WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterfowl

  1. Waterfowl - Cholera [ds107

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a data set of the location and number of waterfowl carcasses observed during aerial surveys of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta by survey tract. It is...

  2. Alaska waterfowl production, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1964. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  5. Waterfowl disease contingency plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this contingency plan is reduce waterfowl losses from disease, primarily avian botulism, along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This...

  6. Waterfowl identification workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of waterfowl identification workshops conducted by Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge. Objectives of the...

  7. Waterfowl project unveiled

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the creation of the Chase Lake Centennial Conservation Area in North Dakota. It is created under the North American Waterfowl Plan joint...

  8. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  9. Waterfowl disease conference report : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Waterfowl Disease Conference was held in Denver the fall of 1980 to develop a better program for dealing with waterfowl disease problems. Most of the report dealt...

  10. Summary of 1997 Waterfowl Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this report are to determine waterfowl production on the Patuxent Research Refuge; evaluate impacts of human activities on waterfowl production and...

  11. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  12. Waterfowl spring migration records on the Seney Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to compare the numbers of migratory waterfowl using the Seney Refuge area during the spring of 1937 with the numbers recorded during...

  13. Alaska waterfowl production survey, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1968. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  14. Summary of 2002 Waterfowl Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the sixth consecutive year of intensive monitoring of waterfowl nesting and production at Patuxent Research Refuge. Water levels during nesting and brood...

  15. [1990 annual waterfowl enhancement report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum from the Upper Souris NWR Refuge Manager to the regional office prefaces the attachment of the station's Annual Waterfowl Enhancement Report forms. The...

  16. Waterfowl experts support predator work

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on the need for predator management and trapping to increase waterfowl production in the wake on Conservation Reserve Program land being converted to...

  17. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  18. Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, became operational in 1955 in the Canadian prairies (strata 26-40). In...

  19. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  20. Summary of 2001 Waterfowl Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this year’s waterbird production monitoring was on the five species of waterfowl nesting on the refuge. They are Canada goose, wood duck, mallard, black...

  1. Identification and specialization as a waterfowl hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Like specialization, identity offers a way for differentiating and understanding recreationists and for gaining insight into the question of participant progression in an activity. We examined how identity related to measures of specialization among lapsed and current waterfowl hunters. Lapsed hunters included those who had purchased a Minnesota waterfowl stamp between 2000 and 2004, but not since this time. Current hunters had purchased a 2010 stamp. Results suggested that some waterfowl hunters specialize and progress toward a waterfowl-hunter identity. Others, however, either hunt for years but never specialize and identify as waterfowl hunters, or move toward but do not attain a waterfowl hunter identity. Individuals who achieve a waterfowl hunter identity may also later relinquish this identity. Identification was associated with increased specialization and resistance to change from a preference for waterfowl hunting. Individuals who had relinquished their identity retained social and knowledge-based commitment to waterfowl hunting, whereas attraction and centrality declined.

  2. History of Waterfowl Nesting on the Patuxent Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of waterfowl counts, waterfowl research, waterfowl nesting, and waterfowl records at Patuxent Research Refuge from 1963 through 2008, as...

  3. Concept Plan for Waterfowl Habitat Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay Area is one of 34 Waterfowl Habitat Areas of Major Concern (#27) in Canada and the United States identified in the North American Waterfowl...

  4. Waterfowl brood data 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 2012-2013 data from the 2.03 waterfowl production brood monitoring survey that monitors waterfowl production throughout the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  5. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  6. Waterfowl Evaluation- Lake Ophelia / Grand Cote NWR's

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the waterfowl evaluation on Lake Ophelia and Grand Cote National Wildlife Refuges. A team of multiagency biologist overviewed the waterfowl...

  7. Waterfowl Hunting Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Waterfowl Hunting Plan for Mingo NWR summarizes how the Waterfowl Hunting Program relates to Refuge objectives, outlines Program policies and control, and lists...

  8. Nowitna NWR 1986 waterfowl brood survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A waterfowl brood survey was conducted to continue monitoring trends in waterfowl production on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. At least 13 duck species breed...

  9. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Waterfowl Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_waterfowl_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data represent waterfowl habitats with...

  11. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  12. Disease investigations : Study of waterfowl botulism

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Studies were done to determine the ecology of the botulism organism Clostridium botulinum Type C and the manner of which toxin is ingested by the waterfowl so that...

  13. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  14. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the last vegetative survey in 1965, the marsh at Canvasback Gun Club has remained virtually unchanged. The Arthur-Johnson Ponds produced most of the waterfowl...

  15. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: July 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  16. Spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge staff conducted a survey of spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River in the Bristol Bay drainage, Alaska...

  17. Waterfowl production survey: July 1997: Southern Manitoba

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  18. Waterfowl Evaluation and Follow-up

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An evaluation of the Santee National Wildlife Refuge Waterfowl Management Program was conducted on December 15-16, 1987. Members of the review team included Refuge...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. 1967 narrative report: Nebraska Waterfowl Production Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Nebraska Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Gull-waterfowl relationships in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The degree of success or failure of the annual increment in the population of waterfowl is influenced by many factors. Predation is one of the factors adversely...

  2. Fact sheet : Endrin contamination of waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a summary of information collected by and for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regarding contamination of waterfowl from Montana with the...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  5. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  9. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  10. Value of Alaskan wetlands for waterfowl: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Few studies have focused specifically on use of Alaskan wetlands by waterfowl and only two of these have been published. However, substantial information on the...

  11. Waterfowl production survey for southern Manitoba: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  12. Waterfowl production survey for Montana: July 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  13. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Initial Survey Instructions for Targeted Waterfowl Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for refuge-wide waterfowl monitoring at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, which occurs year-round on a bi-weekly basis. It contains...

  15. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Waterfowl mortality : Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Each year since 1951, during the fall, winter, and spring months, an outbreak of a waterfowl disease of unknown etiology has occurred on the lakes of the Rocky...

  7. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge : Waterfowl inventory November 1, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is a waterfowl inventory for various lakes and waterfowl species for November 1st, 1990 for Valentine National Wildlife Refuge.

  8. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : March, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during March of 1938. Weather conditions, waterfowl, upland game, fur and predator control,...

  9. Initial Survey Instructions for mid-winter waterfowl survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (MWS) is conducted annually in early January as part of the nationwide wintering waterfowl monitoring effort led by U.S. Fish &...

  10. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  11. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  12. Waterfowl Management Handbook 13.1.1 Nutritional Values of Waterfowl Foods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over 40 species of North American waterfowl use wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability...

  13. Report on field work on waterfowl problems Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Burns, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary of the following waterfowl studies are included in this report: The canvas-back study, general waterfowl study, habitat descriptions and present waterfowl...

  14. 50 CFR 90.14 - Waterfowl depredation complaints; where filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waterfowl depredation complaints; where filed. 90.14 Section 90.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Surplus Grain § 90.14 Waterfowl depredation complaints; where filed. Any person having an interest in...

  15. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Change in the size of populations over space and time is, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change in the abundance is the simple difference between the number of individuals entering the population and the number leaving the population, either or both of which may change in response to factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the population. While harvest of individuals from a population constitutes a clear extrinsic source of removal of individuals, the response of populations to harvest is frequently complex, reflecting an interaction of harvest with one or more population processes. Here we consider the role of these interactions, and factors influencing them, on the effective harvest management of waterfowl populations. We review historical ideas concerning harvest and discuss the relationship(s) between waterfowl life histories and the development and application of population models to inform harvest management. The influence of population structure (age, spatial) on derivation of optimal harvest strategies (with and without explicit consideration of various sources of uncertainty) is considered. In addition to population structure, we discuss how the optimal harvest strategy may be influenced by: 1) patterns of density-dependence in one or more vital rates, and 2) heterogeneity in vital rates among individuals within an age-sex-size class. Although derivation of the optimal harvest strategy for simple population models (with or without structure) is generally straightforward, there are several potential difficulties in application. In particular, uncertainty concerning the population structure at the time of harvest, and the ability to regulate the structure of the harvest itself, are significant complications. We therefore review the evidence of effects of harvest on waterfowl populations. Some of this evidence has

  16. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  17. Preliminary study of waterfowl habitat development potentials as related to inundated waterfowl habitat by the proposed Rampart Canyon Dam Project, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a preliminary study of waterfowl habitat development potentials as related to inundated waterfowl habitat by the proposed Rampart Canyon dam project...

  18. Monthly Report (April): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  19. State waterfowl conservation stamp/print programs considerations for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An Alaska Waterfowl Conservation Stamp program has been proposed in several bills put before the legislature in 1983. The intent of this report is to present a brief...

  20. Waterfowl botulism in the Tulare Lake Basin California 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The possibility of a major outbreak of waterfowl botulism in the Tulare Lake Basin of Kern and Kings County, California was anticipated during the summer and fall of...

  1. Monthly Report (January): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  2. Monthly Report (September): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North...

  3. Crosby Waterfowl Production Area Management Office Narrative report, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Waterfowl Production Area Management Office outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins...

  4. Monthly Report (February): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Annual Report: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Fiscal Year 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  6. Monthly Report: April 1936: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  7. Monthly Report (June): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  8. Waterfowl hutning decision document package for Boyer Chute NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to open to waterfowl hunting the Boyer Chute NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  9. Monthly Report (July): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  10. Monthly Report (September): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  11. Monthly Report (May): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  12. Spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge staff conducted a survey of spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River in the Bristol Bay drainage, Alaska...

  13. Study Design Assessment for Waterfowl Production Surveys on Tetlin NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge monitors waterfowl brood production every year. The same eleven clusters of water bodies have been observed each year since 1985....

  14. Monthly Report (January): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North...

  15. Annual report: Fiscal year 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes water conditions, waterfowl, migration use, grazing, haying, recreational uses, plantings, Refuge...

  16. Lead analysis of waterfowl from Yukon Delta NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, WAES received funds from the Yukon Delta Ecosystem Team to analyze livers of waterfowl, other than spectacled eiders, for lead concentrations. Nineteen...

  17. Narrative report: August 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities, waterfowl observations, and the water status during...

  18. Narrative report: January 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects and an annual waterfowl estimate from January, 1937....

  19. Narrative report: September 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities, waterfowl observations, and the water status during...

  20. Narrative report: October 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities and waterfowl observations during October of 1936....

  1. Waterfowl Count over Pool 9 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presents the observations of waterfowl flying over Pool 9 at Erie National Wildlife Refuge from late-August through early October, 1970.

  2. Morphology and Disease Information from Waterfowl, Interior Alaska, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes data from five waterfowl species (northern pintail, American wigeon, lesser scaup, green-winged teal and mallard) that were captured in...

  3. Monthly Report (February): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  4. Monthly Report (December): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Monthly Report (August): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  6. Maine & the Maritimes: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine and the Maritimes during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Monthly Report (May): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  8. Monthly Report (October): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  9. Waterfowl survey report 1986, Innoko National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl nesting conditions on the Innoko in 1986 were much improved over the flooding and late spring of 1985. Light snowfall in the winter of '85-'86 accumulated...

  10. Annual report : 1938-1939 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the 1939 fiscal year. Wildlife populations, artificial islands, haying, share cropping,...

  11. 1994 waterfowl breeding pair survey Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The waterfowl breeding population estimate for the refuge (stratum 4) is 581,111. This estimate is down 27% from the ten year mean. Dabbler species estimates...

  12. Night-Lighting as a Waterfowl Capture Technique

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years considerable experimentation with the night-lighting technique for capturing waterfowl has been conducted in the United State s and Canada....

  13. Narrative report 1968 Lostwood Waterfowl Production Area District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Waterfowl Production Area District of the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968...

  14. Monthly Report (June): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  15. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  16. Monthly Report (April): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  17. Monthly Report (August): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  18. 1988 waterfowl production survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area District : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. [Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Narrative report : 1935

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during 1935. The road construction, dam construction, food and cover,...

  2. Monthly Report (July): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  4. Waterfowl stream survey : North Dakota : 1983-84 status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Status information on the waterfowl stream survey in North Dakota for 1983-1984. This project is designed primarily to: (1) delineate and measure streams in North...

  5. Waterfowl report, 1967: Censes and kill data information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the 1967 waterfowl season on Fort Richardson Military Reservation. Information about a newly opened hunting area, Eagle River Flats, is...

  6. Some aspects of the relationship of Eskimos and waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report by David R. Klein of the Alaska Cooperative Wildlife Unit contains the first quantitative data on Eskimo waterfowl harvest that has ever been compiled....

  7. Monthly Report (September): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  8. Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area District : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Annual report : 1936-'37 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during the 1937 fiscal year. Weather conditions, water levels, wildlife,...

  10. Narrative report: April 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects, crops, waterfowl...

  11. Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area District : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl. The report covers the general conditions of development of aquatic plants. Please note...

  13. Monthly Report (October): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  14. Assessment of lead sources for waterfowl in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Exposure to detrimental concentrations of lead has been documented in waterfowl in Alaska. In spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and long-tailed ducks (Clangula...

  15. Monthly Report (March): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  16. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  17. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  18. Narrative report: June 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes the water status, Refuge improvements, waterfowl observations, recovery efforts, and field crops...

  19. Narrative report: May 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes the water status, waterfowl observations, and public relations during May, 1936. Photographs are...

  20. Waterfowl production survey: Southern and central Alberta: July 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Monthly Report: November 1935: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  2. Monthly Report (November): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  4. The 1966 status of waterfowl as presented to the Waterfowl Advisory Committee, Wahsington, D.C., August 9, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This year, in presenting the status of waterfowl, we must discuss not only the current situation but also attempt to place 1966 in proper perspective with past...

  5. A survey of waterfowl problems in Alaska for the purpose of identifying research needs: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the many and varied problems facing the waterfowl resource of Alaska. Current waterfowl investigations and management programs aimed at...

  6. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for southern Manitoba, May 14 through May 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of conditions for 1970 for waterfowl production. Survey area was southern Manitoba. Predicted good production year. Most waterfowl numbers up from 1969....

  7. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for November 1940 - January 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  8. Ground Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 24, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ground waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for each management unit on the Pungo Unit of Pocosin Lakes National...

  9. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Waterfowl Management Evaluation: Final Report and Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of Parker River NWR's waterfowl management program was conducted during April 4-6, 1989. Ongoing and planned waterfowl management activities were evaluated...

  10. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 7, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  11. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 1, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  12. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 21, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  13. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 15, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  14. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: March 5, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  15. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 21, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  16. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 30, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  17. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: October 23, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  18. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 18, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  19. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 17, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  20. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 19, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  1. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 10, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  2. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 2, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  3. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: October 28, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  4. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 19, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  5. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 16, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  6. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 2, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  7. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 8, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  8. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 5, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  9. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 13, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  10. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 9, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  11. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 6, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  12. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: March 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  13. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 2, 2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  14. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 17, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  15. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 25, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  16. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 26, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  17. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 3, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  18. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: October 22, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  19. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: October 31, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  20. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: March 2, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  1. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 19, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  2. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 8, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  3. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 4, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  4. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 20, 2005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  5. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 27, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  6. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  7. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 14, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  8. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: March 8, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  9. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 9, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  10. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 15, 2005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  11. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: March 1, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  12. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 21, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  13. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 1, 2005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  14. Annual Hunting Program : Migratory Waterfowl : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1992-93 Annual Migratory Waterfowl Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for migratory waterfowl hunting on Parker River National Wildlife...

  15. Ground Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 26, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ground waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for each management unit on the Pungo Unit of Pocosin Lakes National...

  16. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for May - July 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  17. Ground Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 14, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ground waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for each management unit on the Pungo Unit of Pocosin Lakes National...

  18. Initial Survey Instructions for the Waterfowl Migration Abundance and Chronology Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for the Waterfowl Migration Abundance and Chronology Survey at Quivira National Wildlife refuge. It is necessary to survey waterfowl...

  19. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: January 5, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  20. Ground Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 22, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ground waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for each management unit on the Pungo Unit of Pocosin Lakes National...

  1. Progress report: Waterfowl breeding ground aerial surveys in southern Saskatchewan: 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey and Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1960. The...

  2. 1975 : Waterfowl Production Surveys, Canada Goose Nesting Data [for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report on waterfowl production for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge during 1975 may cover species count, broods, bird nesting, predators and waterfowl...

  3. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  4. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 13, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  5. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: February 14, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  6. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  7. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1939 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  8. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  9. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  10. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1942 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  11. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1938 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  12. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  13. Annual Hunting Program : Migratory Waterfowl : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : 1985-86

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1985-86 Annual Migratory Waterfowl Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for migratory waterfowl hunting on Parker River National Wildlife...

  14. Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N.; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Schmutz, Joel A.; Rotella, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding ofwaterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A.crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focus on population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowlpopulations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  15. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L R Brennan

    Full Text Available Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5->40 cm and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i dead end sacs, and (ii clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.

  16. 76 FR 53149 - North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... local, State, and Federal agencies; nongovernment conservation organizations; and the public. The draft... periodically with engagement of the broad waterfowl conservation community. This important work is under way.... The RSC synthesized Round One and Round Two workshop results and website feedback, and a writing team...

  17. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart; Exo, K-M.; Griffin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, t

  18. Sources of nonresponse to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Geissler, P.H.; Hoover, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Response rates to the Federal Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey (WHQS) have declined since the 1950's, suggesting that harvest estimates may be biased. Consequently, we investigated reasons for WHQS nonresponse using surveys of waterfowl hunters in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Texas [USA]. Sampling frames were constructed using lists of buyers of state hunting licenses or state duck stamps. We mailed questionnaires to 16,452 randomly selected hunters, with 2 follow-up mailings at 3-week intervals. Questionnaires were completed by 8,812 respondents, and a further 587 interviews were conducted by telephone. Post offices accounted for between 53.7% (Minn.) and 92.8% (N.J.) of federal waterfowl duck stamp sales, and stores accounted for most other sales. Of hunters who bought a federal waterfowl stamp from sample post offices, between 16.7% (Minn.) and 40.0% (Ark.) reported receiving a WHQS contact card. Of those receiving contact cards, between 30.0% (N.J.) and 64.3% (La. and Tex.) reported returning them. Because survey coverage of the target population is poor, we recommend that a new sampling frame be developed for the WHQS.

  19. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Leibovitz, L.; Herman, C.M.; Walker, J.W.

    1968-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  20. LINKING WATERFOWL WITH CONTAMINANT SPECIATION IN RIPARIAN SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 38, Linking Waterfowl with Contaminant Speciation in Riparian Soils, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U...

  1. Orthomyxo-, paramyxo- and flavivirus infections in wild waterfowl in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pöysä Hannu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening wild birds for viral pathogens has become increasingly important. We tested a screening approach based on blood and cloacal and tracheal swabs collected by hunters to study the prevalence of influenza A, paramyxo-, flavi-, and alphaviruses in Finnish wild waterfowl, which has been previously unknown. We studied 310 blood samples and 115 mixed tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from hunted waterfowl in 2006. Samples were screened by RT-PCR and serologically by hemagglutination inhibition (HI test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for influenza A (FLUAV, type 1 avian paramyxo-(APMV-1, Sindbis (SINV, West Nile (WNV and tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV virus infections. Results FLUAV RNA was found in 13 tracheal/cloacal swabs and seven strains were isolated. Five blood samples were antibody positive. Six APMV-1 RNA-positive samples were found from which four strains were isolated, while two blood samples were antibody positive. None of the birds were positive for flavivirus RNA but three birds had flavivirus antibodies by HI test. No antibodies to SINV were detected. Conclusion We conclude that circulation of both influenza A virus and avian paramyxovirus-1 in Finnish wild waterfowl was documented. The FLUAV and APMV-1 prevalences in wild waterfowl were 11.3% and 5.2% respectively, by this study. The subtype H3N8 was the only detected FLUAV subtype while APMV-1 strains clustered into two distinct lineages. Notably, antibodies to a likely mosquito-borne flavivirus were detected in three samples. The screening approach based on hunted waterfowl seemed reliable for monitoring FLUAV and APMV by RT-PCR from cloacal or tracheal samples, but antibody testing in this format seemed to be of low sensitivity.

  2. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  3. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Randall, Lori A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998–1999 and 1999–2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998–1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  4. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  5. An application of queuing theory to waterfowl migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.; Cornely, John E.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Rizzoli, A.E.; Jakeman, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    There has always been great interest in the migration of waterfowl and other birds. We have applied queuing theory to modelling waterfowl migration, beginning with a prototype system for the Rocky Mountain Population of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) in Western North America. The queuing model can be classified as a D/BB/28 system, and we describe the input sources, service mechanism, and network configuration of queues and servers. The intrinsic nature of queuing theory is to represent the spatial and temporal characteristics of entities and how they move, are placed in queues, and are serviced. The service mechanism in our system is an algorithm representing how swans move through the flyway based on seasonal life cycle events. The system uses an observed number of swans at each of 27 areas for a breeding season as input and simulates their distribution through four seasonal steps. The result is a simulated distribution of birds for the subsequent year's breeding season. The model was built as a multiagent system with one agent handling movement algorithms, with one facilitating user interface, and with one to seven agents representing specific geographic areas for which swan management interventions can be implemented. The many parallels in queuing model servers and service mechanisms with waterfowl management areas and annual life cycle events made the transfer of the theory to practical application straightforward.

  6. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 8: The extent that migration and wintering waterfowl habitat in the United States will meet the needs of waterfowl at target I population levels in the year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the last report in the initial series dealing with waterfowl habitat supply-waterfowl demand determinations. In it, potential-for-use throughout the 48...

  7. Waterfowl populations are resilient to immediate and lagged impacts of wildfires in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Schmutz, Joel A.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Wildfires are the principal disturbance in the boreal forest, and their size and frequency are increasing as the climate warms. Impacts of fires on boreal wildlife are largely unknown, especially for the tens of millions of waterfowl that breed in the region. This knowledge gap creates significant barriers to the integrative management of fires and waterfowl, leading to fire policies that largely disregard waterfowl. 2. Waterfowl populations across the western boreal forest of North America have been monitored annually since 1955 by the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (BPOP), widely considered the most extensive wildlife survey in the world. Using these data, we examined impacts of forest fires on abundance of two waterfowl guilds – dabblers and divers. We modelled waterfowl abundance in relation to fire extent (i.e. amount of survey transect burned) and time since fire, examining both immediate and lagged fire impacts. 3. From 1955 to 2014, >1100 fires in the western boreal forest intersected BPOP survey transects, and many transects burned multiple times. Nonetheless, fires had no detectable impact on waterfowl abundance; annual transect counts of dabbler and diver pairs remained stable from the pre- to post-fire period. 4. The absence of fire impacts on waterfowl abundance extended from the years immediately following the fire to those more than a decade afterwards. Likewise, the amount of transect burned did not influence waterfowl abundance, with similar pair counts from the pre- to post-fire period for small (1–20% burned), medium (21–60%) and large (>60%) burns. 5. Policy implications. Waterfowl populations appear largely resilient to forest fires, providing initial evidence that current policies of limited fire suppression, which predominate throughout much of the boreal forest, have not been detrimental to waterfowl populations. Likewise, fire-related management actions, such as prescribed burning or targeted suppression

  8. Summary Totals and Use Days for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl Surveys on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  9. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  10. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 3: Potential-for-waterfowl-use of migrating and wintering waterfowl habitat in the United States, 1965 and 2000, and trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report describes complete quantitative estimates of present and future migration and wintering habitat capability and waterfowl demand for each of 164 management...

  11. Quarterly narrative report : November, December, 1939, January, 1940 for Des Lacs Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, Lostwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, & Easement Refuges in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs & Lostwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November 1939 through January of 1940. The report...

  12. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 11: The extent that waterfowl hunting space met the needs of waterfowl hunters in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the adequacy of waterfowl hunting space, it is necessary to compare the number of hunters that space available can support with the number of hunters...

  13. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  14. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  15. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  16. Radiography and Ultrasonography in the Backyard Poultry and Waterfowl Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-E; Moerke-Schindler, Torsten; Vorbrüggen, Susanne; Cramer, Kerstin

    2017-09-01

    The keeping of backyard poultry and waterfowl as pets has become increasingly popular in recent years, resulting in a rising case load of these patients in veterinary practices. Diagnostic imaging techniques are taking a leading role in rapid diagnosis in the live bird. We provide an overview of the most important points regarding radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging procedures in these birds. We also review the most commonly documented radiographic and ultrasonographic signs in these species, as well as discuss unique anatomic characteristics with which the veterinarian should be familiar.

  17. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  18. Analysis of Evolutionary Processes of Species Jump in Waterfowl Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Sun, Zhaoyu; Shen, Tongtong; Xu, Danning; Huang, Kehe; Zhou, Jiyong; Song, Suquan; Yan, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl parvoviruses are classified into goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) according to their antigenic features and host preferences. A novel duck parvovirus (NDPV), identified as a new variant of GPV, is currently infecting ducks, thus causing considerable economic loss. This study analyzed the molecular evolution and population dynamics of the emerging parvovirus capsid gene to investigate the evolutionary processes concerning the host shift of NDPV. Two important amino acids changes (Asn-489 and Asn-650) were identified in NDPV, which may be responsible for host shift of NDPV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the currently circulating NDPV originated from the GPV lineage. The Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree indicated that the NDPV diverged from GPV approximately 20 years ago. Evolutionary rate analyses demonstrated that GPV evolved with 7.674 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and the data for MDPV was 5.237 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, whereas the substitution rate in NDPV branch was 2.25 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Meanwhile, viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the GPV major clade, including NDPV, grew exponentially at a rate of 1.717 year-1. Selection pressure analysis showed that most sites are subject to strong purifying selection and no positively selected sites were found in NDPV. The unique immune-epitopes in waterfowl parvovirus were also estimated, which may be helpful for the prediction of antibody binding sites against NDPV in ducks. PMID:28352261

  19. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from

  20. Geographic variation in factors that influence timing of moult and breeding in waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Hockey, Philip A R; Cumming, Graeme S

    2017-06-01

    Waterfowl flight-feather moult is expected to occur when energy is not needed for breeding and when a suitable safe habitat is available. Flight-feather regrowth is an energetically costly stage in the annual cycle of waterfowls. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that moult will coincide with the time of year when food and aquatic habitats are most abundant. We investigated how the timing of rainfall relates to the timing of breeding and flight-feather moult in five common southern African waterfowl at two sites in South Africa with opposite rainfall regimes (one summer, one winter). We then incorporated published data to compare and contrast the relative timing of breeding and moult in southern hemisphere (southern African and Australian) waterfowl with northern hemisphere (European and North American) species. Our results showed that southern African waterfowl breed in the wet season and moult during the dry season. Tadorna cana was an exception, breeding in the dry season and moulting during the wet season in the summer-rainfall area. There was also a long lag period between peak breeding and peak moult in southern hemisphere waterfowl species, the longest lag being that of birds in the summer-rainfall area. By comparison, northern hemisphere waterfowl species breed and moult during the warm season, with a shorter lag period between peak breeding and peak moult compared to southern hemisphere species. We concluded that waterfowl in southern Africa (with the exception of T. cana), southeast Australia, Europe and North America time their breeding period to coincide with peaks in the availability of both food and breeding sites. Northern hemisphere species moult where chances of predation are low, when temperatures are warm, and before food and aquatic habitats approach their winter minima. By contrast, southern hemisphere waterfowl delay the onset of moult until the dry season, opting to moult when both food and aquatic moulting habitats are scarce

  1. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  2. First identification of "Brachyspira hampsonii" in wild European waterfowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez-Lobo

    Full Text Available Anseriformes deserve special attention in the epidemiology of Brachyspira spp. because diverse Anseriformes species have been described to act as highly efficient carriers of several Brachyspira spp. that can also infect livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Brachyspira spp. in waterfowl that winter in Spain. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 51 of the 205 faecal samples collected from graylag geese and mallards in the Villafáfila Lagoons Nature Reserve (Northwestern Spain. The Brachyspira species identified through phenotyping, PCR and sequencing of the nox gene were B. pilosicoli (5.9%, B. alvinipulli (11.8%, "B. hampsonii" (19.6%, B. murdochii (23.5% and B. innocens (39.2%. The most relevant finding of this study is the description of "B. hampsonii" in specimens from birds for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the nox gene sequences grouped all of the obtained "B. hampsonii" isolates into a cluster with Brachyspira strains previously identified by others as "B. hampsonii" and separated from other Brachyspira spp. isolates and reference strains. Additionally, this cluster was related to clades that grouped B. murdochii and B. innocens isolates. The identification of "B. hampsonii" was also achieved in 8 of the 10 isolates by sequencing the16S rRNA gene and tlyA gene. Regardless of the species identified, no antimicrobial resistance was observed in any of the enteropathogenic isolates recovered. This is the first description of "B. hampsonii" in European waterfowl, which might represent hosts that serve as natural reservoirs of this Brachyspira species. This finding indicates that this spirochete is not limited to North America, and its presence in wild birds in Europe poses a risk of transmission to livestock.

  3. Midwinter Waterfowl Summary Data 1979-2004 Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data consists of the summary of midwinter waterfowl counts at Noxubee NWR from 1979-2004. Does not provide site locations or methods of collection.

  4. Waterfowl Lead Exposure Data in Alaska and Russia, 1993-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set identifies lead levels found in blood of waterfowl sampled in Russia and Alaska during 1993-1999. This data set includes information on the species,...

  5. 2013 waterfowl nesting success on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab county, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on a 2013 waterfowl nest success on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR). Management units were surveyed using the grid survey method and monitored...

  6. Waterfowl and Habitat Changes after 40 years on the Waubay study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1950 to 1953, Evans and Black (1956) conducted the Waubay Study, one of the first comprehensive studies of waterfowl and wetlands on private lands in the...

  7. Mexican waterfowl survey 1974, west coast of Baja California and the mainland south to Culiacan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is an extension of Annual Midwinter Survey of waterfowl conducted in the United States and southern Canada. By embracing only selected regions of Mexico...

  8. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 4: A 1965 waterfowl population model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Complete estimates of waterfowl populations in each of 164 management units through the forty-eight coterminous United States were systematically developed for May...

  9. Waterfowl population and habitat study, Kenai National Moose Range, Kenai, Alaska: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the period between May 27 and August 28, 1961, a waterfowl population and habitat study was conducted on the Kenai National Moose Range by personnel of the...

  10. Annual Report of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the Fiscal Year 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  11. Quarterly Narrative Report for November, December and January 1938 and 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  12. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Quarterly narrative report: February - March - April 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by...

  13. Back Bay-Currituck Sound Data Report: Waterfowl Studies, Volume II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objectives of the waterfowl studies, done in conjunction with the overall ecological investigation of Back Bay, Virginia, and Currituck Sound, North...

  14. 1989 Waterfowl Nesting Study and Nesting Summary 1984-1989 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1989 nesting season marked the sixth consecutive and final year that Big Stone personnel have conducted waterfowl nesting research. In addition, an experimental...

  15. Quarterly Narrative Report for August, September and October 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  16. Investigation of pond water levels during the 1972 waterfowl brooding season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water level management in the ponds of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is important in providing food and habitat for migrating waterfowl. Water flow measurements...

  17. Lake Bowdoin Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Biological narrative report : Period February 1 to April 30, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Bowdoin Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by...

  18. Lake Andes Waterfowl Production Area: Narrative report: January 1 through December 31, 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Andes NWR- Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by...

  19. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Impoundment Waterfowl Brood Use Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To monitor waterfowl brood use and number in association with water management and drawdowns of impoundments (including associated practices such as moist soil...

  20. Lead shot: its settlement, oxidation, and general availability to waterfowl in Utah marshes.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an attempt to further knowledge in the area of lead poisoning of waterfowl from spent shot pellets, students from the Utah Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit...

  1. 1991-92 report on disposal of wintering waterfowl throughout the San Luis Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To minimize over crowding and cholera in wintering waterfowl, Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuges initiated an experimental effort in November 1990 to...

  2. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 2000. The...

  3. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose of...

  4. Alaska-Yukon waterfowl breeding pair survey, May 17 to June 7, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1969. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  5. Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area...

  6. Waterfowl Production Areas : Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year - 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Waterfowl Production Areas of Arrowwood NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  7. Quarterly reports on mortality of waterfowl on Basin F, January 1981-1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is of waterfowl mortalities found in Basin F of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from 1981-1983. Deceased bird species and number observed is recorded.

  8. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  9. [Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge] Quarterly narrative report for period November 1, 1938 to January 31, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November of 1938 through January of 1939. The report begins by...

  10. Quarterly Narrative Report for May, June and July 1938: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  11. Quarterly Narrative Report for May, June and July 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  12. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Suitability of geothermal waste water for use in waterfowl marsh maintenance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report analyzes the suitability of geothermal waste waters for use in waterfowl management. An extensive review of available data on water quality of geothermal...

  13. Audubon Waterfowl Production Area District : Narrative report : January-December 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon Waterfowl Production Area District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  15. Waterfowl production survey for North and South Dakota: July 3-18, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1972. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Arrowwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : November - December, 1939 - January 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November, 1939 through January, 1940. The report begins by...

  17. Progress Report of the Development of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge to June 1, 1936

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  18. Survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island in Alaska. Aerial surveys and ground surveys are covered....

  19. Quarterly Narrative Report for May, June and July 1940: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  20. Quarterly Narrative Report for February, March and April 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  1. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  2. 1990 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Saskatchewan: May 6 - May 20, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1969. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Monte Vista Refuge : Instructions for conducting the waterfowl production survey based on duck nesting transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the protocol for conducting waterfowl production surveys based on duck nest transects for the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. The basic approach, field...

  5. Annual Report of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the Fiscal Year 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  6. Environmental Assessment : Funk Waterfowl Production Area, Phelps County, Ne. : Moist soil management/wetland enhancement proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment for the proposed moist soil managment and wetland enhancement on the Funk Waterfowl Production Area (WPA) in the Rainwater Basin Wetland...

  7. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly report : August, September, October, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1938. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  9. Alaska-Yukon waterfowl breeding population survey: May 16 to June 14, 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska-Yukon during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  10. Spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, March-May 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River in the Bristol Bay drainage, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, was conducted from 17 March – 18 May, 2005....

  11. Alaska-Yukon: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 20 to June 14, 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska-Yukon during 1977. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  12. Narrative report: Nebraska Waterfowl Production Areas: January 1, 1966 through December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Nebraska Waterfowl Production Areas outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Quarterly narrative report for period August 1, to October 31, 1939: Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1939. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Quarterly narrative report for period November 1, 1939 to January 31, 1940. Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November of 1939 through January of 1940. The report begins by...

  15. Quarterly narrative report for period May 1, 1939 to July 31, 1939: Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1939. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  17. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  18. Pilot study: Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  19. Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey...

  20. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for western Ontario: May 27 through June 1, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1973. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Waterfowl breeding population survey: New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec during 1999. The primary purpose of...

  2. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly report : November and December, 1938, January, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November, 1938 through January, 1939. The report begins by...

  3. Quarterly Narrative Report for August, September and October 1938: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  4. Quarterly Narrative Report for November, December and January 1939 to 1940: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1993. The...

  6. Effectiveness of lithium chloride induced taste aversions in reducing waterfowl nest predation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of lithium chloride (LiCI) as an aversive conditioning agent on waterfowl nest predators were conducted at Sand Lake...

  7. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Quarterly narrative report: February - March - April 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1940. The report begins by...

  8. Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: waterfowl body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983-84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting that some protein was catabolized prior to arrival on wintering areas or that a buildup of protein occurred prior to spring migration. Waterfowl diets varied among species and time, but the nutritional composition of the diets was relatively stable. Ruddy ducks and shovelers consumed mostly animal foods rich in protein (53-60%) and low in Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)(1-7%). Pintail diets contained more NFE (23-38%) and less protein (14-38%) because of greater consumption of plant foods. Nutritional composition of pintail diets varied with lower protein consumption occurring from November through January.

  9. Waterfowl potential as resevoirs of high pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Susanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population of waterfowl subsequently with the high case fatality of poultry and people in West Java regency caused by HPAI H5N1 can raise possibility that waterfowl was a natural reservoir. This research aimed to prove that waterfowl in West Java served as reservoir of AI virus (primarily H5N1 and also identify the virus pathotype based on cleavage site of amino acid sequence. Cloacal swab sample was obtained from healthy and unvaccinated waterfowl from Sukabumi and Bogor Regency. Cloacal swab was propagated in 9 days old embryonic chicken eggs. Allantoic fluid was harvested at the 4th day of incubation and then tested for hemagglutination, and positive isolate continued with virus sub-typing using PCR method. H5 gene from H5N1 isolate then sequenced using dideoxy termination method. Multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences were analysed using MEGA-3.1 program. Sub-typing using PCR method indicated the existence of 25 strain H5N1, 16 strain HxN1, 4 strain H5Nx and 9 virus ND. Characterization of cleavage site amino acid sequence indicated that all H5N1 sample were pathogenic with sequence QRERRRKKR (23 sample dan QRESRRKKR (2 sample. Waterfowl was HPAI H5N1 virus reservoir. Asymptomatic infection in waterfowl, but the virus shedding gradually occurred and therefore it became potential source of H5N1 virus infection. Our findings suggest that immediate action is needed to prevent the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from the apparently healthy waterfowl into terrestrial poultry or human.

  10. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  11. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from November 1, 1936 to December 1, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, upland game birds, mammals, law...

  12. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from December 1, 1936 to December 31, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  13. Waterfowl Migration on Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges 1953-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, David S.; Yee, Julie L.; Mauser, David M.; Hainline, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) complex, located in northeastern California and southern Oregon, is situated on a major Pacific Flyway migration corridor connecting waterfowl breeding grounds in the north with major wintering grounds in California and Mexico. The complex comprises five waterfowl refuges including Lower Klamath NWR, Tule Lake NWR, Upper Klamath NWR, Klamath Marsh NWR, and Clear Lake NWR, and one bald eagle refuge, Bear Valley NWR. Lower Klamath and Tule Lake NWRs are the largest refuges in the complex; historically, they supported some of the greatest autumn and spring concentrations of migrating waterfowl in North America. Starting in 1953, standardized waterfowl surveys from small aircraft have been conducted in autumn through spring. This report summarizes waterfowl migration activity (i.e., abundance, species composition, distribution on refuges, and chronology) over four time periods—the long-term (1953-2001), early (1953-76), recent (1977-2001), and the most recent (1998-2001)—to describe changing patterns of migration on Klamath Basin refuges from autumn 1953 to spring 2001.

  14. Evaluating the potential for weed seed dispersal based on waterfowl consumption and seed viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jaime A; Webb, Elisabeth B; Pierce, Robert A; Bradley, Kevin W

    2017-08-24

    Migratory waterfowl have often been implicated in the movement of troublesome agronomic and wetland weed species. However, minimal research has been conducted to investigate the dispersal of agronomically important weed species by waterfowl. The two objectives for this project were to determine what weed species are being consumed by ducks and snow geese, and to determine the recovery rate and viability of 13 agronomic weed species after passage through a duck's digestive system. Seed recovered from digestive tracts of 526 ducks and geese harvested during a 2-year field study had 35 020 plants emerge. A greater variety of plant species emerged from ducks each year (47 and 31 species) compared to geese (11 and 3 species). Viable seed from 11 of 13 weed species fed to ducks in a controlled feeding study were recovered. Viability rate and gut retention times indicated potential dispersal up to 2900 km from the source depending on seed characteristics and variability in waterfowl dispersal distances. Study results confirm that waterfowl are consuming seeds from a variety of agronomically important weed species, including Palmer amaranth, which can remain viable after passage through digestive tracts and have potential to be dispersed over long distances by waterfowl. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  16. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart A; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Cabot, David

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI), has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7). Data were collected over three years (2008-2010). Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%), while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%). Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration), thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  17. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  18. Waterfowl conservation in the US Prairie Pothole Region: confronting the complexities of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemuth, Neal D; Fleming, Kathleen K; Reynolds, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the most important waterfowl production area in North America. However, waterfowl populations there are predicted to decline because of climate-related drying of wetlands. Consequently, changes in the geographic focus of PPR waterfowl conservation have been recommended, which could have long-lasting and costly impacts. We used a 40-year dataset of pond counts collected in the PPR to test hypotheses about climate-related drying. We assessed May (1974-2013) and July (1974-2003) pond numbers in 20 waterfowl survey strata to determine if trends in pond numbers were consistent with predictions of drying. We also assessed trends in precipitation and temperature for the 20 strata and developed models describing May pond numbers from 1974 through 2010 as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and location. None of the 20 strata showed significant declines in May pond numbers, although seven strata showed increases over time. July pond numbers declined significantly in one stratum, and increased in seven strata. An index to hydroperiod showed significant increasing trends in three strata, and no strata had decreasing trends. Precipitation increased significantly in two strata and decreased in two from 1974 to 2010; no strata showed significant changes in temperature. The best linear model described pond numbers within all strata as a function of precipitation, temperature, the previous year's pond numbers, and the latitude and longitude of the stratum, and explained 62% of annual variation in pond numbers. We hypothesize that direct effects of climate change on prairie pothole wetlands and waterfowl may be overshadowed by indirect effects such as intensified land use and increased pressure to drain wetlands. We recommend that an adaptive, data-driven approach be used to resolve uncertainties regarding direct and indirect effects of climate change on prairie wetlands and waterfowl, and guide future

  19. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmud M.E.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3% and Common Pochard (25,0%. Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The necessity and effectiveness of interventions aimedat reducing the extent of lead contamination of waterfowl was discussed.

  20. The Impact of Agriculture on Waterfowl Abundance: Evidence from Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Clarke, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are potential externality benefits, it is important to specify an appropriate statistical model when analyzing the conflict between agriculture and migratory waterfowl in Canada’s pothole region. Unlike non-spatial panel models, our use of a spatial autoregressive panel model identifie

  1. Final report: Waterfowl activity and habitat use on the Swan Lake HREP Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied diurnal activity and habitat use patterns of waterfowl on Swan Lake in Calhoun County, IL during fall and spring migrations 1992-93. Swan Lake, a 1,255 ha...

  2. A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baveco, J.M.; Kuipers, H.; Nolet, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model to evaluate the capacity of accommodation areas for overwintering waterfowl, at a large spatial scale. Each day geese are distributed over roosting sites. Based on the energy minimization principle, the birds daily decide which surrounding fields to exploit within t

  3. Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recovery Plans that meet the recovery plan requirements; and the percent of Corps acreage included within North American Waterfowl Management Joint ... Venture Implementation Plans where proposed work has been accomplished. This report seeks to provide this information. In summary, the Corps has

  4. Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L; Creekmore, L H; Audet, D J; Snyder, M R; Meteyer, C U; Franson, J C; Locke, L N; Smith, M R; Finley, D L

    2001-10-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined.

  5. Selective waterfowl herbivory affects species dominance in a submerged plant community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria, L.

    2002-01-01

    I used a field experiment to test the hypothesis that waterfowl affect not only the abundance, but also the composition of submerged plant communities. A simple community was chosen for this purpose, composed of two taxa with contrasting distributions along a depth (shore-centre) gradient. I compare

  6. A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baveco, J.M.; Kuipers, H.; Nolet, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model to evaluate the capacity of accommodation areas for overwintering waterfowl, at a large spatial scale. Each day geese are distributed over roosting sites. Based on the energy minimization principle, the birds daily decide which surrounding fields to exploit within

  7. Learning and adaptation in waterfowl conservation: By chance or by design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Case, David J.; Humburg, Dale H.

    2016-01-01

    The most recent revision of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan seeks to increase the adaptive capacity of the management enterprise to cope with accelerating changes in climate, land-use patterns, agency priorities, and the waterfowl and wetlands constituency. Institutional and cultural changes of the magnitude envisioned are necessarily slow, messy processes, involving many actors who at a minimum must agree on the need for change. Waterfowl conservation now finds itself in the transition zone between business as usual and some new mode of operation. There are at least 2 different perspectives of this transition: one focuses on process, accountability, and planning for change; another focuses on solutions generated from an organic process of creativity, information sharing, and risk-taking. Both of these views have something to contribute, but some in the wildlife management enterprise may tend to focus more on the first view. We suggest that ideas from panarchy theory, especially those related to the behaviors of complex adaptive systems, can help waterfowl managers better understand and foster the institutional changes they seek.

  8. Nutrient additions by waterfowl to lakes and reservoirs: predicting their effects on productivity and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Johnson, W.C.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs provide water for human needs and habitat for aquatic birds. Managers of such waters may ask whether nutrients added by waterfowl degrade water quality. For lakes and reservoirs where primary productivity is limited by phosphorus (P), we developed a procedure that integrates annual P loads from waterfowl and other external sources, applies a nutrient load-response model, and determines whether waterfowl that used the lake or reservoir degraded water quality. Annual P loading by waterfowl can be derived from a figure in this report, using the days per year that each kind spent on any lake or reservoir. In our example, over 6500 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and 4200 ducks (mostly mallards, Anas platyrhynchos) added 4462 kg of carbon (C), 280 kg of nitrogen (N), and 88 kg of P y-1 to Wintergreen Lake in southwestern Michigan, mostly during their migration. These amounts were 69% of all C, 27% of all N, and 70% of all P that entered the lake from external sources. Loads from all external sources totaled 840 mg P m-2 y-1. Application of a nutrient load-response model to this concentration, the hydraulic load (0.25 m y-1), and the water residence time (9.7 y) of Wintergreen Lake yielded an average annual concentration of total P in the lake of 818 mg m-3 that classified the lake as hypertrophic. This trophic classification agreed with independent measures of primary productivity, chlorophyll-a, total P, total N, and Secchi disk transparency made in Wintergreen Lake. Our procedure showed that waterfowl caused low water quality in Wintergreen Lake.

  9. Quarterly narrative report for period February 1, 1939 to April 30, 1939: Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Wheeler Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Quarterly Narrative Report for the Period February 1 to April 30, 1940: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  11. Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge Waterfowl Production Area District: Narrative report: January 1 through December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lake Andes NWR- Waterfowl Production Area District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins...

  12. Waterfowl Counts and Wildfire Burn Data from the Western Boreal Forest of North America, 1955-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The project utilized data from the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, which is an annual survey conducted since 1955 by the governments of the United...

  13. Monitoring the Effects of Climate Change on Waterfowl Abundance in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Optimizing Sampling Efficacy and Efficiency

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Winter waterfowl surveys have been conducted across much of the United States since 1935. Aerial surveys conducted using stratified random sampling have the...

  14. [Book review] Waterfowl ecology and management: selected readings, by J. T. Ratti, L. D. Flake and W. A. Wentz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Review of: Waterfowl ecology and management: Selected readings. J. T. Ratti, L. D. Flake, and W. A. Wentz (Compilers). 1982. Bethesda, Maryland, The Wildlife Society, Inc. 1,328 pp. Paperbound. $20.00.

  15. Narrative report: Valentine Waterfowl Production Areas administered by Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: January 1, 1965 to December 31, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valentine Waterfowl Production Areas outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Evaluation of the effects of loss of water for use by waterfowl and other wildlife in the Lahontan Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a two phase study of Lahontan Valley wildlife areas. The purpose of Phase I was to determine the total waterfowl use area in the Lahontan...

  17. Influence of Habitat Types on Prairie Nesting Waterfowl Nest Density and Nest Success in Northeastern North Dakota, 2010 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nest density and nest success of ducks in native and non-native grasslands within the Devils Lake WMD, Northeastern North Dakota. Waterfowl representing 8 species of...

  18. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: July 5-23, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1983. The...

  19. Julia Butler Hansen NWR/Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Midwinter Waterfowl Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Midwinter Waterfowl Survey started in 1935, and is currently the oldest operational survey still conducted annually. It is conducted nationwide at major...

  20. Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges in 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges conducted from October 2001 to February 2002

  1. Molecular analysis of Hemagglutinin Gen of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza of H5N1 Subtype Isolated from Waterfowls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Susanti; Retno D Soejoedono; I Gusti Ngurah K Mahardika; I Wayan T Wibawan; Maggy T Suhartono

    2008-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) subtype H5N1 isolated from waterfowls in West Java pose the known characteristic of highly pathogenic strains, with polybasic amino acid sequence of cleavage site QRERRRKKR and QRESRRKKR...

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of haematozoa in South American waterfowl and evidence for intercontinental redistribution of parasites by migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.

  3. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  4. Waterfowl habitat use and selection during the remigial moult period in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anthony D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hohman, William L.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews factors affecting site selection amongst waterfowl (Anatidae) during the flightless remigial moult, emphasising the roles of predation and food supply (especially protein and energy). The current literature suggests survival during flightless moult is at least as high as at other times of the annual cycle, but documented cases of predation of flightless waterfowl under particular conditions lead us to infer that habitat selection is generally highly effective in mitigating or avoiding predation. High energetic costs of feather replacement and specific amino-acid requirements for their construction imply adoption of special energetic and nutritional strategies at a time when flightlessness limits movements. Some waterfowl meet their energy needs from endogenous stores accumulated prior to remigial moult, others rely on exogenous supply, but this varies with species, age, reproductive status and site. Limited evidence suggests feather proteins are derived from endogenous and exogenous sources which may affect site selection. Remigial moult does not occur independently of other annual cycle events and is affected by reproductive investment and success. Hence, moult strategies are affected by age, sex and reproductive history, and may be influenced by the need to attain a certain internal state for the next stage in the annual cycle (e.g. autumn migration). We know little about habitat selection during moult and urge more research of this poorly known part of the annual cycle, with particular emphasis on identifying key concentrations and habitats for specific flyway populations and the effects of disturbance upon these. This knowledge will better inform conservation actions and management actions concerning waterfowl during moult and the habitats that they exploit.

  5. Environmental and demographic determinants of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl across the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic

  6. Prevalence of influenza A viruses in livestock and free-living waterfowl in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirunda, Halid; Erima, Bernard; Tumushabe, Agnes; Kiconco, Jocelyn; Tugume, Titus; Mulei, Sophia; Mimbe, Derrick; Mworozi, Edison; Bwogi, Josephine; Luswa, Lukwago; Kibuuka, Hannah; Millard, Monica; Byaruhanga, Achilles; Ducatez, Mariette F; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Wurapa, Kofi; Byarugaba, Denis K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2014-02-27

    Avian influenza viruses may cause severe disease in a variety of domestic animal species worldwide, with high mortality in chickens and turkeys. To reduce the information gap about prevalence of these viruses in animals in Uganda, this study was undertaken. Influenza A virus prevalence by RT-PCR was 1.1% (45/4,052) while seroprevalence by ELISA was 0.8% (24/2,970). Virus prevalence was highest in domestic ducks (2.7%, 17/629) and turkeys (2.6%, 2/76), followed by free-living waterfowl (1.3%, 12/929) and swine (1.4%, 7/511). A lower proportion of chicken samples (0.4%, 7/1,865) tested positive. No influenza A virus was isolated. A seasonal prevalence of these viruses in waterfowl was 0.7% (4/561) for the dry and 2.2% (8/368) for the wet season. In poultry, prevalence was 0.2% (2/863) for the dry and 1.4% (24/1,713) for the wet season, while that of swine was 0.0% (0/159) and 2.0% (7/352) in the two seasons, respectively. Of the 45 RT-PCR positive samples, 13 (28.9%) of them were H5 but none was H7. The 19 swine sera positive for influenza antibodies by ELISA were positive for H1 antibodies by HAI assay, but the subtype(s) of ELISA positive poultry sera could not be determined. Antibodies in the poultry sera could have been those against subtypes not included in the HAI test panel. The study has demonstrated occurrence of influenza A viruses in animals in Uganda. The results suggest that increase in volumes of migratory waterfowl in the country could be associated with increased prevalence of these viruses in free-living waterfowl and poultry.

  7. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum

  8. The role of population monitoring in the management of North American waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.; Johnson, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the effort and expense devoted to large-scale monitoring programs, few existing programs have been designed with specific objectives in mind and few permit strong inferences about the dynamics of monitored systems. The waterfowl population monitoring programs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Canadian Wildlife Service and state and provincial agencies provide a nice example with respect to program objectives, design and implementation. The May Breeding Grounds Survey provides an estimate of system state (population size) that serves two primary purposes in the adaptive management process: identifying the appropriate time-specific management actions and updating the information state (model weights) by providing a basis for evaluating predictions of competing models. Other waterfowl monitoring programs (e.g., banding program, hunter questionnaire survey, parts collection survey, winter survey) provide estimates of vital rates (rates of survival, reproduction and movement) associated with system dynamics and variables associated with management objectives (e.g., harvest). The reliability of estimates resulting from monitoring programs depends strongly on whether considerations about spatial variation and detection probability have been adequately incorporated into program design and implementation. Certain waterfowl surveys again provide nice examples of monitoring programs that incorporate these considerations.

  9. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  10. Risk assessment test for lead bioaccessibility to waterfowl in mine-impacted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, O.; Strawn, D.G.; Heinz, G.H.; Williams, B.

    2006-01-01

    Due to variations in soil physicochemical properties, species physiology, and contaminant speciation, Pb toxicity is difficult to evaluate without conducting in vivo dose-response studies. Such tests, however, are expensive and time consuming, making them impractical to use in assessment and management of contaminated environments. One possible alternative is to develop a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that can be used to measure relative bioaccessibility. We developed and correlated a PBET designed to measure the bioaccessibility of Pb to waterfowl (W-PBET) in mine-impacted soils located in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho. The W-PBET was also used to evaluate the impact of P amendments on Pb bioavailability. The W-PBET results were correlated to waterfowl-tissue Pb levels from a mallard duck [Anas platyrhynchos (L.)] feeding study. The W-PBET Pb concentrations were significantly less in the P-amended soils than in the unamended soils. Results from this study show that the W-PBET can be used to assess relative changes in Pb bioaccessibility to waterfowl in these mine-impacted soils, and therefore will be a valuable test to help manage and remediate contaminated soils.

  11. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  12. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013.

  13. Targeted surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in migratory waterfowl across the conterminous United States: chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Miller, Ryan S.; White, Gary C.; Nichols, James D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Franklin, Alan B.; Majumdar, S.; Brenner, F.J.; Huffman, J.E.; McLean, R.G.; Panah, A.I.; Pietrobon, P.J.; Keeler, S.P.; Shive, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of Asian strain H5N1 Highly Pathogenic avian influenca via waterfowl migration is one potential route of entry into the United States. In conjunction with state, tribe, and laboratory partners, the United States Department of Agriculture collected and tested 124,603 wild bird samples in 2006 as part of a national surveillance effort. A sampling plan was devised to increase the probability fo detecting Asian strain H5N1 at a national scale. Band recovery data were used to identify and prioritize sampling for wild migratory waterfowl, resulting in spatially targeted sampling recommendations focused on reads with high numbers of recoveries. We also compared the spatial and temporal distribution of the 2006 cloacal and fecal waterfowl sampling effort to the bird banding recovery data and found concordance between the two .Finally, we present improvements made to the 2007 fecal sampling component of the surveillance plan and suggest further improvements for future sampling.

  14. Isolation of myxoviruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in district, western Japan in winters of 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengqing, Yu; Shinya, Kyoko; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1997 and February 2000, winter migratory waterfowls of several species staying in San-in district, western Japan were surveyed for influenza A virus and paramyxovirus at four stations. A total of 18 influenza A viruses was isolated from 1,404 fecal samples of whistling swans, pintails, mallards, and white-fronted geese. Five different hemagglutinins and eight neuraminidases were identified in the viruses isolated, in 11 different combinations, including H7N8 related to a subtype of a highly pathogenic chicken virus. In 2000, five lentogenic (non-pathogenic) Newcastle disease viruses were also isolated from white-fronted geese. These results suggested that possible precursor viruses for highly pathogenic avian myxoviruses are still brought into Japan by migratory waterfowls. The results also support the contention that continued surveillance of wild waterfowl population should be an integral part of control policies for these serious poultry diseases.

  15. The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

    2014-10-01

    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.

  16. Estimating partial observability and nonlinear climate effects on stochastic community dynamics of migratory waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz, Pablo; Green, Andy J; Aguilera, Eduardo; Rendón, Miguel A; Bustamante, Javier

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding the impact of environmental variability on migrating species requires the estimation of sequential abiotic effects in different geographic areas across the life cycle. For instance, waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) usually breed widely dispersed throughout their breeding range and gather in large numbers in their wintering headquarters, but there is a lack of knowledge on the effects of the sequential environmental conditions experienced by migrating birds on the long-term community dynamics at their wintering sites. 2. Here, we analyse multidecadal time-series data of 10 waterfowl species wintering in the Guadalquivir Marshes (SW Spain), the single most important wintering site for waterfowl breeding in Europe. We use a multivariate state-space approach to estimate the effects of biotic interactions, local environmental forcing during winter and large-scale climate during breeding and migration on wintering multispecies abundance fluctuations, while accounting for partial observability (observation error and missing data) in both population and environmental data. 3. The joint effect of local weather and large-scale climate explained 31·6% of variance at the community level, while the variability explained by interspecific interactions was negligible (observations through data augmentation increased the estimated magnitude of environmental forcing by an average 30·1% and reduced the impact of stochasticity by 39·3% when accounting for observation error. Interestingly however, the impact of environmental forcing on community dynamics was underestimated by an average 15·3% and environmental stochasticity overestimated by 14·1% when ignoring both observation error and data augmentation. 5. These results provide a salient example of sequential multiscale environmental forcing in a major migratory bird community, which suggests a demographic link between the breeding and wintering grounds operating through nonlinear environmental effects

  17. Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty J Kreakie

    Full Text Available In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species.

  18. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl in North America and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Jesper; Thomsen, Anders F.; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    The first avian bornavirus (ABV) was identified in 2008 by researchers investigating the cause of proventricular dilation disease in psittacine birds 3,4. A distinctly separate genotype (ABV-CG) was discovered in 2009 in association with neurological disease in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta...... was identified in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) 2. In order to determine whether avian bornavirus was present in European waterfowl, the brains of 333 hunter killed geese in Denmark were examined by real time RT-PCR for the presence of avian bornavirus; seven birds (2.1%) were positive. Sequences were 98...

  19. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmud M.E.; Koshelev A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3%) and Common Pochard (25,0%). Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The...

  20. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  1. Waterfowl foraging in winter-flooded ricefields: Any agronomic benefits for farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Anne; Pernollet, Claire A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Guillemain, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Winter-flooding of ricefields provides foraging habitat to waterfowl, which in return may bring agronomic benefits to farmers. Our study experimentally tested the effect of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) on the standing stalks and weed seed bank in the Camargue (France), both of which present major challenges for farmers. Three duck densities were tested: (D1) 5 ducks ha(-1) (historical nocturnal density), (D2) 23 ducks ha(-1) (present nocturnal density), and (D3) 300 ducks ha(-1) (Asian rice-duck farming density). The ducks reduced the stalks significantly: -27 % (D1), -52 % (D2), and -91 % (D3). Conversely, they decreased the number of seeds by only 3 % (D3) and the seed mass by about 21 % (D1 and D3), which was not significant. Besides they had no effect on seed species richness. This study clearly demonstrates that the winter-flooding effect on straw decomposition can be enhanced by waterfowl foraging, hence showing an agronomic benefit from ducks to farmers. However, there was no clear effect in terms of seed bank reduction.

  2. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n = 105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.694, P = 0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species.

  3. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  4. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild migratory waterfowl in a region of high poultry production, Delmarva, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hindman, Larry J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Driscoll, Cindy P.; Nagel, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities). Sampling of key migratory waterfowl species occurred at 20 locations throughout the Delmarva Peninsula in fall and winter of 2013–14. Samples were collected from 400 hunter-harvested or live-caught birds via cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs. Fourteen of the 400 (3.5%) birds sampled tested positive for the AIV matrix gene using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, all from five dabbling duck species. Further characterization of the 14 viral isolates identified two hemagglutinin (H3 and H4) and four neuraminidase (N2, N6, N8, and N9) subtypes, which were consistent with isolates reported in the Influenza Research Database for this region. Three of 14 isolates contained multiple HA or NA subtypes. This study adds to the limited baseline information available for AIVs in migratory waterfowl populations on the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly prior to the highly pathogenic AIV A(H5N8) and A(H5N2) introductions to the United States in late 2014.

  5. Developing a wintering waterfowl community baseline for environmental monitoring of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty J. Kreakie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Atlantic Ecology Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development began an annual winter waterfowl survey of Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from 2004 to 2011 in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring. The abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the initial years of this survey, except in 2010 when there was a large spike in abundance and a reciprocal fall in diversity. There was no significant change in ranked abundance of most waterfowl species, with only Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola and Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucllatus showing a slight yet significant upward trend during the course of our survey period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS was used to examine the community structure of wintering waterfowl. The results of the NMDS indicate that there is a spatial structure to the waterfowl communities of Narragansett Bay and this structure has remained relatively stable since the survey began. Our NMDS analysis helps to solidify what is known anecdotally about the bay’s waterfowl ecology, and provides a formalized benchmark for long-term monitoring of Narragansett Bay’s waterfowl communities. Birds, including waterfowl, are preferred bioindicators and we propose using our multivariate approach to monitor the future health of the bay. While this research focuses on a specific area of New England, these methods can be easily applied to novel areas of concern and provide a straightforward nonparametric approach to community-level monitoring. The methods provide a statistic test to examine potential drivers of community turnover and well-suited visualization tools.

  6. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John F; Hall, Graham P; McDonald, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys.

  7. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. McEvoy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models or 40m above individuals (multirotor models. Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys.

  8. Presence of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and wetlands during summer 2010 in California: Are resident birds a potential reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.; Dusek, R.J.; Fleskes, J.P.; Ip, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although wild waterfowl are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv), the environment plays a critical role for the circulation and persistence of AIv. LPAIv may persist for extended periods in cold environments, suggesting that waterfowl breeding areas in the northern hemisphere may be an important reservoir for AIv in contrast to the warmer southern wintering areas. We evaluated whether southern wetlands, with relatively small populations (thousands) of resident waterfowl, maintain AIv in the summer, prior to the arrival of millions of migratory birds. We collected water and fecal samples at ten wetlands in two regions (Yolo Bypass and Sacramento Valley) of the California Central Valley during three bi-weekly intervals beginning in late July, 2010. We detected AIv in 29/367 fecal samples (7.9%) and 12/597 water samples (2.0%) by matrix real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). We isolated two H3N8, two H2N3, and one H4N8 among rRT-PCR positive fecal samples but no live virus from water samples. Detection of AIv RNA in fecal samples was higher from wetlands in the Sacramento Valley (11.9%) than in the Yolo Bypass (0.0%), but no difference was found for water samples (2.7 vs. 1.7%, respectively). Our study showed that low densities of hosts and unfavorable environmental conditions did not prevent LPAIv circulation during summer in California wetlands. Our findings justify further investigations to understand AIv dynamics in resident waterfowl populations, compare AIv subtypes between migratory and resident waterfowl, and assess the importance of local AIv as a source of infection for migratory birds.

  9. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Dugger, Bruce D.; Brasher, Michael G.; Coluccy, John M.; Cramer, Dane M.; Eadie, John M.; Gray, Matthew J.; Hagy, Heath M.; Livolsi, Mark; McWilliams, Scott R.; Petrie, Matthew; Soulliere, Gregory J.; Tirpak, John M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  10. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  11. Surveillance of influenza viruses in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Jurado-Tarifa

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI95%: 15.8-19.0 decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0% than in ducks (11.7% (P<0.001. Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI. The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively, while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%. The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7, was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern.

  12. The Effect of Human Menopausal Gonadotropin Administration on Follicle Recruitment Waterfowls During Non-Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Keynezhad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been seen that wild waterfowls stop breeding during captivity. In the longterm,this may put their species in danger and there would be a need to find a way for artificialreproduction.In this study, a common medication for human controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COHwas tested on wild waterfowls to answer the question of whether this application can causeovarian follicular recruitment and does it help the fowl ovulate and lay eggs.Materials and Methods: The animal experimental model was the adult female Mallard.The timing of research was scheduled for mid-July through mid-August which counts as outofseasonfor Mallard breeding.75 IU/bird/day was injected IM for 10 days. After completion of injections, the ovarian tissueswere retrieved and considered for morphological and histological assessments.Results: The results show a positive effect for human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG onmost of the evaluated parameters. In the experimental group; ovarian size, number of differentiatingoocytes (vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic and theca layer diameter were significantlymore than the control group (p<0.05. Differences in the other parameters (the numberof undifferentiated and pre-vitellogenic oocytes, nucleus and arteriole diameter comparedbetween control and experimental groups were not statistically significant.Conclusion: It seems that hMG has a positive and meaningful effect on ovarian follicularrecruitment and its administration will be an effective method for ovulation induction in femaleMallards. This may especially be combined with artificial insemination to help the laying eggsbecome fertilized.

  13. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, H.S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  14. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Kigigak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an arctic nesting goose study conducted on Kigigak Island as part of a Refuge-wide waterfowl monitoring program. The goals of...

  15. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 5: A target waterfowl population model: estimates of populations for individual species at maximum foreseeable levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Complete estimates of waterfowl populations in each of 164 management units through the forty-eight coterminous United States were systematically developed for May...

  16. Amendment to refuge hunting plan for waterfowl on 5,500 acres of former commercial salt ponds : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the 1982 Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR waterfowl hunting plan was written to address 5,500 acres of salt pond recently acquisitioned by the...

  17. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 6: The extent that migration and wintering habitat in the United States met the needs of waterfowl in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, the results of the first comparison is presented. Estimates of the number of waterfowl that migration and wintering habitat available in each of 164...

  18. Flyway Habitat Management Unit Project report no. 2: Important migration and wintering waterfowl habitat in the United States, 1965 and 2000, and trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimates of acreages of upland, wetland, and permanent water habitat important to migrating and wintering waterfowl were made for each of 164 management units in...

  19. Waterfowl populations, production and habitat ecology on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska: Population and ecology of cackling geese: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a progress report on the waterfowl populations, production and habitat ecology on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, specifically the populations and ecology...

  20. Report of Surveys and Activities on the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge for the Period July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1935

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  1. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Predator Fences, Waterfowl Nest Success and Nest Densities within a Fragmented Landscape in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District, northeastern North Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Abstract We evaluated the use of predator fences within 2 Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA) within the Devils Lake WMD, North Dakota, April 25 thru July 30, 2012....

  2. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  3. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Trevor M; Bousfield, R Barry; Bissett, Lucy A; Dyrting, Kitman C; Luk, Geraldine S M; Tsim, S T; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Webster, Robert G; Guan, Yi; Malik Peiris, J S

    2004-10-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza have occurred in Hong Kong in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry in 1997, 2001, twice in 2002 and 2003. High mortality rates were seen in gallinaceous birds but not in domestic or wild waterfowl or other wild birds until late 2002 when highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza occurred in waterfowl (geese, ducks and swans), captive Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) and other wild birds (Little Egret Egretta garzetta) at two waterfowl parks and from two dead wild Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) and a Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) in Hong Kong. H5N1 avian influenza virus was also isolated from a dead feral pigeon (Columba livia) and a dead tree sparrow (Passer montanus) during the second outbreak. The first waterfowl outbreak was controlled by immediate strict quarantine and depopulation 1 week before the second outbreak commenced. Control measures implemented for the second outbreak included strict isolation, culling, increased sanitation and vaccination. Outbreaks in gallinaceous birds occurred in some live poultry markets concurrently with the second waterfowl outbreak, and infection on a chicken farm was detected 1 week after the second waterfowl park outbreak was detected, on the same day the second grey heron case was detected. Subsequent virus surveillance showed the outbreaks had been contained.

  4. 水禽禽流感防控的探讨%Research into Prevention and Control of Waterfowl Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建龙; 刘道新; 何世成; 唐小明; 汪洪冰

    2012-01-01

    Waterfowl is a huge repository of influenza viruses, and its occurrence and spread is very important in the epidemiology of avian flu . This article about waterfowl avian flu pandemic, pathogenicity, the choice of vaccines, immunization programs and immunoenhancement were described and discussed.%水禽是流感病毒巨大的贮存库,其在禽流感的发生及其传播中具有非常重要的流行病学意义。本文就水禽禽流感的流行特点、致病力及其防控措施中疫苗的选择、免疫程序的制定、免疫增强剂等方面作了阐述和探讨。

  5. PHYLOGENETIC AND ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS OF H5N1 SUBTYPE ISOLATED FROM WATERFOWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Susanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried (1 to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of fragment hemaglutinin (HA geneof avian influenza viruses (AIV subtype H5N1 isolated from apparently healthy backyard waterfowls inWest Java with representative of animal and human isolates from Indonesia and some countries in Asia;(2 to find out cross-reactivity of those viruses with a standard Indonesian strain. Nucleotide sequences ofHA gene of AIV H5N1 from backyard waterfowls along with other H5N1 isolates of Indonesian and Asianorigin were aligned using with ClustalW of MEGA 3.1 program. Estimation of genetic distance and theconstruction phylogenetic tree were conducted by Neighbor Joining method and calculation of distancematrix using Kimura 2-parameter. Antigenic analysis was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition(HI test. Result of phylogenetic analysis indicated that all viruses from backyard waterfowls form threedistinct sublineages. One lineage was located in Indonesia cluster and two lineages in Asia cluster. In thephylogenetic analysis, it was concluded that multiple introductions of AIV H5N1 to Indonesia have occurred.Six AI H5N1 viruses from backyard waterfowls (IPB1-RS to IPB6-RS appeared to be different ancestorsthose isolated previously in Indonesia. Cross-antigenic analysis showed that nine viruses isolates used inthis study were antigenically different to Legok 2003 chicken strain of AIV H5N1. The HI titer of anti-Legok 2003 antibody with all newly isolated viruses is up to 6 log lower then the HI titer using homologstrain.

  6. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  7. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype Influenza A viruses in new world waterfowl and experimental infectivity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Recent repeated isolation of H14 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses (IAVs in the New World waterfowl provides evidence to suggest that host and/or geographic ranges for viruses of this subtype may be expanding. In this study, we used genomic analyses to gain inference on the origin and evolution of H14 viruses in New World waterfowl and conducted an experimental challenge study in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos to evaluate pathogenicity, viral replication, and transmissibility of a representative viral strain in a natural host species. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype IAVs isolated from New World waterfowl, including three isolates sequenced specifically for this study, revealed high nucleotide identity among individual gene segments (e.g. ≥95% shared identity among H14 HA gene segments. In contrast, lower shared identity was observed among internal gene segments. Furthermore, multiple neuraminidase subtypes were observed for H14 IAVs isolated in the New World. Gene segments of H14 viruses isolated after 2010 shared ancestral genetic lineages with IAVs isolated from wild birds throughout North America. Thus, genomic characterization provided evidence for viral evolution in New World waterfowl through genetic drift and genetic shift since purported introduction from Eurasia. In the challenge study, no clinical disease or lesions were observed among mallards experimentally inoculated with A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5 or exposed via contact with infected birds. Titers of viral shedding for mallards challenged with the H14N5 IAV were highest at two days post-inoculation (DPI; however shedding was detected up to nine DPI using cloacal swabs. The distribution of viral antigen among mallards infected with H14N5 IAV was largely restricted to enterocytes lining the villi in the lower intestinal tract and in the epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius. Characterization of the infectivity of A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13

  8. Pb-Al relationships in waterfowl feces discriminate between sources of Pb exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Haro, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana - CSIC, Americo Vespucio, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Taggart, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mateo, R., E-mail: rafael.mateo@uclm.e [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Hunted mallards (n = 56) were collected in the Ebro Delta (Spain) in 2007-08 to evaluate the use of feces as a non-invasive monitoring method to study lead shot ingestion. The prevalence of Pb shot ingestion in these birds was 28.6%, and similar to that reported before a ban on Pb shot use in 2003. Lead concentrations in terminal intestinal contents were higher in mallards with Pb shot in their gizzard. Feces Pb concentrations >34 {mu}g/g d.w were indicative of Pb shot ingestion, and background Pb levels were <12.5 {mu}g/g d.w. To discriminate between birds ingesting soil Pb, and those ingesting Pb shot, we correlated Al and Pb levels and showed that mallards with ingested Pb shot in the gizzard stood out as outliers within the regression. Feces Pb-Al relationships can be used as a simple non-invasive tool in monitoring programs regarding Pb shot ingestion in birds. - By analysing Pb-Al levels in feces, a simple non-invasive method can help determine sources of Pb exposure in waterfowl.

  9. Characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Ishii, Akihiro; Igarashi, Manabu; Mweene, Aaron S; Suzuki, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Namangala, Boniface; Moonga, Ladslav; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Simukonda, Chuma; Chansa, Wilbroad; Chulu, Jack; Takada, Ayato

    2011-06-01

    Although the quest to clarify the role of wild birds in the spread of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has yielded considerable data on AIVs in wild birds worldwide, information regarding the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in African wild birds is still very limited. During AIV surveillance in Zambia (2008-2009), 12 viruses of distinct subtypes (H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) were isolated from wild waterfowl. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all the isolates were of the Eurasian lineage. Whilst some genes were closely related to those of AIVs isolated from wild and domestic birds in South Africa, intimating possible AIV exchange between wild birds and poultry in southern Africa, some gene segments were closely related to those of AIVs isolated in Europe and Asia, thus confirming the inter-regional AIV gene flow among these continents. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of internal proteins revealed that several isolates harboured particular residues predominantly observed in human influenza viruses. Interestingly, the isolates with human-associated residues exhibited higher levels of virus replication in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity as measured by weight loss than an isolate lacking such residues. This study stresses the need for continued monitoring of AIVs in wild and domestic birds in southern Africa to gain a better understanding of the emergence of strains with the potential to infect mammals.

  10. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Ferreyroa, Gisele; Molina, Fernando V; Caselli, Andrea; Barberis, Ignacio; Beldoménico, Pablo; Uhart, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    The pollution of wetlands by lead derived from waterfowl hunting with lead shot was investigated. We determined soil pellet density and Pb concentration in soil, water and vegetation in natural wetlands and rice fields in central-eastern Santa Fe province, Argentina. Pellet density varied greatly among hunting sites (between 5.5-141 pellets/m(2)) and pellets were present in some control sites. Soil Pb concentration in most hunting sites (approximately 10-20 mg kg(-1)) was not much higher than in control sites (~5-10 mg kg(-1)), with the exception of the site with highest pellet density, which also had a high Pb soil concentration. In water, on the other hand, Pb concentration was similar in all sites (~4-7 μg L(-1)), both control and hunting, and higher than reference values for aquatic media. Lead was also present in vegetation, including grasses and rice crops, in almost all cases. Most soil-collection sites were slightly acidic, and were frequently flooded. These results strongly suggest that metallic Pb from spent shot is oxidized and dissolved due to wetland conditions. Thus, the pollutant is readily mobilized and distributed across all wetland areas, effectively homogenizing its concentration in locations with and without hunting activities. The replacement of lead by nontoxic materials in pellets appears to be the only effective way to prevent Pb pollution in wetlands.

  11. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  12. New Reassortant H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus from Waterfowl in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafen eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New reassortant highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses were isolated from waterfowl in Southern China. Blast analysis demonstrated that the PB2 gene in these viruses were most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1, while their NP genes were both more closely related to A/wild duck/Shandong/1/2011 (H5N1 and A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8. However, the HA, NA, PB1, PA, M, and NS genes had the highest homology with A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that their HA genes belonged to the same GsGd H5 clade 2.3.4.4 detected in China in 2010. Therefore, we supposed that these H5N8 viruses might be novel reassortant viruses that have a H5N8 backbone while acquiring PB2 and NP genes from H5N1 viruses. This study is useful for better understanding the genetic and antigenic evolution of H5 avian influenza viruses in Southern China.

  13. Southward autumn migration of waterfowl facilitates cross-continental transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration routes. However, the different roles that the southward autumn and northward spring migration might play in virus transmission have hardly been explored. Using direction analysis, we analyze HPAI H5N1 transmission directions and angular concentration of currently circulating viral clades, and compare these with waterfowl seasonal migration directions along major waterfowl flyways. Out of 22 HPAI H5N1 transmission directions, 18 had both a southward direction and a relatively high concentration. Differences between disease transmission and waterfowl migration directions were significantly smaller for autumn than for spring migration. The four northward transmission directions were found along Asian flyways, where the initial epicenter of the virus was located. We suggest waterfowl first picked up the virus from East Asia, then brought it to the north via spring migration, and then spread it to other parts of world mainly by autumn migration. We emphasize waterfowl autumn migration plays a relatively important role in HPAI H5N1 transmission compared to spring migration.

  14. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Strong potential for endozoochory by waterfowl in a rare, ephemeral wetland plant species, Astragalus contortuplicatus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Lovas-Kiss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It was proposed previously that passive dispersal by migratory aquatic birds explain the widespread distribution of many wetland organisms. Several experimental studies have shown that many widespread wetland plant species can be readily dispersed within the guts of Anatidae. However, it is unclear whether plants with a more restricted distribution are able to disperse via waterbirds. This paper addresses the dispersal ability and germination ecology of the little-known Hungarian milkvetch Astragalus contortuplicatus, which occurs on banks of continental rivers and has a limited and unpredictable distribution. To test whether limited capacity for endozoochory by waterfowl could explain the sporadic appearance of this species, we force-fed ten captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos with 100 milkvetch seeds each. Droppings were collected for up to 45 h after feeding. Intact and viable seeds were found in the droppings of each mallard, and altogether 24.7% of seeds fed were recovered intact. The proportion of retrieved seeds that germinated (27.0% was significantly higher than that of untreated control seeds (0.5%, but significantly lower than that of mechanically scarified seeds (96.0%. Retrieved seeds that germinated developed into healthy mature plants. Given the average flight velocity of mallards, seeds of A. contortuplicatus may travel up to 1600 km inside the digestive tract of migrating individuals. Our results suggest that avian vectors may be more important for the dispersal of rare higher plants (especially those with a hard seed-coat than hitherto considered. Moreover, they suggest that rarity does not necessarily indicate limited dispersal ability, and may instead be explained by specific habitat requirements.

  16. Determination of foraging thresholds and effects of application on energetic carrying capacity for waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagy, Heath M; Kaminski, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Energetic carrying capacity of habitats for wildlife is a fundamental concept used to better understand population ecology and prioritize conservation efforts. However, carrying capacity can be difficult to estimate accurately and simplified models often depend on many assumptions and few estimated parameters. We demonstrate the complex nature of parameterizing energetic carrying capacity models and use an experimental approach to describe a necessary parameter, a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which animals no longer can efficiently forage and acquire energy), for a guild of migratory birds. We created foraging patches with different fixed prey densities and monitored the numerical and behavioral responses of waterfowl (Anatidae) and depletion of foods during winter. Dabbling ducks (Anatini) fed extensively in plots and all initial densities of supplemented seed were rapidly reduced to 10 kg/ha and other natural seeds and tubers combined to 170 kg/ha, despite different starting densities. However, ducks did not abandon or stop foraging in wetlands when seed reduction ceased approximately two weeks into the winter-long experiment nor did they consistently distribute according to ideal-free predictions during this period. Dabbling duck use of experimental plots was not related to initial seed density, and residual seed and tuber densities varied among plant taxa and wetlands but not plots. Herein, we reached several conclusions: 1) foraging effort and numerical responses of dabbling ducks in winter were likely influenced by factors other than total food densities (e.g., predation risk, opportunity costs, forager condition), 2) foraging thresholds may vary among foraging locations, and 3) the numerical response of dabbling ducks may be an inconsistent predictor of habitat quality relative to seed and tuber density. We describe implications on habitat conservation objectives of using different foraging thresholds in energetic carrying capacity models and

  17. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviane Henaux,; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  18. Pathological study on amyloidosis in Cygnus olor (mute swan) and other waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinsuke; Dan, Cui; Kawano, Hiroo; Omoto, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Tokuhiro

    2008-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2007, we examined a total of 70 waterfowl. Forty of 51 (78.4%) mute swans (Cygnus olor) had amyloidosis. Amyloid deposits were detected in the spleen of 39 of 49 birds (79.6%), liver of 37 of 47 birds (78.7%), intestine of 38 of 50 birds (76.0%), pancreas of 30 of 42 birds (71.4%), kidney of 32 of 47 birds (68.1%), thyroid gland of 20 of 30 birds (66.7%), heart of 26 of 49 birds (53.1%), and lung of 5 of 45 birds (11.1%). In some birds, there was a globular pattern of amyloid deposition or infiltration of foreign-body giant cells around amyloid nodules in the spleen. Immunostaining with anti-AA antibody and Western blotting revealed that all were cases of AA amyloidosis. In sections treated with potassium permanganate, which removes Congo red stain, the green refringence under polarized light had mostly vanished. However, staining was not completely eliminated in some areas. Electron microscopy confirmed that the star-shaped amyloid fibrils were 10 nm in diameter and lacked branching. We also demonstrated amyloid bundles and star-shaped amyloid fibrils. A high percentage (96.3%) of mute swans had an inflammatory condition known as bumblefoot. Swans are useful model for studies of animals that have high amounts of amyloid. This research may help in the elucidation of the mechanism of amyloidogenesis in humans, and more research regarding amyloidosis in birds that are consumed as food is necessary.

  19. Modeling nonbreeding distributions of shorebirds and waterfowl in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gordon; Skagen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    To identify areas on the landscape that may contribute to a robust network of conservation areas, we modeled the probabilities of occurrence of several en route migratory shorebirds and wintering waterfowl in the southern Great Plains of North America, including responses to changing climate. We predominantly used data from the eBird citizen-science project to model probabilities of occurrence relative to land-use patterns, spatial distribution of wetlands, and climate. We projected models to potential future climate conditions using five representative general circulation models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). We used Random Forests to model probabilities of occurrence and compared the time periods 1981–2010 (hindcast) and 2041–2070 (forecast) in “model space.” Projected changes in shorebird probabilities of occurrence varied with species-specific general distribution pattern, migration distance, and spatial extent. Species using the western and northern portion of the study area exhibited the greatest likelihoods of decline, whereas species with more easterly occurrences, mostly long-distance migrants, had the greatest projected increases in probability of occurrence. At an ecoregional extent, differences in probabilities of shorebird occurrence ranged from −0.015 to 0.045 when averaged across climate models, with the largest increases occurring early in migration. Spatial shifts are predicted for several shorebird species. Probabilities of occurrence of wintering Mallards and Northern Pintail are predicted to increase by 0.046 and 0.061, respectively, with northward shifts projected for both species. When incorporated into partner land management decision tools, results at ecoregional extents can be used to identify wetland complexes with the greatest potential to support birds in the nonbreeding season under a wide range of future climate scenarios.

  20. Influence of a Mine Tailing Accident Near Don˜ ana National Park (Spain) on Heavy Metals and Arsenic Accumulation in 14 Species of Waterfowl (1998 to 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Gemma; Baos, Raquel; Gómara, B.; Jiménez, Begoña; Benito, V.; Hiraldo, F.; González, María José

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the impact on waterbirds in Don˜ ana National Park (Spain) of an accidental release of 5 million m3 acid waste produced by the processing of pyrite ore. Heavy metals (zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead) and arsenic were measured in several soft tissues (liver, kidney, and mus- cle) taken from 14 waterfowl species collected between April 1998 and May 2000. The main source of copper and zinc found in the waterfowl species examined was the spill waste, whereas cadmium, lea...

  1. Sodium toxicity and pathology associated with exposure of waterfowl to hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Dubielzig, R.D.; Dein, F.J.; Baeten, L.A.; Moore, M.K.; Jehl, J.R.; Wesenberg, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cause of mortality was studied in waterfowl in hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico during spring and fall migration. Mortality was not common in wild ducks resting on the playas during good weather. However, when birds remained on the lakes for prolonged periods of time, such as during experimental trials and stormy weather, a heavy layer of salt precipitated on their feathers. Sodium toxicity was the cause of death for all experimental mallards housed on playa water and for 50% of the wild waterfowl found moribund or dead during the spring of 1995. Gross lesions included heavy salt precipitation on the feathers, ocular lens opacities, deeply congested brains, and dilated, thin-walled, fluid-filled cloacae. Microscopic lesions in the more severely affected birds included liquefaction of ocular lens cortex with lens fiber swelling and multifocal to diffuse ulcerative conjunctivitis with severe granulocytic inflammation, edema, and granulocytic vasculitis resulting in thrombosis. Inflammation similar to that seen in the conjunctiva occasionally involved the mucosa of the mouth, pharynx, nasal turbinates, cloaca, and bursa. Transcorneal movement of water in response to the hypersaline conditions on the playa lakes or direct contact with salt crystals could induce anterior segment dehydration of the aqueous humor and increased osmotic pressure on the lens, leading to cataract formation.

  2. Satellite-marked waterfowl reveal migratory connection between H5N1 outbreak areas in China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, D.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Yan, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Hou, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Zhao, D.; Perry, W.M.; Palm, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been greatly debated and remains an unresolved question. However, analyses to determine involvement of wild birds have been hindered by the lack of basic information on their movements in central Asia. Thus, we initiated a programme to document migrations of waterfowl in Asian flyways to inform hypotheses of H5N1 transmission. As part of this work, we studied migration of waterfowl from Qinghai Lake, China, site of the 2005 H5N1 outbreak in wild birds. We examined the null hypothesis that no direct migratory connection existed between Qinghai Lake and H5N1 outbreak areas in central Mongolia, as suggested by some H5N1 phylogeny studies. We captured individuals in 2007 from two of the species that died in the Qinghai Lake outbreaks and marked them with GPS satellite transmitters: Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus (n = 14) and Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (n = 11). Three of 25 marked birds (one Goose and two Shelducks) migrated to breeding grounds near H5N1 outbreak areas in Mongolia. Our results describe a previously unknown migratory link between the two regions and offer new critical information on migratory movements in the region. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  3. Molecular analysis of Hemagglutinin Gen of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza of H5N1 Subtype Isolated from Waterfowls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Susanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses (AIV subtype H5N1 isolated from waterfowls in West Java pose the known characteristic of highly pathogenic strains, with polybasic amino acid sequence of cleavage site QRERRRKKR and QRESRRKKR. This research aimed to analyze the important domains of hemagglutinin (HA gene of those isolates. Fragment of HA gene was amplified using RT-PCR method with specifically-designed primer pairs and sequenced using dideoxy termination method with ABI automatic sequencer (Applied Biosystems. Multiple alignment of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed using ClustalW of MEGA-3.1 program. Some of biological domains of HA, i.e. antigenic sites, receptor binding pocket, and glycosylation sites of the isolates were polymorphic. The viruses also pose conserved glutamine (Q and glisin (G residues at the known receptor binding site, at the position 222 and 224 respectively. This findings clearly show that all AIV subtype H5N1 isolaed from waterfowl preservesthe α-2,3NeuAcGal avian receptor specificity.

  4. Negative data provide weak support for disappearance and restricted emergence/persistence of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their recent paper, Krauss et al. use lack of detection of highly pathogenic (HP) H5 clade 2.3.4.4 (henceforth ‘H5’) influenza A viruses (IAVs) from >22,000 wild bird samples collected in North America (NA) in 2014–2015 to argue that HP H5 IAVs disappeared from waterfowl and that unresolved mecha...

  5. The Ramsar Conference, Final Act of the International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl (Ramsar, Iran, 30 January to 3 February 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    IUCN Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Final Act of the International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl is presented in this pamphlet. The conference was convened by the Government of Iran at Ramsar, Iran, January 30 to February 3, 1971, to promote international collaboration in this field. It was sponsored by the International Wildfowl Research…

  6. Report of Survey for Waterfowl Broods and Marsh Birds at Nulhegan Basin Divison, Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge and West Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Island Pond, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes waterfowl and marsh bird surveys conducted at Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge during the spring and summer of 2000.

  7. Tewaukon Waterfowl Production Area District : Bone Hill Easement Refuge, Lake Elsie Easement Refuge, Maple River Easement Refuge, Storm Lake Easement Refuge, Wild Rice River Easement Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon Waterfowl Production Area (including easement refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The...

  8. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. Results In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship

  9. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Kozdruń, Wojciech

    2012-03-15

    Waterfowl parvoviruses cause serious loss in geese and ducks production. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is infectious for geese and ducks while Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infects Muscovy ducks only. So far, for these viruses' sensitive detection polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were applied. However, there was no molecular biology method for both waterfowl parvoviruses detection and quantification which could unify the laboratory procedures. The level of GPV and MDPV replication and distribution plays a significant role in the parvoviral infection progress and is strictly correlated to clinical symptoms. Meanwhile, experiments conducted previously on GPV distribution in geese, performed as animal trial, did not involve epidemiological data from the disease field cases. The study on the correlation between age, clinical symptoms and viral DNA copy number may be benefitable in understanding the GPV and MDPV infection. Such data may also aid in determination of the stage and severity of the infection with parvoviruses. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time PCR for parallel detection of GPV and MDPV in geese and Muscovy ducks and to determine the correlation between the age of the infected birds, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number for the estimation of the disease stage or severity. In order to develop quantitative real-time PCR the viral material was collected from 13 farms of geese and 3 farms of Muscovy ducks. The designed primers and Taqman probe for real-time PCR were complementary to GPV and MDPV inverted terminal repeats region. The pITR plasmid was constructed, purified and used to prepare dilutions for standard curve preparation and DNA quantification. The applied method detected both GPV and MDPV in all the examined samples extracted from the heart and liver of the infected birds. The conducted correlation tests have shown relationship between age, clinical symptoms during

  10. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  11. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  12. Migratory movements of waterfowl in Central Asia and avian influenza emergence: sporadic transmission of H5N1 from east to west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Gavrilov, Andrei; Katzner, Todd E.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miller, Tricia A.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; DeMattos, Carlos C.; Ahmed, Lu'ay S.; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl in the genera Anas and Tadorna are suspected as vectors in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The former Soviet Republics of Central Asia are situated at an important migratory crossroads for these and other species of birds that bridges regions where the disease is prevalent. However, waterfowl movements through Central Asia are poorly quantified. In this study, historical data derived from over 80 years of bird ringing are combined with recent satellite tracking data to delineate migration routes, movement chronology and habitat use patterns of waterfowl in relation to H5N1 outbreak locations. Results confirm migratory linkage between breeding and moulting areas in northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, with nonbreeding areas in the Caspian, Black and eastern Mediterranean Sea basins, as well as with South Asia. However, unlike the situation in neighbouring regions, most notably western China, H5N1 outbreaks have not been recurrent in Central Asia after they were first reported during summer 2005 and spring 2006. These findings have implications in relation to potential sampling biases, species-specific variation in migratory behaviour and continuing regional H5N1 transmission risks.

  13. Accuracy of aging ducks in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Richkus, Kenneth D.; Rohwer, Frank C.; Cox, Robert R.; Padding, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts an annual Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey to estimate composition of harvested waterfowl by species, sex, and age (i.e., juv or ad). The survey relies on interpretation of duck wings by a group of experienced biologists at annual meetings (hereafter, flyway wingbees). Our objectives were to estimate accuracy of age assignment at flyway wingbees and to explore how accuracy rates may influence bias of age composition estimates. We used banded mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 791), wood ducks (Aix sponsa; n = 242), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors; n = 39) harvested and donated by hunters as our source of birds used in accuracy assessments. We sent wings of donated birds to wingbees after the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 hunting seasons and compared species, sex, and age determinations made at wingbees with our assessments based on internal and external examination of birds and corresponding banding records. Determinations of species and sex of mallards, wood ducks, and blue-winged teal were accurate (>99%). Accuracy of aging adult mallards increased with harvest date, whereas accuracy of aging juvenile male wood ducks and juvenile blue-winged teal decreased with harvest date. Accuracy rates were highest (96% and 95%) for adult and juvenile mallards, moderate for adult and juvenile wood ducks (92% and 92%), and lowest for adult and juvenile blue-winged teal (84% and 82%). We used these estimates to calculate bias for all possible age compositions (0–100% proportion juv) and determined the range of age compositions estimated with acceptable levels of bias. Comparing these ranges with age compositions estimated from Parts Collection Surveys conducted from 1961 to 2008 revealed that mallard and wood duck age compositions were estimated with insignificant levels of bias in all national surveys. However, 69% of age compositions for blue-winged teal were estimated with an unacceptable level of bias. The low

  14. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  15. How will predicted land-use change affect waterfowl spring stopover ecology? Inferences from an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, overexploitation and climate change pose familiar and new challenges to conserving natural populations throughout the world. One approach conservation planners may use to evaluate the effects of these challenges on wildlife populations is scenario planning.We developed an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of future land use and land cover changes on spring-migrating dabbling ducks in North America. We assessed the effects of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) on dabbling duck stopover duration, movement distances and mortality. We specifically focused on migration stopover duration because previous research has demonstrated that individuals arriving earlier on the nesting grounds exhibit increased reproductive fitness.Compared to present conditions, all three scenarios increased stopover duration and movement distances of agent ducks.Although all three scenarios presented migrating ducks with increased amounts of wetland habitat, scenarios also contained substantially less cropland, which decreased overall carrying capacity of the study area.Synthesis and applications. Land-use change may increase waterfowl spring migration stopover duration in the midcontinent region of North America due to reduced landscape energetic carrying capacity. Climate change will alter spatial patterns of crop distributions with corn and rice production areas shifting to different regions. Thus, conservation planners will have to address population-level energetic implications of shifting agricultural food resources and increased uncertainty in yearly precipitation patterns within the next 50 years.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China.

  17. Convergent Evolution of Hemoglobin Function in High-Altitude Andean Waterfowl Involves Limited Parallelism at the Molecular Sequence Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in evolutionary genetics concerns the extent to which adaptive phenotypic convergence is attributable to convergent or parallel changes at the molecular sequence level. Here we report a comparative analysis of hemoglobin (Hb function in eight phylogenetically replicated pairs of high- and low-altitude waterfowl taxa to test for convergence in the oxygenation properties of Hb, and to assess the extent to which convergence in biochemical phenotype is attributable to repeated amino acid replacements. Functional experiments on native Hb variants and protein engineering experiments based on site-directed mutagenesis revealed the phenotypic effects of specific amino acid replacements that were responsible for convergent increases in Hb-O2 affinity in multiple high-altitude taxa. In six of the eight taxon pairs, high-altitude taxa evolved derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity that were caused by a combination of unique replacements, parallel replacements (involving identical-by-state variants with independent mutational origins in different lineages, and collateral replacements (involving shared, identical-by-descent variants derived via introgressive hybridization. In genome scans of nucleotide differentiation involving high- and low-altitude populations of three separate species, function-altering amino acid polymorphisms in the globin genes emerged as highly significant outliers, providing independent evidence for adaptive divergence in Hb function. The experimental results demonstrate that convergent changes in protein function can occur through multiple historical paths, and can involve multiple possible mutations. Most cases of convergence in Hb function did not involve parallel substitutions and most parallel substitutions did not affect Hb-O2 affinity, indicating that the repeatability of phenotypic evolution does not require parallelism at the molecular level.

  18. Implementing telemetry on new species in remote areas: Recommendations from a large-scale satellite tracking study of African waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J.; Iverson, S.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Dodman, T.; Gaidet, N.

    2011-01-01

    We provide recommendations for implementing telemetry studies on waterfowl on the basis of our experience in a tracking study conducted in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to document movements by duck species identified as priority candidates for the potential spread of avian influenza. Our study design included both captive and field test components on four wild duck species (Garganey, Comb Duck, White-faced Duck and Fulvous Duck). We used our location data to evaluate marking success and determine when signal loss occurred. The captive study of eight ducks marked with non-working transmitters in a zoo in Montpellier, France, prior to fieldwork showed no evidence of adverse effects, and the harness design appeared to work well. The field study in Malawi, Nigeria and Mali started in 2007 on 2 February, 6 February and 14 February, and ended on 22 November 2007 (288 d), 20 January 2010 (1 079 d), and 3 November 2008 (628 d), respectively. The field study indicated that 38 of 47 (81%) of the platform transmitter terminals (PTTs) kept transmitting after initial deployment, and the transmitters provided 15 576 locations. Signal loss during the field study was attributed to three main causes: PTT loss, PTT failure and mortality (natural, human-caused and PTT-related). The PTT signal quality varied by geographic region, and interference caused signal loss in the Mediterranean Sea region. We recommend careful attention at the beginning of the study to determine the optimum timing of transmitter deployment and the number of transmitters to be deployed per species. These sample sizes should be calculated by taking into account region-specific causes of signal loss to ensure research objectives are met. These recommendations should be useful for researchers undertaking a satellite tracking program, especially when working in remote areas of Africa where logistics are difficult or with poorly-known species. ?? NISC (Pty) Ltd.

  19. Convergent Evolution of Hemoglobin Function in High-Altitude Andean Waterfowl Involves Limited Parallelism at the Molecular Sequence Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Tubaro, Pablo L; Alza, Luis; Bulgarella, Mariana; Smith, Matthew M; Wilson, Robert E; Fago, Angela; McCracken, Kevin G; Storz, Jay F

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental question in evolutionary genetics concerns the extent to which adaptive phenotypic convergence is attributable to convergent or parallel changes at the molecular sequence level. Here we report a comparative analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in eight phylogenetically replicated pairs of high- and low-altitude waterfowl taxa to test for convergence in the oxygenation properties of Hb, and to assess the extent to which convergence in biochemical phenotype is attributable to repeated amino acid replacements. Functional experiments on native Hb variants and protein engineering experiments based on site-directed mutagenesis revealed the phenotypic effects of specific amino acid replacements that were responsible for convergent increases in Hb-O2 affinity in multiple high-altitude taxa. In six of the eight taxon pairs, high-altitude taxa evolved derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity that were caused by a combination of unique replacements, parallel replacements (involving identical-by-state variants with independent mutational origins in different lineages), and collateral replacements (involving shared, identical-by-descent variants derived via introgressive hybridization). In genome scans of nucleotide differentiation involving high- and low-altitude populations of three separate species, function-altering amino acid polymorphisms in the globin genes emerged as highly significant outliers, providing independent evidence for adaptive divergence in Hb function. The experimental results demonstrate that convergent changes in protein function can occur through multiple historical paths, and can involve multiple possible mutations. Most cases of convergence in Hb function did not involve parallel substitutions and most parallel substitutions did not affect Hb-O2 affinity, indicating that the repeatability of phenotypic evolution does not require parallelism at the molecular level.

  20. Monitoring of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Meaban virus in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Napp, S; Lecollinet, S; Arenas, A; Beck, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Fernández-Morente, M; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, the number of emerging flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably, with wild birds acting as the main reservoir hosts of these viruses. We carried out an epidemiological survey to determine the seroprevalence of antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and Meaban virus (MBV), in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (southern Spain), the region considered to have the highest risk of flaviviruses circulation in Spain. The overall flaviviruses seroprevalence according to bELISA was 13.0% in both in decoys (n=1052) and wild raptors (n=123). Specific antibodies against WNV, USUV and MBV were confirmed by micro virus neutralization tests in 12, 38 and 4 of the seropositive decoys, respectively. This is the first study on WNV and USUV infections in decoys and the first report of MBV infections in waterfowl and raptors. Moreover we report the first description of WNV infections in short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). The seropositivity obtained indicates widespread but not homogeneous distribution of WNV and USUV in Andalusia. The results also confirm endemic circulation of WNV, USUV and MBV in both decoys and wild raptors in southern Spain. Our results highlight the need to implement surveillance and control programs not only for WNV but also for other related flaviviruses. Further research is needed to determine the eco-epidemiological role that waterfowl and wild raptors play in the transmission of emerging flaviviruses, especially in decoys, given their close interactions with humans.

  1. Flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in South Asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Loth, Leo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Prosser, Diann J.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Rao, Mandava Venkata Subba; Mundkur, Taej; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Tseveenmayadag, Natsagdorj; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan; Xiao, Xiangming

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus persists in Asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. Previous work in Southeast Asia demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. Other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of HPAI H5N1. However, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. We expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include South and Southeast Asia, and integrate the analysis with migration data of satellite-tracked wild waterfowl along the Central Asia flyway. We find that the population of domestic duck is the main factor delineating areas at risk of HPAI H5N1 spread in domestic poultry in South Asia, and that other risk factors, such as human population and chicken density, are associated with HPAI H5N1 risk within those areas. We also find that satellite tracked birds (Ruddy Shelduck and two Bar-headed Geese) reveal a direct spatio-temporal link between the HPAI H5N1 hot-spots identified in India and Bangladesh through our risk model, and the wild bird outbreaks in May,June,July 2009 in China(Qinghai Lake), Mongolia, and Russia. This suggests that the continental-scale dynamics of HPAI H5N1 are structured as a number of persistence areas delineated by domestic ducks, connected by rare transmission through migratory waterfowl.

  2. Significance of water quality to fish propagation, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, and recreation use for 24 lakes and reservoirs in Valley and Phillips Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four reservoirs were sampled for water quality to determine their suitability for fish propagation, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, and recreation. Reservoir-surface areas ranged from 0.2 to 146 hectares and depths ranged from 0.01 to 6.0 meters. Of the reservoirs studied, six generally had water quality that would not be detrimental to fish propagation. Most of the reservoirs were enriched with nutrients and supported large concentrations of phytoplankton and dense growth of aquatic plants. In late winter and late summer, enrichment of shallow reservoirs often resulted in dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, which is detrimental to fish. Three reservoirs lacked aquatic plants for water fowl habitat. Four reservoirs had small dissolved-oxygen concentration in the bottom water that might be critical to the protection of waterfowl if botulism were to occur. Specific conductance of water samples from three reservoirs was sufficiently close to the criterion of 4,800 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees celsius to be regarded as potentially hazardous to livestock. However, most of the reservoirs generally would not be conducive to recreational swimming. Visibility was limited in most of the reservoirs. In addition, leech populations and growth of submersed aquatic plants in most of the reservoirs would be a nuisance to swimmers. (USGS)

  3. Influence of a mine tailing accident near Doñana National Park (Spain) on heavy metals and arsenic accumulation in 14 species of waterfowl (1998 to 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, G; Baos, R; Gómara, B; Jiménez, B; Benito, V; Montoro, R; Hiraldo, F; González, M J

    2004-11-01

    This article presents the impact on waterbirds in Doñana National Park (Spain) of an accidental release of 5 million m3 acid waste produced by the processing of pyrite ore. Heavy metals (zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead) and arsenic were measured in several soft tissues (liver, kidney, and muscle) taken from 14 waterfowl species collected between April 1998 and May 2000. The main source of copper and zinc found in the waterfowl species examined was the spill waste, whereas cadmium, lead, and arsenic could also came from other sources. Kidney was the primary organ for cadmium and lead accumulation, whereas liver accumulated the most zinc and copper. Arsenic was concentrated in both muscle and liver tissue. The degree of contamination of the area where the birds lived, their age, their sex their size, and the time since the spill were found to have less influence than species and trophic level on the accumulation of metal in organs and tissues. Four species (Anser anser, Ciconia ciconia, Larus ridibundus, and Porphyrio porphyrio) were found to have the highest levels of the 5 elements.

  4. Pathogenicity and transmission of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2.3.4.4 viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) in domestic waterfowl (Pekin ducks and Chinese geese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic ducks and geese are common backyard poultry in many countries, frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, which are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses and have played a key role in the spread of Asian-lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In late 2014, a reassor...

  5. Study of Waterfowl Botulism

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 55 invertebrate samples were collected from July 1, 1974 to June 30, 1975. Two samples were toxic out of five analyzed. The four year contract for...

  6. Methods for Surveying Waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 10, 2002 to March 14, 2003, seed and invertebrate biomass of three wetland habitats were assessed at Erie National Wildlife Refuge (ENWR). The purpose...

  7. Quantification of plasma and egg 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) residues for the efficient development of a nicarbazin-based contraceptive for pest waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John J; Britton, Walter M; MacDonald, Alexander; Primus, Thomas M; Goodal, Margaret J; Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A

    2002-02-01

    Urbanization and associated landscaping has increased the abundance of year-round habitat for waterfowl, resulting in vegetation damage, loss of recreational activities, air transportation mishaps and health hazards. As part of a research program to develop socially acceptable techniques for management of pest bird populations, we are evaluating nicarbazin as a contraceptive in pest and surrogate avian species. As reproductive studies with Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) are tedious due to the difficulty of conducting controlled field studies and/or breeding geese in captivity, we evaluated the effects of oral nicarbazin administration on the production and hatchability of chicken eggs. Blood plasma and egg DNC concentrations were correlated to contraceptive efficacy. Subsequent studies are being conducted with geese to determine the diet nicarbazin concentration required to produce the desired blood and plasma DNC concentrations. This approach permits the expeditious evaluation of formulations and dosing regimes by simply monitoring blood DNC concentrations in target species.

  8. 水禽禽流感免疫防控关键技术与措施%The Key Technology and Measures on the Vaccination for Prevention and Control of Waterfowl Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建红; 刘佑明; 张济培; 司兴奎; 张福英; 罗立新; 牛森

    2012-01-01

    How to improve the vaccination effect for prevention and control of waterfowl avian flu is always the concerns of clinical veterinary workers. In this paper the waterfowl bird flu prevention and control techniques were stated for controlling vaccine quality, formulating and implementating the immune program, monitoring the immune effect and providing the health measures. It will be useful for increasing the waterfowl avian flu prevention and control level and increasing the income of the farmers.%如何提高水禽禽流感(AD免疫防控的效果,一直是临床兽医工作者所关注的问题。本文根据“水禽禽流感的免疫防控关键技术研究”所获得的主要成果,从疫苗质量控制、免疫程序制订与实施、免疫效果监测、卫生与饲养管理措施等重要方面陈述了水禽AI防控的技术要点,望对提升水禽AI的防控水平、增加水禽养殖业收益方面有所帮助。

  9. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  10. A modeling framework for integrated harvest and habitat management of North American waterfowl: Case-study of northern pintail metapopulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Runge, M.C.; Devries, J.H.; Boomer, G.S.; Eadie, J.M.; Haukos, D.A.; Fleskes, J.P.; Koons, D.N.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Clark, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl at a continental scale. Our focus is on the northern pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter, pintail), which serves as a useful model species to examine the potential for integrating waterfowl harvest and habitat management in North America. We developed submodel structure capturing important processes for pintail populations during breeding, fall migration, winter, and spring migration while encompassing spatial structure representing three core breeding areas and two core nonbreeding areas. A number of continental-scale predictions from our baseline parameterization (e.g., carrying capacity of 5.5 million, equilibrium population size of 2.9 million and harvest rate of 12% at maximum sustained yield [MSY]) were within 10% of those from the pintail harvest strategy under current use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To begin investigating the interaction of harvest and habitat management, we examined equilibrium population conditions for pintail at the continental scale across a range of harvest rates while perturbing model parameters to represent: (1) a 10% increase in breeding habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population (PR); and (2) a 10% increase in nonbreeding habitat quantity along in the Gulf Coast (GC). Based on our model and analysis, a greater increase in carrying capacity and sustainable harvest was seen when increasing a proxy for habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population. This finding and underlying assumptions must be critically evaluated, however, before specific management recommendations can be made. To make such recommendations, we require (1) extended, refined submodels with additional

  11. Local, Short-term Effects of Forest Harvesting on Breeding Waterfowl and Common Loon in Forest-Dominated Landscapes of Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Vincent Lemelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern forests are major breeding habitats for several waterfowl and other waterbird species. In Quebec, as in many other areas within the boreal region, clear-cut logging is an important human activity, and it is likely to affect ground- and cavity-nesting species differently. We used Black Duck Joint Venture/Canadian Wildlife Service aerial survey data, together with Quebec digital forest maps, to investigate local, i.e., within 2 km of clear-cut areas, short-term (~ 4 yr effects of forest harvesting on waterfowl and Common Loon. Our predictions were that clear-cut logging would not affect ground nesters, but would negatively affect pair settling patterns in cavity nesters through nesting habitat disturbance. Our study spanned a 540,000-km² territory in which we considered over 30,000 ha of clear-cut areas that were dispersed into 42 different locations. We controlled for interannual variation in population size by comparing the pre- and post-harvest percentages of potentially hospitable nesting cover disturbed by timber harvesting within a 1-km radius of indicated breeding pairs. Our results suggest that timber harvesting positively influenced local populations of Canada Goose and American Green-winged Teal. No other ground-nesting species showed a significant response. For the cavity-nesting guild and species, we detected no local, short-term effect of clear-cutting. This result was unexpected because many previous studies of nest-box provisioning reported increased breeding pair densities, indicating that availability of natural holes may limit cavity-nesting duck populations. Moreover, because cavity-nesting ducks are considered among the most vulnerable bird species to forest management, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that boreal bird populations exhibit some resilience to disturbance. This conclusion follows from a study in landscapes where forests were mostly first-growth. It is not evident that it will remain valid

  12. Balancing habitat delivery for breeding marsh birds and nonbreeding waterfowl: An integrated waterbird management and monitoring approach at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Brian W.; Lyons, James E.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2017-08-23

    The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) in the Mississippi River flood plain of eastern Missouri provides high quality emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat benefitting both nesting marsh birds and migrating waterfowl. Staff of CCNWR manipulate water levels and vegetation in the 17 units of the CCNWR to provide conditions favorable to these two important guilds. Although both guilds include focal species at multiple planning levels and complement objectives to provide a diversity of wetland community types and water regimes, additional decision support is needed for choosing how much emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat should be provided through annual management actions.To develop decision guidance for balanced delivery of high-energy waterfowl habitat and breeding marsh bird habitat, two measureable management objectives were identified: nonbreeding Anas Linnaeus (dabbling duck) use-days and Rallus elegans (king rail) occupancy of managed units. Three different composite management actions were identified to achieve these objectives. Each composite management action is a unique combination of growing season water regime and soil disturbance. The three composite management actions are intense moist-soil management (moist-soil), intermediate moist-soil (intermediate), and perennial management, which idles soils disturbance (perennial). The two management objectives and three management options were used in a multi-criteria decision analysis to indicate resource allocations and inform annual decision making. Outcomes of the composite management actions were predicted in two ways and multi-criteria decision analysis was used with each set of predictions. First, outcomes were predicted using expert-elicitation techniques and a panel of subject matter experts. Second, empirical data from the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative collected between 2010 and 2013 were used; where data were lacking, expert judgment was used. Also, a

  13. Infection status investigation of waterfowl Trichobilharzia paoi in Jiangling County of Hubei Province%湖北省江陵县水禽包氏毛毕吸虫感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镒; 赵红梅

    2015-01-01

    以饱和食盐水漂浮虫卵法、顶管毛蚴孵化法检测鸭、鹅包氏毛毕吸虫的感染情况。结果显示,饱和食盐水漂浮虫卵法检查阳性率为7.82%;粪便毛蚴孵化法检查阳性率为6.80%;含5~9个毛蚴杯子数占总杯数的17.35%。结果提示:湖北省江陵县水禽中轻度感染包氏毛毕吸虫。%Using saturated salt water floating egg method detection and pipe jacking miracidia hatching method, Detection of Trichobilharzia paoi infection status of duck goose. The results showed, saturated salt water floating eggs by examination of the positive rate was 7.82%, fecal miracidia hatching test positivity rate of 6.80%. 5-9 containing miracidium Cup account for 17.35%. The results suggest that old endemic areas of waterfowl Trichobilharzia disease Jiangling County , domestic waterfowl mild infection with Trichobilharzia paoi .

  14. 福州动物园涉禽湖水生物修复初探%Bioremediation for the waterfowl lake of Fuzhou zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖冰麟

    2015-01-01

    To improved the water quality of waterfowl lake in the Fuzhou zoo and explore the bioremediation of the water quality, The algicide, flocculants, bottom change agent and microorganism complex powder were sprayed to the lake, according to the specific time and proportion. Before and after bioremediation, water samples were collected and the water quality indicators were determined, in-cluding the total number of E. coli, the total number of bacteria, transparency, pH number, chemical oxygen consumption, nitrite, total phosphorus and total nitrogen. Results showed that after bioremediation,chemical oxygen consumption, nitrite content and total nitro-gen, total phosphorus and total number of E. coli were reduced significantly, pH and transparency were significantly increased, illus-trating that the bioremediation can obviously improve water quality of the wader lake. After bioremediation, the total number of bacte-ria is higher than before bioremediation, indicating that the bacteria of microorganism complex powder in water were still in the grow-ing.%为探讨生物修复对改善动物园涉禽湖水水质的影响,将杀藻剂、絮凝剂、改底剂和微生物复合粉按特定的时间和比例作用于福州动物园涉禽湖水水体,通过测定生物修复前后细菌菌落总数、大肠杆菌菌落总数、透明度、pH值、化学耗氧量、亚硝酸盐、总磷、总氮等水质监测指标的变化来探讨水体生物修复效果。结果表明,经生物修复后水体化学耗氧量、pH值和透明度修复后达到地表水环境质量标准Ⅲ类;亚硝酸盐、总氮和大肠杆菌菌落总数修复后有改善,但未达到地表水环境质量标准Ⅲ类,总磷、细菌菌落总数修复后没有改善。说明生物修复能在一定程度改善涉禽湖水水质。

  15. USFWS Administrative Waterfowl Flyway Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for migratory bird hunting...

  16. USFWS Administrative Waterfowl Flyway Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for migratory bird hunting...

  17. USFWS Administrative Waterfowl Flyway Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for migratory bird...

  18. Waterfowl botulism in California 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Joaquin Valley had the potential for a severe botulism outbreak, but intensive management efforts kept losses to 45,000 birds. Outbreaks in the Sacramento...

  19. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  20. Database of radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water, fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and shellfish downstream of Hanford`s single-pass production reactors, 1960--1970. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiede, M.E.; Duncan, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).

  1. The Analysis of Community Ecology of Parasitic Helminths of Domestic Waterfowl in Longyan City, Fujian%龙岩市家养水禽寄生蠕虫的群落生态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永康

    2011-01-01

    2008-2010年对闽西山区(龙岩市所辖的7个县市区)进行家养水禽寄生蠕虫的种类调查,剖检309只水禽,其中阳性水禽202只,共检出寄生于家养水禽体内的蠕虫18种.统计结果:寄生蠕虫总感染率达到65.37%,各种寄生蠕虫的感染程度不同,感染率和感染强度位居首位的是裂刺四棱线虫,分别达到46.93%和13.46条(虫),其次是卷棘口吸虫、美丽膜壳绦虫、福建单睾绦虫,其感染率和感染强度分别为10.68%和10.12条、10.68%和6.58条、9.06%和6.36条.感染率和感染强度最小的是细背孔吸虫和大多形棘头虫,其感染率和感染强度分别为0.32%和1.00条、0.97%和1.67条,其余12种寄生蠕虫的居于一般程度的感染状态.阳性水禽以同时感染1~3种寄生蠕虫的情况较为普遍.在寄生蠕虫群落中,优势种为裂刺四棱线虫和卷棘口吸虫,次优势种为美丽膜壳绦虫、福建单睾绦虫、冠双盔绦虫、鸭对体吸虫、似椎低颈吸虫、分歧单睾绦虫、楔形前殖吸虫、东方次睾吸虫、鸭瓣口线虫、台湾束首线虫.除了细背孔吸虫和大多形棘头虫属于随机分布外,其他16种蠕虫属于聚集分布.%After the random sample of 309 domesticated waterfowl were anatomied and checked in Longyan City, where is in western mountainous areas of Fujian Province from 2008-2010, the results showed that there were 18 species of parasitic helminth were checked in 202 positive domestic waterfowl, which the infection rate of parasitic helminth was 65.37% .There was more differences bescause everyone parasitic helminth infected different levels in domestic waterfowl. The highest infection rate and intensity were Tetrameres fissispinus, the infection rate and intensity of which were 46.93% and 13.46 individual, respectively. The second were Echinostoma revolution, Hymenolepis venusta and Aploparaksis fukienensis, the infection rate of which were 10.68%, 10.68% and 9.06%, and the

  2. New and noteworthy waterfowl records at artificial wetlands from Baja California Sur, Mexico Registros nuevos y sobresalientes de anátidos en humedales artificiales de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carmona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present 9 recent records of rare waterfowls in Baja California Sur, all of them in artificial wetlands: 3 freshwater sites and 1 concentration area for a saltworks. We present the first records of the Ross's Goose in the state. The remaining 8 species are: Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (breeding, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Greater White-fronted Goose, Snow Goose, Cackling Goose, Tundra Swan, Mallard and Hooded Merganser. To this list we added an historical compilation of the records of these species in artificial sites of the state. The artificial wetlands are no replacement for their natural counterparts, they are nevertheless an important part of the region's landscape mosaic. As the records of the present work exemplify, this man-made habitat increases the regional species richness, and should be considered as important areas that need to be protected.Presentamos registros recientes de 9 especies de anátidos raros en Baja California Sur, todos ellos realizados en humedales creados por el hombre: 3 sitios dulceacuícolas y 1 área de concentración para la producción de sal. Se incluyen los primeros registros del ganso de Ross (Chen rossii para el estado. Las 8 especies restantes son: Dendrocygna autumnalis (anidación, D. bicolor, Anser albifrons, Chen caerulesens, Branta hutchinsii, Cygnus columbianus, Anas platyrhynchos y Lophodytes cucullatus. A la lista, agregamos una recopilación histórica de los registros de estas especies en humedales artificiales del estado. Aunque estos sitios no deben sustituir a sus contrapartes naturales, actualmente forman parte del mosaico paisajístico que ofrece la región; adicionalmente, incrementan la riqueza de especies de la región, por lo que es necesario brindarles protección.

  3. Avian influenza: Eco-epidemiological aspects of the virus in its natural hosts, the migratory waterfowls Influenza aviar: Aspectos ecoepidemiológicos del virus en su hospedero natural, las aves acuáticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICELA MONTALVO-CORRAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses produce mainly respiratory and intestinal diseases. Their relevance in the generation of pandemic strains has led to a large amount of research to understand their distribution in nature, as well as the relations that become established for the effective transmission among different hosts. Waterfowl have been recognized as their natural reservoir and they play an important role in the propagation and generation of the diversity of these viruses. The emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential among the human population (H5N1 of avian origin or recombinant H1N1 with avian segments point our lack of information on many aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in their natural hosts to enable the implementation of more effective prevention and control measures. In this review, we attempt to make a critical essay on the current state of knowledge on the biotic and abiotic factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of the influenza A viruses in wild birds.Los virus influenza ocasionan enfermedades respiratorias e intestinales. Su importancia en la generación de cepas pandémicas ha conducido a la realización de intensa investigación científica para entender y conocer su distribución en la naturaleza, así como las relaciones que se establecen para la transmisión efectiva entre diferentes hospederos. Las aves acuáticas principalmente del orden Anseriformes, se han reconocido como el reservorio de estos virus y tienen una participación crucial en la propagación y generación de diversidad de estos virus. La emergencia de nuevos virus influenza con potencial pandémico entre la población humana (H5N1 de origen aviar y el actual virus pandémico H1N1 que presenta segmentos aviares, resalta la falta de información sobre muchos aspectos de la ecología y epidemiología de estos virus en sus hospederos naturales, que permitan la implementación de medidas más efectivas de prevenci

  4. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. The marsh portion of the...

  5. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. As stated in previous years of...

  6. Waterfowl Studies on the Lower Souris Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is one of a continuing study, the purposes and technique of which have already been set forth. It had its origin in Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1934; it was...

  7. Slade Waterfowl Production Area : Narrative Report : 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Slade National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Waterfowl botulism--a brief summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.; Jensen, W.

    1994-01-01

    Botulism is a food poisoning caused by the ingestion of the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum of any of six strains, designated A through F. The disease, as it occurs in epidemic proportion in wild birds, is most commonly of the C type, although outbreaks caused by type E botulism have been observed on the Great Lakes.

  9. 1968 narrative report: Nebraska Waterfowl Production Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Nebraska WPAs outlines accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  10. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about an investigation that was done to determine the quantity and species of submergent vegetation in the marsh area on the Canvasback Gun Club in...

  11. Alaska Yukon : Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska-Yukon was again blessed with a generally widespread, early spring break-up in the interior and on the North Slope with perhaps a more normal spring phenology...

  12. Waterfowl habitat survey : Canvasback Gun Club : 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey of the submergent and emergent aquatics growing in the marsh on the Canvasback Gun Club in Nevada. The marsh portion of the...

  13. 几种野生水禽H5N1禽流感疫苗免疫效果比较%Comparison on the immune effect of several vaccines against subtype H5N1 of Avian Influenza in wild waterfowl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 吴秀山; 张成林; 郑常明; 黄淑芳

    2012-01-01

    This survey selected 4 species of waterfowl raised in Beijing Zoo and a group of little swan raised in Hangzhou Zoo as the object of antibody test for vaccination of subtype H5N1 of Avian Influenza.The results showed that the antibody titer achieved the peak 20 days after vaccination,then gradually decreased.The rate of antibody decline was different between species.%选择北京动物园饲养的4种雁行目水禽和杭州动物园小天鹅进行H5N1禽流感疫苗免疫,考察其免疫效果。结果表明,在免疫约20 d抗体滴度达到峰值,后逐渐下降,抗体水平下降速度因野生水禽的种类不同而不同。

  14. Distribuição e frequência de aves aquáticas em habitats de lagos de um parque urbano em São Paulo, SP. Distribution and frequency of waterfowl in habitats of lakes of an urban park in São Paulo, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira LEMOS; Vanessa SIMEI-MARTINS; Arlaine dos Santos FRANCISCO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aves aquáticas destacam-se por ser uma importante ferramenta para verificar o grau de conservação e qualidade dos habitats, além da grande capacidade de algumas espécies em deslocar-se para escolha dos mesmos. O trabalho foi realizado no Jardim Botânico, inserido na malha urbana da cidade de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos identificar os micro-habitats presentes nos quatro lagos do instituto, denominados Lagos 1, 2, 3 e 4, realizar o levantamento da frequência de utilização por aves aquáticas e associar estas espécies aos micro-habitats. A coleta de dados foi entre abril/11 e maio/12, quinzenalmente, através de observação direta em oito pontos fixos, dois em cada lago. O tempo de permanência em cada ponto foi 45 minutos, totalizando 3 horas diárias. Foram realizadas 12 amostragens em cada ponto, totalizando 192 horas de observação. A frequência de ocorrência das espécies foi classificada nas seguintes categorias: ocupante raro (FO 0,60. Foram identificadas 18 espécies de aves aquáticas que utilizaram pelo menos um dos quatro lagos estudados do Jardim Botânico. O lago mais frequentado pelas espécies foi o Lago 1. As espécies com maior frequência foram Ardea alba e Phalacrocorax brasilianus e as espécies com menor frequência foram Megaceryle torquata e Chloroceryle amazona. É possível concluir que a escolha de micro-habitats por aves aquáticas está relacionada ao hábito de forrageamento de cada espécie, oferta de alimento disponível e necessidades de refúgio ou de uso de substrato para nidificação. Waterfowl stand out for being an important tool to assess the degree of conservation and habitat quality. Some species exhibit the ability to move between habitats and choose to use according to their needs. This study was conducted in the Jardim Botânico, inserted in the urban area of São Paulo, and it aimed to identify the micro-habitats present in four lakes of the institute, called Lakes 1, 2, 3 and 4, to

  15. 1972 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  16. 1969 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  17. 1968 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  18. 75 FR 60691 - Migratory Bird Permits; Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions and Waterfowl Sale and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clarify, and use consistent terminology in, the requirements. Specific Proposed Changes to 50 CFR 21.25 In... requirements by using simpler words, more straight-forward sentences, and consistent terminology. Specific... rule raises novel legal or policy issues. Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) Under the...

  19. 1966 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  20. 1971 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  1. 1970 Waterfowl Production Area Narrative Report [Fergus Fall Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fergus Falls Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  2. On Rhyme Meters Early Romantic American Poems from To a Waterfowl by Bryant%从布莱恩特名诗《致水鸟》看美国早期浪漫主义诗歌的韵律特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤东

    2012-01-01

    浪漫主义时期(18世纪末——19世纪60年代)是美国文学史上一个重要阶段。浪漫主义诗歌是表达这个时代风貌最恰当的一种文学体裁。威廉.柯伦.布莱恩特是美国早期浪漫主义诗人的典型代表,他对美国浪漫主义时期很多诗人都产生了重要的影响。其代表作《致水鸟》是了解美国早期浪漫主义诗歌韵律特点的典型作品。%The author of this paper has discussed the rhyme meters of the early romantic American poem verses by studying To a Waterfowl, a poem by William Cullen Bryant, who was one of the representative masters of romantic American poets.

  3. 1993 waterfowl nesting success on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on an investigation of nesting success and factors affecting it on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Baseline information on trust species within the...

  4. 2012 waterfowl nesting study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on a 2012 duck nesting study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, where nest drag plots were surveyed within management units. Duck production estimates...

  5. Narrative report: November 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, predator trapping, seed collection, Civilian...

  6. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health.

  7. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  8. Public Waterfowl Hunting Environmental Assessment for Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this environmental assessment is to add Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge to the Code of Federal Regulations list of refuges open to...

  9. Results of the 2014 Kansas waterfowl hunter survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Individual states can select season dates for migratory game birds within the given frameworks derived by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). The manner in...

  10. Narrative report: February 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects during February, 1937. Photographs are included.

  11. Narrative report: March 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects and water conditions during March, 1937. Photographs are...

  12. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Narrative report covering August 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, grazing, haying, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)...

  13. Narrative report: December 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities during December of 1936. Photographs are included.

  14. Narrative report: May 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects, Civilian...

  15. Narrative report: June 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects, field crops,...

  16. Narrative report for September 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, trapping, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and Works...

  17. Narrative report: November 1936: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) activities during November of 1936. Photographs are included.

  18. Narrative report: June - July 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from June through July of 1938. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  19. Cinnamon Teal / Waterfowl Banding Project 2016 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is little information available in regards to Cinnamon teal (CITE) population dynamics and harvest pressure. Of what data that is available, it shows a lack of...

  20. Cinnamon Teal / Waterfowl Banding Project 2015 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is little information available in regards to Cinnamon teal (CITE) population dynamics and harvest pressure. Of what data that is available, it shows a lack of...

  1. Narrative report: April 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects, the water status, and migration during April, 1937....

  2. Refuge development report : Des Lacs Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the development of Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge. This report introduces the physical and biological characteristics of the Des Lacs area. This report...

  3. Waterfowl production on the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was written for the purpose of updating Area and Regional R&W personnel on the progress made in monitoring duck nesting and production on the Bear...

  4. Nest losses in grazed vs. ungrazed waterfowl habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fair number of managers, with student help, have just completed a series of dummy nest studies which sampled grazed and ungrazed habitat. I have examined 40...

  5. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  6. Waterfowl banding, Innoko and Iditarod Rivers, Alaska, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pintail, widgeon, shoveler, green-winged teal, mallard, white-fronted goose, and lesser Canada goose are mentioned. Banding conducted in July. Logistics, methods,...

  7. An analysis of aerial waterfowl production surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1961 an effort was launched to conduct a full scale operational aerial brood survey, previous experimental failures notwithstanding. The project was terminated as...

  8. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against waterfowl parvoviruses VP3 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiuchen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP3 protein of goose parvovirus (GPV or Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV, a major structural protein, can induce neutralizing antibodies in geese and ducks, but monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against VP3 protein has never been characterized. Results Three hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-GPV VP3 MAbs were obtained and designated 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG2b (4A8 and 4E2 and IgG2a (2D5. Dot blotting assays showed that three MAbs reacted with His-VP3 protein in a conformation-independent manner. A competitive binding assay indicated that the MAbs delineated two epitopes, A and B of VP3. Immunofluorescence assay showed that MAbs 4A8, 4E2, and 2D5 could specifically bind to goose embryo fibroblast cells (GEF or duck fibroblast cells (DEF infected with GPV and MDPV. Dot blotting also showed that the MAbs recognized both nature GPV and MDPV antigen. Western blotting confirmed that the MAbs recognized VP3 proteins derived from purified GPV and MDPV particles. The MAbs 4A8 and 2D5 had universal reactivity to heterologous GPV and MDPV tested in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conclusions Preparation and characterization of these the MAbs suggests that they may be useful for the development of a MAb-capture ELISA for rapid detection of both GPV and MDPV. Virus isolation and PCR are reliable for detecting GPV and MDPV infection, but these procedures are laborious, time-consuming, and requiring instruments. These diagnosis problems highlight the ongoing demand for rapid, reproducible, and automatic methods for the sensitive detection of both GPV and MDPV infection.

  9. Monthly report : Arrowwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : December, 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes trails, island construction, upland game shelters, bunkhouse construction, irrigation, and fencing on Arrowwood NWR during December, 1937....

  10. Monthly report : Arrowwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : July, 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes trails, roads, dams, ditch construction, headquarters rehabilitation, fencing, irrigation, and firebreaks on Arrowwood NWR during July, 1937....

  11. Monthly report : Arrowwood Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : August, 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes ditch and island construction, truck trail construction, firebreak construction, fence construction, headquarters renovation, and nursery...

  12. Computer-aided procedure for counting waterfowl on aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajzak, D.; Piatt, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of 46 Canada goose goslings yielded 14 species of parasites, including five Protozoa, four Nematoda, two Cestoda, and three Trematoda. Evidence indicates that goslings acquired most of these infections during their first week of life. Some parasites, Prosthogonimus sp., occurred only in younger birds. Others, Leucocytozoon simondi, were evident only during the initial course of infection, while still others remained evident in older geese. Parasites with a direct life cycle appeared to be more prevalent than those requiring intermediate hosts. Among 29 birds from a refuge in Michigan, 14 species of parasites were found; while in 17 goslings from a Utah refuge, only five species occurred.

  13. Narrative report 1965 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Waterfowl Production Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. 50 CFR 21.25 - Waterfowl sale and disposal permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... before you may lawfully sell, trade, donate, or otherwise dispose of, most species of captive-reared and... sell game, you may remove the marked foot or wing from the raw carcasses if the number of your...

  15. Narrative report: January 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, upland game bird feeding, construction, crops,...

  16. Report of the Waterfowl Habitat Strategy Team: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report sets out 36 habitat action recommendations, in priority order, and 9 related recommendations, unranked, to meet the Service's objectives for 9 important...

  17. HEP as a planning tool: an application to waterfowl enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulich, Scott C.; Hanson, Jeffrey E.; Lines, Ivan; Farmer, Adrian

    1982-01-01

    To many, the principal role of wildlife agencies in public and private resource development has been that of impact mitigation. With known or pending habitat damage, biologists have to develop mitigation or compensation plans. Unfortunately, once in a mitigation framework, they are in a no-win situation, seeking remedial action at best. Yet, the potential exists for cooperative project planning, thereby facilitating mitigation of impacts before they occur, and enhancement of environmental amenities through project development. In fact, such planning is mandated by federal legislation (e.g., National Environmental Policy Act, Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, Outdoor Recreation Act, etc.).

  18. Narrative report: December 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, predator trapping, Refuge development, Civilian...

  19. Narrative report: October 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, plantings, hunting, trapping, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC),...

  20. Narrative report: March 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, soil moisture, wildlife week, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)...