as having PFAS if they reported clear allergic symptoms compatible with PFAS. All participants underwent skin prick tests (SPT) to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent. Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients (19.3%). The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that potential risk factors for PFAS were having asthma (OR=2.392, P=0.044) and tree pollen sensitization (OR=2.904, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the SPT wheal sizes to individual pollen extracts between patients with and without PFAS with a positive SPT result for that pollen extract (P> 0.05). PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. SPT wheal sizes to pollen extracts seems to be similar in patients with and without PFAS.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI POTENSI ENZIM LIPASE DAN SELULASE PADA SAMPAH KULIT BUAH HASIL FERMENTASI

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    La Ode Sumarlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of bioconversion to produce profitable anaerobic microbes and to produce various enzymes. Lipases and cellulases are widely used enzymes so far. Cellulases play an important role in bioconversion of organic waste cellulosic materials to glucose, single cell proteins, animal feed, and ethanol. Lipases can also degrade fatty ester bond. Therefore, both enzymes are potential to be used in industry as well as in households. Fermentation of fruit peel waste is an attempt to produce cellulase and lipase that can be carried out in a simple way. Cellulase as says was performed using DNS (3.5-dinitrosalicylic acid and acid-base titration for analysis of lipase using cooking oil as the substrate. The results showed that the highest cellulase activity was obtained from watermelon rind mixed with citrus fruit peel of 0.036 U/mL, and mixed of banana peel and citrus fruit, which was 0.035 U/mL. The optimum lipase activity was at 30 oC, pH 7, and reaction time of 60 minutes. The highest lipase activity (1.36 U/mL was obtained from mixture of watermelon and orange rind. Thus, the fruit peel waste is potential to produce cellulase and lipase by fermentation .

  10. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability.

  11. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological and molecular characterization of tospoviruses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemsombat, Pissawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Warin, Nuchanard; Hongprayoon, Ratchanee; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Pongsapich, Preyapan

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-eight isolates of tospoviruses associated with tomato, pepper, cucurbits, peanut, and Physalis plants collected from fields in different regions of Thailand were characterized. On the basis of N gene and protein sequence relationships, three tospoviruses were identified, namely Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV). CLUSTAL analysis of selected N protein sequences showed different isolates of CaCV in three distinct clades. Based on necrosis symptoms on tomato and their 93% identity to CaCV isolates in the other two clades, CaCV-TD8, CaCV-AIT and CaCV-KS16-Thailand tomato tospovirus were designated as CaCV-tomato necrosis strain. A phylogenetic tree based on the 413-amino-acid Gc fragment of the CaCV-Pkk isolate supported the existence of three distinct CaCV clades. Vigna unguiculata produced concentric rings useful for discriminating the Thai CaCV peanut isolates from tomato or pepper isolates. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with species-specific primers, the three tospoviruses could be detected in mixed infections in watermelon and Physalis, as well as in the bodies of thrips vectors, Thrips palmi and Scirtothrips dorsalis, collected from fields.

  13. Evaluation of selected agricultural solid wastes on biochemical profile and liver histology of Albino rats

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    Isaac Oluseun Adejumo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, groundnut shell, watermelon peel and corn bran were analyzed for chemical composition and amino acid profile. A feeding trial was conducted to assess their effect on biochemical profile and liver histology of rats. Watermelon peel obtained the highest dry matter content (91.93±0.03 g/100g, followed by groundnut shell meal (89.57±0.31 g/100g. Carbohydrate content ranged between 35.28±0.08 g/100g and 65.19±0.13 g/100g. Crude protein content ranged between 6.53±0.06 g/100g (groundnut shell meal and 10.88±0.02 g/100g (wheat bran. Liver histopathology revealed normal architecture. The nutritional analyses of the wastes revealed rich nutritional content which may be explored for feed ingredient in livestock production. Further processing of these wastes may further enhance their nutritional composition; thereby providing alternative cheap animal feed for improved animal production and consequently improved animal protein consumption in developing countries.

  14. Physical barriers to carotenoid bioaccessibility. Ultrastructure survey of chromoplast and cell wall morphology in nine carotenoid-containing fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jennifer; Holzenburg, Andreas; King, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    The ultrastructural characterisation of cellular components is a key element in revealing the bases for differences in nutrient bioaccessibility among fruits and vegetables and their derived products. Together, cell walls and chromoplasts constitute the two major physical barriers to carotenoid release from the food matrix (structure) during digestion. In general, larger cells with thinner cell walls are most likely to fail under mechanical pressure. In relation to chromoplasts, the substructures plastoglobuli, crystals and membranes give decreasing rates of carotenoid solubilisation when exposed to digestive forces. This paper describes cell wall and chromoplast structures in nine carotenoid-storing raw fruits and vegetables. Watermelon and melon cells were shown to have the largest cells concomitant with thin, non-fibrous cell walls, while carrot, hypodermal grapefruit and sweet potato cells were smallest with fibrous or dense cell walls. Mango fruit showed the highest proportion of globules to other substructures. Carrot, papaya and tomato contained many crystalline structures. Finally, watermelon, mango and butternut squash developed a high proportion of membranous structures. A more precise description of the physical characteristics of foods that stand as barriers to bioaccessibility can help in understanding which are more or less inhibitory for particular foods. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Natural radioactivity, dose assessment and uranium uptake by agricultural crops at Khan Al-Zabeeb, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharouf, Samer J; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Dababneh, Munir

    2008-07-01

    Khan Al-Zabeeb, an irrigated cultivated area lies above a superficial uranium deposits, is regularly used to produce vegetables and fruits consumed by the public. Both soil and plant samples collected from the study area were investigated for their natural radioactivity to determine the uranium uptake by crops and hence to estimate the effective dose equivalent to human consumption. Concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (137)Cs and (40)K in nine soil profiles were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry whereas watermelon and zucchini crops were analyzed for their uranium content by means of alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Correlations between measured radionuclides were made and their activity ratios were determined to evaluate their geochemical behavior in the soil profiles. Calculated soil-plant transfer factors indicate that the green parts (leaves, stems and roots) of the studied crops tend to accumulate uranium about two orders of magnitude higher than the fruits. The maximum dose from ingestion of 1 kg of watermelon pulp was estimated to be 3.1 and 4.7 nSv y(-1) for (238)U and (234)U, respectively. Estimations of the annual effective dose equivalent due to external exposure showed extremely low values. Radium equivalent activity and external hazard index were seen to exceed the permissible limits of 370 Bq kg(-1) and 1, respectively.

  16. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-jun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 103 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds. PMID:27739469

  17. New species in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: Insights into the evolution of the PRSV lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Millot, P; Verdin, E; Dafalla, G; Lecoq, H

    2017-09-15

    The "Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster" of cucurbit-infecting potyviruses contains five acknowledged species that have similar biological, serological and molecular properties. Additional data suggest there are other uncharacterized species from various locations in the world that likely belong to the PRSV cluster including a new PRSV-like virus reported from Sudan in 2003. Molecular and biological data indicated that the virus from Sudan belongs to a new species, tentatively named wild melon vein banding virus (WMVBV). The complete nucleotide sequence of a second virus from Sudan revealed it was a divergent relative of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). Based on sequence similarity this virus was determined to be a distinct species and tentatively named Sudan watermelon mosaic virus (SuWMV). Molecular analyses indicate that SuWMV is a recombinant between WMVBV- and MWMV-related viruses. Based on surveys performed in Sudan between 1992 and 2012, SuWMV appeared 10 times more frequent than WMVBV in that country (14.6% vs. 1.5% of the samples tested). The geographic structure and molecular diversity patterns of the putative and acknowledged species suggest that the PRSV-like cluster originated in the Old World about 3600 years ago, with an important diversification in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA.

  19. PERANAN BUAH SEMANGKA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN VOLUME BOLA

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    Hariani Juwita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the context to enable the students to understand the concept of volume of a sphere in class VIII. The context of this research was using a watermelon as teaching aids by using PMRI approach. The method used in this study was design research; the stages were preleminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. The results of this study indicated that the role of watermelon as teaching aids supported the students to develop their knowledge about the concept of volume of a sphere, and enhance their understanding about the material so that the learnin becomes more meaningful. In giving the volume of a sphere its better not to be taught the students by giving formula directly, however they were given the opportunity to understand the volume of a sphere with their own concept in real situation. The existence of such a situation, the student will be easier to learn the material volume of a sphere at a higher level.

  20. Sustainable approaches to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes and disease complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors of soil may reduce damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. Suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly challenging in soils in which there are short crop sequences, sequential susceptible host crops, or infestations of multiple nematode species. In southern Indiana, a watermelon production system involving rotations with soybean and corn does not suppress Meloidogyne incognita, but several aspects of such systems can be modified to reduce nematode damage in an integrated management approach. Cash crops with resistance to M. incognita can be used to reduce population densities of M. incognita. Small grains as cover crops can be replaced by cover crops with resistance to M. incognita or by crops with biofumigation potential. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations of potting mixes during transplanting production of watermelon seedlings may improve early crop establishment. Other approaches to nematode management utilize soil suppressiveness. One-year rotations of soybean with corn neither reduced the soil-borne complex of sudden death syndrome (SDS) nor improved soybean root health over that in soybean monoculture. Reduced tillage combined with crop rotation may reduce the activity of soil-borne pathogens in some soils. For example in a long-term trial, numbers of Heterodera glycines and severity of foliar SDS symptoms were reduced under minimum tillage. Thus, sustainable management strategies require holistic approaches that consider entire production systems rather than focus on a single crop in its year of production.