WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterborne radon sampling

  1. Measurement of waterborne radon in the drinking water of the Dera Ismail Khan city using active and passive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Tabassum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is considered to be the second largest contributor to the indoor radon concentration after soil. Therefore, measurement of waterborne radon has remained a point of interest for many researchers. The main objective of this study is to study waterborne radon activity in the city of Dera Ismail Khan. In this context, water samples were collected from different locations of the city and waterborne radon was measured using a pylon vacuum water degassing system and CR-39 based radon detectors. The pylon system measured waterborne radon activities in samples of hand pumps and motor driven pumps varying from 0.015 to 0.066 Bq/L and 0.021 to 0.145 Bq/L with average values of 0.041 ± 0.015 Bq/L and 0.076 ± 0.024 Bq/L, respectively. Whereas CR-39 based measured values ranged from 0.042 to 0.125 Bq/L and 0.075 to 0.158 Bq/L with average values of 0.081 ± 0.021 Bq/L and 0.120 ± 0.020 Bq/L, respectively. The estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon from drinking water using pylon and CR-39 based radon detectors for hand and motor pump samples was found to be 1.055×10-4 mSv and 1.947×10-4 mSv, and 2.067×10-4 mSv and 3.058×10-4 mSv, respectively. The waterborne radon concentrations and as a result the annual effective dose expected to be received from it are within the recommended safe limits.

  2. DETERMINATION OF RADIUM AND RADON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME ROCK SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKARA, Oktay

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of radium (226Ra), radon (222Rn) and radon exhalation rate in nine rock samples have been determined using solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The measured maximum values of radium, radon and radon exhalation rate in rock samples were found to be 24.62 Bq/kg, 4911.32 Bq/m3 and 4,86 Bqm-2h-1, respectively. Linear correlation was observed among radon concentration, radon exhalation and radium concentration. The linear correlation coefficient between radium content an...

  3. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Vimal [Deptt of Physics, M. M. University, Mullana (Ambala)-133 207 (India); Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India); Singh, Tejinder Pal, E-mail: tejinders03@gmail.com [Deptt of Physics, S.A. Jain (P.G.) College, Ambala City- 134 003 (India); Chauhan, R. P. [Deptt of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra- 136 119 (India); Mudahar, G. S. [Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  4. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  5. The generalized radon transform: Sampling, accuracy and memoryconsiderations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; van Ginkel, Michael; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2004-09-23

    The generalized Radon (or Hough) transform is a well-known tool for detecting parameterized shapes in an image. The Radon transform is a mapping between the image space and a parameter space. The coordinates of a point in the latter correspond to the parameters of a shape in the image. The amplitude at that point corresponds to the amount of evidence for that shape. In this paper we discuss three important aspects of the Radon transform. The first aspect is discretization. Using concepts from sampling theory we derive a set of sampling criteria for the generalized Radon transform. The second aspect is accuracy. For the specific case of the Radon transform for spheres, we examine how well the location of the maxima matches the true parameters. We derive a correction term to reduce the bias in the estimated radii. The third aspect concerns a projection-based algorithm to reduce memory requirements.

  6. Radon emanation from phosphogypsum and related mineral samples in Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysandrou, M. [Geological Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment (Cyprus); Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, Cy-1678 Lefkosia (Cyprus); Charalambides, A. [Geological Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment (Cyprus); Pashalidis, I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, Cy-1678 Lefkosia (Cyprus)], E-mail: pspasch@ucy.ac.cy

    2007-10-15

    Radon emanation rates from phosphogypsum samples have been determined to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from a phosphogypsum disposal site. For comparison corresponding measurements were conducted with samples of phosphate rock, fertilizer, natural gypsum, and calcite. The experimental data show that phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples emanate radon in significantly higher rates (up to almost two orders of magnitude). The exhalation rates determined for samples obtained from a phosphogypsum stack in Cyprus range from 0.35 to 1.1Bqh{sup -1}. This, consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings build and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing on the stack, which could reach in extreme cases values up to 17mSvy{sup -1}.

  7. Radon exhalation from Libyan soil samples measured with the SSNTD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A F; Abdallah, R M; Hussein, N A

    2013-02-01

    Radon concentrations in soil samples collected from the cities of Benghazi and Al-Marj, located in northeastern Libya, were measured using the sealed-can technique based on the CR-39 SSNTDs. Mass and areal radon exhalation rates, radium content and radon concentration contribute to indoor radon, and annual effective doses were determined. The results indicate mostly normal rates, but there were some higher levels of radon concentration and emanation in samples collected from Al-Marj and one sample from Benghazi.

  8. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and invisible gas produced by the decay of naturally occurring uranium in soil and water.

  9. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can move to air, groundwater, and surface water. Radon-222 has a radioactive half-life of about 4 ... concerns. The main isotope of health concern is radon-222 ( 222 Rn). Many scientists believe that the alpha ...

  10. Radon exhalation rate from soil samples of South Kumaun Lesser Himalayas, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Gusain, G.S. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com

    2008-08-15

    Ionizing radiation exposure experienced by the general population is mainly due to the indoor radon. Major part of radon comes from the top layer of the earth. The radon emanation is associated with radon in soil and sleepy back radium in the soil. Both field and laboratory measurements were carried out for the instantaneous and integrated radon concentration in soil-gas. The radon exhalation rate from collected soil samples was measured using LR-115 Type II plastic track detector. The soil-gas radon concentration was measured with the help of radon Emanometry method. The effective radium content of the soil samples was also calculated. The correlation coefficient between radium contents in collected soil samples and soil-gas radon from the same locations was calculated as 0.1, while it is 0.2 between radon exhalation rate and soil-gas radon concentration. The results show weak positive correlation due to the geological disturbance in the equilibrium conditions and high mobility of radon in the same geological medium.

  11. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  12. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  13. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  14. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  16. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  17. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Beijing City, China and contribution to radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-10-27

    (222)Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their (222)Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  18. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  19. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  20. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  1. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  2. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Bala; Vinod Kumar; Rohit Mehra

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg⁻¹ with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg⁻¹ . The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ (granite) with a mean value of59.94 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹.

  3. Radon exhalation rate for phosphate rocks samples using alpha track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state nuclear track detectors are used in very broad fields of technical applications and successfully applied in different areas of environmental physics and geophysics. Radon concentration and surface exhalation rate for phosphate samples from El-Sebaeya and Abu-Tartur, Egypt, were measured using nuclear tracks detectors from types CR-39 and LR-115. The average values of radon concentration are 12711.03 and 10925.02 Bqm−3 in El-Sebaeya area using CR-39 and LR-115 detectors, respectively. Also the average values of radon concentration are 15824.16 and13601.48 Bqm−3 in Abu-Tartur area using CR-39 and LR-115 detectors, respectively. From the obtained results we can conclude that the average values of radon concentration in Abu-Tartur are higher than El-Sebaeya. The present study is important to detect any harmful radiation which, can be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level in the surrounding environment.

  4. Radon tightness of different sample sealing methods for gamma spectrometric measurements of ²²⁶Ra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauring, Alexander; Gäfvert, Torbjörn

    2013-11-01

    Different methods for sealing sample containers for (222)Rn when measuring (226)Ra through its progenies (214)Pb and (214)Bi using gamma-ray spectrometry have been investigated. Results show that a method consisting of vacuum packaging of the sample container in a sealed aluminium lined bag gives excellent results for ensuring radon tightness. However, care should be taken to fill the sample container completely in order to avoid systematic errors due to radon accumulating in the void volume.

  5. Natural air ventilation in underground galleries as a tool to increase radon sampling volumes for geologic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: adarwich@ull.es; Vinas, Ronaldo [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Soler, Vicente [Estacion Volcanologica de Canarias, IPNA-CSIC, Av. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la; Quesada, Maria L. [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    A simple numerical model was implemented to infer airflow (natural ventilation) in underground tunnels from the differences in the temporal patterns of radon, {sup 222}Rn, concentration time-series that were measured at two distant points in the interior of the tunnels. The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate that the installation of radon monitoring stations closer to the entrance of the tunnels was sufficient to remotely analyse the distribution of radon concentration in their interiors. This could ease the monitoring of radon, since the effective sampling volume of a single monitoring station located closer to the entrance of a tunnel is approximately 30,000 times larger than the sampling volume of a sub-soil radon sensor. This methodology was applied to an underground gallery located in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. This island constitutes an ideal laboratory to study the geo-dynamical behaviour of radon because of the existence of a vast network of galleries that conforms the main water supply of the island.

  6. An investigation of radon exhalation rate and estimation of radiation doses in coal and fly ash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahur, A K; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Meena; Sengupta, D; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-03-01

    Coal is a technologically important material used for power generation. Its cinder (fly ash) is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent atmospheric emission cause the redistribution of toxic radioactive trace elements in the environment. In the present study, radon exhalation rates in coal and fly ash samples from the thermal power plants at Kolaghat (W.B.) and Kasimpur (U.P.) have been measured using sealed Can technique having LR-115 type II detectors. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the samples of Kolaghat power station are also measured. It is observed that the radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples from Kolaghat is higher than from coal samples and activity concentration of radionuclides in fly ash is enhanced after the combustion of coal. Fly ash samples from Kasimpur show no appreciable change in radon exhalation. Radiation doses from the fly ash samples have been estimated from radon exhalation rate and radionuclide concentrations.

  7. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  8. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L(-1) and 10% for 10 mBq L(-1). While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L(-1), a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L(-1), corresponding to 0.14 fg g(-1). The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADIUM CONTENT AND RADON EXHALATION RATE FROM SOIL SAMPLES USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Prasad, Mukesh; Joshi, Veena; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Soil is the most important factor affecting the radon level in the human living environments. It depends not only on uranium and thorium contents but also on the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In this paper, the measurements of radium content and mass exhalation rate of radon from the soil samples collected from Uttarkashi area of Garhwal Himalaya are presented. The correlation between radium content and radon mass exhalation rate from soil has also been obtained. The radium was measured by gamma ray spectrometry, while the mass exhalation rate of radon has been determined by both active and passive methods. The radium activity in the soil of study area was found to vary from 45±7 to 285±29 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 99 Bq kg(-1) The radon mass exhalation rate was found to vary from 0.59 × 10(-5) to 2.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.4 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by passive technique and from 0.8 × 10(-5) to 3.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.5 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by active technique. The results suggest that the measured radium value is positively correlated with the radon mass exhalation rate measured with both the active and passive techniques. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Radon metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S.; Howarth, C. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    NRPB carries out calibrations of various types of radon and radon decay product measurement systems for its own purposes and for laboratories throughout Europe. There are currently two radon calibration facilities at NRPB: a 43 m{sup 3} radon chamber and the Fast Radon Exposure Device (FRED), a sealed steel drum. The radon chamber is used for active radon detection systems and the calibration of large numbers of passive detectors. Fred has a high radon concentration and is used to calibrate small numbers of passive radon gas detectors in a short period. (Author).

  11. RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Kaur, M; Sharma, S; Mehra, R; Sharma, D K; Mishra, R

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y(-1) The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y(-1)) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Measurement of indoor radon and thoron levels in dwellings and estimation of uranium, thorium and potassium in soil samples from central part of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kher, R.S. [Department of Physics, Government Science Postgraduate College, Bilaspur 495 006 (India)], E-mail: kherrs@hotmail.com; Khokhar, M.S.K. [Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495 009 (India); Rathore, V.B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur 492 001 (India); Ramachandran, T.V. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-08-15

    In the frame of nationwide survey project, measurement of indoor radon/thoron level has been carried out in 132 dwellings situated in 10 different towns/villages of centrally located states Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detectors in plastic twin chamber dosimeter cups were used for the measurement. The measurements were carried out for a full year, divided into four quarters. The mean radon/thoron concentration at all the locations falls well below the range of active level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. The results of uranium, thorium and potassium estimation in soil samples belonging to these areas are also reported. Positive correlation has not been observed between indoor radon/thoron concentration and uranium/thorium content of the soil. It is concluded that the diffusion of radon from soil to dwelling is greatly affected by flooring material.

  13. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  14. Radon-222 content of natural gas samples from Upper and Middle Devonian sandstone and shale reservoirs in Pennsylvania—preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of natural gas were collected as part of a study of formation water chemistry in oil and gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. Nineteen samples (plus two duplicates) were collected from 11 wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sandstones and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. The samples were collected from valves located between the wellhead and the gas-water separator. Analyses of the radon content of the gas indicated 222Rn (radon-222) activities ranging from 1 to 79 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) with an overall median of 37 pCi/L. The radon activities of the Upper Devonian sandstone samples overlap to a large degree with the activities of the Marcellus Shale samples.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of radon exhalation rates in baked, unbaked bricks and cement were found (1.202±0.212 Bq m-2 h-1, (1.419±0.230 Bq m-2 h-1 and (0.386±0.117 Bq m-2 h-1 and their corresponding average radium activity and annual effective dose were found (0.956±0.169 Bq/kg, (1.13±0.184 Bq/kg, (0.323±0.098 Bq/kg and (33.96±5.99 µSv y-1, (40.3±6.51 µSv y-1 and (10.94±3.28 µSv y-1, respectively. Radon concentration, exhalation rate and their corresponding radium activity and annual effective dose were found higher in unbaked bricks as compared to baked bricks and cement but overall values of radon exhalation rate, annual effective dose and radium activity were found well below the world average values of 57.600 Bq m-2 h-1, 1100 µSv y-1 and 370 Bq/kg, respectively.

  16. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  17. Variation in alpha radioactivity of plants with the use of different fertilizers and radon measurement in fertilized soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, Rishi Pal

    2014-01-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radin from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Fertilizers are commonly used in agricultural field worldwide to enhance the crop yield. In the present investigation, a control study was carried out on the lady's finger plants grown in earthen pots. To observe the effect of fertilizers their equal amounts were added to the soil just before the plantation. The alpha track densities were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), a sensitive detector for alpha particles. The measured alpha track densities (T cm(-2)d(-1)) in lady's finger plants on top and bottom face of leaves after 30, 50 and 70 days of plantation varied from 49 ± 11 to 206 ± 2.6, 49 ± 16 to 248 ± 16 and 57 ± 8.5 to 265 ± 32 respectively in various leaf samples. The alpha track densities were found to vary with nature of fertilizers added to the soil and an increase was also observed with time. The alpha track densities were also measured in soil samples mixed with different fertilizers. The radon exhalation rates in various soil samples and soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of alpha tracks were also calculated.

  18. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de inho

  19. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de inho

  20. Study on the solubility of radon in tissues; Untersuchung der Loeslichkeit von Radon in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Claudia; Kraft, Gerhard; Maier, Andreas; Beek, Patrick van [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    At the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt a radon chamber with conditions similar to the radon galleries was built for studies on the solubility of radon in tissues using cell cultures and animals. The samples are investigated using gamma spectroscopy following the radon exposure measuring Pb-214 and Bi-214. The original concentration of Rn-222 in the sample is determined by the time dependence of the decay rates of Rn-222. The experimental conditions and preliminary measurements are described.

  1. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  2. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  3. Evaluation of U, Th, K and emanated radon in some NORM and TENORM samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: em_afifi@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, S.M. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, H.F. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-05-15

    Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra (of U-series), {sup 228}Ra (of Th-series) and potassium ({sup 40}K) in some heavy minerals and building materials were determined and evaluated in some selected heavy mineral sands and building materials. Three heavy mineral sands (monazite, zircon and black sand) of industrial interest were used. Building materials used here include phosphogypsum (PG) wastes, natural gypsum, ceramics, granite, marble, cement and iron slag wastes associated with iron and steel production. The measurements were carried out using {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations varied widely depending on sample origin. The results indicated that the high activity levels, radium equivalent activity, absorbed-gamma dose rate and effective annual dose rate were found in monazite, zircon and PG wastes as compared to the other materials. The mean activity concentrations in monazite were 40580+/-1370, 182425+/-9870 and 11300+/-9570Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. This activity is equivalent to 0.39, 5.1 and 4.5wt% for uranium as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, thorium as ThO{sub 2} and potassium-40 as K{sub 2}O, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed-gamma dose rate and effective annual dose rate in monazite were 3.0x10{sup 5}Bqkg{sup -1}, 1.3x10{sup 5}nGyh{sup -1} and 163mSvyr{sup -1}, respectively. The emanation coefficient (EC) of {sup 222}Rn was less than 20%. The average Rn EC was 18% for cement samples and {approx}14% for granite and ceramic samples. It concluded that the Rosetta beach could be considered a valuable source for some metallurgical processes of industrial interest, but with special precautions. Most of the studied building materials can be used without restrictions except PG wastes, granite and ceramic.

  4. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: effects of lithology and well characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shelley A; Billmeyer, Ernest R; Robinson, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    Radon (222Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482 +/- 1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750 +/- 5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R2) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  5. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  6. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists.

  7. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  8. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  9. Compilation of geogenic radon potential map of Pest County, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, K. Zs.; Pásztor, L.; Horváth, Á.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Szabó, J.; Szabó, Cs.

    2010-05-01

    222Rn and its effect on the human health have recently received major importance in environmental studies. This natural radioactive gas accounts for about 9% of lung cancer death and about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe due to indoor radon concentrations. It moves into the buildings from the natural decay chain of uranium in soils, rocks and building materials. Radon mapping regionalizes the average hazard from radon in a selected area as a radon risk map. Two major methods (concerning the applied radon data) have been used for mapping. One uses indoor radon data whereas the other is based on soil gas radon data. The outputs of the second approach are the geogenic radon potential maps. The principal objective of our work is to take the first step in geogenic radon mapping in Hungary. Soil samples collected in Pest County (Central Region of Hungary) in the frame of a countrywide soil survey (Soil Information and Monitoring System) were studied to have empirical information of the potential radon risk. As the first two steps radium concentration of soil samples, collected at 43 locations sampling soil profiles by genetic horizons from the surface level down to 60-150 cm, were determined using HPGe gamma-spectroscopy technique, as well as measurement of radon exhalation on the soil samples were carried out applying closed radon accumulation chamber coupled with RAD7 radon monitor detector. From these data the exhalation coefficient was calculated, which shows how many percent of the produced radon can come out from the sample. This rate strongly depends on the depth: at circa 100 cm a drastic decrease have been noticed, which is explained by the change in soil texture. The major source of indoor radon is the soil gas radon concentration (Barnet et al., 2005). We estimated this value from the measured radon exhalation and calculated soil porosity and density. The soil gas radon concentration values were categorized after Kemski et al. (2001) and then the

  10. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations.

  11. Measurements of radon around closed uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki E-mail: furuta@ningyo.jnc.go.jp; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu

    2002-07-01

    There are several waste rock yards at closed uranium mines around Ningyo-toge, in the Western Honshu Island of Japan, and measurements of radon were carried out by both the passive method and the sampling method around these yards. As comparatively high radon concentrations were observed in two districts through routine measurements, more detailed measurements were made by the passive method in these districts. The impact of radon emanation from the waste rock yards was small for both residential districts and around these yards when considering the natural background level of radon. In addition, by simultaneous continuous measurements of radon and its progeny at two locations, it was estimated that the effective dose caused by the representative uranium waste rock yards was less than the public effective dose limit of 1 mSv year{sup -1} at the fenced boundary of the waste rock site.

  12. The Radon Monitoring System in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, M C; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Pun, C S J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H$^{3}$) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H$^{3}$ is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10\\% in a 1-hour measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5\\% at 25$^{\\circ}$C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m$^{3}$. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor $\\alpha$-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  13. Radon Exhalation Considered in Building Material Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In order to investigate the relationship between radon exhalation and specific activity of natural nuclides in building material, here different kinds of samples of building materials were measured by the

  14. Radon Guide for Tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  15. Health Risk of Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon in Homes EPA 402-R-03-003. Summary Fact Sheet on the updated risk assessment . Top of Page Former U.S. Surgeon General ... WHO) launched an international radon project to help countries increase ... reduce radon-related risks. The U.S. EPA is one of several government ...

  16. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  17. Measurement of radon in air using the PICO-RAD detector and a liquid scintillation spectrometer. 2. Misasa district, Tottori pref. on sampling of 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Sohei [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Morishita, Satoru; Kitamura, Naoya; Mifune, Masaaki

    1994-12-01

    A convenient radon detecting device for the purpose of estimating natural radiation exposure is described. The {alpha} radioactivity of its daughters originated from radon gas adsorbed in fine active carbon particles exposed to air is measured with a liquid scintillation spectrometer (Packard PICO-RAD system). Its detection limit is 1.7 Bq/m{sup 3} in air with an accuracy of about 10% on 200 minutes of counting time, and correction coefficient, the ratio of measured radon concentration to standard radon concentration (about 300 Bq/m{sup 3}) is 0.75 on the standard radon gas chamber of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Radon concentrations at Misasa hot springs in Tottori prefecture were measured using the PICO-RAD method on 1993. They were 128-3,600 Bq/m{sup 3} in a bath room, 25-45 Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors and 28-89 Bq/m{sup 3} indoors. (author).

  18. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru; Kelleher, K. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Paridaens, J. [SCK.CEN Mol (Belgium); Mc Laughlin, J.P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin (Ireland); Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.D. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Birovljev, A. [Radonlab Ltd., Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Italian National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped {sup 210}Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted {sup 210}Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  19. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunić, Z S; Yarmoshenko, I V; Kelleher, K; Paridaens, J; Mc Laughlin, J P; Celiković, I; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A D; Jovanović, S; Demajo, A; Birovljev, A; Bochicchio, F

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped (210)Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted (210)Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test>0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m(-3), whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  20. The radon indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  1. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  2. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  3. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  4. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  5. Determination of Radon concentration in air using scinti-cell radon monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst; Morishima, Hiroshige; Arai, Naoki; Shiraishi, Masatoshi; Shigehara, Makiko [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka(Japan); Mifune, Masaaki

    2000-01-01

    This study is carried out the methodology characteristics of {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentration in air using the scinti-cell radon monitor (Trace environmental level detector (PMT-TEL) and Lucas cell (300 A), Pylon Co. and the determination of Radon concentrations in air on Misasa spa area in Tottori pref. and Ikeda spa in Shimane pref. on November 1995 and 1996. We have reached to the following results; (1) Minimum detectable Radon concentrations in air using the scinti-cell monitor are 7.6 Bq/m{sup 3} with 23% of accuracy (relative standard deviation) on the grab sampling of Lucas cell and 0.58 Bq/m{sup 3} with that of 17% on the continuous measuring of PMT-TEL, when it measured after 3.5 hours on the air sampling to determine the mean radon concentrations. The radon concentrations by the PMT-TEL method is about ten times more detectable than those by Lucas cell, that the former is the most sensitive among the detectors used on this research and is able to detect low level environmental concentrations, particularly outdoor and the later is valuable to use conveniently and portably on grab spot sampling of high level radon concentrations indoor air. (2) On the comparison of characteristics on spot monitoring of radon in air, a pico-rad method is suitable for the determination of the mean concentration for continuous sampling period by PMT-TEL and Lucas cell 300 A, and the variation of radon concentration can be observed on elapse of time course. (author)

  6. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Tornberg, R. [Radon Centres Ltd., Grove Farm, Moulton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump tology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  7. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  8. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  9. Blastocystis sp.: waterborne zoonotic organism, a possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li Ii; Chye, Tan Tian; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Govind, Suresh Kumar

    2012-06-28

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in faecal sample surveys. Several studies have implicated human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions by Blastocystis sp. However, there has been no study providing evidence interlinking these three transmissions in a community. We have previously shown a high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 amongst village dwellers in Bahunipati, Nepal, and the present study extends the observation to assess if the same subtype of Blastocystis sp. occurs in animals they rear and rivers they frequent. Faecal samples were collected from 65 animals. Four river water samples were collected from two rivers. Faecal samples were examined using in vitro cultivation. Blastocystis sp. from animal faecal and river samples were genotyped using seven subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blastocystis sp. infected 15.4% animals with subtype 4 being the predominant genotype (40.0%). Both rivers were contaminated with Blastocystis sp. subtype 1 and subtype 4, which were also detected in humans living in the same village in our previous study. Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 that was detected in buffalo and pigs was also found in the respective family members that reared these animals. This unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis subtype 4 found in village dwellers was also found to be pervasive in the animals they reared and the rivers they frequented implying a strong possibility of waterborne zoonosis for Blastocystis sp.

  10. Survey of Indoor Radon Concentrations in California Elementary Schools. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joey Y.; Liu, Kai-Shen; Waldman, Jed

    This paper reports on the concentrations of radon found within a sample of 378 elementary schools in California. Long-term alpha-track radon detectors were placed in 6,485 classrooms within participating schools to detect radon levels for between 220 to 366 days. Only classrooms were tested. Results show that about 5.6 percent of the schools…

  11. Personal radon dosimetry from eyeglass lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, R L; Meyer, N R; Hadley, S A; MacDonald, J; Cavallo, A

    2001-01-01

    Eyeglass lenses are commonly composed of allyl-diglycol carbonate (CR-39), an alpha-particle detecting plastic, thus making such lenses personal radon dosemeters. Samples of such lenses have been obtained, etched to reveal that radon and radon progeny alpha tracks can be seen in abundance, and sensitivities have been calibrated in radon chambers as a primary calibration, and with a uranium-based source of alpha particles as a convenient secondary standard. With one exception natural, environmental (fossil) track densities ranged from less than 3,000 to nearly 70,000 per cm2 for eyeglasses that had been worn for various times from one to nearly five years. Average radon concentrations to which those wearers were exposed are inferred to be in the range 14 to 130 Bq x m(-3) (0.4 to 3.5 pCi x l(-1)). A protocol for consistent, meaningful readout is derived and used. In the exceptional case the fossil track density was 1,780,000 cm(-2) and the inferred (24 h) average radon concentration was 6500 Bq x m(-3) (175 pCi x l(-1)) for a worker at an inactive uranium mine that is used for therapy.

  12. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Rahman, Naureen M; Abu Atiya, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for slate tiles and 42 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m(-2) d(-1), it would contribute only 18 Bq m(-3) to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  13. Methods for measuring diffusion coefficients of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for determining the Rn-222 diffusion coefficient in concrete are presented. Experimentally, the flush and adsorption technique to measure radon release rates underlines both methods. Theoretically, the first method was developed fur samples of cubical geometry. The radon diffusion

  14. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  15. Radon and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151(11):1091–1102. [PubMed Abstract] Frumkin H, Samet JM. Radon. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2001; 51(6):337–344. [ ...

  16. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  17. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  18. Development of a radon chamber and measurement of the radon solubility in tissues; Entwicklung einer Radonkammer und Messung der Radonloeslichkeit in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas

    2015-04-22

    Every year thousands of patients with inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system undergo radon therapy, but the molecular mechanism and the risk of this therapy are not understood. To study the effects of radon exposure in vitro and in vivo we constructed a radon exposure chamber in the framework of the GREWIS project. With this device we are able to expose samples under controlled and reproducible conditions including the radon galleries in Austria and Germany. Adjustable parameters are radon activity-concentration, temperature, humidity and exposure time. These parameters are permanently monitored and controlled. During experiments with cell cultures it is also possible to adjust the CO{sub 2}-concentration. In addition, experiments with mice can be performed with this setup. To measure the radon kinetics in different types of tissue we exposed tissue samples like fat or muscle and mice in the radonchamber. Afterwards we measured the -spectra of the short living radon decay products lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the exposed samples with a HPGe-Detector. We recorded the spectra at different time points after exposure and calculated the initial amount of radon at the end of the exposure period in the sample and investigated the diffusion of the radon out of it. We compared the results from different types of tissue but also activated coal. In an activated coal sample the radon is bound to it via Van-der-Waals-force and the decay spectra are governed by the life time of the bound radon (3,8 days). In contrast in the biological samples the primary radon diffuses out of the samples in less than 20 minutes and the spectra follow the kinetics of the decay of the daughter products. These measurements where performed for the first time under therapy conditions like in radon galleries and also with higher radon concentration. In our experiments we could see an enhanced accumulation of radon and its decay products in fatty tissue compared to muscle tissue. Also in

  19. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  20. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  1. METAL CORROSION IN WATERBORNE PRESERVATIVE- TREATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Sugiyanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity and firmness of wooden construction and furniture those are joined by metal screws depend on corrosion rate of these metals. This paper examines the weight-loss percentage of metal screws used in wood samples that have been treated with water-borne preser vative (i.e.3% borax boric acid and 3% diffusol CB and concurrently investigates the effect of brake fluid on preventing metal corrosion. Wood samples tested included three acacia and one eucalypts wood species which were grouped into sapwood and heartwood containing samples. Wood samples fastened with metal screws were freely suspended in glass jars that contained 25 ml of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to keep the humidity rate above 90%. After 12 months, the metal screws lost their weight due to the corrosion brought about by the related factors either in separate individual or in combination, which comprised brake and fluid-dipping , wood species, wood portion (sapwood and heartwood, kinds of preser vatives used. Corrosion rates of metal screws fastened in eucalypts wood sample as indicated by the screw-weight loss (i.e. 5.8% was more severe than that fastened in acacia wood. Furthermore, corrosion rate of metal screws as fixed firmly in sapwood sample proceeded faster than that in heartwood. This might be caused by the higher moisture content in sapwood. On the other hand, corrosion rate of the screws as fastened in waterborne-preser vative-treated wood samples was greater than that in non-preser ved wood due to electrokinetic characteristics and ionic potential exhibited by the preser vative thereby intensif ying the screw-corrosion process. Meanwhile, less severe corrosion was obser ved and recorded on the screws pre-dipped in brake fluid compared to those on the non-dipped screws

  2. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements (238)U and (226)Ra, as a precursor of (222)Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg(-1)) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m(-3)) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for (226)Ra, 22-160 for (238)U and 0.295-32 for (222)Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for (238)U and (226)Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for (222)Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indoor radon in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaupotič Janja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian Radon Programme started in 1990. Since then, radon and radon short-lived decay products have been surveyed in 730 kindergartens, 890 schools, 1000 randomly selected homes, 5 major spas, 26 major hospitals, 10 major municipal water supply plants, and 8 major wineries. Alpha scintillation cells, etched track detectors, electret-based detectors and various continuously measuring devices have been used. On the basis of estimated effective doses, decisions were made on appropriate mitigation. In total, 35 buildings have been appropriately modified. The programme is displayed and results reviewed chronologically and discussed.

  4. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The reliability of radon as seismic precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2016-04-01

    Our multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains) includes radon concentration monitoring in five stations. We focus on lithosphere and near surface low atmosphere phenomena using real-time information about seismicity, + / - ions, clouds, solar radiation, temperature (air, ground), humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, telluric currents, variations of the local magnetic field, infrasound, variations of the atmospheric electrostatic field, variations in the earth crust with inclinometers, electromagnetic activity, CO2 concentration, ULF radio wave propagation, seismo-acoustic emission, animal behavior. The main purpose is to inform the authorities about risk situation and update hazard scenarios. The radon concentration monitoring is continuously with 1 hour or 3 hours sample rate in locations near to faults in an active seismic zone characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes. Trigger algorithms include standard deviation, mean and derivative methods. We correlate radon concentration measurements with humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure from the same equipment. In few stations we have meteorological information, too. Sometime the radon concentration has very high variations (maxim 4535 Bq/m3 from 106 Bq/m3) in short time (1 - 2 days) without being accompanied by an important earthquake. Generally the cause is the high humidity that could be generated by tectonic stress. Correlation with seismicity needs information from minimum 6 month in our case. For 10605 hours, 618 earthquakes with maxim magnitude 4.9 R, we have got radon average 38 Bq/m3 and exposure 408111 Bqh/m3 in one station. In two cases we have correlation between seismicity and radon concentration. In other one we recorded high variation because the location was in an area with multiple faults and a river. Radon can be a seismic precursor but only in a multidisciplinary network. The anomalies for short or long period of

  7. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400,000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m(3). Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m(3). The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m(3).

  9. Radon Optical Processing in Radon Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-15

    yields one line through the three-dimensional Fourier transform 1. Radon, J., " Uber die Bestimmung von Funktiontn of the three-dimensional function (3...Alamos, New Mexico , April 11-15. 1983.a 6. W. G. Wee, "Application of projection techniques to image image. Figure 1(a) has approximately 8.0 bits/pixel

  10. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  11. Radon surveys in Ajloun city using CR-39 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabadi, Douha R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); Abumurad, Khalid M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)], E-mail: abumurad@yu.edu.jo

    2008-08-15

    In the present study radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in dwellings, soil and water at Ajloun city was performed by using CR-39. The detectors were chemically etched and the alpha track density was measured using an optical microscope. The average indoor radon concentration for the whole survey was 27.6{+-}1.8Bqm{sup -3}. Differences were found at the different floors: 31.1{+-}4.4, 23.8{+-}3.6 and 19.7{+-}3.2Bqm{sup -3} for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd floors, respectively. Furthermore, the average concentration of radon in soil air was 3.4{+-}1.4kBqm{sup -3}. In addition, the average radon level in water samples from different water springs was 2.0{+-}0.3Bql{sup -1}. However, the average concentration of radon in Ajloun city is lower than the national average ({approx}40.0Bqm{sup -3})

  12. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Dogan, I.; Celebi, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  13. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  14. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strategy below. Top of Page Testing and Mitigation Standards for Schools Copies of the following Radon Standards ... control is a critical component of any comprehensive indoor air quality (IAQ) management program, l earn how to manage ...

  15. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  16. Mapping of radon in Danish soils 1. Collection of basis data; Kortlaegning af radon i danske jordarter 1. Indsamling af grunddata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Roll Jakobsen, P.; Kelstrup, N.; Ernstsen, V

    2000-07-01

    Danish soils are characterised as regards content of uranium, thorium, radium and radon. This has been done to supplement earlier collected data, to give an overview of the radon emanation from Danish soils, which is reasonably adequate for area and for the common soils. To supply the analysis of soil samples from the field, an airborne measurements of the radioactive radiation on Bornholm, has been carried out which can combine the point measurements, represented by the samples. The aim of the activities has been to prepare the geological basis to describe a radon potential map, where other radon data will to be included. 158 samples have been analysed. (EHS)

  17. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  18. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  19. Radon in land use planning; Radon i arealplanlegging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Radon poses a health risk. Therefore, it is important that the municipality takes into account radon, in land use planning. This Radiation Info provides an overview of what makes an additional radon prone area and what tools are available to assess this. The background is the Planning and Building Act provisions on risk analysis (ROS) and zones. (eb)

  20. High sensitivity radon emanation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzel, G; Simgen, H

    2009-05-01

    The presented radon detection technique employs miniaturized ultra-low background proportional counters. (222)Rn samples are purified, mixed with a counting gas and filled into a counter using a special glass vacuum line. The absolute sensitivity of the system is estimated to be 40 microBq (20 (222)Rn atoms). For emanation investigations two metal sealed stainless steel vessels and several glass vials are available. Taking into account their blank contributions, measurements at a minimum detectable activity of about 100 microBq can be performed.

  1. Quantile regression and Bayesian cluster detection to identify radon prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarra, Annalina; Fontanella, Lara; Valentini, Pasquale; Palermi, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Albeit the dominant source of radon in indoor environments is the geology of the territory, many studies have demonstrated that indoor radon concentrations also depend on dwelling-specific characteristics. Following a stepwise analysis, in this study we propose a combined approach to delineate radon prone areas. We first investigate the impact of various building covariates on indoor radon concentrations. To achieve a more complete picture of this association, we exploit the flexible formulation of a Bayesian spatial quantile regression, which is also equipped with parameters that controls the spatial dependence across data. The quantitative knowledge of the influence of each significant building-specific factor on the measured radon levels is employed to predict the radon concentrations that would have been found if the sampled buildings had possessed standard characteristics. Those normalised radon measures should reflect the geogenic radon potential of the underlying ground, which is a quantity directly related to the geological environment. The second stage of the analysis is aimed at identifying radon prone areas, and to this end, we adopt a Bayesian model for spatial cluster detection using as reference unit the building with standard characteristics. The case study is based on a data set of more than 2000 indoor radon measures, available for the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) and collected by the Agency of Environmental Protection of Abruzzo, during several indoor radon monitoring surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p 222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body.

  3. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  4. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  5. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  6. Waterborne outbreak control: which disinfectant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, E W; Hoff, J C; Lippy, E C

    1982-12-01

    Drinking water disinfection was shown to be an important public health measure around the turn of the century. In the United States, it was perhaps the single most important factor in controlling typhoid fever, a waterborne disease that was rampant throughout the world during the last century. It may also be assumed that disinfection was important in limiting the number of cases of other diseases known to be capable of waterborne transmission, i.e., cholera, amebiasis, shigellosis, salmonellosis, and hepatitis A. Even though modern treatment has eliminated water as a major vehicle of infectious disease transmission, outbreaks still occur. In fact, the annual number has been increasing since 1966. Interruption in chlorination or failure to achieve adequate levels of chlorine residual is the most often identified deficiency of the involved water supplies. This finding indicates that waterborne microbial pathogens remain as a potential health threat and underscores the importance of disinfection. From the outset, chlorination has been the drinking water disinfectant of choice in the country. Numerous studies have demonstrated its ability to inactivate bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens when applied under proper conditions. However, the finding that chlorinated organics that are potentially carcinogenic are formed has prompted an evaluation of alternative disinfectants. The viable alternatives to chlorine currently under consideration for widespread use are ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines. In terms of biocidal efficiency, ozone is the most potent of the three. Chlorine dioxide is about the equivalent of free chlorine in the hypochlorous acid form but much more efficient than the hypochlorite form of free chlorine. The chloramines are weaker biocides than hypochlorite. Although this general order of ranking of efficiency holds for diverse types of microorganisms, quantitative comparisons vary with different microorganisms and experimental conditions.

  7. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  8. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  9. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1995-08-01

    Past efforts to identify areas having higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the noise in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in some or most areas, In the present paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed in such a way as to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, in order to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state and the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties, The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. This approach offers a self-consistent statistical method for predicting the mean values of indoor radon concentrations or other geographically

  10. A comparison between active and passive techniques for measurements of radon emanation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Coto, I. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: Israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es; Mas, J.L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada I, E.U.P., University of Seville, Seville (Spain); San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, I.I.T. Kharagpur, West Bengal (India)

    2009-05-15

    Some radon related parameters have been determined through two different techniques (passive and active) in soil and phosphogypsum samples. Emanation factors determined through these techniques show a good agreement for soil samples while for phosphogympsum samples appear large discrepancies. In this paper, these discrepancies are analyzed and explained if non-controlled radon leakages in the passive technique are taken into account.

  11. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  12. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  13. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    dose rates are measured in the areas covered by nearly impermeable silt and clay deposits. Indoor gamma dose rates as high as 620 nGy/h are obtained in the areas of exposed carbonatites, primarily due to enhanced thorium concentrations in these rock types. The observed correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway indicate that geological information is a useful tool in radon risk analysis. Resources can be concentrated to regions of high geologic radon potential when screening programs are planned, and efficient follow-up surveys can be established based on geological data in combination with radon measurements in a representative sample of the building stock. The observed contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds also enable the prediction of radon risk in areas which are not currently inhabited. (Author)

  14. Standardised Radon Index (SRI: a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. Crockett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of 2002, from late June to mid December, the University of Northampton Radon Research Group operated two continuous hourly-sampling radon detectors 2.25 km apart in the English East Midlands. This period included the Dudley earthquake (ML = 5, 22 September 2002 and also a smaller earthquake in the English Channel (ML = 3, 26 August 2002. Rolling/sliding windowed cross-correlation of the paired radon time-series revealed periods of simultaneous similar radon anomalies which occurred at the time of these earthquakes but at no other times during the overall radon monitoring period. Standardising the radon data in terms of probability of magnitude, analogous to the Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs used in drought modelling, which effectively equalises different non-linear responses, reveals that the dissimilar relative magnitudes of the anomalies are in fact closely equiprobabilistic. Such methods could help in identifying anomalous signals in radon – and other – time-series and in evaluating their statistical significance in terms of earthquake precursory behaviour.

  15. Feeding reduces waterborne Cu bioaccumulation in a marine rabbitfish Siganus oramin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Zhou, Yanyan; Gao, Na; Zhang, Li; Green, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne metal uptake has been extensively studied and dietary metal assimilation is increasingly recognized in fish, whilst the interaction between the two uptake routes is largely overlooked. This study compared the waterborne Cu bioaccumulation ((65)Cu as tracer) in a juvenile rabbitfish at different feeding regimes (starvation (SG), feeding normal diet (NDG) or diet supplemented with extra Cu (DCG)) to test the hypothesis that feeding can influence waterborne metal uptake in marine fish. NDG and DCG diet was fed as a single meal and then all fish were exposed to waterborne (65)Cu for 48 h, during which the time course sampling was conducted to determine (65)Cu bioaccumulation, chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. The results revealed that SG fish accumulated the highest (65)Cu, followed by NDG (61% of SG), whilst DCG fish accumulated the lowest (65)Cu (34% of SG). These results suggested a protective effect of feeding against waterborne Cu bioaccumulation. This effect was most notable between 10 min and 16 h when there was chyme in gastrointestinal tract (GT). Dietary Cu assimilation mainly occurred before 16 h after feeding. Waterborne (65)Cu influx rate in the GT was positively correlated with (65)Cu contents of chyme in NDG, whereas it was largely negatively correlated with (65)Cu contents of chyme in DCG. The waterborne Cu uptake in the GT was mainly influenced by the chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. Overall, our findings suggested that feeding has an important effect on waterborne metal uptake and that both the feeding status of the fish and the relative metal exposure through water and food should be considered in prediction of the metal bioaccumulation and biomonitoring programs.

  16. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  17. What Is Radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in both cigarette smoke and radon. In some animals, the risk of certain other cancers was also increased. In lab studies using human ... cancer grow is called a carcinogen .) The American Cancer Society looks to these ... laboratory, animal, and human research studies. Based on animal and ...

  18. The Chemistry of Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrorin, V. V.; Krasikova, R. N.; Nefedov, V. D.; Toropova, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    We shall review the discovery of this element, studies of its chemical nature, and modern ideas on its chemical and physical properties. Possible chemical and nuclear-chemical methods of synthesising new radon compounds and of determining their properties and their identity will be discussed, using information published up to May 1980. 121 references.

  19. Environmental radon studies in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, N; Gaso, M I; Armienta, M A

    2007-04-01

    Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization chambers. The liquid scintillation technique, also, has been used for determination of radon in groundwater. The adjusted geometric mean indoor radon concentration (74 Bq m-3) in urban developments, for example Mexico City, is higher than the worldwide median concentration of radon in dwellings. In some regions, particularly hilly regions of Mexico where air pollution is high, radon concentrations are higher than action levels and the effective dose for the general population has increased. Higher soil radon levels have been found in the uranium mining areas in the northern part of the country. Groundwater radon levels are, in general, low. Soil-air radon contributing to indoor atmospheres and air pollution is the main source of increased exposure of the population.

  20. Kosova’da Bazı İlköğretim ve Ortaöğretim Okullarında İç Mekan Radon Konsantrasyonun İzlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    NAFEZI, Gazmend; BAHTIJARI, Meleq; XHAFA, Besim; HODOLLI, Gezim; KADIRI, Sehad; MAKOLLI, Sami; SHALA, Behar; MULAJ, Zenun

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration were carried out at indoor air of 30 elementary and secondary schools in Kosovo. The aim of this study was to know the level of indoor radon concentration in these locations and to enhance the national radon survey. The main method for indoor radon measurement was direct sampling in alpha scintillation cells and continuous monitoring during some days. However, in cases with an increased instantaneous and continuous radon concentration the additional method ...

  1. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K; Ali, S

    2001-01-01

    The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A calibration curve was generated using 226Ra activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slope of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becqueral per kilogram (Bq kg-1) per unit alpha-track-density per hour (cm-2 h-1), radon concentrations (Bq m-3) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. Results of these computations may be considered with a caveat that the method developed in this paper provides only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines. It has been shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  2. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  3. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L. [Bologna Univ., Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali and Dipt. di Fisica, Ravenna (Italy); Albertazzi, A. [Italian Ceramic Center, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using {gamma}-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the {sup 222}Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The {sup 222}Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  4. Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijse, David F.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    A plethora of viruses can be transmitted by the food- and waterborne route. However, their recognition is challenging because of the variety of viruses, heterogeneity of symptoms, the lack of awareness of clinicians, and limited surveillance efforts. Classical food- and waterborne viral disease outbreaks are mainly caused by caliciviruses, but the source of the virus is often not known and the foodborne mode of transmission is difficult to discriminate from human-to-human transmission. Atypical food- and waterborne viral disease can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A and hepatitis E. In addition, a source of novel emerging viruses with a potential to spread via the food- and waterborne route is the repeated interaction of humans with wildlife. Wildlife-to-human adaptation may give rise to self- limiting outbreaks in some cases, but when fully adjusted to the human host can be devastating. Metagenomic sequencing has been investigated as a promising solution for surveillance purposes as it detects all viruses in a single protocol, delivers additional genomic information for outbreak tracing, and detects novel unknown viruses. Nevertheless, several issues must be addressed to apply metagenomic sequencing in surveillance. First, sample preparation is difficult since the genomic material of viruses is generally overshadowed by host- and bacterial genomes. Second, several data analysis issues hamper the efficient, robust, and automated processing of metagenomic data. Third, interpretation of metagenomic data is hard, because of the lack of general knowledge of the virome in the food chain and the environment. Further developments in virus-specific nucleic acid extraction methods, bioinformatic data processing applications, and unifying data visualization tools are needed to gain insightful surveillance knowledge from suspect food samples. PMID:28261185

  5. Radon, water chemistry and pollution check by volatile organic compounds in springs around Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, M.; Cisniega, G.; Lopez, B.; M. A. Armienta; Valdés, C; Peña, P.; N. Segovia

    2005-01-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs were analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. The measurements of soil radon indicated fluctuations related to both the meteorological and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essential differences in concentration d...

  6. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF EPOXY RESIN WATERBORNE DISPERSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhong Yang; Yuan-ze Xu; De-lu Zhao

    2001-01-01

    The waterborne dispersions of epoxy resin were prepared by the phase inversion emulsification technique.Rheological behavior and its relationship with the structural change of the systems were studied. It was shown that the concentrated dispersions were highly viscoelastic and pseudoplastic, which was attributed to the formation of a physical network among the waterborne particles via hydrogen bond. The dilute dispersions were Newtonian fluids. The discrete clusters composed of small waterborne particles were found in diluted dispersions. With increasing solid content, there existed a structural transition via percolation through a cluster-cluster aggregation mode to form the physical network, which was qualitatively evidenced by the TEM morphologies.``

  7. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Collé, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  8. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inácio

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 Bq/L, being that 1690 Bq/L was the highest measured value.

  9. Monitoring of radon in water of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chin-Chiang (Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Station, Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan, Kaohsiung Hsien (Republic of China))

    1983-03-01

    The toluene extraction-liquid scintillation counting method was used to measure the radon concentration in water samples of Taiwan, R.O.C. The experimental results showed that the counting efficiency for both ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. emitted from radon and its daughters could reach 100%. The separation of activity of /sup 222/Rn from /sup 220/Rn was performed according to Bunny method. Thirty sampling stations including water samples from wells and hot springs throughout Taiwan were analyzed. The measured data show that /sup 220/Rn has much higher concentration than /sup 222/Rn. The concentration for the former is in the order of 10/sup -7/ Ci/l while that for the later is about 10/sup -10/ Ci/l.

  10. Radon and lung cancer; Radon et cancer du poumon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysson, H; Billon, S.; Catelinois, O.; Gambard, J.P.; Laurier, D.; Rogel, A.; Tirmarche, M

    2004-12-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas that tends to accumulate in indoor environments; its concentration is highest in areas with granite sub-soils. Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and animal data demonstrate the radon inhalation increases the risk of lung cancer. The objective of this paper is to present the available data on the French population's exposure to radon and the current epidemiologic knowledge of its effects, from cohort studies of uranium miners and indoor radon case-control studies.

  11. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  12. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  13. Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M. E-mail: vchoubey1@rediffmail.com; Bartarya, S.K.; Ramola, R.C

    2003-06-01

    The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4{+-}1.8 to 92.5{+-}3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5{+-}2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth.

  14. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, K.; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Radiation Physics Division, Environmental Radiation Group

    2001-07-01

    A calibration curve was generated using Ra-226 activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slops of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg{sup -1}) per unit alpha -track-density per hour (cm{sup -2}h{sup -1}), radon concentrations (Bq m{sup -3}) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. These results provide only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines, It was shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  15. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  16. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to morefundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain ......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  17. (Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results; Concentracao de Rn-222 e filhos em aguas provenientes de pocos e emergencias de agua da regiao de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Quimica e Biologia; Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  19. Radon - environmental pollutant from underground. Radon - Umweltgift aus dem Erdreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertreis, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radon is responsible for about 50% of the natural radiation load of 200 mrem/a in the Federal Republic of Germany. This implies that approximately 190.000 households with about 600.000 citizens of the Federal Republic face an increased risk of lung cancer. Hints are given as to the reduction of radon values in cellars and living rooms. (DG).

  20. Radon in Groundwater of the Northeastern Gran Canaria Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alonso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn has been detected in 28 groundwater samples from the northeast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain utilizing a closed loop system consisting of an AlphaGUARD monitor that measures radon activity concentration in the air by means of an ionization chamber, and an AquaKIT set that transfers dissolved radon in the water samples to the air within the circuit. Radon concentration in the water samples studied varies between 0.3 and 76.9 Bq/L. Spanish radiological protection regulations limit the concentration of 222Rn for drinking water to 100 Bq/L, therefore the values obtained for all the analyzed samples are below this threshold. The hydrogeological study reveals a significant correspondence between the radon activity concentration and the material characteristics of the aquifer. For a selected group of samples with high radon concentrations, gross alpha activity has been determined to have values higher than the prescriptive screening level (0.1 Bq/L.

  1. Radon variability in borehole from Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory of NW Himalaya in relation to meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena; Choubey, V M; Kumar, Naresh; Rawat, Gautam; Khandelwal, D D

    2013-02-01

    Radon has been measured continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Five years of high resolution data of radon sampled at 15 min shows a complex trend with strong seasonal and diurnal trends. This temporal variation of radon has high emanation during summer and low concentration in winter. Diurnal radon variability was observed mainly during March-June and September-November each year. The existence of these diurnal periodicities in radon is related to the borehole temperature gradient i.e. difference between external atmospheric and internal borehole temperature at 10 m depth in the air column. The measured radon values are characterized by a diurnal cycle with a maximum in the afternoon and a minimum in the morning in all the seasons except in winter and during rainy periods. Minimum radon variations are recorded in the winter months primarily in December and January. Sudden unsystematic jumps in radon counts are observed each year in the rainy period (July and August). The atmospheric temperature was found to positively correlate with radon emanation. The data set of the borehole indicates a good correlation between atmospheric temperature and radon concentration that is observed throughout the year except in the rainy season. The spectra of radon and atmospheric temperature time series of 5 years data clearly show prominent and clear peaks at 1 and 2 cycles per day.

  2. Determination of radon in the air of housings of the Aguascalientes municipality; Determinacion de radon en el aire en viviendas del municipio de Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso G, M.R.; Lira P, M.G.; Bonilla P, A.; Ruvalcaba S, L.; Gutierrez S, K.M.; Sandoval A, G.E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Lopez Mateos 1801, 20256 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Sanchez H, L. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jassogonzalezre@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    This study reports the results of the first exploratory sampling of the radon concentration in the air in a group of housings of the Aguascalientes City, Mexico. The municipality of Aguascalientes was divided in 4 sampling areas considering a total of 179 housings. In these housings, the radon concentration in the air was monitored during a period of 10 days. The results obtained in this study indicate that the radon concentration in the air of 45% of the sampling housings overcomes the concentration limit of 250 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the EPA. (Author)

  3. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obed, R.I., E-mail: rachelobed@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Ademola, A.K. [Department of Physical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota (Nigeria); Vascotto, M. [Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Giannini, G. [The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Radon measurements were performed in secondary schools in the Oke-Ogun area, South-west, Nigeria, by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). About seventy CR-39 detectors were distributed in 35 high schools of the Oke-Ogun area. The CR-39 detectors were exposed in the schools for 3 months and then etched in NaOH 6 N solution at 90 deg. C for 3 h. The tracks were counted manually at the microscope and the radon concentration was determined at the Radioactivity Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. The overall average radon concentration in the surveyed area was 45 {+-} 27 Bq m{sup -3}. The results indicate no radiological health hazard. The research also focused on parameters affecting radon concentrations such as the age of the building in relation to building materials and floor number of the classrooms. The results show that radon concentrations in ground floors are higher than in upper floors. - Highlights: > We measured radon concentration levels in a sample of schools in Oke-Ogun, Nigeria. > We analyzed the main factors that affect indoor radon levels. > Dependence of radon concentrations on floor levels confirmed the influence of soil as main source of indoor radon.

  4. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment: The Determination of Radon Levels in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Lawrence E.; Mossman, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a radiation experiment developed to complement a new environmental chemistry laboratory curriculum. A scintillation counter is used to measure radon in water. The procedure relies on the fact that toluene will preferentially extract radon from water. Sample preparation is complete in less than 90 minutes. Because the level of…

  5. Monitoring the radon flux from gold-mine dumps by gamma-ray mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, R; de Meijer, RJ; Maleka, PP; Newman, RT; Motlhabane, TGK; de Villiers, D

    2004-01-01

    The exhalation of radon from the large mine dumps at the gold mines in South Africa is a potential health hazard. Determination of radon fluxes from these dumpsites is problematic due to the scatter in the data in time and place and the cost involved in getting a representative sample. gamma-ray spe

  6. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  7. Modern state of radon chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, V.V.; Krasikova, R.N.; Nefedov, V.D.; Toropova, M.A. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A review of works on radon chemistry published up to May, 1980, is presented. Physical properties of the element, are described as well as peculiarities in the field of its chemical investigations connected with unfavourable nuclear-physical characteristics of radon isotopes, with specificity of its electron structure. Characteristics of the known radon compounds, including impurity compounds, their stability, are given. Possible chemical and nuclear-chemical approaches to the solution of problems of synthesis, determination of properties, and identification of its new compounds are discussed. The advantage of using electron capture processes for radon compound synthesis, possibility to use nuclear reactions induced by accelerated elementary particles, are pointed out. Possible applications of radon compounds are considered.

  8. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa: Beyond Method 1623

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia Current detection methodologies 2. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Building a “Protoz...

  9. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVERVIEW I. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium Current detection methodologies II. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Detecting, typing, and tracking sources of Cryptosporidium contami...

  10. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa: Beyond Method 1623

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia Current detection methodologies 2. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Building a “Protoz...

  11. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVERVIEW I. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium Current detection methodologies II. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Detecting, typing, and tracking sources of Cryptosporidium contami...

  12. Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share A Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself ... EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. A Citizen's Guide to Radon - Revised December 2016 (PDF) (16 ...

  13. Radium activity and radon exhalation rates from phosphate ores using CR-39 on-line with an electronic radon gas analyzer 'Alpha GUARD'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)], E-mail: abdallahsaad@hotmail.com

    2008-08-15

    Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) have seen a major expansion in application to general physical and geological problems reflecting its advances in understanding the exhalation dependence of radon as well as radon and radium concentration distributions in the earth's crust. However, considerable uncertainties still persist, in particular, concerning the detection efficiency of track detectors which are not calibrated precisely to a standard method or an active detector of a unique efficiency. In this investigation, CR-39 NTDs and an electronic radon gas analyzer 'Alpha GUARD' were used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in phosphate samples collected from two different mines of El-Sobaeya and El-Suez, Egypt. The phosphate sample was loaded into an emanation container (Genitron Instruments GmbH) equipped with a PC-based radon gas analyzer. The CR-39 track detectors were mounted inside a diffusion cup used simultaneously with the Alpha GUARD radon gas analyzer. Radium activity in phosphate samples was found to vary from 1.8 to 361.3kBqkg{sup -1}. The radon exhalation rates in these samples were found to vary from 0.020 (0.003) to 4.125Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1}(0.658Bqkg{sup -1}h{sup -1})

  14. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Yazmín Ramírez-Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

  15. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the cra

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the cra

  18. Measurement of radon in ground waters of the Western Caucasus for seismological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinsky, I; Tsvetkova, T; Nevinskaya, E

    2015-11-01

    Results of radon ((222)Rn) concentration measurement in ground waters in the Western Caucasus are described. In 2010-2011 each day at 12:00 Moscow winter time (9:00 GMT) sampling in volume of 0.5 l of waters was carried out in two wells at depth of 30 m and 180 m. In 2012 three times per day (7:00, 12:00, 17:00) this sampling was already carried out. Radon from water was extracting by degassing method with use of bubbler. Measurements of alpha activity of gas in scintillation (ZnS) chambers were done. The water radon data with seismic, meteorological and the Sun-Lunar data were compared. The mathematical method of definition of "splashes" in radon data before regional earthquakes is considered. The greatest probability in 72% of the forecast of regional earthquakes for the data from a well of 30 m depth was received. Correlation between meteo and radon data is absent. Correlation of lunar phases and solar activity with radon data is discussed. In July-December, 2012 sampling of water from 15 wells and measurements of radon were carried out. The distance between wells was near 50 km. Changes of radon maps in territory of South Russia during earthquakes are shown.

  19. Laboratory research on tailings stabilization methods and their effectiveness in radiation containment. [Uranium, reduction of radon exhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macbeth, P.J.; Jensen, C.M.; Rogers, V.C.; Overmyer, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    This report describes a study of various methods, techniques, and materials for stabilizing uranium mill tailings to reduce radon exhalation. Radon emanation from tailings particles, radon exhalation from tailings, and methods that could be used to reduce radon exhalation from tailings piles are discussed. Surface radon flux and soil gas concentrations were measured in experiment chambers or columns consisting of uranium tailings and various types and thicknesses of cover materials. The applicability of diffusion theory was examined and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for clay, soil, and sand. The variation of radon flux with atmospheric effects and moisture also was investigated. The effectiveness of several types of chemical stabilizers for both volumetric and surface application in reducing radon exhalation is reported. Some volumetric stabilizers reduced radon flux by 90 percent or more. Radon flux was determined through the use of charcoal gas mask canisters, and flux accumulation chambers sampled by Lucas cells. Both of these techniques are described. Soil gas concentration was sampled with Lucas cells and counted with a sodium iodide scintillation spectrometer system. Emanating power of uranium tailings was measured for several particle sizes and found to be relatively constant at about 20 percent. Two types of grasses were found that would grow in tailings if sufficient water and fertilizer were provided. The effect of vegetation on radon exhalation was not determined.

  20. Advancing waterborne pathogen modelling: lessons from global nutrient export models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens cause health problems worldwide. A global waterborne pathogen model could provide valuable new insights for data-sparse regions, by identifying pathogen hotspots and evaluating global change and risk management scenarios. Global waterborne pathogen modelling is not as advanced a

  1. Radon risk management. Construction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Frutos Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Radon gas is a radioactive element that appears in nature by the decay of radium found in terrestrial soils. This gas is able to travel between the pores of the ground and enter into the buildings where the concentration can increase and becoming a health risk to occupants from inhaling. The World Health Organization rate the radon gas as a level 1 carcinogen agent. According to this organization, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer contraction after tobacco. Based on the perception of risk derived from epidemiological medical studies, some countries have established radon concentration values as safety limits, above which is recommended or required an architectural intervention to reduce levels. From an architectural perspective, there have been studies of several radon protection techniques to reduce radon immission in buildings or to evacuate it, in order to reduce the radon levels below the safety limits. This article develops some protection strategies that have been being used for these purposes, some of which have been tested in Spain thanks to a research project funded by the Nuclear Safety Council, and developed by the Eduardo Torroja Institute and the University of Cantabria.

  2. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  3. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  4. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  5. Guidance on Radon Resistant Construction and Radon Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Unnumbered Letter regarding radon gas mitigation applies to all housing and community facilities, low-rise buildings and dwellings for the mentioned programs. Its intention is to guide staff to best serve our borrowers and protect their health.

  6. Geohydrological control on radon availability in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248001 (India); Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com

    2009-01-15

    The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fractured planes of bedrock. In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaun and Garhwal Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The study shows that radon concentration in springs and hand pumps is controlled by geohydrological characteristics, which in turn is also governed by tectonic processes.

  7. Comparison of radon exposure assessment results: {sup 210}Po surface activity on glass objects vs. contemporary air radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it; McLaughlin, J.P.; Walsh, C

    2003-06-01

    Radon exposure assessment in case-control studies on radon and lung cancer is generally based on contemporary radon concentration measurements, which can be affected by significant changes in the building structures or in living habits. Another method to estimate the radon exposure of the subjects is the recently developed retrospective dosimetry technique based on the {sup 210}Po surface activity from glass objects. In order to compare the results obtained by the two methods, a study has been carried out in a sample of 26 dwellings in Rome, with radon concentration values ranging from 28 to 623 Bq m{sup -3}. Retrospective detectors based on CR-39 and LR 115 were exposed on 50 glass objects in bedrooms and living rooms. The correlation factor between the two sets of data, after removing six extreme values, is 0.67, which is similar to results obtained in other validation studies of similar sample size. The correlation increases to 0.83 if the 21 objects exposed in non-smoky dwellings are selected, while it vanishes to -0.01 for the 23 objects exposed in smoky dwellings, suggesting quite larger variations of plate-out in presence of environmental tobacco smoke.

  8. Radon concentration distributions in shallow and deep groundwater around the Tachikawa fault zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunomori, Fumiaki; Shimodate, Tomoya; Ide, Tomoki; Tanaka, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater radon concentrations around the Tachikawa fault zone were surveyed. The radon concentrations in shallow groundwater samples around the Tachikawa fault segment are comparable to previous studies. The characteristics of the radon concentrations on both sides of the segment are considered to have changed in response to the decrease in groundwater recharge caused by urbanization on the eastern side of the segment. The radon concentrations in deep groundwater samples collected around the Naguri and the Tachikawa fault segments are the same as those of shallow groundwater samples. However, the radon concentrations in deep groundwater samples collected from the bedrock beside the Naguri and Tachikawa fault segments are markedly higher than the radon concentrations expected from the geology on the Kanto plane. This disparity can be explained by the development of fracture zones spreading on both sides of the two segments. The radon concentration distribution for deep groundwater samples from the Naguri and the Tachikawa fault segments suggests that a fault exists even at the southern part of the Tachikawa fault line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  10. Radon Like atmospheric pollutant; El gas Radon como contaminante atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quindos Poncela, L. S.; Sainz Fernandez, C.; Quindos Lopez, L.; Fuente Merino, I.; Arteche, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    In this work different aspects about the problem of the radon in dwellings are approached. This gas of natural origin is virtually present in all the soils in the earths crust due to the presence of uranium and radium in the composition of them. Depending on architectural factors and of occupancy habits of the house, high concentrations of this gas can be reached indoors. In these situations, there is a quantifiable increment of the risk of developing lung cancer in the inhabitants of the housing. In the last years the methodological improvements in the realization of epidemiologic studies have led to the obtaining of scientific evidence about the relationship between the presence of indoor radon and the risk of lung cancer. This relationship fund years ago in workers of uranium mines, has been corroborated in the case of the residential radon by the light of several recent meta-analysis performed on groups of epidemiologic studies. More than 4000 radon measurements have been carried out in spain during the las 25 years. A summary of the results obtained from the main national radon surveys are also presented, as well as the criteria recently established by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council concerning radon action levels in dwellings and workplaces. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Development of Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian M. Davis; Lewis Semprini; Jonathan Istok

    2003-02-27

    Naturally occurring 222-radon in ground water can potentially be used as an in situ partitioning tracer to characterize dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturations. The static method involves comparing radon concentrations in water samples from DNAPL-contaminated and non-contaminated portions of an aquifer. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservation tracer) is first injected (''pushed'') into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted (''pulled'') from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations.The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings.

  12. Correlation of radon and thoron concentrations with natural radioactivity of soil in Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koray, Abdullah; Akkaya, Gizem; Kahraman, Ayşegül

    2017-02-01

    Radon and thoron gases are produced by the decay of the radioactive elements those are radium and thorium in the soil. In this study, the correlations between soil radon and thoron concentration with their parent nuclide (226Ra and 232Th) concentrations in collected soil samples from the same locations were evaluated. The result of the measurement shows that the distribution of radon and thoron in soil showed the same tendency as 226Ra and 232Th distribution. It was found a weak correlation between the radon and the 226Ra concentration (R =0.57), and between the thoron and the 232Th concentration (R=0.64). No strong correlation was observed between soil-gas radon and thoron concentration (R = 0.29).

  13. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  14. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  15. A Physician's Guide to Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This booklet has been developed for physicians by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in consultation with the American Medical Association (AMA). Its purpose is to enlist physicians in the national effort to inform the American public about radon.

  16. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Hime, A; Rielage, K; Westerdale, S

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to depos...

  17. The influence of thoron on measurement results of radon exhalation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao De Tao; Ling Qiu; Leung, J K C

    2002-01-01

    Because of thoron exhalation, the measurement results of radon exhalation rate using a local still method is usually larger than the true value of radon flux rate of the monitored material surface. The influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 6 Po(ThA) on radon exhalation rate can be eliminated for sensitive radon monitors. Theoretical evaluations of the influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Bi(ThC) and sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Po(ThC')on radon exhalation rate are carried out in a sampler with diameter of 188 mm, and height of 125 mm, and supplied electrostatic field inside (generated by high voltage and electret) under following conditions: the sampling time are 1, 2, 3 h, respectively, thoron exhalation rate is 100 times of radon's. The calculation results indicate that the measurement results of radon flux rate are possibly 35.5% larger than true value due to the influence of thoron for fast and multifunctional radon monitors with electret, high voltage, respectively and using CR-39 SSNTD as detector, but this influence is negligib...

  18. Radon and Thoron Exhalation Rates from Surface Soil of Bangka - Belitung Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarbaini Syarbaini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.1.35-42Radon and thoron exhalation rate from soil is one of the most important factors that can influence the radioactivity level in the environment. Radon and thoron gases are produced by the decay of the radioactive elements those are radium and thorium in the soil, where its concentration depends on the soil conditions and the local geological background. In this paper, the results of radon and thoron exhalation rate measurements from surface soil of Bangka Belitung Islands at thirty six measurement sites are presented. Exhalation rates of radon and thoron were measured by using an accumulation chamber equipped with a solid-state alpha particle detector. Furthermore, the correlations between radon and thoron exhalation rates with their parent nuclide (226Ra and 232Th concentrations in collected soil samples from the same locations were also evaluated. The result of the measurement shows that mostly the distribution of radon and thoron is similar to 226Ra and 232Th, eventhough it was not a good correlation between radon and thoron exhalation rate with their parent activity concentrations (226Ra and 232Th due to the environmental factors that can influence the radon and thoron mobilities in the soil. In comparison to a world average, Bangka Belitung Islands have the 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates higher than the world average value for the regions with normal background radiation.

  19. Soil radon measurements as a potential tracer of tectonic and volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Marco; Ferrera, Elisabetta; Giammanco, Salvatore; Currenti, Gilda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Patanè, Giuseppe; Zanon, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    In Earth Sciences there is a growing interest in studies concerning soil-radon activity, due to its potential as a tracer of numerous natural phenomena. Our work marks an advance in the comprehension of the interplay between tectonic activity, volcanic eruptions and gas release through faults. Soil-radon measurements, acquired on Mt. Etna volcano in 2009–2011, were analyzed. Our radon probe is sensitive to changes in both volcanic and seismic activity. Radon data were reviewed in light of the meteorological parameters. Soil samples were analyzed to characterize their uranium content. All data have been summarized in a physical model which identifies the radon sources, highlights the mechanism of radon transport and envisages how such a mechanism may change as a consequence of seismicity and volcanic events. In the NE of Etna, radon is released mainly from a depth of 50 m/day. Three periods of anomalous gas release were found (February 2010, January and February 2011). The trigger of the first anomaly was tectonic, while the second and third had a volcanic origin. These results mark a significant step towards a better understanding of the endogenous mechanisms that cause changes in soil-radon emission at active volcanoes.

  20. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  1. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  2. Soil radon measurements as a potential tracer of tectonic and volcanic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Marco; Ferrera, Elisabetta; Giammanco, Salvatore; Currenti, Gilda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Patanè, Giuseppe; Zanon, Vittorio

    2016-04-15

    In Earth Sciences there is a growing interest in studies concerning soil-radon activity, due to its potential as a tracer of numerous natural phenomena. Our work marks an advance in the comprehension of the interplay between tectonic activity, volcanic eruptions and gas release through faults. Soil-radon measurements, acquired on Mt. Etna volcano in 2009-2011, were analyzed. Our radon probe is sensitive to changes in both volcanic and seismic activity. Radon data were reviewed in light of the meteorological parameters. Soil samples were analyzed to characterize their uranium content. All data have been summarized in a physical model which identifies the radon sources, highlights the mechanism of radon transport and envisages how such a mechanism may change as a consequence of seismicity and volcanic events. In the NE of Etna, radon is released mainly from a depth of 50 m/day. Three periods of anomalous gas release were found (February 2010, January and February 2011). The trigger of the first anomaly was tectonic, while the second and third had a volcanic origin. These results mark a significant step towards a better understanding of the endogenous mechanisms that cause changes in soil-radon emission at active volcanoes.

  3. Radon occurrence in soil-gas and groundwater around an active landslide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal -249 199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Negi, M.S.; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal -249 199 (India)

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents the results of investigation of radon levels in the soil-gas and groundwater of Uttarkashi, India within the distance of 5 km in vertical and horizontal directions from the landslide of Varunawat hill. Radon release from the soil and groundwater was found higher than the normal values. Radon concentration in groundwater over and around the landslide was found to vary from 0.51 to 86kBqm{sup -3}. The soil-gas radon concentration was found to vary from 219 to 3kBqm{sup -3} along the slope of landslide. Radon exhalation rate in collected soil samples was found to vary from 2.28x10{sup -5} to 9.01x10{sup -5}Bqkg{sup -1}h{sup -1}. Radon values were not found correlated with major and trace element contents in the upper soil of the area, which indicate that the migration of radon from deeper part of the earth along with landslide contribute to the surface radon concentration. Recorded values show a close association with local geology and Varunawat eruptions.

  4. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of thoron interference as a tool for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron with a pulse ionisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R M; Sumesh, C G; Vinod Kumar, A; Puranik, V D

    2013-07-01

    Pulse ionisation chamber (PIC)-based monitors measuring radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn) without energy discrimination will have interference due to thoron ((220)Rn) present in the atmosphere. A technique has been developed to use this property of interference for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron gas. These monitors work on the principle of counting of gross alphas emitted from radon and its progeny. A theoretical model has been developed for the variation of thoron sensitivity with respect to the flow rate of gas through the monitor. The thoron sensitivity of the monitor is found to vary with the flow rate of gas through the monitor. Using this sensitivity, the sampling procedure has been developed and verified for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron. The PIC-measured radon and thoron concentration using this procedure agrees well with those measured by using standard radon and thoron discriminating monitor.

  6. Radon-thoron measurements in air and soil from some districts of northern part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon, thoron and their progenies in the indoor environment are considered as one of the health hazards. The alpha emitting nature of these gases made it possible to detect in indoor environment with the help of nuclear track detector techniques. The soil is the main source of indoor radon as it contains varying amounts of uranium and thorium. Thus the exhalation of radon from soil and its environmental activity needs to be studied. In the present study, the measurement of the indoor radon-thoron from the indoor environment and exhalation from soil are carried out using solid state nuclear track detector technique from Sirsa and Bhiwani districts of northern part of India. The canister technique was used to measure the radon ex- halation rate from the soil samples collected from the study area and pinhole based radon-thoron dosimeters were used to measure indoor radon and thoron concentration. The results show that indoor radon concentration varied from 9 to 28 Bq/m3, with an average of 18.9 Bq/m3 and from 5 to 21 Bq/m3, with an average of 13.8 Bq/m3, for Bhiwani and Sirsa, respectively. Similarly, thoron concentration varied from 14 to 48 Bq/m3, with average of 28.9 Bq/m3 and 27 to 54 Bq/m3, with the average of 39.0 Bq/m3, for Bhiwani and Sirsa, respectively. The mass exhalation rates from soil samples were also measured, to estimate their contribution to indoor radon. A correlation study was carried out between soil exhalation rates and indoor radon concentration.

  7. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-12-13

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff.

  8. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  9. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  10. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  11. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas.

  12. Studies on the reduction of radon plate-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, M.; Nakib, M.; Calkins, R.; Cooley, J., E-mail: cooley@physics.smu.edu; Sekula, S. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha (α) particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA’s first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper’s exposure to {sup 220}Rn. The {sup 220}Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  13. Studies on the Reduction of Radon Plate-Out

    CERN Document Server

    Bruemmer, M; Calkins, R; Cooley, J; Sekula, S

    2015-01-01

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA's first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper's exposure to 220Rn. The 220Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  14. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived {sup 222}Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of {sup 226}Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m{sup −3}, 192 Bq m{sup −3}, 176 Bq m{sup −3} and 28 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m{sup −3} i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.85 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.44 mSv y{sup −1} and 0.72 mSv y{sup −1}, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y{sup −1}. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively.

  15. Origin of radon concentration of Csalóka Spring in the Sopron Mountains (West Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiler, Ágnes; Horváth, Ákos; Török, Kálmán; Földes, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    We examined the Csalóka Spring, which has the highest radon concentration in the Sopron Mountains (West Hungary) (, yearly average of 227 ± 10 Bq L(-1)). The main rock types here are gneiss and micaschist, formed from metamorphism of former granitic and clastic sedimentary rocks respectively. The aim of the study was to find a likely source of the high radon concentration in water. During two periods (2007-2008 and 2012-2013) water samples were taken from the Csalóka Spring to measure its radon concentration (from 153 ± 9 Bq L(-1) to 291 ± 15 Bq L(-1)). Soil and rock samples were taken within a 10-m radius of the spring from debrish and from a deformed gneiss outcrop 500 m away from the spring. The radium activity concentration of the samples (between 24.3 ± 2.9 Bq kg(-1) and 145 ± 6.0 Bq kg(-1)) was measured by gamma-spectroscopy, and the specific radon exhalation was determined using radon-chamber measurements (between 1.32 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1) and 37.1 ± 2.2 Bq kg(-1)). Based on these results a model calculation was used to determine the maximum potential radon concentration, which the soil or the rock may provide into the water. We showed that the maximum potential radon concentration of these mylonitic gneissic rocks (cpot = 2020 Bq L(-1)) is about eight times higher than the measured radon concentration in the water. However the maximum potential radon concentration for soils are significantly lower (41.3 Bq L(-1)) Based on measurements of radon exhalation and porosity of rock and soil samples we concluded that the source material can be the gneiss rock around the spring rather than the soil there. We determined the average radon concentration and the time dependence of the radon concentration over these years in the spring water. We obtained a strong negative correlation (-0.94 in period of 2007-2008 and -0.91 in 2012-2013) between precipitation and radon concentration.

  16. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  17. Radon in indoor concentrations and indoor concentrations of metal dust particles in museums and other public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, G L; Braz, D; de Jesus, E F; Santos, S M; Cardoso, K; Hecht, A A; Dias da Cunha, Moore K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the public and occupational exposure to radon and metal-bearing particles in museums and public buildings located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For this study, four buildings were selected: two historic buildings, which currently house an art gallery and an art museum; and two modern buildings, a chapel and a club. Integrated radon concentration measurements were performed using passive radon detectors with solid state nuclear track detector-type Lexan used as nuclear track detector. Air samplers with a cyclone were used to collect the airborne particle samples that were analyzed by the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. The average unattached-radon concentrations in indoor air in the buildings were above 40 Bq/m(3), with the exception of Building D as measured in 2009. The average radon concentrations in indoor air in the four buildings in 2009 were below the recommended reference level by World Health Organization (100 Bq/m(3)); however, in 2011, the average concentrations of radon in Buildings A and C were above this level, though lower than 300 Bq/m(3). The average concentrations of unattached radon were lower than 148 Bq/m(3) (4pCi/L), the USEPA level recommended to take action to reduce the concentrations of radon in indoor air. The unattached-radon average concentrations were also lower than the value recommended by the European Union for new houses. As the unattached-radon concentrations were below the international level recommended to take action to reduce the radon concentration in air, it was concluded that during the period of sampling, there was low risk to human health due to the inhalation of unattached radon in these four buildings.

  18. Indoor radon, geogenic radon surrogates and geology - Investigations on their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, H; Baumgartner, A; Bernreiter, M; Gräser, J; Gruber, V; Kabrt, F; Kaineder, H; Maringer, F J; Ringer, W; Seidel, C; Wurm, G

    2017-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in most houses in a couple of municipalities in Austria. At the same time the activity concentration of radium in soil, the soil gas radon concentration, the permeability of the ground and the ambient dose equivalent rate were also measured and the geological situations (geological units) were recorded too. From the indoor radon concentration and different house and living parameters a radon potential (Austrian radon potential) was derived which should represent the radon concentration in a standard room. Another radon potential (Neznal radon potential) was calculated from the soil gas radon concentration and the permeability. The aim of the investigation was to correlate all the different variables and to test if the use of surrogate data (e.g. geological information, ambient dose equivalent rate, etc.) can be used to judge the radon risk for an area without performing numerous indoor measurements.

  19. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  20. Real-time setup to record radon emission during rock deformation: implications for geochemical surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccimei, P.; Mollo, S.; Soligo, M.; Scarlato, P.; Castelluccio, M.

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory experiments can represent a valid approach to unravel the complex interplay between the geochemical behaviour of radon and rock deformation mechanisms. In light of this, we present a new real-time experimental setup for analyzing in continuum the alpha-emitting 222Rn and 220Rn daughters over variable stress-strain regimes. The most innovative segment of this setup consists of the radon accumulation chamber obtained from a tough and durable material that can host large cylindrical rock samples. The accumulation chamber is connected, in a closed-loop configuration, to a gas-drying unit and to a RAD7 radon monitor. A re-circulating pump moves the gas from the rock sample to a solid-state detector for alpha counting of radon and thoron progeny. The measured radon signal is enhanced by surrounding the accumulation chamber with a digitally controlled heating belt. As the temperature is increased, the number of effective collision of radon atoms increases favouring the diffusion of radon through the material and reducing the analytical uncertainty. The accumulation chamber containing the sample is then placed into an uniaxial testing apparatus where the axial deformation is measured throughout a linear variable displacement transducer. A dedicated software allows to obtain a variety of stress-strain regimes from fast deformation rates to long-term creep tests. Experiments conducted with this new real-time setup have important ramifications for the interpretation of geochemical anomalies recorded prior to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  1. Real-time setup to measure radon emission during rock deformation: implications for geochemical surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccimei, P.; Mollo, S.; Soligo, M.; Scarlato, P.; Castelluccio, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory experiments can represent a valid approach to unravel the complex interplay between the geochemical behaviour of radon and rock deformation mechanisms. In light of this, we present a new real-time experimental setup for analysing in continuum the alpha-emitting 222Rn and 220Rn daughters over variable stress-strain regimes. The most innovative segment of this setup consists of the radon accumulation chamber obtained from a tough and durable material that can host large cylindrical rock samples. The accumulation chamber is connected, in a closed-loop configuration, to a gas-drying unit and to a RAD7 radon monitor. A recirculating pump moves the gas from the rock sample to a solid-state detector for alpha counting of radon and thoron progeny. The measured radon signal is enhanced by surrounding the accumulation chamber with a digitally controlled heating belt. As the temperature is increased, the number of effective collisions of radon atoms increases favouring the diffusion of radon through the material and reducing the analytical uncertainty. The accumulation chamber containing the sample is then placed into a uniaxial testing apparatus where the axial deformation is measured throughout a linear variable displacement transducer. A dedicated software allows obtaining a variety of stress-strain regimes from fast deformation rates to long-term creep tests. Experiments conducted with this new real-time setup have important ramifications for the interpretation of geochemical anomalies recorded prior to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  2. Real-time setup to record radon emission during rock deformation: implications for geochemical surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tuccimei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments can represent a valid approach to unravel the complex interplay between the geochemical behaviour of radon and rock deformation mechanisms. In light of this, we present a new real-time experimental setup for analyzing in continuum the alpha-emitting 222Rn and 220Rn daughters over variable stress–strain regimes. The most innovative segment of this setup consists of the radon accumulation chamber obtained from a tough and durable material that can host large cylindrical rock samples. The accumulation chamber is connected, in a closed-loop configuration, to a gas-drying unit and to a RAD7 radon monitor. A re-circulating pump moves the gas from the rock sample to a solid-state detector for alpha counting of radon and thoron progeny. The measured radon signal is enhanced by surrounding the accumulation chamber with a digitally controlled heating belt. As the temperature is increased, the number of effective collision of radon atoms increases favouring the diffusion of radon through the material and reducing the analytical uncertainty. The accumulation chamber containing the sample is then placed into an uniaxial testing apparatus where the axial deformation is measured throughout a linear variable displacement transducer. A dedicated software allows to obtain a variety of stress–strain regimes from fast deformation rates to long-term creep tests. Experiments conducted with this new real-time setup have important ramifications for the interpretation of geochemical anomalies recorded prior to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

  3. Determination of radon concentration levels in well water in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, M; Eren, N; Demirel, S; Zedef, V

    2013-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) measurements were undertaken in 16 samples of well water representing different depths and different types of aquifers found at the city centre of Konya, Central Turkey. The radon activity concentrations of the well water samples collected in the spring and summer seasons of 2012 were measured by using the radon gas analyser (AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO). The radon concentrations for spring and summer seasons are 2.29 ± 0.17 to 27.25 ± 1.07 and 1.44 ± 0.18 to 27.45 ± 1.25 Bq l(-1), respectively. The results at hand revealed that the radon concentration levels of the waters strictly depend on the seasons and are slightly variable with depth. Eleven of the 16 well water samples had radon concentration levels below the safe limit of 11.11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, all measured radon concentration levels are well below the 100 Bq l(-1) safe limit declared by the World Health Organisation. The doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The calculated minimum and maximum effective doses are 0.29 and 5.49 µSv a(-1), respectively.

  4. Thermo-diffusional radon waves in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S

    2016-09-15

    A new theoretical framework for diurnal and seasonal oscillations of the concentration of radon in soil and open air is proposed. The theory is based on the existing temperature waves in soils and thermo-diffusional gas flux in porous media. As soil is a non-isothermal porous medium, usually possessing a large fraction of microscopic pores belonging to Knudsen's free molecular field, a thermo-diffusional gas flow in soil has to arise. The radon mass transfer equation in soil for sinusoidal temperature oscillations at the soil-atmosphere boundary is solved, which reveals that radon concentration behaves as a damped harmonic wave. The amplitude of radon concentration oscillations and phase shift between radon concentration oscillations and soil temperature depend on the radon diffusion coefficient in soil, rate of radon production, soil thermal conductivity, average soil temperature, decay constant, and heat of radon transfer. Primarily numerical calculations are presented and comparisons with experimental data are shown.

  5. Continuous and discrete on-site detection of radon-222 in ground- and surface waters by means of an extraction module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.schmidt@ufz.de; Schlueter, Michael [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Department of Marine Geochemistry, Bremerhaven (Germany); Melles, Martin [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Schubert, Michael [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    A robust and straightforward method for on-site determination of radon-222 activity concentrations in water is presented. The methodical approach is based on the principle of liquid-gas-membrane extraction. An extraction module, which consists of hollow polypropylene fibres, allows radon stripping from the water of interest into a connected closed air-loop. The resulting radon-in-air activity concentration, which can easily be reconverted into the original radon-in-water activity concentration is measured by means of a standard mobile radon-in-air monitor. The experimental set-up allows radon detection in discrete water samples as well as continuous water pump streams. The technique, covering a wide activity concentration range, is in particular advantageous for measurements of radon-in-water in the field or on research cruises.

  6. Continuous and discrete on-site detection of radon-222 in ground- and surface waters by means of an extraction module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schlueter, Michael; Melles, Martin; Schubert, Michael

    2008-12-01

    A robust and straightforward method for on-site determination of radon-222 activity concentrations in water is presented. The methodical approach is based on the principle of liquid-gas-membrane extraction. An extraction module, which consists of hollow polypropylene fibres, allows radon stripping from the water of interest into a connected closed air-loop. The resulting radon-in-air activity concentration, which can easily be reconverted into the original radon-in-water activity concentration is measured by means of a standard mobile radon-in-air monitor. The experimental set-up allows radon detection in discrete water samples as well as continuous water pump streams. The technique, covering a wide activity concentration range, is in particular advantageous for measurements of radon-in-water in the field or on research cruises.

  7. [Biology, epidemiology and diagnostics of pathogenic waterborne protozoan parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, Giardia intestinalis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isosopra belli and micropsoridia are the most important and common pathogens found in humans and many other species of vertebrates. In humans, mainly in immunocompromised patients, children, pregnant women and elderly people, they are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. These pathogens have several transmission routes, including anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission. What is more, in many cases of epidemics caused by mentioned pathogens the major cause of infection was contaminated with these organisms water and food. In spite of many existing regulations of clearing and making use of drinking water supplies and recreational water, cosmopolitan protozoan parasites are still the danger of public health. These organisms are responsible for many waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Light microscopy and immunofluorescence assay have been used to identify these organisms in most laboratories. However, these traditional techniques have major limitations in the specific diagnosis, these methods are not sensitive enough to detect cysts or oocysts in environmental samples, so the new molecular tools must be applied. Recently, PCR-based techniques have been developed for detection and genetic characterization of the different species and population variants of protozoan parasites is central to the prevention, surveillance and control of gastrointestinal diseases. In this review were characterized biology, epidemiology and the progress in technology for detection and surveillance of the most important waterborne protozoan parasites.

  8. Update of Ireland's national average indoor radon concentration - Application of a new survey protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, A; Murphy, P; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

    2017-04-01

    In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m(-3). Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland. A knowledge gap identified in the NRCS was to update the national average for Ireland given the developments since 2002. The updated national average would also be used as a baseline metric to assess the effectiveness of the NRCS over time. A new national survey protocol was required that would measure radon in a sample of homes representative of radon risk and geographical location. The design of the survey protocol took into account that it is not feasible to repeat the 11,319 measurements carried out for the 2002 NRS due to time and resource constraints. However, the existence of that comprehensive survey allowed for a new protocol to be developed, involving measurements carried out in unbiased randomly selected volunteer homes. This paper sets out the development and application of that survey protocol. The results of the 2015 survey showed that the current national average indoor radon concentration for homes in Ireland is 77 Bq m(-3), a decrease from the 89 Bq m(-3) reported in the 2002 NRS. Analysis of the results by build date demonstrate that the introduction of the amending Building Regulations in 1998 have led to a reduction in the average indoor radon level in Ireland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of radon loss from zircon: Microstructural controls on emanation and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Marty; Brownlee, S. J.; Baskaran, M.; Barbero, L.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how radon escapes from minerals is important for many fields in Earth science, yet few studies have focused on the mechanisms for radon escape. We measured radon emanation rate and radon loss upon heating for crushed aliquots of three large zircon crystals from three localities: Mud Tank (Australia), Bancroft (Canada), and Malawi (Africa). Our study, in conjunction with published data, shows that the room temperature radon emanation coefficient (REC) varies over 5 orders of magnitude in zircon. For low U zircon, Mud Tank, there are variations in REC that appear to be related to annealing at different temperatures, possibly due to annealing of fission tracks, however, all REC values for Mud Tank zircon are within error of one another. Bancroft and Malawi zircons have higher U content and do not show any systematic relationship of REC to annealing temperature. Results from Mud Tank zircon suggest that partial annealing of fission tracks decreases REC, but when all fission tracks are annealed REC reaches a maximum. REC in zircons with high U content, Bancroft and Malawi, is slightly higher than in zircon with lower U, although results are within error. Results of measurements of radon loss upon heating suggest that radon diffusion is slow, ∼30% of the radon is lost during heating at 975 °C for 48 h. Samples heated a second time yield less fractional radon loss, ∼10%, suggesting that diffusion parameters are changed during heating at temperatures ⩾975 °C, which is likely the result of annealing of radiation damage. Diffusion parameters calculated from the fractional loss experiments reflect diffusion in highly radiation damaged or metamict zircons. Our results indicate that internal microstructures in zircon, such as fission tracks and alpha-radiation damage, influence radon escape for diffusion and recoil mechanisms, and hence if these effects can be further characterized, measurements of 222Rn escape have the potential to be useful for probing

  10. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property; Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtraengning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m{sup 3} corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m{sup 3}/h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m{sup 3} of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  11. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil

  12. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil

  13. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  14. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  15. Comparison of radon doses based on different radon monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotič, Janja; Smrekar, Nataša; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-04-01

    In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  17. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C; Juenger, Maria C G; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ±5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling.

  18. Risk and control of waterborne cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Joan B; Huffman, Debra E; Gennaccaro, Angela

    2002-06-01

    Cryptosporidium remains at the forefront of studies on waterborne disease transmission and abatement. The impact of environmental land use patterns which contribute animal and human waste, climatic precipitation leading to a strong association with outbreaks, and community infrastructure and water treatment are now recognized as contributing factors in the potential for waterborne spread of the protozoan. Advances in detection methodologies, including the ability to genotype various strains of this organism, have shown that human wastes are often the source of the contamination and cell culture techniques have allowed insight into the viability of the oocyst populations. Currently water treatment has focused on UV and ozone disinfection as most promising for the inactivation of this protozoan pathogen.

  19. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase.

  20. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water, United States 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advancements in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories* through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance Syst...

  1. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014; Messgeraete zur Bestimmung der Radon-222-Aktivitaetskonzentration oder der Radon-222-Exposition. Vergleichspruefung 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-15

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices{sup 1} using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  2. Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Funari; Maura Manganelli; Luciana Sinisi

    2012-01-01

    Change in climate and water cycle will challenge water availability but it will also increase the exposure to unsafe water. Floods, droughts, heavy storms, changes in rain pattern, increase of temperature and sea level, they all show an increasing trend worldwide and will affect biological, physical and chemical components of water through different paths thus enhancing the risk of waterborne diseases. This paper is intended, through reviewing the available literature, to highlight environmen...

  3. Radon, volatile organic compounds and water chemistry in springs around Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Cisniega, G. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Valdes, C.; Armienta, M.A.; Mena, M. [Inst. de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Univ., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs is analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. Soil radon indicated fluctuations related both to the meteorological and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essentially differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed also stability along the monitoring period indicating differences between springs. No anthropogenic pollution from volatile organic compounds was observed. (orig.)

  4. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  5. PROGRESS IN PHASE INVERSION EMULSIFICATION FOR EPOXY RESIN WATERBORNE DISPERSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhong Yang

    2007-01-01

    In this review,our recent work in phase inversion emulsification (PIE)for polymer(especially epoxy resin) waterborne dispersions is summarized.Based on experimental results about PIE process,the physical model is proposed which Can guide the synthesis of the waterborne dispersions such as polymer/nanoparticle composite dispersion.In the presence of a latent curing catalyst,PIE can give a crosslinkable epoxy resin waterborne dispersion.The dispersions can form cured transparent coatings with some unique properties such as UV shielding.They are promising in functional coatings,waterborne resin matrices for composites,and sizing for high performance fibers.

  6. Occurrences of Uranium and Radon-222 in Groundwaters from Various Geological Environments in the Hoengseong Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Cheon; Choi, Hyeon Young; Yang, Jae Ha

    2016-04-01

    Groundwaters in granite, gneiss, and two-mica granite formations, including faults, in the Hoengseong area are examined to determine the relationship between their uranium and radon-222 contents and rock types. The chemical compositions of 38 groundwater samples and four surface water samples collected in the study area were analyzed. Sixteen of the samples showing high uranium and radon-222 contents were repeatedly analyzed. Surface radioactivities were measured at 30 points. The uranium and radon-222 concentrations in the groundwater samples were in the ranges of 0.02-49.3 μg/L and 20-906 Bq/L, respectively. Four samples for uranium and 35 samples for radon had concentrations exceeding the alternative maximum contaminant level of the US EPA. The chemical compositions of groundwaters indicated Ca(Na)-HCO3 and Ca(Na)-NO3(HCO3+Cl) types. The pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.66. High uranium and radon-222 contents in the groundwaters occurred mainly at the boundary between granite and gneiss, and in the granite area. The occurrence of uranium did not show any distinct relationship to that of radon-222. The radon-222, an inert gas, appeared to be dissolved in the groundwater of the aquifer after wide diffusion along rock fractures, having been derived from the decay of uranium in underground rocks. The results in this study indicate that groundwater of neutral or weakly alkaline pH, under oxidizing conditions and with a high bicarbonate content is favorable for the dissolution of uranium and uranium complexes such as uranyl or uranyl-carbonate. Key word: uranium, radon-222, geological boundary, groundwater, chemical characteristics, surface radioactivity

  7. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  8. Assessment of radon and its progeny concentration in Brazilian underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete; Araujo, Gabriela B.D. de, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gouvea, Vandir A.; Cruz, Paulo; Siqueira, Joao B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: arnoheeren@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Rock, soil and water contain {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of the radon and its progeny concentration in the brazilian underground mines. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the annual effective dose for miners was estimated according to UNSCEAR 2000 methodology. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: concentration measurements of the soil gas radon were carried out by AlphaGUARD detector; {sup 226}Ra ({sup 214}Bi) specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector; and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by RAD7 detector. The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m{sup -3} and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m{sup -3}. The general measurement results and the estimated effective doses will be used as bases to prepare the brazilian regulatory standards. (author)

  9. Current development of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Levchuk, Leonid, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo R. [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present work describes the principal results concerning the radon and radium measurements at Curitiba (PR) urban area during the last decade. The monitoring was performed in cooperation with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN/CNEN). For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional AlphaGUARD Radon Monitor connected to the Soil Gas Probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP), following the recommended protocols elaborated in the Soil-Gas Radon Intercomparison Measurements performed at different Countries of the world. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic Radon Detector RAD7 connected to a special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. The obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3}, that is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of well water, collected samples presented the average Rn-222 activity of about 60 Bq/L, that is 6 times bigger than the maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, almost all water samples presented the radioactivity of radium (Ra-226) salts bigger than the upper limit for global alpha radioactivity of potable water established by the Norms and Regulation of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. (author)

  10. Estimation of the radon production rate in granite rocks and evaluation of the implications for geogenic radon potential maps: A case study in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Lamas, R; Miranda, M; Domingos, F; Neves, L; Ferreira, N; Costa, L

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate radon gas production rate in granitic rocks and identify the factors responsible for the observed variability. For this purpose, 180 samples were collected from pre-Hercynian and Hercynian rocks in north and central Portugal and analysed for a) (226)Ra activity, b) radon ((222)Rn) per unit mass activity, and c) radon gas emanation coefficient. On a subset of representative samples from the same rock types were also measured d) apparent porosity and e) apparent density. For each of these variables, the values ranged as follows: a) 15 to 587 Bq kg(-1), b) 2 to 73 Bq kg(-1), c) 0.01 to 0.80, d) 0.3 to 11.4 % and e) 2530 to 2850 kg m(-3). Radon production rate varied between 40 to 1386 Bq m(-3) h(-1). The variability observed was associated with geologically late processes of low and high temperature which led to the alteration of the granitic rock with mobilization of U and increase in radon (222)Rn gas emanation. It is suggested that, when developing geogenic radon potential maps, data on uranium concentration in soils/altered rock should be used, rather than data obtained from unaltered rock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermo-diffusional radon waves in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkin, Leonid, E-mail: lminkin@pcc.edu [Portland Community College, 12000 SW 49th Ave, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Shapovalov, Alexander S. [Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskay Street, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A new theoretical framework for diurnal and seasonal oscillations of the concentration of radon in soil and open air is proposed. The theory is based on the existing temperature waves in soils and thermo-diffusional gas flux in porous media. As soil is a non-isothermal porous medium, usually possessing a large fraction of microscopic pores belonging to Knudsen's free molecular field, a thermo-diffusional gas flow in soil has to arise. The radon mass transfer equation in soil for sinusoidal temperature oscillations at the soil–atmosphere boundary is solved, which reveals that radon concentration behaves as a damped harmonic wave. The amplitude of radon concentration oscillations and phase shift between radon concentration oscillations and soil temperature depend on the radon diffusion coefficient in soil, rate of radon production, soil thermal conductivity, average soil temperature, decay constant, and heat of radon transfer. Primarily numerical calculations are presented and comparisons with experimental data are shown. - Highlights: • Temperature oscillations in atmosphere generate radon waves in soil. • Radon flux in atmosphere is a harmonic function of time. • Radon concentration waves in soil have the same frequency as the temperature waves.

  12. 30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section... Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator protection against radon gas shall be provided in addition to protection against radon daughters. Protection against...

  13. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  14. XENON1T radon assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, Stefan [MPIK, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: XENON-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The radioactive isotope {sup 222}Rn is one of the most dominant intrinsic background sources for experiments dealing with a low event rate like the XENON1T Dark Matter detector. Being part of the primordial decay chain of {sup 238}U the noble gas {sup 222}Rn permanently emanates from almost all materials. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the radon emanation rate of those detector components that will be in contact with the xenon target. The technique of the radon emanation measurements, making use of ultra low background proportional counters is presented as well as selected results for XENON1T.

  15. A study on surveillance of environmental factors affecting the variation of indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Ok Ja; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Eun Ok; Choi, Yun Sun; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Seon Hye; Han, Hyeon Sun [Hankook Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Before the main survey, a preliminary survey was carried out to decide the most suitable type of a radon detector the most appropriate places to install such a radon detector. To this end, three types of detectors were set up in 108 locations, approximately 3% of 3,000 to measure the radon levels, and 102 detectors(94%) were collected. As a result of the preliminary survey, Radtrack was chosen as a radon detector for the main survey, and bedrooms on the first floor of houses and the first floor of public buildings were decided to be the places for the first installment of detectors. It is most desirable to survey the radon concentrations in all houses nationwide. Considering the survey period and budgets, however, 3,000 spots were targeted for the main survey at the recommendation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety in charge of this study. As it is important to maintain the same panels for a year to measure the radon concentrations at 3,000 locations, a total of 3,237 panels, 10% more than the target sample number, were surveyed considering the possible loss of panels during the survey period. The first radon detector was installed in each of 3,237 spots in December 1999, and collected three months later in March 2000, followed by the installment of the second detector.

  16. Estimation of radon diffusion coefficients in soil using an updated experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ganesh; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    Radon diffusion through soil is strongly affected by the degree of water saturation of the soil pores. Methods have been developed by many researchers to measure radon diffusion coefficient. We developed an updated experimental system to estimate radon diffusion coefficients for typical types of soil in Japan and applied it to a typical loam with different water saturation levels (0-0.82). The system consists of a passive-type scintillation cell, soil column, accumulation tank, and radon source. The radon concentration in the accumulation tank is kept stable, and radon diffused through the soil column is continuously measured with the passive-type scintillation cell. We found the radon diffusion coefficients vary from 9.60 × 10(-6) m(2) s(-1) to 1.27 × 10(-7) m(2) s(-1) for the loam samples. Generally, the diffusion coefficients are almost constant for a water saturation range of 0-0.4 and decrease with increasing water saturation from 0.4 to 0.82.

  17. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  18. Controllo del rischio clinico waterborne: modello di applicazione della metodologia Water Safety Plan in un’Azienda Ospedaliera

    OpenAIRE

    Congiu, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply the Water Safety Plan – the effective methodology for waterborne risk management in waterworks (WHO) – to hospital settings, such as those in the AOU of Sassari. WSP was applied to an hospital within the AOU, to control the waterborne risk from Legionella and Pseudomonas. The Control Plan was draft, team inspections, meetings, water samples were performed (Legionella, Ps.aeruginosa, CRAL, T) and organizational/operative information were taken. The following...

  19. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  20. Radon fluxes measured with the MANOP bottom lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W. M.; Buchholtz, M. R.; Hammond, D. E.; Santschi, P. H.

    1987-07-01

    At five Pacific Ocean sites, radon fluxes were determined from water samples collected by the MANOP Lander, from measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations in Lander-collected box core sediments, and from measurements of excess radon in the water column. At MANOP sites H and M, fluxes (all in atoms m -2 s -1) determined with Lander water samples (2200 and 1540 ± 480) agree within the measurement uncertainty with water column standing crop measurements (2220 ± 450, 2040 ± 470). At MANOP site C, the diffusive flux calculated from measurements of 226Ra in box core sediments (550 ± 20), the integrated deficiency of 222Rn in the sediments (720 ± 90), and the water column standing crop (500 ± 160) are in agreement, but all are about twice as large as the single Lander water measurement of the radon flux (330). At MANOP site S radon fluxes from measurements of Lander water (3000 ± 260) are in agreement with the predicted diffusive flux from site S sediments (2880), and both fluxes are close to the lower end of the range of water column standing crop measurements (3000-5170). In San Clemente Basin, California, the Lander water flux measurements at four different sites vary by a factor of 3 due to variability in the sediment radium distribution, but the average (1030 ± 190) is close to the water column standing crop value (780 ± 230). Because there is excellent agreement between the fluxes measured with Lander water samples and the predicted diffusive fluxes in most cases, diffusion must be the primary process controlling benthic exchange of radon at the sites studied. The agreement between the Lander water flux estimates and the water column standing crop estimates indicates that the MANOP Lander functions as an accurate benthic flux chamber in water depths ranging from 1900 to 4900 m. In San Clemente Basin, surficial sediments are enriched in manganese and radium, due to manganese cycling near the sediment-water interface. Molecular diffusion of radon from

  1. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR 20... that existing guidance does not sufficiently detail how the NRC staff reviews surveys of radon and...

  2. Radon behavior in springs and wells around Cuitzeo lake, Lerma river basin, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, R.; V. Martínez; N. Segovia; Peña, P.; M. B. E. López; M. A. Armienta; J. Rangel; Seidel, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Radon was determined in springs and wells from urban and agricultural zones around Cuitzeo lake, in the Lerma river basin, Mexico. Major and trace elements were also studied in the water samples. The measurement techniques included the liquid scintillation method for 222Rn, conventional chemical analysis for major components and ICP-MS for metallic trace elements. The average radon concentration values were relatively low, ranging from 0.88 to 3.66 Bq L-1 indicating a rapid transit from recha...

  3. Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.

    2009-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease

  4. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-12-31

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  5. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  6. Efficacy of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    About 2000 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce high radon levels in their homes. Some 800 of these householders have sought measurements to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Results for 528 such homes are discussed. (author).

  7. Low Radon Cleanroom at the University of Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren; Hallin, Aksel; Hanchurak, Stephen; Krauss, Carsten; Liu, Shengli; Soluk, Richard

    2011-04-01

    A cleanroom laboratory designed to create and maintain a low concentration of radon in the air has been designed and is now under construction. We describe the clean room, the radon stripping system, and various radon monitoring tools.

  8. A polarized Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Waterborne Polyurethane Orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Guangkui; Cui Liyan; Yao Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this article,we prepare waterborne polyurethane(WPU)by polycarbonate diol,polyoxytetramethylene,dimethylol propionic acid and isophorone diisocyanate.We studied the stretch-oriented behavior of waterborne polyurethane films by universal tensile testing machine and FT-IR. And we analyzed the behavior of polyurethane orientation by infrared dichroism spectroscopy.

  9. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  10. World History Of Radon Research And Measurement From The Early 1900's To Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A. C.

    2008-08-01

    onwards a variety of radon measuring instruments were developed to assess the radon and radon decay product exposure to underground miners, workers at contaminated sites with uranium and radium tailings and to the general public in residential buildings. In the last twenty years, new instruments and methods were developed to measure radon by using grab, integrating and continuous modes of sampling. The most common are scintillation cell monitors, activated carbon collectors, electret ionization chambers, alpha track detectors, pulse and current ionization chambers and solid-state alpha detectors.

  11. Consideration of tidal influences in determining measurement periods when monitoring built-environment radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Using three hourly-sampling continuous radon monitors, deployed at separate locations in and around the town of Northampton, UK, during the period May 2002 to September 2005, evidence has been identified of tidal influences on built environment radon levels. The data-sets from these deployments, together with additional data-sets collected from a house in Devon, UK, over the period May 1994 to October 1996, and made available by the UK Building Research Establishment, have been analysed using a number of analytical techniques, including a novel cortion technique developed during the investigation. Radon concentration levels in all of the investigated sites exhibit cyclic variation with a period of approximately 14-15 days, equivalent to the spring-tide interval, and lag the corresponding new and full moons by varying periods. The tide/radon lag interval for the two public-sector buildings changes abruptly in September/October, indicating that a significant characteristic of these buildings changes at this time. For domestic properties, the lag is relatively unchanged during the year, but is greater in Devon, in the South-West of England, than in Northampton, in the English East Midlands. These differences are attributed to location relative to coastlines (the South-West experiences greater tidal-loading than the Midlands), underlying geology and rock/soil hydration. Depending on its position within the local 14 to 15-day tidally-induced radon cycle, an individual 7-day radon measurement may yield an erroneous estimate of longer term average levels, up to 46% higher or lower than the average level for one of the reported data-sets. Thus a building with a mean radon concentration below the local Action Level could appear to be unsafe if measured around a tidal-cyclic radon maximum: conversely, a building with a mean radon concentration above the Action Level could appear to be safe when measured around a tidal-cyclic radon minimum. A minimum radon-measurement period

  12. A novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changxian; Wen, Weibin; Huang, Yixing; Chen, Mingji; Lei, Hongshuai; Fang, Daining

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we extended the ray tracing theory in polar coordinate system, and originally proposed the Snell-Descartes law in polar coordinates. Based on these theories, a novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber device was proposed. This device is designed with gradient-distributing materials along radius, which makes the incidence acoustic wave ray warps. The echo reduction effects of this device were investigated by finite element analysis, and the numerical results show that the reflectivity of acoustic wave for the new device is lower than that of homogenous and Alberich layers in almost all frequency 0-30 kHz at the same loss factor.

  13. 9th Saxonian radon day. 11th meeting on radon safe structural engineering; 9. Saechsischer Radontag. 11. Tagung radonsicheres Bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting in radon-safe structural engineering covers contributions on the following issues: implementation of the EU standards, radon protection in underground cavities, radon protection at working places, reports on experiences.

  14. A European-wide 222Radon and 222Radon progeny comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    A European-wide 222Radon/222Radon progeny comparison study has been conducted in order to determine correction factors that could be applied to existing atmospheric 222Radon data sets for quantitative use of this tracer in atmospheric transport model validation. Two compact and easy-to-transport Heidelberg Radon Monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least one month at each of the nine European measurement stations that were included in the comparison. Linear regressions between paral...

  15. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  16. Long- and short-term indoor radon survey in the Ardea municipality, south Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-12-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in 16 schools and 6 public departments in the Ardea municipality, using both active and passive detectors. The annual concentration of radon has been determined as the mean of two consecutive 6-month periods of sampling from January 2012 to January 2013. The indoor radon level measured in the monitored buildings ranged from 17 to 918 Bq·m(-3), with a mean value of 154 Bq·m(-3). In addition, the correlation between short-term and long-term measurements was studied. Experimental data demonstrate that the deviation of short-term measurements with respect to polyallyl diglycol carbonate data does not exceed ±40 % in a very extended range of radon concentrations.

  17. Development of a highly sensitive radon-222 amplifier (HiSRA) for low-level atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topin, Sylvain; Richon, Patrick; Thomas, Vincent; Gréau, Claire; Pujos, Julie; Moulin, Julien; Hovesepian, Alexandre; Deliere, Ludovic

    2017-05-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days, is continuously emanated from soil, rocks, and water by the radioactive decay of (226)Ra. Radon-222 is released from the ground into the atmosphere, where it is transported mainly by turbulent diffusion or convection. For precise measurement of radon-222 atoms in the atmosphere, the detectors typically used present a small volume or surface area and are therefore not very sensitive, especially for online measurements and short sample intervals (Radon Amplifier (HiSRA) consisting in an enrichment system placed prior to a classic radon-222 analyzer. This system uses permeation membranes that make it possible to treat large quantities of air online (30 m(3) h(-1)). The radon-222 concentration is increased instantaneously by at least a factor of 30 across the HiSRA system. Therefore, in this study, when coupling to an ionization chamber (AlphaGUARDTM) at the outlet of the HiSRA system, the detection limit of the overall system is multiplied by factor of 30 and induces a new LD for a radon 222 gas analyzer lower than 1 Bq m(-3) for an integrating time of 10 min and 0.1 Bq m(-3) for 1 h. We constructed one radon amplifier prototype that provided the preliminary results for amplification efficiency and the initial measurements presented herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new method specifically designed to expose cells isolated in vitro to radon and its decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitot, F; Morlier, J P; Debroche, M; Pineau, J F; Chevillard, S

    2002-06-01

    A system was set up to provide direct exposure of cells cultured in vitro to radon and its decay products. Radon gas emanating from a uranium source was introduced at a measured concentration in a closed 10-m(3) exposure chamber. Cells were cultured on the microporous membrane of an insert that was floating over the culture medium in a six-well cluster plate. Plates with cells were placed in an open thermoregulated bath within the chamber. Under these conditions, cells were irradiated by direct deposition of radon and radon decay products. During exposure, all parameters, including radon gas concentrations, decay product activities, and potential alpha-particle energy concentrations, were determined by periodic air-grab samplings inside the chamber. The energy spectrum of deposited decay products was characterized. An estimation of alpha-particle flux density on the area containing cells was performed using CR-39 detector films that were exposed in cell-free wells during the cell exposure. The number of alpha-particle traversals per cell was deduced both from the mean number of CR-39 tracks per surface unit and from measurements of entire cells or nuclear surfaces. This paper describes the design of experiment, the dosimetry of radon and radon decay product, and the procedures for aerosol measurements. Our preliminary data show the usefulness of the in vitro cell culture approach to the study of the early cellular effects of radon and its decay products.

  19. The radon: evaluation and risk management; Le radon: evaluation et gestion du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Erich Wichmann, H. [Neuberberg Munich Univ. (Germany); Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Robe, M.Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Baubron, J.C.; Bonijoly, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France); Collignan, B. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Berrier, H. [Direction Gle de l' Urbanisme de l' Habitat et de la Construction, 75 - Paris (France); Jaouen, J. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Vienne (France); Caamano, D. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Essonne, 91 (France); Guiot, F. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Marne (France); Grall, B. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de Bretagne (France); Frutos Vasquez, B.; Olaya Adan, M. [Istituto de Ciencias de la Construction (Italy); Garcia Cadierno, J.P.; Martin Matarranz, J.L.; Serrano Renedo, J.; Suarez Mahou, E. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.A. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas (Spain); Mjones, L.; Pirard, P. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Godet, J.L.; Rougy, Ch. [Direction Gle de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-06-15

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  20. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  1. Analysis of radon, uranium 238 and thorium 232 in potable waters: Dose to adult members of the Moroccan urban population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Ouabi, H.; Merzouki, A.

    2007-10-01

    Uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) concentrations as well as radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume have been measured inside various potable water samples collected from nineteen cities in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measured radon alpha-activities ranged from (0.37 ± 0.02) Bq l-1 to (13.6 ± 1.10) Bq l-1 for the potable water samples studied. Alpha-activities due to radon from the ingestion of the studied potable water samples were determined in different compartments of the gastrointestinal system by using the ICRP compartmental model for radon. Annual committed equivalent doses due to radon were evaluated in the gastrointestinal compartments from the ingestion of the potable water samples studied. The influence of the target tissue mass, radon intake and alpha-activity integral due to radon on the annual committed equivalent doses in the gastrointestinal compartments was investigated.

  2. Radon estimation in water resources of Mandi - Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India for health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumari, Punam; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Arvind; Prasher, Sangeeta; Dhar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with the radon estimation in 40 water samples collected from different natural resources and radium content in the soils of Mandi-Dharamshala Region. Radon concentration is determined by using RAD-7 detector and radium contents of the soil in vicinity of water resources is as well measured by using LR-115 type - II detector, which is further correlated with radon concentration in water samples. The potential health risks related with 222Rn have also been estimated. The results show that the radon concentrations within the range of 1.51 to 22.7Bq/l with an average value of 5.93 Bq/l for all type of water samples taken from study area. The radon concentration in water samples is found lower than 100Bq/l, the exposure limit of radon in water recommended by the World Health Organization. The calculated average effective dose of radon received by the people of study area is 0.022 mSv/y with maximum of 0.083 mSv/y and minimum 0.0056 mSv/y. The total effective dose in all sites of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization. The average value of radium content in the soil of study area is 6.326 Bq/kg.

  3. Radon-222 from different sources of water and the assessment of health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet A; Ojeniran, Oluwaferanmi R

    2017-02-01

    Water samples collected from different sources were analysed for radon concentrations in order to evaluate the health effect associated with radon in water. The radon concentrations were in the range of 3.56-98.57, 0.88-25.49, 0.73-1.35 and 0.24-1.03 Bq.L(-1) for borehole, well, packaged and utility water, respectively. Samples from boreholes had the highest radon concentrations with about 67% being higher than the threshold value of 11.1 Bq.L(-1) recommended by the USEPA. The mean annual effective dose (AED) due to ingestion for adult, child and infant ranged from 8.71 × 10(-3) to 0.831 mSv.y(-1) for the different sources. The mean AED calculated for consuming water from boreholes and wells for the three age groups were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y(-1). The mean AED due to inhalation of radon in drinking water was negligible, ranging from 0.13 to 6.20 μSv.y(-1). The health burden associated with radon in water in the study is through ingestion of water directly from boreholes.

  4. A perspective on risks from radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D. J., E-mail: higsond@bigpond.net.a [Australasian Radiation Protection Society, PO Box 7108, Upper Ferntree Gully, Victoria 3156 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10{sup -10} per Bq h m{sup -3} is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m{sup -3}. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m{sup -3}. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m{sup -3} depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  5. The radon influence of SAGE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrin, V N; Mirmov, I N

    2002-01-01

    The method for evaluating systematic errors, connected with radon, is described in the experiment on determining the SAGE solar neutrino flux. The systematic error by the measured neutrino capture rate in the gallium 75 SNU target does not exceed 0.3 SNU. The obtained value (0.3 SNU) is the upper limit of the radon systematic error. Its low value means, that radon does not contribute significantly to the SAGE result

  6. A Fuzzy Radon Transform for Track Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    De Laat, C T A M; CERN. Geneva; Lourens, W; Kamermans, R

    1993-01-01

    In this contribution a fuzzy Radon transform is shown for application in ALICE and ATLAS (typical track density of 8000 in one unit of rapidity). Resolution is introduced by the "broadening" of the matching tracks in the Radon transform, which is obtained by making a convolution of the matching tracks with Gaussian kernel. In a good approximation, an analytical expression for the fuzzy Radon transform is given. An example of two track separation with noisy input is added.

  7. Uranium prospecting using radon (1963); La prospection de l'uranium par le radon (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J.; Billard, F.; Miribel, J.; Gangloff, A.; Puybaraud, Y.; Tayeb, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The radon which diffuses in the ground and which migrates in the atmosphere is a natural radioactive tracer. The study of its production can give useful information on the uranium content and structure of the rocks from which it comes. Numerous authors have therefore suggested that uranium deposits be prospected by means of this radon. Three analytic methods have been used successively by the C.E.A.: the method of accumulation in a hole, the method of instantaneous sampling in the ground, and the method of sampling by scanning. Only the last has proved interesting and has been the object of systematic studies. It consists in purging the measurement recipient with air drawn from the probe and in measuring the variations in activity with time and with the volume drawn up, using a portable apparatus producing scintillations in a sulphurated flask. The first series of measurements made it possible to develop an apparatus (flow rate, hole depth, scintillating probe) and to distinguish between tbe activities of the thoron and of the radon by making two measurements at an interval of 54 seconds. A campaign of systematic sampling was then carried out. It made It possible to show the good reproducibility of the results obtained and tbe good agreement with conventional methods. This method is the best one for areas having large overlap. In the appendix the detector and its mode of use are briefly described, and the first results of an emanometric prospecting test in the Vendee mining division are given. (authors) [French] Le radon qui diffuse dans le sol et migre dans l'atmosphere constitue un traceur radioactif naturel. L'etude de son degagement peut apporter de precieux renseignements sur la teneur en uranium et la structure des roches dont il est issu. De nombreux auteurs ont donc propose la prospection des gisements d'uranium par le radon. Trois methodes d'analyse ont ete successivement utilisees au C.E.A.: la methode d'accumulation dans un trou

  8. Radon Levels Measured at a Touristic Thermal Spa Resort in Montagu (South Africa) and Associated Effective Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R; Newman, R T; Maleka, P P

    2016-09-01

    Radon activity concentrations (in water and in air) were measured at 13 selected locations at the Avalon Springs thermal spa resort in Montagu (Western Cape, South Africa) to estimate the associated effective dose received by employees and visitors. A RAD-7 detector (DURRIDGE), based on alpha spectrometry, and electret detectors (E-PERM®Radelec) were used for these radon measurements. The primary source of radon was natural thermal waters from the hot spring, which were pumped to various locations on the resort, and consequently a range of radon in-water analyses were performed. Radon in-water activity concentration as a function of time (short term and long term measurements) and spatial distributions (different bathing pools, etc.) were studied. The mean radon in-water activity concentrations were found to be 205 ± 6 Bq L (source), 112 ± 5 Bq L (outdoor pool) and 79 ± 4 Bq L (indoor pool). Radon in-air activity concentrations were found to range between 33 ± 4 Bq m (at the outside bar) to 523 ± 26 Bq m (building enclosing the hot spring's source). The most significant potential radiation exposure identified is that due to inhalation of air rich in radon and its progeny by the resort employees. The annual occupational effective dose due to the inhalation of radon progeny ranges from 0.16 ± 0.01 mSv to 0.40 ± 0.02 mSv. For the water samples collected, the Ra in-water activity concentrations from samples collected were below the lower detection limit (~0.7 Bq L) of the γ-ray detector system used. No significant radiological health risk can be associated with radon and progeny from the hot spring at the Avalon Springs resort.

  9. Molecular characterization of isolates of waterborne Cryptosporidium spp. collected during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in South Burgundy, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Frédéric; Roz, Pascale; Dautin, Guillaume; Di-Palma, Marc; Kohli, Evelyne; Sire-Bidault, C; Fleischmann, Marie George; Gallay, Anne; Carbonel, Sylvia; Bon, Fabienne; Tillier, Claude; Beaudeau, Pascal; Bonnin, Alain

    2003-06-01

    In September 2001, a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in eastern France. Of 31 fecal samples from symptomatic individuals, 19 tested positive for Cryptosporidium with two PCRs targeting the Hsp70 and the 18S rRNA genes of CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: Sequencing of the PCR fragments produced sequences identical to that of Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 1.

  10. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  11. Radon atlas of Finland; Suomen radonkartasto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3} and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.). 11 refs. The publication contains all texts both in Finnish and in English.

  12. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  13. Radon transfer and intracorporal deposition of radon decay products under balneotherapeutic conditions; Radon-Transfer und intrakorporale Deposition von Radon-Folgeprodukten unter balneotherapeutischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Wolfgang A. [Kurmittelhaus Sibyllenbad, Neualbenreuth (Germany); Just, Guenther [Forschungsbuero Radon, Grosspoesna (Germany); Petzold, Juergen [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum, Leipzig (Germany); Philipsborn, Henning von [Radiometrisches Seminar, Univ. Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The intracorporal deposition of radon decay products was determined on four persons after 40 and 30 min respectively in radon water with about 1500 Bq/L by whole-body gamma spectrometry. The measurements started about 2 1/2h after exposure. In addition, the radon activity concentration of inspiratory and expiratory air was measured on one person during and after exposure and the deposition of radon decay products on the skin was measured on another person. The radon activity leaving the body with the expiratory air during exposure in the water (called ''radon transfer'') amounts to about 800 Bq. An intracorporal radon activity immediately after therapeutic exposure of about 3000 Bq was obtained as a result of first measurements by extrapolation from measurements starting about 2 1/2 hours later. Additional studies are necessary. There are indications that both the radon transfer and the intracorporal deposition can be increased by exposure in mixed radon-CO{sub 2} water. (orig.)

  14. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  15. Imaging and identification of waterborne parasites using a chip-scale microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ah Lee

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact portable imaging system for the detection of waterborne parasites in resource-limited settings. The previously demonstrated sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM technique is a lens-less imaging scheme that can achieve high-resolution (<1 µm bright-field imaging over a large field-of-view (5.7 mm×4.3 mm. A chip-scale microscope system, based on the SPSM technique, can be used for automated and high-throughput imaging of protozoan parasite cysts for the effective diagnosis of waterborne enteric parasite infection. We successfully imaged and identified three major types of enteric parasite cysts, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba, which can be found in fecal samples from infected patients. We believe that this compact imaging system can serve well as a diagnostic device in challenging environments, such as rural settings or emergency outbreaks.

  16. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  17. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  18. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Wilton, Derek Hc; Fitzgerald, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space). The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. 7 (28%) houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m(3)). Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy) and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  19. Investigation of radon level in air and tap water of workplaces at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, P.; Youngchuay, U.; Kongsri, S.; Kongtana, A.

    2017-06-01

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has continuously monitored radiation exposure and radionuclide in workplaces specifically radon gas to estimate effective dose for workers. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the world. In this study, radon in air and tap water at building no. 3, 7, 8, 9 and 18 on Ongkharak site of TINT have been measured for 5 years from 2012 to 2016. Radon level in air and tap water were investigated on 83 stations (workplaces) and 54 samples, respectively. Radon concentrations in air and tap water were measured by using the pulsed ionization chamber (ATMOS 12 DPX). Indoor radon concentrations in air were in the range of 12-138 Bq.m-3 with an average value of 30.13±17.05 Bq.m-3. Radon concentrations in tap water were in the range of 0.10 to 2.89 Bq.l-1 with an average value of 0.51±0.55 Bq.l-1. The results of radon concentrations at TINT were below the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) safety limit of 148 Bq.m-3 and 150 Bq.l-1, for, air and tap water, respectively. The average effective dose for TINT’s workers due to indoor radon exposure was approximately 0.20±0.11 mSv.y-1. The value is 100 times less than the annual dose limit for limit occupational radiation worker defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As a result, the TINT’s workplaces are radiologically safe from radon content in air and tap water.

  20. Radon surveys and monitoring at active volcanoes: an open window on deep hydrothermal systems and their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego

    2017-04-01

    The behavior of fluids in hydrothermal systems is critical in volcano monitoring and geothermal prospecting. Analyzing the time series of radon emissions on active volcanoes is strategic for detecting and interpreting precursory signals of changes in volcanic activity, eventually leading to eruptions. Radon is a radioactive gas generated from the decay of U bearing rocks, soils and magmas. Although radon has been regarded as a potential precursor of earthquakes, radon anomalies appear to be better suited to forecast volcanic eruptions since we know where paroxysms may occur and we can follow the evolution of volcanic activity. Radon mapping at active volcanoes is also a reliable tool to assess diffuse and concentrated degassing as well as efficiently detecting earthquake-volcano interactions. Systematic radon monitoring has been shown to be a key factor for evaluating the rise of volcanic and hydrothermal fluids. In fact, the decay properties of radon, the duration of radon anomalies together with sampling rates may be cross-checked with the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids (and their transport properties) to constrain fluids ascent rates and to infer the permeability and porosity of rocks in sectors surrounding the active conduits. We hereby further discuss the data of radon surveys and monitoring at Somma-Vesuvius, Stromboli and La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). The integrated analysis of seismic and geochemical data, including radon emissions, may be successfully used in testing temperature distributions and variations of porosity and permeability in volcanic hydrothermal systems and can be used as a proxy to analyze geothermal reservoirs.

  1. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. Objective: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. Methods: We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space. The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. Results: 7 (28% houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m3. Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. Conclusion: There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  2. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  3. Current state of radon chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, V.V.; Krasikova, R.N.; Nefedov, V.D.; Toropova, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This article summarizes the data available prior to May 1980 on the physical, chemical and radioactive properties of radon. Tables include a list of the known isotopes together with the half-lives, types of emitted radiation and daughter products and a list of the inert gases Rn, Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne together with the hydrate stability, ionization potential, ionic character of bonding, dissociation energy, electronegativity and others. Experimental difficulties of working with radon, such as its short half-life and its fugitive nature, are mentioned. The compound RNF/sub 2/ can be prepared from several different fluorinating reagents such as ClF/sub 3/, KrF/sub 3/, BrF/sub 3/, K/sub 2/NiF/sub 6/ in HF and others. Until now it has not been possible to prepare organic compounds of inert gases using classical techniques. Noble gas compounds may also be prepared via radiochemical techniques. Some applications of radon compounds, such as in decontamination of reactor and mine effluents, are discussed.

  4. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  5. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  6. Radon in soil gas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Giane Gariglio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: gianegariglio5@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radon, the natural radioactive gas is produced by the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium which are ubiquitous, specially in rock and soil. By diffusion and convection. Radon migrate from the rocks and to the groundwater and to the soil and from them the radon migrate through fissures, pipes and hales to the surface. Measurements were carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, whose greatest part of the in habitants occupies the great pre cambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais denominated 'Granitic Gneissic Complex', composed of Archean rocks of age between 3,2 Ga and 2,6 Ga. The part in which occurs in the municipal area of Belo Horizonte was denominated as Complexo Belo Horizonte, whose most characteristics rocks named Gneiss Belo Horizonte. The soil gas radon concentrations were determined by using a samples and a continuos flow through ionization chamber detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO - Genitron Instruments GmbH in a Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Most results of radon concentration soil gas were in the range 10 kBq/m{sup 3} to 50 kBq/m{sup 3}. This values, according to the established Swedish Criteria are normal risk values. For soils classified as normal risk require 'radon protective construction', but the necessity of mitigation actions will depend on other factors, for example the soil permeability and rock type. (author)

  7. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  8. The distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania (Romania) - influence of the natural and anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Dicu, Tiberius; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Bety Burghele, Denissa; Tenter, Ancuta; Szacsvai, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radon in homes and workplaces is now recognized as the most important natural factor in causing lung cancer. Radon activity is usually higher in buildings than in the outside atmosphere, as it may be released from building materials and soil beneath the constructions, and the concentration builds-up indoor, due to the low air renewal rates. Indoor radon levels can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space, as it depends on several natural and anthropogenic factors, such us the radon concentration in soil under the construction, the weather conditions, the degree of containment in the areas where individuals are exposed, building materials, outside air, tap water and even city gas, the architecture, equipment (chimney, mechanical ventilation systems, etc.), the environmental parameters of the building (temperature, pressure, etc.), and on the occupants' lifestyle. The study presents the distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania, Romania, together with the measurements of radon in soil and soil water. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurement Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. A complete map was plotted at the date, based on 3300 indoor radon measurements, covering an area of about 42% of the Romanian territory. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 3287 Bq m-3, with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 179 Bq m-3, and a geometric mean of 122 Bq m-3. In about 11% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 26 kBq m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3 - 352.2 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. A weak correlation between the three sets of values

  9. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; El-Bahi, S M; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m2d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples.

  10. Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Funari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Change in climate and water cycle will challenge water availability but it will also increase the exposure to unsafe water. Floods, droughts, heavy storms, changes in rain pattern, increase of temperature and sea level, they all show an increasing trend worldwide and will affect biological, physical and chemical components of water through different paths thus enhancing the risk of waterborne diseases. This paper is intended, through reviewing the available literature, to highlight environmental changes and critical situations caused by floods, drought and warmer temperature that will lead to an increase of exposure to water related pathogens, chemical hazards and cyanotoxins. The final aim is provide knowledge-based elements for more focused adaptation measures.

  11. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  12. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  13. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  14. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods...

  15. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  16. Radon Risk Communication Strategies: A Regional Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication on the health effects of radon encounters many challenges and requires a variety of risk communication strategies and approaches. The concern over radon exposure and its health effects may vary according to people's level of knowledge and receptivity. Homeowners in radon-prone areas are usually more informed and have greater concern over those not living in radon-prone areas. The latter group is often found to be resistant to testing. In British Columbia as well as many other parts of the country, some homes have been lying outside of the radon-prone areas have radon levels above the Canadian guideline, which is the reason Health Canada recommends that all homes should be tested. Over the last five years, the Environment Health Program (EHP) of Health Canada in the British Columbia region has been using a variety of different approaches in their radon risk communications through social media, workshops, webinars, public forums, poster contests, radon distribution maps, public inquiries, tradeshows and conference events, and partnership with different jurisdictions and nongovernmental organizations. The valuable lessons learned from these approaches are discussed in this special report.

  17. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  18. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  19. Determination of concentration of radon, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and water chemistry in springs near to Popocatepetl volcano; Determinacion de la concentracion de radon, VOCs y Quimica del agua en manantiales cercanos al volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez M, B.E.; Cisniega, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Valdes, C.; Armienta, M.A.; Mena, M. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs is analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. Soil radon indicated fluctuations related both the meteorological parameters and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essentially differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed stability along the monitoring period indicating also differences between springs. No anthropogenic pollution from volatile organic compounds was observed. (Author)

  20. Radon exhalation study of manganese clay residue and usability in brick production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Shahrokhi, Amin; Sas, Zoltán; Vigh, Tamás; Somlai, János

    2017-03-01

    The reuse of by-products and residue streams is an important topic due to environmental and financial aspects. Manganese clay is a residue of manganese ore processing and is generated in huge amounts. This residue may contain some radionuclides with elevated concentrations. In this study, the radon emanation features and the massic exhalation rate of the heat-treated manganese clay were determined with regard to brick production. From the manganese mud depository, 20 samples were collected and after homogenization radon exhalation characteristics were determined as a function of firing temperatures from 100 to 750 °C. The major naturally occurring radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th concentrations were 607 ± 34, 52 ± 6 and 40 ± 5 Bq kg(-1), respectively, comparable with normal clay samples. Similar to our previous studies a strong correlation was found between the internal structure and the radon emanation. The radon emanation coefficient decreased by ∼96% from 0.23 at 100 °C to 0.01 at 750 °C. The massic radon exhalation rate of samples fired at 750 °C reduced by 3% compared to samples fired at 100 °C. In light of the results, reusing of manganese clay as a brick additive is possible without any constraints.

  1. Indoor radon survey in the Vojvodina region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkapic, S.; Todorovic, N.; Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2010-07-01

    The results of an indoor radon survey in the Vojvodina region (Serbia) are presented. Long-term average radon measurements in an existing building can be measured relatively simply and inexpensively using a passive device, such as an alpha track detector. Houses in the suburbs were chosen as the target locations of the present investigations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured with CR-39 alpha track detectors at {approx}1000 locations in Vojvodina during the winter period. Effect of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding and the heating system on radon accumulation are discussed in this paper. For the dwellings typical of such regions, we measure a mean annual radon activity concentration of 112 Bq/m{sup 3} (747 measurements using the alpha track detector CR-39). (authors)

  2. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  3. Radon in houses and soil of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Miklavcic, I.; Planinic, J. [Osijek Univ., Dept. of Physics (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements in thousand Croatian homes, randomly selected, were performed by the LR-115 track etch detectors during a year 2003/2004. The obtained values of arithmetic means of radon concentrations in 20 Croatian counties were in range from 33 to 198 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the arithmetic and geometric means for Croatia were 68 and 50 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. Indoor radon concentrations follow log-normal distribution and the percentage of dwellings with concentrations above 400 Bq/m{sup 3} was 1.8 %. Radon concentrations in soil gas, at depth of 0.8 m, were measured by 'Alphaguard' measuring system. Association between levels of indoor and soil radon was investigated. (authors)

  4. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  5. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  6. Waterborne Epoxy Nanocoatings Modified by Nanoemulsions and Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhenyu Wang Enhou Han Fuchun Liu Zhouhai Qian Liwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present investigation electrically conductive nanocoatings were prepared by the incorporation of graphite, nano-SiO2 concentrate, acrylic nanoemulsion and fluorocarbon emulsion onto the waterborne epoxy polymer...

  7. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Abstract. The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens ... Giardiapositive cases were recorded in symptomatic. (4.5% and ..... cholera, salmonella, amoebic dysentery, Shigella, or enteropathic.

  8. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: I am using published data...

  9. Estimating the radon concentration in water and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, A F

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in the vicinity of water, indoor air and in contact to building walls. The investigations were carried out using CR-39 track detectors. Samples of ground water flowing out of many springs mostly in Arabian Gulf area except one from Germany have been studied. The results are compared with international recommendations and the values are found to be lower than the recommended value. Measuring the mean indoor radon concentrations in air and in contact to building walls in the dwellings of Kuwait University Campus were found 24.2 +/- 7.7, and 462 +/- 422 Bq m(-3) respectively. These values lead to average effective dose equivalent rates of 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 23 +/- 21 mSv year(-1), respectively.

  10. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house.

  11. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radon concentrations in ground and drinking water in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, L; Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Cano Jiménez, A; Rentería Villalobos, M; Delgado Mendoza, C J; Jurado Tenorio, L A; Dávila Rangel, I; Herrera Peraza, E F

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports (222)Rn concentrations in ground and drinking water of nine cities of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Fifty percent of the 114 sampled wells exhibited (222)Rn concentrations exceeding 11Bq/L, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) recommended by the USEPA. Furthermore, around 48% (123 samples) of the tap-water samples taken from 255 dwellings showed radon concentrations over the MCL. There is an apparent correlation between total dissolved solids and radon concentration in ground-water. The high levels of (222)Rn found may be entirely attributed to the nature of aquifer rocks.

  13. Rainfall-runoff model for prediction of waterborne viral contamination in a small river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, E.; Dommar, C.; Lowe, R.; Polcher, J.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present a lumped rainfall-runoff model aimed at providing useful information for the prediction of waterborne viral contamination in small rivers. Viral contamination of water bodies may occur because of the discharge of sewage effluents and of surface runoff over areas affected by animal waste loads. Surface runoff is caused by precipitation that cannot infiltrate due to its intensity and to antecedent soil water content. It may transport animal feces to adjacent water bodies and cause viral contamination. We model streamflow by separating it into two components: subsurface flow, which is produced by infiltrated precipitation; and surface runoff. The model estimates infiltrated and non-infiltrated precipitation and uses impulse-response functions to compute the corresponding fractions of streamflow. The developed methodologies are applied to the Glafkos river, whose catchment extends for 102 km2 and includes the city of Patra. Streamflow and precipitation observations are available at a daily time resolution. Waterborne virus concentration measurements were performed approximately every second week from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2012. Samples were taken at several locations: in river water upstream of Patras and in the urban area; in sea water at the river outlet and approximately 2 km south-west of Patras; in sewage effluents before and after treatment. The rainfall-runoff model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and precipitation data. The model contribution to waterborne viral contamination prediction was benchmarked by analyzing the virus concentration measurements together with the estimated surface runoff values. The presented methodology may be a first step towards the development of waterborne viral contamination alert systems. Predicting viral contamination of water bodies would benefit sectors such as water supply and tourism.

  14. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multidisciplinary analysis of Finnish esker sediment in radon source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitner, Dániel; Turtiainen, Tuukka; Arvela, Hannu; Vesterbacka, Pia; Johanson, Bo; Lehtonen, Marja; Hellmuth, Karl-Heinz; Szabó, Csaba

    2008-11-01

    In order to define the naturally-occurring radioactive materials that are the source of radon in natural environments, a comprehensive analytical (geochemical, physical and chemical) methodology was employed to study sand samples from the Hollola esker in the city of Hollola (Lahti area, Finland). Techniques such as gamma-spectrometry, emanation measurements, sequential chemical extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the potential source of radon. Monazite and xenotime, uranium- and thorium-bearing minerals and potential radon sources, occurred in significant amounts in the samples and were also the main reason for the distribution of uranium and thereby radium in separate grain-size fractions. Following deposition, the esker sand has been exposed to no significant weathering, and radium has not therefore been much separated from uranium. However, considering its non-compatibility with crystal lattices, it was recognized rather in easily leachable species (44% of the total (226)Ra) than uranium (21% of the total (238)U) in our analyses. The smallest grain-size fraction of the esker sand had a higher emanation power (0.24) than the other fractions (around 0.17). Due to the small relative proportion of this fraction, however, it contributed only slightly to the total emanation (4%). The emanation power of the leachable species was about three times higher (ca. 0.20) than that of the species tightly bound to the crystal lattice (ca. 0.07).

  16. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K.; McLaughlin, J.P. [University College Dublin (Ireland); Fenton, D.; Colgan, P.A. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-07-01

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  17. Experimental assessment of indoor radon and soil gas variability: the RADON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, S. M.; Pereira, A. J. S. C.; Neves, L. J. P. F.; Steinitz, G.; Zafrir, H.; Donner, R.; Woith, H.

    2012-04-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas naturally present in the environment, particularly in soils derived from rocks with high uranium content. Radon is formed by alpha decay from radium within solid mineral grains, but can migrate via diffusion and/or advection into the air space of soils, as well as into groundwater and the atmosphere. The exhalation of radon from the pore space of porous materials into the atmosphere of indoor environments is well known to cause adverse health effects due to the inhalation of radon's short-lived decay products. The danger to human health is particularly acute in the case of poorly ventilated dwellings located in geographical areas of high radon potential. The RADON project, funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT), aims to evaluate the temporal variability of radon in the soil and atmosphere and to examine the influence of meteorological effects in radon concentration. For that purpose an experimental monitoring station is being installed in an undisturbed dwelling located in a region of high radon potential near the old uranium mine of Urgeiriça (central Portugal). The rationale of the project, the set-up of the experimental radon monitoring station, and preliminary monitoring results will be presented.

  18. Measurement of short-lived radon progenies by simultaneous alpha gamma-spectrometry at the German radon reference chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Honig, A; Sulima, T; Buchholz, A; Keyser, U

    1999-01-01

    In the German radon reference chamber, the short-lived radon progenies are separated by a sample tube according to the attached or unattached fraction, while their activity concentration is afterwards measured by simultaneous alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. The results are expressed by the equilibrium factor F and the unattached fraction f sub p (International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 50, Ann. ICRP 17 (1987) 1). Both F and f sub p , can be therefore studied with respect to the full set of environmental parameters, e.g. temperature, humidity, air pressure and aerosol concentration (Honig et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 525). Up to now, well-defined and stable equilibrium factors in the interval from 0.1 to 1.0 have been established. In correlation with this, the unattached fraction can be varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The sample and measuring technique for the short-lived radon progenies described in this work is the basis for fundamental studies with regard to the equilibr...

  19. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the

  20. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m(3)) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km(2)). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m(3). In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  2. Observations of surface radon in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Piero Di; Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Battisti, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    Two years of in situ radon concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer have been collected in a central Italy town (L’Aquila), located in the Aterno river valley. These data have been analyzed in order to study the controlling mechanisms of surface radon abundance; observations of coincident meteorological parameters confirmed the role of dynamics on the local removal rate of this tracer. The relatively high negative correlation of hourly data of surface wind speed and radon activity concentration ( R = -0.54, on annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon is one of the most important controlling processes of the tracer accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. An attempt is made to quantify the precipitation impact on radon soil fluxes. No anticorrelation of radon and precipitation comes out from the data ( R = -0.15), as in previous studies. However, since the main physical parameter affecting the ground radon release is expected to be the soil accumulation of water, snow or ice, the emission flux has also been correlated with soil moisture; in this way a much clearer anticorrelation is found ( R = -0.54).

  3. A Rapid Method for Radon Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkhbat, N.; Shin, S. G.; Key, Y. U.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Norov, N. [National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kim, G. [Kungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Research carried out in last decades has shown that more than 70% of a total annual radioactive dose received by people originates from natural sources of ionizing radiation, whereby 40% is due to inhalation and ingestion of natural radioactive gas radon {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. Radon has 3.5 days of half-life. However, its progeny is dangerous than Radon in the view of radiation protection. Radon measurement is commonly used in controlling radon concentration in underground mine, closed room and in forecasting earthquake. Radon gas emission rate in the immediate opening of the west ventilation shaft depends on the operation of the ventilation system, duration of ventilation system operation, and the air flow rate through the underground development. Specific activity of radon progeny in air (RaA (Po-218), RaB (Pb-214) and RaC (Bi-214)) and Ra-222 in radioactive equilibrium was calculated by formula 1 and 2, respectively. We include result of measurement carried out in the air around a mining. In Fig.2 shown that the distribution of Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214 and Ra-222 isotopes releasing from west ventilation shaft in Gurvanbulag underground uranium mine in the eastern part of Mongolia.

  4. A study on the correlation between soil radon potential and average indoor radon potential in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ford, Ken L

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon is identified as the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population. Since radon in homes originates mainly from soil gas radon, it is of public interest to study the correlation between radon in soil and radon indoors in different geographic locations. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 1070 sites were surveyed for soil gas radon and soil permeability. Among the sites surveyed, 430 sites were in 14 cities where indoor radon information is available from residential radon and thoron surveys conducted in recent years. It is observed that indoor radon potential (percentage of homes above 200 Bq m(-3); range from 1.5% to 42%) correlates reasonably well with soil radon potential (SRP: an index proportional to soil gas radon concentration and soil permeability; average SRP ranged from 8 to 26). In five cities where in-situ soil permeability was measured at more than 20 sites, a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.68 for linear regression and R(2) = 0.81 for non-linear regression) was observed between indoor radon potential and soil radon potential. This summary report shows that soil gas radon measurement is a practical and useful predictor of indoor radon potential in a geographic area, and may be useful for making decisions around prioritizing activities to manage population exposure and future land-use planning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radon concentrations in the water of Misasa area (Tottori Pref.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Mifune, Masaaki

    1997-02-01

    UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) Report (1988, 1993) indicated that the internal exposure dose of absorption of radon (Rn-222) and the short-lived decay product nucleus occupied about half of 2.4 m Sv of the global average of annual dose of natural radiation source. It is said to be the largest factor of radiation dose of natural radiation. Sample collection and the method, the elution properties by the concentration of Rn-222 in water and the comparison of characteristics among the different methods are explained. The detection limit of concentration of radon in water by OPTI-FLUOR direct method using the liquid scintillator spectrometer was 1.5 Bq/l for 20 mins counting. The maximum radon concentrations determined by this method showed 1700 Bq/l of the spring water in Misasa area, 400 Bq/l of the small water supply system and well and 18 Bq/l of Mitoku river. (S.Y.)

  6. Attenuated radon transform: theory and application in medicine and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1979-06-01

    A detailed analysis is given of the properties of the attenuated Radon transform and of how increases in photon attenuation influence the numerical accuracy and computation efficiency of iterative and convolution algorithms used to determine its inversion. The practical applications for this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides in man and animals for basic physiological and biochemical studies as well as clinical studies in nuclear medicine. A mathematical structure is developed using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces which lends itself to better understanding the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform reduces to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For the situation of variable attenuation coefficient frequently found in nuclear medicine applications of imaging the heart and chest, the procedure developed in this thesis involves iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. For constant attenuation coefficient less than 0.15 cm/sup -1/, convolution methods can reliably reconstruct a 30 cm object with 0.5 cm resolution. However, for high attenuation coefficients or for the situation where there is variable attenuation such as reconstruction of distribution of isotopes in the heart, iterative techniques developed in this thesis give the best results. (ERB)

  7. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, P.G.Q.; Galembeck, T.M.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of {sup 222}Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the {sup 222}Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in dimension stones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimension stones are extensively commercialized abroad. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rn exhalation above the EPA threshold limit of 4 pCi/L.

  8. The Influence of Drinking Water Access on the Occurrence of Water-borne Diseases (Diarrhea and Typhoid)

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijah Azhar; Ika Dharmayanti; Athena Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor and inadequate drinking water supply are the cause of the high occurrence of water-borne diseases,such as diarrhea and typhoid. These diseases often caused an outbreak among the citizens. This article was a furtheranalysis of data obtained from Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2007 with the aim to figure out the influence of drinkingwater access against the occurrence of diarrhea and typhoid. Methods: the used samples were taken from all samples ofthe 2007 Riskesdas, whic...

  9. A campaign of discrete radon concentration measurements in soil of Niska Banja town, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECE LAB, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia (Serbia); Kozak, K. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)], E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl; Ciotoli, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A. Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Kochowska, E. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Ujic, P.; Celikovic, I. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECE LAB, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mazur, J.; Janik, M. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , ECE LAB, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Birovljev, A. [RADONLAB, Forskningsveien 3 B, 0373 Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Technology and Health, Unit of Radioactivity and Related Health Effects, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Radiation Laboratory Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 20A S. Kovalevskoy Street, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation); Kryeziu, D. [Low-level Counting Laboratory, Faradaygasse 3, Arsenal Objekt 214, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Olko, P. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    The first radon soil gas survey in Serbia, using passive detectors (SSNTD, CR-39), was carried out in June 2005 at field sites in Niska Banja town. The aim of the survey was to identify risk zones characterised by high levels of this radioactive gas. Radon measurements were made at the depth of 50 cm, in the ground according to a systematic grid pattern. Furthermore, at all 48 measurement points, the surface gamma dose rates in the air was also measured at the same locations and soil samples were collected for gamma spectrometric analysis for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K. Radon concentrations were found to range from 1270 to 155000Bqm{sup -3} with an average of 33765Bqm{sup -3} and a median value of 12626Bqm{sup -3}. The geometrical mean value and geometrical standard deviation were calculated as 16160Bqm{sup -3} and 3.5Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. Gamma dose rate varies from 92 to 316nGyh{sup -1}, with an average of 132nGyh{sup -1}. The radium content in collected soil samples ranges from 24 to 1810Bqkg{sup -1} with an average of 187Bqkg{sup -1}. High correlations (r{sup 2}>0.8) between soil gas radon concentration, gamma dose rate and {sup 226}Ra content in soil were found for each pair. The distribution of radon concentrations in soil gas shows bimodal shape.

  10. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  11. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: lluis.font@uab.cat; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica externa, Departament de Geologia, Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active.

  12. Risks related to exposure to radon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Barros Dios

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available They discuss the different scientific evidence that radon and its short half-life descendants are responsible for the appearance of a considerable number of lung cancers among the exposed population in homes and public buildings (occupational exposure. It also draws a small glimpse at the road traveled by this knowledge and acceptance difficult administrations in many countries and, in particular, of Spain, as well as the various investigations that the team do Galego Radon and Radon Laboratory from Galicia, the area of Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC, are contributing to scientific knowledge. Finally, they appreciate the few legislative initiatives on the problem in Spain.

  13. Indoor radon concentration forecasting in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Weber, A; Stoppa, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a modern statistical technique of multivariate analysis is applied to an indoor radon concentration data base. Several parameters are more or less significant in determining the radon concentration inside a building. The elaboration of the information available on South Tyrol makes it possible both to identify the statistically significant variables and to build up a statistical model that allows us to forecast the radon concentration in dwellings, when the values of the same variables involved are given. The results confirm the complexity of the phenomenon.

  14. Radon screening for XENON1T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Radon with its isotope {sup 222}Rn is one of the dominant sources of internal background in liquid xenon detectors searching for low energetic rare events like WIMP-nucleon scattering. In my talk I briefly review the problem posed by {sup 222}Rn and motivate the screening strategy followed by XENON1T. I introduce the radon emanation technique making use of ultra low background proportional counters and present selected results obtained during the design and construction phases of XENON1T. Finally, I sketch advances in radon emanation assay techniques and give a short outlook on upcoming measurements.

  15. Radon - kilder og måling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    Når man skal vurdere en bygnings indeklima er det vigtigt at have viden om radonindholdet. Denne viden får man ved måling, da radon hverken kan ses, lugtes, høres, smages eller føles. Denne anvisning redegør for radons oprindelse og indvirkning på menneskers sundhed. Anvisningen beskriver metoder...... til måling og analyse af radonindholdet i en bygnings indeluft. Læseren får indsigt i, hvordan man relativt let med standardiserede metoder kan eftervise, om en bygning opfylder bygningsreglementets krav til radon i indeluften. Anvisningen henvender sig til bygningsejere, bygherrer, projekterende og...

  16. Coprecipitation of radon oxide with cesium fluoroxenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, V.V.; Krasikova, R.N.; Nefedov, V.D.; Toropova, M.A.

    1986-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the processes of coprecipitation of radon oxide with cesium fluoroxenate in aqueous solutions. It has been shown that the reason for the coprecipitation in the case at hand is the occurrence of a process of isomorphous cocrystallization. The results obtained are examined as a confirmation of the suggestion that the hydrolysis product of the radon fluoride which is formed on thermal initiation of reaction in the rn-F2-BrF5-NaF system is radon trioxide, Rno3.

  17. Engineering waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa out of a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mark I; Bradley, Craig W; Wilkinson, Martyn A C; Bradley, Christina; Holden, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    To describe engineering and holistic interventions on water outlets contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the observed impact on clinical P. aeruginosa patient isolates in a large Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Descriptive study. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (QEHB), part of University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust is a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Birmingham, UK and provides clinical services to nearly 1 million patients every year. Breakpoint models were used to detect any significant changes in the cumulative yearly rates of clinical P. aeruginosa patient isolates from August 2013-December 2016 across QEHB. Water sampling undertaken on the ICU indicated 30% of the outlets were positive for P. aeruginosa at any one time. Molecular typing of patient and water isolates via Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis suggested there was a 30% transmission rate of P. aeruginosa from the water to patients on the ICU. From, February 2014, QEHB implemented engineering interventions, consisting of new tap outlets and PALL point-of-use filters; as well as holistic measures, from February 2016 including a revised tap cleaning method and appropriate disposal of patient waste water. Breakpoint models indicated the engineering and holistic interventions resulted in a significant (p<0.001) 50% reduction in the number of P. aeruginosa clinical patient isolates over a year. Here we demonstrate that the role of waterborne transmission of P. aeruginosa in an ICU cannot be overlooked. We suggest both holistic and environmental factors are important in reducing transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  19. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  20. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Main report; Radonsikring i nybyggeri, dokumentation og teknologiudvikling. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddam Overgaard, L.; Bruun Petersen, J.; Neerup Jeppesen, M.

    2011-07-01

    penetrations with silicone sealant is also the most effective method. In the study it is furthermore concluded that there is no immediate difference in the two radon cavity barrier solutions (above and below the slab). Subproject 3 (radon potential in soil). At an introductory level it has been attempted to survey the radon potential (the amount of radon released from the soil) at the location of the construction of the subproject 1 residential development. The main part of the study consisted of developing and testing a method of ''passive sampling'' by immersion of measuring equipment in 1 m deep drillings. In the study significant radon levels were demonstrated in soil containing tertiary clay (black, micaceous). In comparing the aforementioned passive approach with previous ''active measurements'', it is estimated that passive measurements obtain an approximate expression (average) of the radon level of the entire borehole profile, while soil gas extraction sampling merely expresses a concentration at a level specific point (x m below the surface). The evaluation of the study concluded that satisfactory results had been achieved. It would however be relevant to improve the setup for future follow-up studies (as with subproject 2), and conduct repeated measurements prior to final conclusions. (LN)

  1. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  2. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Baita radon-prone area (Romania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucos, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dicu, Tiberius, E-mail: tiberius.dicu@ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Nita, Dan; Burghele, Bety [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Sainz, Carlos [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele No. 30, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n., 39011, Santander (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Baita radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Baita, Nucet, Finate, and Cimpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was found to be 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}, which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m{sup -3}, computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, p < 0.001, n = 82). For houses built during 1960-1970 an increasing trend for radon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p > 0.05). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Baita area was 241 {+-} 178 Bq m{sup -3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings was clearly evidenced

  3. Use of Artificial Neural Network for the Simulation of Radon Emission Concentration of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hong-Seok; Xing, Shuli; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Young-Keun; So, Seung-Young

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an artificial neural networks study was carried out to predict the quantity of radon of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) cement mortar. A data set of a laboratory work, in which a total of 3 mortars were produced, was utilized in the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) study. The mortar mixture parameters were three different GBFS ratios (0%, 20%, 40%). Measurement radon of moist cured specimens was measured at 3, 10, 30, 100, 365 days by sensing technology for continuous monitoring of indoor air quality (IAQ). ANN model is constructed, trained and tested using these data. The data used in the ANN model are arranged in a format of two input parameters that cover the cement, GBFS and age of samples and, an output parameter which is concentrations of radon emission of mortar. The results showed that ANN can be an alternative approach for the predicting the radon concentration of GBFS mortar using mortar ingredients as input parameters.

  4. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)], E-mail: iimoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Akasaka, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Koike, Yuya [Radioisotope Center, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    A simple system to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m{sup -3}/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 deg. C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  5. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  6. Thorough investigations on indoor radon in Băiţa radon-prone area (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Dicu, Tiberius; Begy, Robert; Moldovan, Mircea; Papp, Botond; Niţă, Dan; Burghele, Bety; Sainz, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in Băiţa radon-prone area, Transylvania, Romania, in 4 localities (Băiţa, Nucet, Fînaţe, and Cîmpani) situated in the vicinity of former Romanian uranium mines. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in 1128 ground floor rooms and cellars of 303 family houses by using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. The annual average of indoor radon concentration for Băiţa area was found to be 241±178 Bq m(-3), which is about two times higher than the average value of 126 Bq m(-3), computed for Romania. About 28% of investigated houses exceed the reference level of radon gas in dwellings of 300 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon measurements on each house have been carried out in several rooms simultaneously with the aim of obtaining a more detailed picture on the exposure to radon in the studied area. An analysis on the variability of radon levels among floors (floor-to-floor variation) and rooms (room-to-room variation) and also the influence of factors like the presence of cellar or the age of the building is presented. The coefficient of variation (CV) within ground floor rooms of the same house (room-to-room variation) ranged between 0.9 and 120.8%, with an arithmetic mean of 46.2%, a large variability among rooms within surveyed dwellings being clearly identified. The mean radon concentration in bedrooms without cellar was higher than in bedrooms above the cellar, the difference being statistically significant (t test, one tail, pradon levels was observed, but overall there was no significant difference in indoor radon concentrations by age of dwelling (one-way ANOVA test, p>0.05).

  7. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  8. GEOMETRICALLY INVARIANT WATERMARKING BASED ON RADON TRANSFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Lian; Du Sidan; Gao Duntang

    2005-01-01

    The weakness of classical watermarking methods is the vulnerability to geometrical distortions that widely occur during normal use of the media. In this letter, a new imagewatermarking method is presented to resist Rotation, Scale and Translation (RST) attacks. The watermark is embedded into a domain obtained by taking Radon transform of a circular area selected from the original image, and then extracting Two-Dimensional (2-D) Fourier magnitude of the Radon transformed image. Furthermore, to prevent the watermarked image from degrading due to inverse Radon transform, watermark signal is inversely Radon transformed individually.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks including common geometric attacks.

  9. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1.

  10. Radon measurement using a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Sohei (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.); Mifune, Masaki; Konishi, Masanobu; Shirai, Chiaki

    1992-12-01

    A convenient radon detecting device for the purpose of estimating natural radiation exposure is described. The [alpha] radioactivity of radon gas absorbed in fine active carbon particles exposed to air is measured with a liquid scintillation spectrometer (Packard-PICO-RAD system). Its detection limits are 2mBq/l in air and 0.5 Bq/l in water with an accuracy of about 10 %. Radon concentrations at Misasa hot springs in Tottori prefecture were measured using this method. They were 0.16 [approx] 7.7 Bq/l in a bath room and 0.057 [approx] 0.36 Bq/l outdoors. Radon concentrations of the hot springs were 82 [approx] 1,700 Bq/l. (author).

  11. Radon Transform and Light-Cone Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The relevance of Radon transform for generalized and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions is discussed. The new application for conditional (fracture) parton distributions and dihadron fragmentation functions is suggested.

  12. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined.

  13. El gas radon y la hormesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garzon Valencia, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    ..., el cual sale desde el interior de la Tierra. Una construccion con poca ventilacion puede servir de lugar de acumulacion del gas radon y por lo tanto puede aumentar las dosis efectivas de radiactividad sobre el organismo de sus residentes...

  14. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    the zone below the ground-floor construction. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated for the case of a ground-floor reinforced concrete slab situated on top of a rigid insulation layer (consisting of a thermal......A new principle for radon protection is currently presented which makes use of a system of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground-floor slab. The function of this system is based on the principles of pressure reduction within...... a grid of horizontal air ducts with low pressure which are able to remove air and radon from the ground. Results showed the system to be effective in preventing radon infiltrating from the ground through the ground-floor slab, avoiding high concentrations of radon being accumulated inside houses...

  15. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  16. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  17. Measurements of radon concentration levels in thermal waters in the region of Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Fatih; Eren, Nuretdin

    2013-01-01

    (222)Rn (radon) is one of the most important sources of natural radiation to which people are exposed. It is an alpha-emitting noble gas and it can be found in various concentrations in soil, air and in different kinds of water. In this study, we present the results of radon concentration measurements in thermal waters taken from the sources in the region of Konya located in the central part of Turkey. The radon activity concentrations in 10 thermal water samples were measured by using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser in spring and summer of the year 2012. We found that radon activity concentrations range from 0.60±0.11 to 70.34±3.55 kBq m(-3) and from 0.67±0.03 to 36.53±4.68 kBq m(-3) in spring and summer, respectively. We also calculated effective doses per treatment in the spas for the spring and summer seasons. It was found that the minimum and maximum effective doses per treatment are in the range of 0.09-10.13 nSv in spring and in the range of 0.1-5.26 nSv in summer.

  18. Cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, V. Zareena [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamilnadu (India); Mohankumar, Mary N. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: marynmk@igcar.gov.in

    2009-02-10

    The effect of radon in inducing DNA damage was investigated in vitro by two well-established cytogenetic assays. Blood samples were irradiated with radon using a novel irradiation assembly. Doses varied between 0 and 127 mGy for chromosome aberration (CA) assay and 0 and 120 mGy for cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Dose-rates varied between 0.000054 and 0.708 mGy/min. After the irradiation period of 3 h, excess radon gas was released and cultures were initiated using standard procedures. Chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics, excess acentric fragments, acentric rings, centric rings, chromatid breaks were observed. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were scored by the CBMN assay. A significant increase in the frequency of dicentrics, excess acentric fragments and centric rings was observed with increasing radon dose, whereas total acentric rings plus double minute and chromatid breaks/cell were not significantly elevated. In CBMN assay, the frequency of micronuclei was found to be significantly raised whereas that of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were not. Nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds tended to increase with dose but did not achieve statistical significance. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleoplasmic bridges and dicentrics (P < 0.028) or rings (P < 0.0001) and between micronuclei and acentric fragments (P < 0.0005). The study shows that radon is capable of inducing significant chromosome damage at very low doses and dose-rates.

  19. Indoor radon monitoring in Northern Iran using passive and active measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Kamal; Doulatdar, R; Mehdizadeh, S

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the results of a 2-year survey of indoor radon variations in four cities of Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin in North and Northwest Iran. We used both passive and active measurements by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) with CR-39 polycarbonate and PRASSI Portable radon Gas Surveyor. A total of 1124 samplers in Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin were installed. Sampling frequency was seasonal and sampling locations were randomly chosen based on dwelling structures, floors, geological formations, elevation and temperature variation parameters. For quality assurance, 281 active measurements and double sampling were carried out. Based on our results and the results of previous surveys, Ardabil and Lahijan have the second and third highest radon concentration in Iran, respectively (Ramsar is first). The average radon concentration during the year in Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin were 163, 240, 160 and 144 Bq/m(3) with medians of 160, 168, 124 and 133 Bq/m(3), respectively. These concentrations give rise to annual effective doses of 3.43 mSv/y for Lahijan and 5.00 mSv/y for Ardabil. The maximum recorded concentration was 2386 Bq/m(3) during winter in Ardabil and the minimum concentration was 55 Bq/m(3) during spring in Lahijan. Relationships between radon concentration and building materials and room ventilation were also studied. The dosimetry calculations showed that these four cities could be categorized as average natural radiation zones. The correlation coefficients relating warm and cold season radon variation data were obtained.

  20. Indoor radon monitoring in Northern Iran using passive and active measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadad, Kamal [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7134851154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hadadk@shirazu.ac.ir; Doulatdar, R. [Shiraz University Nuclear Safety Research Center, Shiraz 7134851154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdizadeh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7134851154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this work we present the results of a 2-year survey of indoor radon variations in four cities of Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin in North and Northwest Iran. We used both passive and active measurements by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) with CR-39 polycarbonate and PRASSI Portable radon Gas Surveyor. A total of 1124 samplers in Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin were installed. Sampling frequency was seasonal and sampling locations were randomly chosen based on dwelling structures, floors, geological formations, elevation and temperature variation parameters. For quality assurance, 281 active measurements and double sampling were carried out. Based on our results and the results of previous surveys, Ardabil and Lahijan have the second and third highest radon concentration in Iran, respectively (Ramsar is first). The average radon concentration during the year in Lahijan, Ardabil, Sar-Ein and Namin were 163, 240, 160 and 144 Bq/m{sup 3} with medians of 160, 168, 124 and 133 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. These concentrations give rise to annual effective doses of 3.43 mSv/y for Lahijan and 5.00 mSv/y for Ardabil. The maximum recorded concentration was 2386 Bq/m{sup 3} during winter in Ardabil and the minimum concentration was 55 Bq/m{sup 3} during spring in Lahijan. Relationships between radon concentration and building materials and room ventilation were also studied. The dosimetry calculations showed that these four cities could be categorized as average natural radiation zones. The correlation coefficients relating warm and cold season radon variation data were obtained.

  1. Radon emanation from radium specific adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Maghrawy, Hamed B

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies were undertaken to quantify the total activity of radon that is eluted following no-flow periods from several Ra-226 adsorbents loaded to near exhaustion. The adsorbents studied included two types of barium sulphate impregnated alumina (ABA-8000 and F-1) and Dowex MSC-1 resin treated by either barium hydroxide or barium chloride. In parallel, radium loaded plain activated aluminas and Dowex MSC-1 resin were similarly investigated. The results revealed that radon was quantitatively eluted during the first few bed volumes of column operation after no-flow periods. Although similar radon elution profiles were obtained, the position of the radon peak was found to vary and depended on the adsorbent type. Radon levels up to 24 and 14 kBq dm(-3) were measured after a rest period of 72h from radium exhausted Dowex MSC-1 treated with barium chloride and F-1 impregnated alumina with barium sulphate, respectively. The eluted radon values measured experimentally were compared to those calculated theoretically from accumulated radium quantities for the different media. For plain adsorbents, an agreement better than 10% was obtained. For treated resin-types a consistency within 30% but for impregnated alumina-types high discrepancy between respective values were obtained.

  2. The radon gas. An air pollutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santiago Quindós Poncela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work different aspects about the problem of the radon in dwellings are approached. This gas of natural origin is virtually present in all the soils in the earth’s crust due to the presence of uranium and radium in the composition of them. Depending on architectural factors and of occupancy habits of the house, high concentrations of this gas can be reached indoors. In these situations, there is a quantifiable increment of the risk of developing lung cancer in the inhabitants of the housing. In the last years the methodological improvements in the realization of epidemiologic studies have led to the obtaining of scientific evidences about the relationship between the presence of indoor radon and the risk of lung cancer. This relationship, found years ago in workers of uranium mines, has been corroborated in the case of the residential radon by the light of several recent meta-analysis performed on groups of epidemiologic studies. More than 6.000 radon measurements have been carried out in Spain during the last 25 years. A summary of the results obtained from the main national radon surveys are also presented, as well as the criteria recently established by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council concerning radon action levels in dwellings and workplaces.

  3. MICRO-PHASE SAEPARATION IN EPOXY RESIN WATERBORNE PARTICLES DURING CURING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-yan Liu; Dong Qiu; Mei-li Guo; Zhen-zhong Yang

    2005-01-01

    Sub-micron sized phenolic epoxy resin waterborne particles were prepared by phase inversion emulsification.Micro-phase separation occurred during the curing process at high temperature. The as-prepared samples possessed one glass transition temperature (Tg) and two exothermal processes during DSC heating scannings. After being thermally treated above the exothermal peak temperature, they possessed two glass transition temperatures with the disappearance of exothermal peaks, whilst a core/shell structure was formed. This was likely related with the outward diffusion of reactive oligomers to the outer layer of particles.

  4. ALLDOS: a computer program for calculation of radiation doses from airborne and waterborne releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-10-01

    The computer code ALLDOS is described and instructions for its use are presented. ALLDOS generates tables of radiation doses to the maximum individual and the population in the region of the release site. Acute or chronic release of radionuclides may be considered to airborne and waterborne pathways. The code relies heavily on data files of dose conversion factors and environmental transport factors for generating the radiation doses. A source inventory data library may also be used to generate the release terms for each pathway. Codes available for preparation of the dose conversion factors are described and a complete sample problem is provided describing preparation of data files and execution of ALLDOS.

  5. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Selma; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2011-12-15

    The present update gives a comprehensive review of worldwide waterborne parasitic protozoan outbreaks that occurred and were published globally between January 2004 and December 2010. At least one hundred and ninety-nine outbreaks of human diseases due to the waterborne transmission of parasitic protozoa occurred and were reported during the time period from 2004 to 2010. 46.7% of the documented outbreaks occurred on the Australian continent, 30.6% in North America and 16.5% in Europe. Cryptosporidium spp. was the etiological agent in 60.3% (120) of the outbreaks, Giardia lamblia in 35.2% (70) and other protozoa in 4.5% (9). Four outbreaks (2%) were caused by Toxoplasma gondii, three (1.5%) by Cyclospora cayetanensis. In two outbreaks (1%) Acanthamoeba spp. was identified as the causative agent. In one outbreak, G. lamblia (in 17.6% of stool samples) and Cryptosporidium parvum (in 2.7% of stool samples) as well as Entamoeba histolytica (in 9.4% of stool samples) and Blastocystis hominis (in 8.1% of stool samples) were detected. In those countries that are likely affected most a lack of surveillance systems is noticeable. However, countries that established surveillance systems did not establish an international standardization of reporting systems.

  6. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  7. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M H; Lindstrom, J B; Dungey, C E; Kisieleski, W E

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m/sup 3/ on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m/sup 3/. Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10/sup -3/.

  8. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  9. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  10. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  11. Machine learning for the analysis of indoor radon distribution, compared with ordinary kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoretti, S; Verdi, L

    2009-12-01

    Having a reliable forecasting tool is necessary to correctly identify radon prone areas, especially in cases where the variable of interest is the indoor radon concentration. An appropriate characterisation of the features of the buildings becomes fundamental. In this work, the results obtained (in global and local scale) using the following approaches for estimating the concentration of indoor radon at locations that were not sampled were compared: geostatistical model, based on ordinary kriging, and machine learning (ML) technique. In the first case, algorithms designed for the specific and fine treatment (by modelling the variographic structure) of the spatial component of the phenomenon were used, whereas in the second case a model that can also exploit information linked to other variables that characterise each single dwelling in which the measure was conducted was used. For locations having large errors, the ML approach provides better results, due to the information related to 'soil contact' and 'building material'.

  12. Radon-222 concentrations in ground water and soil gas on Indian reservations in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWild, John F.; Krohelski, James T.

    1995-01-01

    The weighted average radon-222 concentration of indoor air in homes located on Wisconsin Indian Reservations is 5.8 picocuries per liter, which exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action limit of 4 picocuries per liter. Ground water is the principle source of drinking water on Wisconsin Indian Reservations and generally accounts for about 5 percent of the total indoor air radon-222 concentrations found in homes. To determine the distribution of radon-222, ground water from 29 private and community Wisconsin Indian Reservation wells and soil gas at a depth of about 3 feet below land surface adjacent to the wells were sampled. Sites with wells were distributed among the 11 Wisconsin Indian Reservations so that each Reservation contained at least 2 sites. The remaining seven sites were divided among the Reservation by acreage held by each tribe.

  13. A novel application for 222Rn emanation standards: radon-cryptophane host chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Perez, L; Collé, R; Jacobson, D R; Fitzgerald, R; Khan, N S; Dmochowski, I J

    2012-09-01

    In collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania, a (222)Rn emanation source was used for the determination of the binding affinity of radon to a cryptophane molecular host. This source was similar to a (222)Rn emanation standard that was developed and disseminated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The novel experimental design involved performing the reactions at femtomole levels, developing exacting gravimetric sampling methods and making precise (222)Rn assays by liquid scintillation counting. A cryptophane-radon association constant was determined, K(A)=(49,000±12,000) L mol(-1) at 293 K, which was the first measurement of radon binding to a molecular host.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of waterborne polyurethane/organic clay nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-feng LI; Sheng-jun WANG; Jin-yan LI

    2008-01-01

    Stable waterborne polyurethane/organic clay latex was synthesized by ultrasonically-assisted mixing with different clay content. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed that the interaction between NH and C=O was enhanced with low content organic clay loaded. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results implied that the layered organic clay was exfoliated and the crystallization of the hard domain in the waterborne polyurethane (WPU) matrix was enhanced. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the layered clay was exfoliated by WPU molecule. The tensile test shows that the mechanical prop-erties were improved by loading organic clay and the desired addition was 1 wt.%.

  15. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  16. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  17. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y.; Liu, J.; Martens, K.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D.; Yamashita, M.; Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Otsuka, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kusaba, F.; Motoki, D.; Nishijima, K.; Tasaka, S.; Fujii, K.; Murayama, I.; Nakamura, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Nishitani, Y.; Takiya, H.; Uchida, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, J. S.; Xmass Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity vRn of radon and vXe of xenon in the trap with vRn/vXe=(0.96±0.10)×10-3 at -85 °C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  18. Radon soil-gas concentration and exhalation from mine tailings dams in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongori, J.; Lindsay, R. [University of the Western Cape, Department of Physics, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Newman, R. [Stellenbosch University, Department of Physics, Private Bag X1 Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Maleka, P. [iThemba LABS, Department of Nuclear Physics, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2014-07-01

    In Africa as well as in the world, South Africa plays an important role in the mining industry which dates back almost 120 years. Mining activities in South Africa mainly take place in Gauteng Province. Every year million of tons of rocks are taken from underground, milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are disposed in dumpsites. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium ({sup 226}Ra) and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon ({sup 222}Rn). Radon is a noble gas formed by the decay of radium which in turn is derived from the radioactive decay of uranium ({sup 238}U). Radon release from these tailings dumps pose health concerns for the surrounding communities. Radon soil gas concentrations and exhalations from a non-operational mine dump (Kloof) which belongs to Carletonville Gold Field, Witwatersrand, South Africa have been investigated. The continuous radon monitor, the Durridge RAD7 was used to measure {sup 222}Rn soil gas concentration in the tailings dump at five different spots. The radon soil gas concentration levels were measured at depths starting from 30 cm below ground/air interface up to 110 cm at intervals of 20 cm. The concentrations recorded ranged from 26±1 to 472±23 kBq.m{sup -3}. Furthermore, thirty four soil samples were taken from the spots where radon soil gas measurements were measured for laboratory-based measurement using the low background Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector available at the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (ERL), iThemba LABS, Western Cape Province. The soil samples were collected in the depth range 0-30 cm. After analysis the weighted average activity concentrations in the soils samples were 308±7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, 255±5 Bq.kg{sup -1} and 18±1 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 40}K and {sup 232}Th, respectively. A number of factors such as the radium activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains, soil grain size, soil porosity

  19. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... face' showdown over Obama-era tailpipe rule Blog: Yoga, Tai Chi and Your Lungs: The Benefits of ... list_name').hide(); } $("#local_list_xml").quickPagination(); }, error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML ...

  20. Active versus passive radon monitoring at the Yucca Mountain site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Federal Regulations have mandated that a baseline assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site be performed. This includes the detection and monitoring of specific radionuclides present at the site. These radionuclides include radon 222, a decay progeny of naturally occurring uranium. Two radon monitoring systems are utilized at the Yucca Mountain site to detect ambient levels of radon. The first is a passive time integrated system, and the second is a continuous radon monitoring (CRM) system.

  1. Measurment of radon, thoron and their progeny in indoor environment of Mohali, Punjab, Northern India, using pinhole dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health hazards of radon and its decay products above certain levels are well known. However, for any preventive measures to be taken, we have to be aware of radon levels of that particular area. Measurement of radon and its decay products in indoor environments is an important aspect of assessing indoor air quality and health conditions associated with it. Keeping this in mind, measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in Mohali, Northern India, using pinhole-based twin cup dosimeters. Radon exhalation rates of soil samples in the dwellings/areas were measured via an active technique of a continuous radon monitor. The indoor radon concentration in Mohali varied from 15.03 ± 0.61 Bq/m3 to 39.21 ± 1.46 Bq/m3 with an average of 26.95 Bq/m3 ,while thoron concentration in the same dwellings varied from 9.62 ± 0.54 Bq/m3 to 52.84 ± 2.77 Bq/m3 with an average of 31.09 Bq/m3. Radon progeny levels in dwellings under study varied from 1.63 to 4.24 mWL, with an average of 2.94 mWL, while thoron progeny levels varied from 0.26 to 1.43 mWL , with an average of 0.84 mWL. The annual dose received by the inhabitants of dwellings under study varied from 0.78 to 2.36 mSv, with an average of 1.61 mSv. The in situ gamma dose rate varied from 0.12 to 0.32 mSv/h.

  2. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  3. Implementation of a radon measurement protocol and its communication plan by child care centre managers in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Fabien; Poulin, Patrick; Leclerc, Jean-Marc; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Abab, Aryan; Arsenault, Pamela; El-Turaby, Fady; Lachance-Paquette, Guillaume; Vézina, Félix-Antoine

    2016-10-20

    To invite and support managers of child care centres to measure radon concentrations in their buildings. Their ability to carry out a measurement protocol and communication plan was also evaluated as well as the intention of parents and educators to test for radon at home. Managers, parents and educators of child care centres. 36 child care centres located in two priority investigation areas in Québec. A kit containing radon detectors with installation and recovery instructions was shipped by mail in addition to factsheets intended for parents and educators. Site visits and phone calls were also conducted with a sample of child care centres and participants. The instructions related to detector installation were generally well respected. Afterward, more than half (18) of the 34 parents and educators interviewed said that they had been directly informed of this radon testing by managers or other educators, and not by the factsheet provided. This radon measurement intervention was considered very relevant by 91% of them and a quarter (26%) expressed their intention to test for radon at home, while 6% had already done so. Two child care centres (5.5%) had at least one measurement above the Canadian guideline level of 200 Bq/m3. This intervention has demonstrated the ability of child care centre managers to carry out this type of autonomous procedure, which can be centralized to minimize costs. This type of intervention may influence parents to become more familiar with this contaminant and measure their family's exposure at home.

  4. Indoor radon measurements in a Greek city located in the vicinity of lignite-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manousakas, M.; Fouskas, A.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Koukouliou, V.; Siavalas, G.; Kritidis, P. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-10-15

    This work presents indoor radon measurements in 42 dwellings in the city of Megalopolis, Southern Greece, located in the vicinity of 2 lignite-fired power plants and examines the effect of season, floor level and age of the dwellings on indoor radon concentration. The radon measurements have been carried out using the LR-115, type II and CR-39 alpha track detectors in 'closed-can' geometry. The average annual indoor radon concentration (GM) was found to be 52 Bq m{sup -3}, which is well below the recommended action level of the European Union. This value corresponds to an annual effective dose to the population of 1.3 {+-} 0.4 mSv. Season and age of the examined dwellings represent factors that affected significantly the indoor radon in Megalopolis, while the effect of floor level appeared to be not significant. Radium activity concentration values, measured by gamma-ray spectrometry in 20 sub-samples of six soil cores (60-135 cm depth), collected from the surrounding area of the city, were found to be consistent with the Greek and world average values. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the effect of the lignite-fired power plants on indoor radon concentration in Megalopolis' dwellings was not significant.

  5. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p groundwater investigations.

  6. Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

    2013-11-01

    In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern.

  7. Increasing the accuracy and temporal resolution of two-filter radon-222 measurements by correcting for the instrument response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alan D.; Chambers, Scott D.; Williams, Alastair G.; Werczynski, Sylvester

    2016-06-01

    Dual-flow-loop two-filter radon detectors have a slow time response, which can affect the interpretation of their output when making continuous observations of near-surface atmospheric radon concentrations. While concentrations are routinely reported hourly, a calibrated model of detector performance shows that ˜ 40 % of the signal arrives more than an hour after a radon pulse is delivered. After investigating several possible ways to correct for the detector's slow time response, we show that a Bayesian approach using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler is an effective method. After deconvolution, the detector's output is redistributed into the appropriate counting interval and a 10 min temporal resolution can be achieved under test conditions when the radon concentration is controlled. In the case of existing archived observations, collected under less ideal conditions, the data can be retrospectively reprocessed at 30 min resolution. In one case study, we demonstrate that a deconvolved radon time series was consistent with the following: measurements from a fast-response carbon dioxide monitor; grab samples from an aircraft; and a simple mixing height model. In another case study, during a period of stable nights and days with well-developed convective boundary layers, a bias of 18 % in the mean daily minimum radon concentration was eliminated by correcting for the instrument response.

  8. RESOLVING THE RADON PROBLEM IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of t...

  9. RESOLVING THE RADON PROBLEM IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of t...

  10. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction.

  11. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  12. A prediction model for assessing residential radon concentration in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauri, D.D.; Huss, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Kuehni, C.E.; Roosli, M.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon is regularly measured in Switzerland. However, a nationwide model to predict residential radon levels has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to assess indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. The model was based on 44,631 measurements from the

  13. 40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., each owner or operator of an inactive phosphogypsum stack shall test the stack for radon-222 flux in... the radon-222 flux testing. Each report shall also include the following information: (i) The name and... provide EPA with a report detailing the actions taken and the results of the radon-222 flux testing....

  14. Fractional Radon Transform and Transform of Wigner Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Radon transform and fractional Fourier transform we introduce the fractional Radon trans-formation (FRT). We identify the transform kernel for FRT. The FRT of Wigner operator is derived, which naturallyreduces to the projector of eigenvector of the rotated quadrature in the usual Radon transform case.

  15. The latest trend of the research on radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Hiroshi [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In June, 1995, the international conference of sixth Natural Radiation Environment was held in Montreal. More than 80% of more than 200 published researches were concerned with radon and thoron. The participants came from 32 countries. The classification of the research on radon and the number of the publication are shown. The contents of the researches in respective items of measuring method, concentration level and dose evaluation, indoor model and indoor and outdoor radon balance, the countermeasures for reducing indoor radon, radon potential, dose evaluation model, the particle size distribution of aerosol including the particle size distribution of free daughter nuclides and radon in the atmosphere are described. The research on the radon in water is excluded. The most remarkable trend is the theme of radon potential. The trend of connecting the research on radon in soil and the research on dissipation rate to radon potential and the forecast of indoor and outdoor radon concentration seems to become stronger. As to the research on concentration level, the detection of hot spots and the supplementary measurement for clarifying cause are carried out in the advanced countries concerning radon based on the results of survey in whole country. The researches in schools are conspicuous. (K.I.)

  16. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  17. Soil-Gas Radon Anomaly Map of an Unknown Fault Zone Area, Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Kaweewong, C.; Imurai, W.; Pondthai, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-gas radon concentration anomaly map was constructed to help detect an unknown subsurface fault location in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand where a 5.1-magnitude earthquake took place in December 2006. It was suspected that this earthquake may have been associated with an unrecognized active fault in the area. In this study, soil-gas samples were collected from eighty-four measuring stations covering an area of approximately 50 km2. Radon in soil-gas samples was quantified using Scintrex Radon Detector, RDA-200. The samplings were conducted twice: during December 2014-January 2015 and March 2015-April 2015. The soil-gas radon map obtained from this study reveals linear NNW-SSE trend of high concentration. This anomaly corresponds to the direction of the prospective fault system interpreted from satellite images. The findings from this study support the existence of this unknown fault system. However a more detailed investigation should be conducted in order to confirm its geometry, orientation and lateral extent.

  18. Metrology of the radon in air volume activity at the italian radon reference chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciocchetti, G.; Cotellessa, G.; Soldano, E.; Pagliari, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The approach of the Italian National Institute of Ionising Radiations (I.N.M.R.I.-ENEA) on radon metrology has been based on a complete and integrated system which can be used to calibrate the main types of {sup 222}Rn in air measuring instruments with international traceability. The Italian radon reference chamber is a research and calibration facility developed at the Casaccia Research Center in Roma. This facility has an inner volume of one m{sup 3}. The wall is a cylindrical stainless steel vessel coupled with an automated climate apparatus operated both at steady and dynamic conditions. The control and data acquisition equipment is based on Radotron system, developed to automate the multitasking management of different sets of radon monitors and climatic sensors. A novel approach for testing passive radon monitors with an alpha track detector exposure standard has been developed. It is based on the direct measurement of radon exposure with a set of passive integrating monitors based on the new ENEA piston radon exposure meter. This paper describes the methodological approach on radon metrology, the status-of-art of experimental apparatus and the standardization procedures. (authors)

  19. Interaction forces between waterborne bacteria and activated carbon particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbons remove waterborne bacteria from potable water systems through attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces despite electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged cells and carbon surfaces. In this paper we quantify the interaction forces between bacteria with negatively and positiv

  20. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  1. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  2. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  3. Is Waterborne Disease Still an Issue in the US?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Michael Beach discusses the changing face of waterborne disease in the US over the past century and how healthcare providers can apply this information to their patients.  Created: 8/27/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/22/2012.

  4. Indoor radon concentrations in Adana, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerlier, M; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration in Adana, Turkey was measured in living rooms of 52 houses during winter 2005 and 57 houses during summer 2005. Forty-four houses were selected for both winter and summer researches for estimating seasonal variations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over hotter and colder 2 months over the whole year, using CR-39 passive nuclear track radon detectors. The radon concentrations were ranged from 15 to 97 Bq m(-3) on January-February 2005 for 60 d and from 5 to 70 Bq m(-3) on June-July 2005 for 60 d. The average summer concentration measured was 25.8 Bq m(-3) and the average winter concentration was 48.9 Bq m(-3) in 44 houses that observed seasonal variations. The differences between winter and summer periods were ranged from 1 to 77 Bq m(-3). The average value in both winter and summer periods is 37 Bq m(-3) in 44 houses that observed seasonal variations. This value is below the worldwide indoor radon concentration distribution of 46 Bq m(-3). The annual effective dose equivalent from (222)Rn was 0.9 mSv y(-1).

  5. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Martin, A. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: alonsomm@libra.uva.es; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Munoz, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Adamiec, G. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  6. Radon monitoring in Bologna (Italy) homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beozzo, M.; Bottazzi, E.; Degli Esposti, L.; Folesani, M.; Frassinetti, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Lembo, L.; Maltoni, G.; Massera, F.; Nicoli, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. di Fisica ENEA Centro Ricerche Energia, Bologna (Italy). Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    This paper first reviews the origin and behaviour of naturally present radon gas which is thought to account for more than 50% of radiation doses derived from natural radioactivity and deemed responsible for increased risk of lung cancer. An analysis is made of the many factors influencing radon concentration levels in residential buildings. These include such factors as the presence of thermal bridges, type of ventilation and seasonal climatic variations. In addition, since the density of radon is eight times greater than that of air, concentration levels vary greatly according to room height above ground level. The paper then reports on a home radon monitoring campaign conducted by ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) with the aim of providing sufficient and accurate information to public health authorities to enable them to set up and implement effective radiation protection policies. The monitoring was done with two methods to allow comparisons to be made. One was based on the use of a passive nuclear trace detector (CR-39), the other, based on the use of gas adsorption by activated carbon. Results with the two methods agreed well and only modest amounts of indoor radon were detected.

  7. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  8. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  9. Weathering performance of surface of thermally modified wood finished with nanoparticles-modified waterborne polyacrylate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklečić, Josip; Turkulin, Hrvoje; Jirouš-Rajković, Vlatka

    2017-06-01

    In this research the samples of thermally modified (TMT) beech wood samples, finished with waterborne polyacrylate clear coatings modified with nano-sized ZnO and TiO2-rutil were naturally and artificially exposed to weathering conditions. To extend the lifetime of wood and maintain its natural look, the research and development of clear coatings with minimal use of harmful chemicals has become very important. Therefore nano-sized inorganic UV absorbers are increasingly used to enhance the durability of the coating and wood substrate, still retaining the transparency of the coating. During exposure the visual inspection was performed, further the changes of colour, gloss and adhesion were recorded. Interaction of the film with the thermally modified substrate surface were studied. Results showed that the addition of TiO2-rutil and ZnO nanoparticles to the waterborne polyacrylate coating improved the colour stability of thermally modified beech-wood. However, nano-sized ZnO increased the cracking and peeling, and caused the loss in adhesion strength of the film on thermally modified beech wood.

  10. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  11. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Kienhuis, P. [RIZA, (Netherlands); Duus, R. [Norwegian Standard Association (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  13. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  14. Multagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Final technical report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the dose-response relationship with regard to the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence was studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions was investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains that differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The nature of radon/radon daughter-induced mutational lesions in human lymphoblasts was also investigated.

  15. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in

  16. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  17. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  18. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Measurement of soil and indoor radon in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torri, G.; Azimi-Garakani, D.; Oppon, O.C.; Piermattei, S.; Susanna, A.F.; Seidel, J.-L.; Tommasino, L.; Ardanese, L. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the fact that in the majority of cases the most important radon source is the soil and the rock beneath the house, no large scale survey of soil radon has ever been made in Italy. In this paper the results of a large scale survey of soil radon are presented from measurements made in hundreds of different sites in Latium and Campania. For several locations, results of measurements gathered for different years are described and up-dated. As a pilot project for indoor radon survey monthly variations of radon concentrations in typical houses have been investigated. (author).

  20. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  1. Turbidimetry for measurement of radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huanqiang [HuBei Provincial Academy of Medical Sciences, WuHan (China). Inst. of Radioactive Protection

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a turbidimetric technique counting the tracks registered on CR-39 foils exposed to radon. Instead of eyeview through microscope, by using the differential spectrophotometer, strong correlation between the radon cumulative concentration and track turbidence was observed(r=0.999). Under the etching condition of 7.07 mol{center_dot}L{sup -1} KOH water solution at 80{sup o}C for 16 hr, linear regression showed that the ratio of track turbidence and cumulative concentration of radon exposure was 1.99 x 10{sup -1} turbidence (KBq m{sup -1}h){sup -1} and the determination limit was 36 KBq m{sup -3}h. The details of the experiments are represented in this paper. (Author).

  2. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... the difference in air pressure over the barrier is measured. The air pressure difference is kept constant, at a number of manually controlled levels. At each pressure level, the difference is measured in a single point close to the point where the suction for lowering the air pressure is located. Improvements...... to the test method were suggested. A digital stirring and control system, and a method for determining the mean air pressure difference, as well as a method for testing barriers with a very low air infiltration, were provided. The digital stirring and control system ensured automatic control and measuring...

  3. Biological and therapeutical effects of Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, P. [Institute of Physiologie and Balneologie, University of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In spas with a somewhat elevated Radon{sup 222} (Rn) activity (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l), the empirical medicine ended - in all parts of the world - with the same list of indications. It mainly includes the more painful rheumatic diseases such as deformation or degeneration of the joints and non bacterial inflammation of muscles, tendons or joints; Morbus Bechterew and other diseases of the vertebral column like spondylosis, spondylarthrosis or osteochondrosis. While informer times these effects were seldom documented in an objective manner, in recent years several prospective randomized double-blind studies proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain syndromes, with chronic polyarthritis or with Morbus Bechterew. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in organs, tissue and cultured cells that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (author)

  4. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland; Huoneilman radonmittaukset Kymen laeaenissae: Tilannekatsaus ja radonennuste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including (1) houses with a slab-on-grade and (2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. (orig.) (14 refs.).

  5. Radon concentration in houses over a closed Hungarian uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somlai, Janos; Kovacs, Tibor [University of Veszprem Department of Radiochemistry, H-8200, Veszprem P.O.B.: 158 (Hungary); Gorjanacz, Zoran [Mecsek Ore Environmental Protection Co. H-7614, Pecs, P.O.B.: 121 (Hungary); Varhegyi, Andras [Mecsek-OEko Environmental Protection Co. H-7614, Pecs, P.O.B.: 121 (Hungary)

    2006-08-31

    High radon concentration (average 410 kBq m{sup -3}) has been measured in a tunnel of a uranium mine, located 15-55 m below the village of Kovagoszolos, Hungary. The mine was closed in 1997; the artificial ventilation of the tunnel was then terminated and recultivation works begun. In this paper, a study has been made as to whether the tunnel has an influence on the radon concentration of surface dwellings over the mining tunnel. At different distances from the surface projection of the mining tunnel, radon concentration, the gamma dose, radon exhalation and radon concentration of soil gas were measured. The average radon concentration in the dwellings was 483 Bq m{sup -3}. Significantly higher radon concentrations (average 667 Bq m{sup -3}) were measured in houses within +/-150 m from the surface projection of the mining tunnel +50 m, compared with the houses further than the 300-m belt (average 291 Bq m{sup -3}). The average radon concentration of the soil gas was 88.8 kBq m{sup -3}, the average radon exhalation was 71.4 Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and higher values were measured over the passage as well. Frequent fissures crossing the passage and running up to the surface and the high radon concentration generated in the passage (average 410 kBq m{sup -3}) may influence the radon concentration of the houses over the mining tunnel. (author)

  6. Variation in residential radon levels in new Danish homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, E V; Rasmussen, T V; Gunnarsen, L

    2013-08-01

    Radon-222 gas arises from the radioactive decay of radium-226 and has a half-life of 3.8 days. This gas percolates up through soil into buildings, and if it is not evacuated, there can be much higher exposure levels indoors than outdoors, which is where human exposure occurs. Radon exposure is classified as a human carcinogen, and new Danish homes must be constructed to ensure indoor radon levels below 100 Bq/m(3). Our purpose was to assess how well 200 newly constructed single detached homes perform according to building regulations pertaining to radon and identify the association between indoor radon in these homes and municipality, home age, floor area, floor level, basement, and outer wall and roof construction. Median (5-95 percentile) indoor radon levels were 36.8 (9.0-118) Bq/m(3) , but indoor radon exceeded 100 Bq/m(3) in 14 of these new homes. The investigated variables explained nine percent of the variation in indoor radon levels, and although associations were positive, none of these were statistically significant. In this study, radon levels were generally low, but we found that 14 (7%) of the 200 new homes had indoor radon levels over 100 Bq/m(3). More work is needed to determine the determinants of indoor radon.

  7. Seasonal radon measurements in Darbandikhan Lake water resources at Kurdistan region-northeastern of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafir, Adeeb Omer; Ahmad, Ali Hassan; Saridan, Wan Muhamad

    2016-03-01

    A total of 164 water samples were collected from Darbandikhan Lake with their different resources (spring, stream, and lake) during the four seasons, and the measurements were carried out using the electronic RAD 7 detector. For spring water the average radon concentration for spring, summer, autumn and summer were found to be 8.21 Bq/1, 8.94 Bq/1, 7.422 Bq/1, and 8.06 Bq/1, respectively, while for lake and streams the average values were found to be 0.43 Bq/1, 0.877 Bq/1, 0.727 Bq/1, 0.575 Bq/1 respectively. The radon concentration level was higher in summer and lower in spring, and only two samples from spring water have radon concentrations more than 11.1 Bq/1 recommended by the EPA. Total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation has been estimated, the mean annual effective dose during the whole year for spring water was 0.022 mSv/y while for lake with streams was 0.00157 mSv/y. The determined mean annual effective dose in water was lower than the 0.1 mSv/y recommended by WHO. Some physicochemical parameters were measured and no correlation was found between them and radon concentration except for the conductivity of the spring drinking water which reveals a strong correlation for the four seasons.

  8. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Wakasa area, Fukui Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi [Fukui Prefectural Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center, Tsuruga (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentration in drinking water was surveyed to make basic data for the investigation of radiation dose due to natural radioisotopes in the general public. Here, the survey data in the Wakasa region were reported. Sampling was carried out at 126 points in this region (ca. 70x50 km{sup 2}). A total of 167 samples were taken from the tap of private wells, and small and large public water supplies. The radon concentration was determined by direct measuring method. The mean concentration of ground water from the wells was 28.5 Bq/l, significantly higher than those of the tap water from small and large water supplies, 5.0 and 11.2 Bq/l, respectively. Rn concentration of ground water was dependent on geological features and it was comparatively high in the granite region. Ground water containing a high concentration of Rn was mixed into the water of some large water supply in the cities, showing that its Rn concentration was higher compared to those for the small water supply. This survey was conducted only in the winter seasons from 1989 to 1993. Therefore, there are no data concerning seasonal changes in Rn concentration to drinking water. (M.N.)

  9. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Bastrikov, V

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.

  10. Theoretical aspects of the design of a passive radon dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P; Saunders, B J

    1985-10-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the development and design of a passive radon dosemeter are considered. In particular, a mathematical model is presented that is concerned with the gaseous diffusion of radon into a confined region bounded by a plastic material of known diffusion coefficient. The relationship between the time-integrated radon concentrations, inside and outside a sealed plastic container are derived. Estimates of the exposure of people to radon can be made using the time integrated radon concentration inside a calibrated container containing a CR-39 etched-track device. As a consequence of the analysis, it is possible to design a passive radon dosemeter that will be accurate, resistant to moisture and whose response will be independent of rapid variations in radon concentration. The possibility of using a container of this type for the measurement of diffusion coefficients is discussed.

  11. Radon release from granites in south-west England

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, J

    2001-01-01

    accessory minerals. The enhancement of surface area was attributed to the alteration of feldspar to sericite. This has implications for the release of radon. It is thought that the large surface area provides a sink for the adsorption of radon, retaining it in the rock structure. This radon retention explains the paradoxical decline in radon release at small particle size/large specific surface area. Various mechanisms for radon emanation are discussed with reference to the Cornubian granites. It is shown that, based on the measured specific surface areas, inter-crystalline diffusion is a slow process and not a significant contributor to overall radon release (0.01%). Approximately 1% of the total radon produced can be attributed to direct recoil processes, based on the calculated recoil ranges (36 nm). The remainder was attributed to diffusion processes through crystal imperfections and dislocations. The microscopic scale model developed here is extended to the macroscopic scale through examination of the la...

  12. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  13. A national survey on radon concentration in underground inspection rooms and in buildings of a telephone company: methods and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, V., E-mail: vinicio.carelli@telecomitalia.i [Safety and Environment Dept., Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Via di Valcannuta 182, I-00168 Roma (Italy); Bianco, V.; Cordedda, C. [Safety and Environment Dept., Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Via di Valcannuta 182, I-00168 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, G.; Carpentieri, C.; Bochicchio, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    A national survey has been carried out to measure radon concentration in a large sample of Telecom-Italia small underground inspection rooms, which form a particularly dense net in urban areas. Measuring radon in such underground places is interesting both for a possible contribution to radon mapping activities and to evaluate workers exposures. Radon concentration was also measured in Telecom buildings (i.e. buildings housing plant equipment, including telephone switches, often also offices, etc.) close and partially connected to the selected inspection rooms. The methodology and the first results of the survey related to the first year of measurements, for a total of 1438 inspection rooms and 1414 Telecom buildings, are reported. Radon concentration was measured with passive devices containing CR-39 detectors for about 12 consecutive months, in order to average seasonal variations. In underground inspection rooms, measured radon concentration reached values up to about 44,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, with a regional median ranging from about 90 Bq/m{sup 3} up to about 1600 Bq/m{sup 3}. In Telecom buildings, the regional median concentration ranged from 13 Bq/m{sup 3} to 174 Bq/m{sup 3}. These results show that radon concentration in underground inspection rooms can reach very high values, whereas medians in monitored buildings are generally lower than those measured in dwellings in a representative national survey.

  14. Recent developments in radon metrology: new aspects in the calibration of radon, thoron and progeny devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, A; Honig, A

    2011-05-01

    Due to the importance of reliable measurements of radon activity concentration, one of the past developments in metrology was applied to the field of radon, thus meeting two basic needs: (1) the harmonisation of metrology within the scope of the mutual recognition arrangement, an arrangement drawn up by the International Committee of Weights and Measures for the mutual recognition of national standards and of calibrations issued by national metrology institutes and (2) the increased demands of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) directive, transferred into national radiation protection regulations with regard to natural radioactivity and its quality-assured measurements. This paper gives an overview of typical technical procedures in the radon-measuring technique group of PTB, covering all aspects of reference atmospheres (primary standards) for radon, thoron and their respective progenies.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

  17. From the similarities between neutrons and radon to advanced radon-detection and improved cold fusion neutron-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, L.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons and radon are both ubiquitous in the earth's crust. The neutrons of terrestrial origin are strongly related to radon since they originate mainly from the interactions between the alpha particles from the decays of radioactive-gas (namely Radon and Thoron) and the light nuclei. Since the early studies in the field of neutrons, the radon gas was used to produce neutrons by (α, n) reactions in beryllium. Another important similarity between radon and neutrons is that they can be detected only through the radiations produced respectively by decays or by nuclear reactions. These charged particles from the two distinct nuclear processes are often the same (namely alpha-particles). A typical neutron detector is based on a radiator facing a alpha-particle detector, such as in the case of a neutron film badge. Based on the similarity between neutrons and radon, a film badge for radon has been recently proposed. The radon film badge, in addition to be similar, may be even identical to the neutron film badge. For these reasons, neutron measurements can be easily affected by the presence of unpredictable large radon concentration. In several cold fusion experiments, the CR-39 plastic films (typically used in radon and neutron film-badges), have been the detectors of choice for measuring neutrons. In this paper, attempts will be made to prove that most of these neutron-measurements might have been affected by the presence of large radon concentrations.

  18. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  19. Novel determination of radon-222 velocity in deep subsurface rocks and the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Hovav; Ben Horin, Yochai; Malik, Uri; Chemo, Chaim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique utilizing simultaneous radon monitoring by gamma and alpha detectors to differentiate between the radon climatic driving forces and others has been improved and used for deep subsurface investigation. Detailed long-term monitoring served as a proxy for studying radon movement within the shallow and deep subsurface, as well as for analyzing the effect of various parameters of the radon transport pattern. The main achievements of the investigation are (a) determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m/h on average; (b) distinguishing between the diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and the semidiurnal effect of the ambient pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; and (c) identification of a radon random preseismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone.

  20. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  1. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of anopen-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation......This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30cm"3 . Numerical modelling is used to assess...... rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  2. Systematic grid-wise radon concentration measurements and first radon map in Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoulou, G; Parpottas, Y; 10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.03.019

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the indoor airborne radon concentration in the central part of the Nicosia district was conducted, using high-sensitivity active radon portable detectors of the type "RADIM3A". From a total of 108 measurements in 54 grids of 1 km^2 area each, the overall mean value is 20.6 \\pm 13.2 Bq m^-3 (A.M.\\pm S.D.). That is almost twice less than the corresponding average worldwide value. The radon concentration levels in drinking water were also measured in 24 sites of the residential district, using the high-sensitivity radon detector of the type "RADIM3W". The mean value obtained from these measurements is 243.8 \\pm 224.8 mBq L^-1, which is relatively low compared to the corresponding internationally accepted level. The associated annual effective dose rates to each measurement were also calculated and compared to the corresponding worldwide values. From the geographical coordinates of the measuring sites and the corresponding radon concentration values, the digital radon map of the central part...

  3. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  4. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  5. Estimation of the residential radon levels and the annual effective dose in dwellings of Shiraz, Iran, in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Maryam; Shahsavani, Abbas; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Hassan; Shamsedini, Narges; Rastkari, Noushin; Kermani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking. Thus, the determination of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces is an important public health concern. The purpose of this research was to measure the concentration of radon gas in residential homes and public places in the city of Shiraz and its relationship with the type and age of the buildings as well as the type of materials used to construct the building (brick, block). We also determined the radon dosages that occupants of the building would receive. Methods The present study is a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional research that was conducted on the building’s indoor air in the city of Shiraz in 2015. Using geographic information system (GIS) software and a spatial sampling cell with an area of 25 square kilometers, 200 points were selected. In this study, we used passive diffusive samplers as Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) CR-39 polycarbonate films for three months in the winter. Sampling was conducted in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s protocol. We determined the concentrations of radon gas at the time of sampling, and calibration factors were determined. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS, version 20, descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results This study showed that the average radon concentration was 57.6 ± 33.06 Bq/m3 in residential dwellings. The average effective dose was 1.45 mSv/y. The concentration of radon in 5.4% of the houses was found to be greater than 100 Bq/m3, which is above the level allowed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Conclusion Since radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, it seems necessary to increase the public’s awareness of this issue and to take action to reduce radon in homes when the concentrations are above the WHO’s guideline. PMID:27504164

  6. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8 for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study, the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  7. Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swakoń, J; Kozak, K; Paszkowski, M; Gradziński, R; Łoskiewicz, J; Mazur, J; Janik, M; Bogacz, J; Horwacik, T; Olko, P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate radon in the vicinity of geologic fault zones within the Krakow region of Poland, and to determine the influence of such formations on enhanced radon concentrations in soil. Radon ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) concentration measurements in soil gas (using ionization chamber AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO and diffusion chambers with CR-39 detectors), as well as radioactive natural isotopes of radium, thorium and potassium in soil samples (using gamma ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors), were performed. Site selection was based on a geological map of Krakow. Geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar and shallow acoustic seismic) were applied to recognize the geological structure of the area and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and thoron in soil gas were found in the study area when compared with those observed in an earlier survey covering Krakow agglomeration. For (222)Rn, the arithmetic mean of registered concentration values was 39 kBq/m(3) (median: 35.5 kBq/m(3)). For (220)Rn, the arithmetic mean was 10.8 kBq/m(3) and median 11.8 kBq/m(3).

  8. Soil-gas radon/helium surveys in some neotectonic areas of NW Himalayan foothills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at accessing the relationship between variation in the soil gases radon (222Rn and helium (4He and recently developed fissures and other neotectonic features in Nurpur and Nadha areas of the NW Himalayas, India. Two soil-gas surveys were conducted on/near known faults to reconfirm their position using soil gas technique and to check their present activity. During these surveys, soil-gas samples were collected along traverses crossing the observed structures. The data analysis reveals that the concentrations of radon and helium along the Dehar lineament and the longitudinal profile (Profile D are very high compared to any other thrust/lineament of the Nurpur area. The Nadha area shows high values of radon and helium concentrations along/near the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF as compared to the adjoining areas. This indicates the presence of some buried fault/fault zone running parallel to the HFF, not exposed to the surface and not delineated by satellite data but is geochemically active and might be tectonically active too. Hence, soil helium and radon gas patterns have been combined with morphological and geological observations to supply useful constraints for deformation of tectonic environments.

  9. Assessment of external gamma exposure and radon levels in a dwelling constructed with phosphogypsum plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Campos, M.P., E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mazzilli, B.P.; Villaverde, F.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Phosphogypsum, a fertilizer industry by-product, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing environmental concerns. Since this material contains natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, its use as a building material has radiological implications. In order to confirm the feasibility of the use of a new material mainly composed by phosphogypsum, an experimental house was built, having some of its rooms entirely lined with this material. Measurements of samples of phosphogypsum plates from different origins resulted in values of 0.2 to 2.6 for the external radiation index, thus justifying a more detailed investigation. In this paper, the application of a previously developed computational model to forecast external doses indoors is described. A comprehensive radiological evaluation is being performed, including measurement of the external gamma exposure and radon concentrations in one of the rooms of the house. The results show that the annual increment in the effective dose to an inhabitant of the house will remain below the 1 mSv limit for every reasonable scenario. The radon measurements were carried out over a period of 18 months, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations. The results obtained are below 200 Bq m{sup -3}, the recommended investigation level for radon.

  10. Assessment of external gamma exposure and radon levels in a dwelling constructed with phosphogypsum plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máduar, M F; Campos, M P; Mazzilli, B P; Villaverde, F L

    2011-06-15

    Phosphogypsum, a fertilizer industry by-product, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing environmental concerns. Since this material contains natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, its use as a building material has radiological implications. In order to confirm the feasibility of the use of a new material mainly composed by phosphogypsum, an experimental house was built, having some of its rooms entirely lined with this material. Measurements of samples of phosphogypsum plates from different origins resulted in values of 0.2 to 2.6 for the external radiation index, thus justifying a more detailed investigation. In this paper, the application of a previously developed computational model to forecast external doses indoors is described. A comprehensive radiological evaluation is being performed, including measurement of the external gamma exposure and radon concentrations in one of the rooms of the house. The results show that the annual increment in the effective dose to an inhabitant of the house will remain below the 1 mSv limit for every reasonable scenario. The radon measurements were carried out over a period of 18 months, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations. The results obtained are below 200 Bq m(-3), the recommended investigation level for radon.

  11. Radon Measurements in Soils along the Coast of Accra from Teshie to Nyanyano, Southeastern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Ekua Amponsah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken along the coast of Accra (Teshie to Nyanyano in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area to investigate the emission of soil radon gas in the area using Lenin Resin (LR 115 cellulose nitrate detectors. Twenty seven sampling points were considered for the investigation. A set of detectors were buried at a time and were replaced fortnightly for a period of 2 weeks. Three exposures were made at each location. Due to logistics constraints, the detectors were buried in phases over a period of 15 weeks. After the exposure period, the detectors were etched, air dried in the laboratory and the registered alpha tracks were counted using the Spark counter. The track density was calculated and the radon gas concentration was computed. The radon concentrations ranged from 1.40 kBqm-3 to 282.87 kBqm-3 for the period of monitoring. The average soil radon concentration measured during the period of the survey was 24.41 kBqm-3. Local earthquakes of magnitude ranging from 1.1 to 2.8 on the Richter scale were recorded during the study. Continuous monitoring of the gas could confirm high emanation with the activity of the coastal boundary fault.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.2.7063

  12. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  13. Protect Your Home and Family from Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Jan. 11, 2016) Radon-the silent killer-is responsible for about 21,000 lung cancer deaths every year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency encourages Americans around the country to test their homes for this naturally occurring radioac

  14. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  15. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    insulation layer located on top of a capillary-breaking layer) mounted in turn on stable ground. The new system of prefabricated lightweight elements consists of the capillary-breaking layer and a pressure-reduction zone which is working as the radonsuction zone. The radon-suctioning layer is formed from...

  16. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  17. Status of the European indoor radon map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; De Cort, M. [European Commission, Joint Reserch Centre (JRC) (Italy). Inst. of Environment and Sustainability

    2009-07-01

    Since 2006 a harmonized European indoor radon map is under production. At the moment (June 2009) 15 European countries have contributed data, further input is expected. This article informs about historical and legal backgrounds of the project, outlines the technical procedure and presents some preliminary results. (orig.)

  18. Simulated equilibrium factor studies in radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehchi Chu; Holing Liu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Science

    1996-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the influences of environmental parameters on the equilibrium factor. Most of them were carried out in a walk-in type chamber. The deposition velocity was calculated using the Jacobi model. The ranges of the environmental parameters studied in the experiments are humidity 30-90% r.h. and radon concentration 2-40 kBqm{sup -3}. The aerosol sources included electric fumigator, mosquito coil, incense, a cigarette with the particle concentration 2000-6500 cm{sup -3} and the attachment rate 10-350 h{sup -1}. The results of the experiment show that the equilibrium factor tends to decrease as the radon concentration increases. On the other hand, the equilibrium factor tends to increase as the humidity increases, and so is the increasing attachment rate. Of all the parameters mentioned above, the influence that aerosols have on the equilibrium factor is the predominant factor. The calculated deposition velocity for the unattached fraction of radon daughters tends to increase as the radon concentration increases. However, it tends to decrease as the humidity increases. (Author).

  19. Radon Transform for Finite Dimensional Hilbert Space

    CERN Document Server

    Revzen, M

    2012-01-01

    Finite dimensional, d, Hilbert space operators are underpinned with ?nite geometry. The analysis emphasizes a central role for mutual unbiased bases (MUB) states projectors. Interrelation among the Hilbert space operators revealed via their (?nite) dual a?ne plane geometry (DAPG) underpin- ning is studied and utilized in formulating a ?nite dimensional Radon transformation. The ?nite geometry required for our study is outlines.

  20. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  1. Fast Computation of Radon-Wigner Transform & Radon-Ambiguity Transform and its Application in SAR/GMTI%Radon-Wigner和Radon-Ambiguity快速算法及其在SAR/GMTI中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛蔚; 毛士艺

    2003-01-01

    本文针对Radon-Wigner Transform、Radon-Ambiguity Transform检测线性调频信号中的若干问题进行研究.Radon-Wigner Transform和Radon-Ambiguity Transform保留了Wigner-Ville分布和模糊函数时频聚集性高的优点,克服了它们在检测多分量信号时存在严重的交叉项问题.本文首先分析并证明了Wigner-Ville分布和模糊函数中交叉项与自主项的不同,指出该"不同"即是Radon-Wigner Transform和Radon-Ambiguity Transform能够抑制交叉项的根本原因;其次,本文证明了Radon-Wigner Transform的一种快速计算方法,并且以分数阶傅利叶变换为桥梁,给出了Radon-Ambiguity Transform的快速计算方法;最后,本文将Radon-Wigner Transform和Radon-Ambiguitiy Transform快速计算方法用于合成孔径雷达对地面运动目标的检测和参数估计中,取得了预期的较好的检测结果.

  2. Climate, Waterborne Disease, and Public Health in Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    As global temperatures rise, waterborne diseases have expanded their ranges northward. Exposure to new diseases is especially threatening to isolated communities, whose remote locations and lack of health resources and infrastructure leave them particularly vulnerable. For this project, a time series analysis of existing data will be used to assess temporal and spatial associations between long-term, seasonal and short-term weather variability, and waterborne infectious diseases in several Siberian communities. Building on these associations, we will generate estimates of future changes in infectious disease patterns based upon existing forecasts of climate change and likely increases in extreme weather events in eastern Russia. Finally, we will contemplate the public health implications of these findings and offer appropriate policy recommendations. One of our policy aims will be to identify easily measured water quality indicators that may serve as useful proxies for environmental health in rural, especially indigenous, communities.

  3. Controlling film topography to form highly hydrophobic waterborne coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana B; de la Cal, José C; Asua, José M

    2016-08-17

    Coatings have a tremendous impact on economy as they reduce corrosion that has an estimated cost of 3% of the world's GDP. Hydrophobic coatings are particularly efficient for this purpose and the challenge is to produce cost effective and environmentally friendly, highly hydrophobic, cohesive and non-porous coatings applicable to large and irregular surfaces. This work shows that this goal can be achieved by forming wrinkles on the surface of waterborne coatings through fine-tuning of the film forming conditions. The proof of concept was demonstrated by using waterborne dispersions of copolymers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and using the temperature and hardness of the copolymer as control variables during film formation. This allowed the formation of transparent films with a wrinkled surface that had a contact angle of 133°, which represents an increase of 20° with respect to the film cast under standard conditions.

  4. Soil gas radon mapping of Muzaffarabad city, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareen Aleem Dad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-based radon investigations are of value in correlating radon production and its transportation into buildings through the processes of convection and diffusion. Such studies can help in identifying land areas that pose special concerns. We present preliminary results of soil radon gas measurements at 60 different locations in an attempt to map out the geohazard zone of the city of Muzaffarabad. The seismic geohazard microzonation for the area includes five microzones based on different hazard parameters: a very high hazard zone, a high hazard zone, a moderate hazard zone, a low hazard zone, and a safe zone. Measurements were taken with an active radon monitoring system at the depths of 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm below the ground surface. The results obtained were explained by the lithology of the area. Average soil radon gas concentrations were correlated with the depth from the ground surface and indoor radon values for the study area. No significant correlation was found between soil radon gas and meteorological parameters, however soil radon gas increases as the depth from the surface of the ground grows. The results showed a linear relation between soil radon concentrations with depth from ground surface (R2 = 0.9577. The minimum soil radon concentration (68.5 Bq/m3 was found at a depth of 30 cm in the very high hazard zone, the maximum value (53.300 Bq/m3 at a depth of 60 cm in the seismically safe zone. Measured soil gas radon concentrations at depths of 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm were mapped for high, moderate, and low radon concentrations. Elevated soil radon gas concentrations were found in the safe zone, otherwise considered to be suitable for any type of construction.

  5. 水性聚氨酯的研究进展%Research Progress of Waterborne Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪梅

    2013-01-01

    The significances of waterborne polyurethane were analyzed, and the research progress of single-component waterborne polyurethane coatings and two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings were introduced.%主要分析了聚氨酯水性化的意义,并介绍了单组分水性聚氨酯涂料与双组分水性聚氨酯涂料的研究进展。

  6. Measuring water-borne cortisol in Poecilia latipinna:is the process stressful, can stress be minimized and is cortisol correlated with sex steroid release rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, C R; Contreras, A

    2012-09-01

    The stress of water-borne hormone collection process was examined in sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna. Baseline release rates of the stress hormone cortisol were measured and minimum confinement time for water sampling was evaluated for a standard 60 min v. a 30 min protocol. A 30 min hormone collection period reflects release rates over 60 min. Potential stress response to confinement in the beaker for the water-borne collection process was tested over 4 days. There was no evidence of stress due to the collection methods, as cortisol release rates did not differ significantly across four sequential days of handling for P. latipinna. Males and females did not differ significantly in baseline cortisol release rates. Baseline cortisol release rates from fish immediately after being collected in the field were also not significantly different than those in the 4 day confinement experiment. After exposure to a novel environment, however, P. latipinna mounted a stress response. Stress may also affect sex steroids and behaviour but cortisol release rates were not significantly correlated with sex steroids [11-ketotestosterone (KT), testosterone, or oestradiol], or mating attempts. The correlation between water-borne release rates and plasma steroid levels was validated for both cortisol and KT. Finally, normalizing cortisol release rates using standard length in lieu of mass is viable and accurate. Water-borne hormone assays are a valuable tool for investigating questions concerning the role of hormones in mediating stress responses and reproductive behaviours in P. latipinna and other livebearing fishes.

  7. Variation of radon-222 concentration in exposure systems air under different conditions of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Qari, T. M.

    1994-07-01

    Simplified, laboratory scale systems, namely ordinary laboratory desiccators and cylindrical containers were tested with regard to their reliability as exposure systems for determining certain parameters of radon emanation from locally obtained crushed granite rock samples. The samples were placed inside the exposure systems. Activity concentration of emanated radon in the exposure systems air increased with increase of mass of granite sample in the desiccator and with length of the exposure period. Activity concentration of radon was high near the granitic source but decreased with vertical distance from it when the exposure system was semiclosed but activity was homogeneous when the system was completely closed. The cylindrical exposure system was used in assessing Ra-226 content in some crushed granitic samples identified as altered alkali granite and found to be: 0.024 Bq g-1 (0.65 pCig-1). Rn-222 emanation rate from the same samples was: 0.013 Bq m-2 s-1 (0.34 pCi m-2 s-1). Saturation density thickness for a mixed sample of pure and alkali granites was found to be 116 g cm-2. The results agree in general with reported observations and support the reliability of the exposure systems used.

  8. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-02-15

    Radon ((222)Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ((238)U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Measure of exposure of short-lived radon products using an alpha spectrometer for measuring indoor aerosol activity concentration and dose evaluation; Misure di esposizione ai prodotti di decadimento del radon a breve vita tramite uno spettrometro alfa per la misura dell'attivita' del particolato atmosferico indoor e valutazioni dosimetriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Mariotti, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-07-01

    A new italian law introduces the regulation of occupational exposure to radon. To evaluate the inhalation of radon daughters by the workers a sampling device has been assembled with the aim of evaluation of unattached and aerosol attached radon daughters' fractions. The instrument, based on selection of the aerosuspended particles by means of a wire screen type battery and subsequent collection on a total filter, allows to describe the behaviour of both fractions using defined temporal pattern of collecting particles and counting them by alpha spectroscopy. A measurement campaign to test the radon daughter dichotomous spectrometer in comparison with a commercial Radon Working Level meter, has been performed in a research laboratory of central Italy affected by high radon concentrations. The radon concentration during the measurement campaign has been also measured. The equilibrium factor F{sub e}q ad the attachment factor fp have been evaluated during 3 days campaign. Using the measured mean parameters (radon concentration, F{sub e}q, f{sub p}) the dose evaluation for workers using dosimetric approach has been performed. A comparison between the epidemiologic approach, based on the radon concentration, and dosimetric approach is also presented. [Italian] L'esposizione a radon in ambiente lavorativo e la conseguente inalazione dei suoi prodotti di decadimento in forma particolata e' oggetto di una recente normativa italiana in materia di protezione dalle radiazioni ionizzanti. Per rispondere a questa necessita', presso l'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna e' stato progettato e realizzato uno spettrometro alfa per la misura della progenie del radon con la finalita' di valutare, su brevi periodi di tempo, la concentrazione individuale dei suoi prodotti di decadimento e, con l'impiego di batterie a diffusione a reti, consentire inoltre la discriminazione della concentrazione della frazione attaccata e non

  10. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Edward K; Hamilton, Andrew J; Sidhu, Harvinder S; Sidhu, Leesa A; Dunbar, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne parasites that infect both humans and animals are common causes of diarrhoeal illness, but the relative importance of transmission between humans and animals and vice versa remains poorly understood. Transmission of infection from animals to humans via environmental reservoirs, such as water sources, has attracted attention as a potential source of endemic and epidemic infections, but existing mathematical models of waterborne disease transmission have limitations for studying this phenomenon, as they only consider contamination of environmental reservoirs by humans. This paper develops a mathematical model that represents the transmission of waterborne parasites within and between both animal and human populations. It also improves upon existing models by including animal contamination of water sources explicitly. Linear stability analysis and simulation results, using realistic parameter values to describe Giardia transmission in rural Australia, show that endemic infection of an animal host with zoonotic protozoa can result in endemic infection in human hosts, even in the absence of person-to-person transmission. These results imply that zoonotic transmission via environmental reservoirs is important.

  11. Uranium and radon estimation in water and plants using SSNTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.P.; Singh, M.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S. (Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-01-01

    Lexan plastic track detector is used to estimate the uranium content of water and plant samples collected from the Dalhousie area, Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Uranium content has been found to vary from 0.26 +- 0.01 to 6.77 +- 0.06 ppb in water and from 0.65 +- 0.04 to 2.61 +- 0.08 ppm in plant samples. The track production rate due to radon in water has been found to vary from 1.44 +- 0.18 to 385.25 +- 0.70 tracks cm/sup -2/ hr/sup -1/ litre/sup -1/ using LR-115 plastic as a solid state nuclear track detector.

  12. A study on heavy radioactive pollution: Radon and Radium in streams and drinking water of Ramsar region by measured Prassi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Inhalation of radon gas 222Rn, which is a decay product of 226Ra, and its decay products accounts for typically about half of the effective doses received by public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Radon alpha particles can initiate a series of molecular and cellular events that culminates in the development of lung and other cancers. Also, 226Ra in the environment is widely distributed, being present in various concentrations in waters, soils and rocks. When radium is ingested, the majority of material is rapidly excreted. However, since radium is chemically similar to calcium, a significant fraction is absorbed into the bloodstream and deposited mainly in the skeleton. So, presence of these radioactive contaminants in water is dangerous and many studies especially about radon have been done in this area. For these reasons and becauses some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran in mazandaran province, have been among the highest known background radiation levels in the world we measured radon and radium concentrations in water sources of Ramsar region. In this study, Radon and radium concentrations of the 22 streams and 20 drinking water samples were measured by PRASSI system. According to the data, the arithmetic mean of radon concentration for all samples was 3.030 ± 1.122 Bq/l. Similarly, arithmetic mean of radium for all samples was 0.185 ± 0.055 Bq/l. Also 1 sample of streams and 1 sample of drinking water showed radon concentration higher than 10Bq/l as normal level. Radium-226 alone, in 11 samples of streams and 8 samples of drinking water had concentrations higher than 0.185Bq/l as normal level for the combined Radium-226 and Radium-228.

  13. Mathematical model for radon diffusion in earthen materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-10-01

    Radon migration in porous, earthen materials is characterized by diffusion in both the air and water components of the system as well as by the interaction of the radon between the air and water. The size distribution and configuration of the pore spaces and their moisture distributions are key parameters in determining the radon diffusion coefficient for the bulk material. A mathematical model is developed and presented for calculating radon diffusion coefficients solely from the moisture content and pore size distribution of a soil, reducing the need for resorting to radon diffusion measurements. The resulting diffusion coefficients increase with the median pore diameter of the soil and decrease with increasing widths of the pore size distribution. The calculated diffusion coefficients are suitable for use in simple homogeneous-medium diffusion expressions for predicting radon transport and compare well with measured diffusion coefficients and with empirical diffusion coefficient correlations.

  14. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  15. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three......A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...

  16. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  17. Design Criteria for Achieving Low Radon Concentration Indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Design criteria for achieving low radon concentration indoors are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most...... the radon concentration in the indoor air. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the air indoors is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause...... lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible indoors in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. For the building envelope...

  18. Radon Concentration in the Drinking Water of Aliabad Katoul, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinehvand, Karim; Sahebnasagh, Amin; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the world health organization, radon is a leading cause of cancer in various internal organs and should be regarded with concern. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the concentration of soluble radon in the drinking water of the city of Aliabad Katoul, Iran. Materials and Methods The radon concentration was measured by using a radon meter, SARADTM model RTM 1688-2, according to accepted standards of evaluation. Results The mean radon concentration in the drinking water of Aliabad Katoul is 2.90 ± 0.57 Bq/L. Conclusions The radon concentration in Aliabad Katoul is below the limit for hazardous levels, but some precautions will make conditions even safer for the local populace. PMID:27651948

  19. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  20. Diffusive Soil Degassing of Radon and Carbon Dioxide at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. L.; Olmos, R.; Cartagena, R.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.

    2001-12-01

    San Miguel volcano is located 15 km to the Southwest of San Miguel City (population ~300,000) and lies on the southern fault of the Central American graben at an intersection with NW-SE faults. The composition of San Miguel lavas varies from olivine-pyroxene basalts for the older lava flows to more andesitic compositions for the more recent products. This volcano have been degassing and having small ash emission since the late nineteen eighties. During December 1999 and January 2000, radon gas concentrations (pCi/l) in soils were measured using a Pylon AB5 radon monitor, and flux of CO2 (g/m2/day) was determined using the accumulation chamber method at 205 sampling stations. High gas emission inside the crater did not allow measurements to be taken in that region. CO2 fluxes throughout the soils of the volcanic edifice show low values compared to other active volcanoes of the world, suggesting that San Miguel is degassing preferentially throughout the summit region. CO2 fluxes range from less than 1 to 14 g/m2/day, with an average value of 5.6 g/m2/day. Radon concentrations range from 2 to 833 pCi/l with an average value of 110 pCi/l. Thoron concentrations range from 20 to 2178 pCi/l with an average value of 362 pCi/l. These values are comparable to radon concentrations found in other active volcanoes (e.g. Cerro Negro, Connor et al., 1996). CO2 flux, radon and thoron concentrations show higher values to the northwest and northeast faulted regions. Some anomalies seem to be related to the contact region between the older and more recent lava flows. Thoron/radon ratios show high anomalies aligning in the NW-SE direction where faulting also occurs. These results suggests that low permeability rocks forming the volcanic edifice of San Miguel volcano do not allow large fluxes of magmatic CO2 to be discharged throughout the soils. Higher permeability at faults and contacts allow slightly larger fluxes of CO2 and radon and thoron concentrations.

  1. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M. F. I. [Science and Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan Nibong Tebal 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  2. Monitoring of Waterborne Parasites in Two Drinking Water Treatment Plants: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reena Leeba; Ithoi, Init; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff; Tan, Tian Chye; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of waterborne parasites coupled with water parameters at various processing sites of two drinking water treatment plants (A and B) and seven distribution system (DS) sites in Sarawak, Malaysia were studied. Ten liters of water underwent immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique to detect the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts. The remaining supernatant was used to detect other parasites whilst 50 mL of water sample was each used in the detection of free-living amoebae and fecal coliforms. Sampled water was positive for Giardia (32.9%; 28/85), Cryptosporidium (18.8%; 16/85) followed by Spirometra ova-like (25.9%; 22/85), Blastocystis-like (25.9%; 22/85), nematode larvae-like (8.2%; 7/85) and Taenia ova-like (1.2%; 1/85). Meanwhile, 90.2% (55/61) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Naegleria via cultivation and of these, 11 isolates were confirmed as Acanthamoeba genotype T3 (5/7) and T4 (2/7) followed by Naegleria sp. (4/11), Naegleria italica (2/11), Naegleria australiensis (1/11), Naegleria angularis (1/11) and Vahlkampfia sp. (3/11). Cryptosporidium, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were also detected in one of the seven tested DS sites. Only Giardia and Cryptosporidium showed significant correlations with fluoride and fecal coliforms. These results describe the occurrence of waterborne parasites that will assist key stakeholders in mitigating contamination at the specific sites. PMID:27367710

  3. Monitoring of Waterborne Parasites in Two Drinking Water Treatment Plants: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Leeba Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of waterborne parasites coupled with water parameters at various processing sites of two drinking water treatment plants (A and B and seven distribution system (DS sites in Sarawak, Malaysia were studied. Ten liters of water underwent immunomagnetic separation (IMS technique to detect the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oocysts. The remaining supernatant was used to detect other parasites whilst 50 mL of water sample was each used in the detection of free-living amoebae and fecal coliforms. Sampled water was positive for Giardia (32.9%; 28/85, Cryptosporidium (18.8%; 16/85 followed by Spirometra ova-like (25.9%; 22/85, Blastocystis-like (25.9%; 22/85, nematode larvae-like (8.2%; 7/85 and Taenia ova-like (1.2%; 1/85. Meanwhile, 90.2% (55/61 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Naegleria via cultivation and of these, 11 isolates were confirmed as Acanthamoeba genotype T3 (5/7 and T4 (2/7 followed by Naegleria sp. (4/11, Naegleria italica (2/11, Naegleria australiensis (1/11, Naegleria angularis (1/11 and Vahlkampfia sp. (3/11. Cryptosporidium, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were also detected in one of the seven tested DS sites. Only Giardia and Cryptosporidium showed significant correlations with fluoride and fecal coliforms. These results describe the occurrence of waterborne parasites that will assist key stakeholders in mitigating contamination at the specific sites.

  4. Monitoring of Waterborne Parasites in Two Drinking Water Treatment Plants: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reena Leeba; Ithoi, Init; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff; Tan, Tian Chye; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2016-06-28

    The occurrence of waterborne parasites coupled with water parameters at various processing sites of two drinking water treatment plants (A and B) and seven distribution system (DS) sites in Sarawak, Malaysia were studied. Ten liters of water underwent immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique to detect the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts. The remaining supernatant was used to detect other parasites whilst 50 mL of water sample was each used in the detection of free-living amoebae and fecal coliforms. Sampled water was positive for Giardia (32.9%; 28/85), Cryptosporidium (18.8%; 16/85) followed by Spirometra ova-like (25.9%; 22/85), Blastocystis-like (25.9%; 22/85), nematode larvae-like (8.2%; 7/85) and Taenia ova-like (1.2%; 1/85). Meanwhile, 90.2% (55/61) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Naegleria via cultivation and of these, 11 isolates were confirmed as Acanthamoeba genotype T3 (5/7) and T4 (2/7) followed by Naegleria sp. (4/11), Naegleria italica (2/11), Naegleria australiensis (1/11), Naegleria angularis (1/11) and Vahlkampfia sp. (3/11). Cryptosporidium, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were also detected in one of the seven tested DS sites. Only Giardia and Cryptosporidium showed significant correlations with fluoride and fecal coliforms. These results describe the occurrence of waterborne parasites that will assist key stakeholders in mitigating contamination at the specific sites.

  5. Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The radon activity concentration and toxic elements have been assessed in drinking and irrigated water samples collected from different locations of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from wells, streams and taps. A calibrated alpha spectrometer RAD-7 (Model 2890 and Atomic Absorption Spectrometers (Perkin–Elmer, Model AAnalyst 200, Shimadzu, Model AA-700 were used to estimate radon activity concentration and toxic elements, respectively. Maximum average value of radon concentration among the various types of water sources was found 14.7 ± 1.44 Bq/l in well water used for drinking and irrigation and minimum was found 5.37 ± 0.58 Bq/l in tap water used for drinking. Contribution of radon in drinking water to indoor air and age dependent associated annual effective doses were calculated from the measured radon concentration and were found less than lower limit of recommended action level. The activity concentrations of Ni > Pb > Cd > As > Cr were found higher for streams water as compared to wells and tap water. Values of radon concentration in well water were found higher than EPA recommended level and lower than WHO action level while the annual effective doses and level of toxic elements in water reported in this study were found lower than recommended level.

  6. Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities, Homestead ARB, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) May 2013 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities...unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2013-4919, 21 Nov 2013 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An assessment of indoor radon concentrations was...established in AFI 48-148 for long-term monitoring. Historical results indicate a radon risk characterization category of “medium,” requiring all

  7. Radon Emission from Coal Mines of Kuzbass Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola, V. A.; Torosyan, E. S.; Antufeyev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article represents the results of a research in radionuclides concentration in coal and rocks of Kuzbass mines as well as radon concentration in operative mines and mined-out spaces. It is proved that radon concentration in mines is considerably higher than in the atmosphere and it rises drastically in the mined-out spaces. It is found out that radon is carried out from mines by ventilation flows and from open pits, generating anomalous concentrations over self-ignition areas.

  8. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pásztor, László [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna, E-mail: sz_k_zs@yahoo.de [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Science, Szent István University, Páter Károly u. 1, Gödöllő 2100 (Hungary); Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Horváth, Ákos [Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ({sup 238}U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. - Highlights: • A new method

  9. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mazur, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); KozLowska, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Karpinska, M. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Przylibski, T.A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Grzadziel, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stawarz, O. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Dorda, J. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zebrowski, A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Olszewski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Hovhannisyan, H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dohojda, M. [Institute of Building Technology (ITB), Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warszawa (Poland); KapaLa, J. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Chmielewska, I. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); KLos, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Mnich, S. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); KoLodziej, R. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements. - Highlights: > Using radon concentration results in houses we calculated the correction factors. > Factors were calculated for each month, 2 house types in different regions in Poland. > They enable the evaluation of average annual radon concentration in the house. > Annual average radon concentration basing on 1 or 3 months detector exposure.

  10. Preliminary analysis of radon time series before the Ml=6 Amatrice earthquake: possible implications for fluid migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cannelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 24, 2016, a Ml=6.0 earthquake occurred in Central Apennines, Italy, between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice, causing severe destruction and casualties in a wide area around the epicenter. We present a preliminary analysis of continuous radon concentration data collected from the second half of 2012 to the day after the earthquake by a long term radon monitoring station, installed at Cittareale (Rieti, Italy, about 11 km south-west of the epicenter. We combine the field data analysis with the outcome of dedicated laboratory experiments, aimed to study real time radon emission dynamics from rock samples subject to normal and shear stress loads in absence of fluid transport and migration phenomena. Our results suggest the possibility of a minor role played by phenomena related to fluid migration for the Amatrice seismic event with respect to other recent Apennine earthquakes.

  11. The Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at PSI; Das Referenzlabor fuer Radongas-Konzentrationsmessungen am PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Christoph

    1998-09-01

    Active or passive radon gas measuring instruments are exposed during intercomparison exercises in the radon chamber of the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut: The traceability of radon gas measurements to nationally and internationally acknowledged standards is inspected in the reference atmosphere of the chamber with calibrated {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The use of secondary standards guarantees the traceability of the radon chamber reference atmosphere. Besides the principal secondary standard, a radon gas standard (secondary standard I), a {sup 226}Ra standard solution (secondary standard II) and a {sup 222}Rn emanation standard (secondary standard III) are used. The {sup 222}Rn activity delivered by one of these standards is quantitatively transferred into a reference volume and hence converted to an activity concentration serving for the calibration of a measuring instrument transfer standard consisting of scintillation cell and counter. By this way, the transfer standard calibration is related and traceable to the internationally acknowledged primary standard laboratories National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (U.S.A.) or National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (UK). The calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate the radon gas activity concentration in the radon chamber. For a single grab sampling determination of the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the radon chamber with the transfer standard, the estimation of Type A and Type B uncertainties yields a relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) of minimum 3% for high concentration levels (10 kBqm{sup -3}) and maximum 30% for low concentration levels (0.2 kBqm{sup -3}). Extended evaluations of the reproducibility of calibration factor measurements obtained by calibration of the transfer standard with the secondary standards I, II and III show a very good reproducibility quality

  12. A theoretical investigation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. In recent times, numerical modelling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement the Finite Volume Method (FVM) for studying the radon distribution indoor. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling). Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. We notice that the simulation results of radon concentration are in agreement with the results of other experimental studies. The annual effective dose of radon in the model room has been also investigated.

  13. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  14. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Kumar Dey; Projit Kumar Das

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m−3.

  15. Soil gas and indoor radon studies in Doon Valley, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Sharma, K.K. (Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India)); Ramola, R.C. (Garhwal University, Tehri Garhwal (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-02-01

    Radon studies have been carried out in the soil and in dwellings around the Doon Valley, north-west India, using Kodak LR-115 Type II plastic track detectors. Soil gas radon concentrations were found to be higher in carbonaceous shales of the Infra-Krol and in the sandstone of the middle Siwaliks. High values of radon were also observed along prominent tectonic zones, such as the Main Boundary Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust. In dwellings, the radon values were found to depend on the geology of the area, on the building materials and on the type and construction of the houses. (Author).

  16. Assessment of Radon level in dwellings of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhassan Haddadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Indoor radon gas (222Rn has been recognized as one of the causes of lung cancer. The presence of radioactive radium in the construction & materials in the buildings its changes in contact with radon gas may lead to increase level of radon gas in the residential houses. In this regards, indoor radon measurement is important. This study was conducted to determine radon concentration in Tabriz houses. Materials & Methods: In this study, 196 radon diffusion dosimeters were left in different floors of houses constructed with different materials such as cement (betony, heated brick & clay with raw brick at every floor for 6 months. The “electrochemical etching” method was applied to detect “alpha tracks” on the polymers of dosimeters and based on number of these tracks, radon concentration was determined. Results: This study showed that average radon concentration were 39Bqm-3 in the houses. At different floors & different construction material the average effective dose equivalent of lung tissue was 0.97msvy-1. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the indoor radon levels in the Tabriz houses are within acceptable range.

  17. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  18. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  19. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  20. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer