WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterborne particulates

  1. Experimental apparatus and analysis technique for studying the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A unique laboratory apparatus has been designed, constructed, and tested for analyzing the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates. The system consists of an isothermal sedimentation chamber, collimated light sources, photographic optics, and monitoring devices. This apparatus is capable of providing dynamic information on water-borne particulates in the size range 2 μm to 700 μm, while simulating a realistic environment. Because of its flexibility, the equipment is being used to determine the kinematic behavior of gravitationally unstable organic mineral aggregates. The importance of organic mineral aggregates has been well established during the past decade. This material is believed to be a potential food source for marine biota at the lowest levels of the food chain. Organic mineral aggregates are also known to concentrate trace elements and other toxic substances and may be part of the control mechanism by which elemental concentrations are maintained in the water column. The benthic fluid mud layer and deep pelagic nepholoid layer consist, in part, of these sediments. Subsea petroleum reserves are thought to be the result of biogeochemical cycling of the organic-mineral complex. Undoubtedly, a fundamental study of these aggregates would be of value to many research interests

  2. Electrokinetic deposition of waterborne, particulate FeO(OH) and MnO2 on stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.-P.

    1977-02-01

    study forms part of a programme of research into corrosion product behaviour in progress at Aktiebolaget Atomenergi. Attention is in this instance focused on the influence of electrokinetic tic factors upon the deposition of particulate corrosion products. The work has involved the development of experimental apparatus and techniques and the investigation of the deposition characteristics of FeO(OH) and MnO 2 at temperatures below 100 degC. The experimental results indicate that the deposition rate of the compounds under review depends mainly upon the zeta potential (zeta) of the particle and of the test section wall. The deposition rate attains a maximum when the zeta potential is at a minimum or zero. Deposition occurs when zeta approx. < 40 mV. Outside this interval deposition is not observed. Furthermore, the deposition rate maximum depends upon the rate of change of pH both as regards its magnitude and its position on the pH scale. This dependence can be accounted for in terms of a general drain of material from the loop and a difference in zeta potential between particles and the wall surface of the test section. (author)

  3. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change ...

  4. Waterborne zoonotic helminthiases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithiuthai, Suwannee; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2004-12-09

    This review deals with waterborne zoonotic helminths, many of which are opportunistic parasites spreading directly from animals to man or man to animals through water that is either ingested or that contains forms capable of skin penetration. Disease severity ranges from being rapidly fatal to low-grade chronic infections that may be asymptomatic for many years. The most significant zoonotic waterborne helminthic diseases are either snail-mediated, copepod-mediated or transmitted by faecal-contaminated water. Snail-mediated helminthiases described here are caused by digenetic trematodes that undergo complex life cycles involving various species of aquatic snails. These diseases include schistosomiasis, cercarial dermatitis, fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis. The primary copepod-mediated helminthiases are sparganosis, gnathostomiasis and dracunculiasis, and the major faecal-contaminated water helminthiases are cysticercosis, hydatid disease and larva migrans. Generally, only parasites whose infective stages can be transmitted directly by water are discussed in this article. Although many do not require a water environment in which to complete their life cycle, their infective stages can certainly be distributed and acquired directly through water. Transmission via the external environment is necessary for many helminth parasites, with water and faecal contamination being important considerations. Human behaviour, particularly poor hygiene, is a major factor in the re-emergence, and spread of parasitic infections. Also important in assessing the risk of infection by water transmission are human habits and population density, the prevalence of infection in them and in alternate animal hosts, methods of treating sewage and drinking water, and climate. Disease prevention methods, including disease surveillance, education and improved drinking water treatment are described.

  5. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  6. Root cause of waterborne diseases in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashml, H.N.; Ghumman, A.R.; Malik, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The waterborne diseases are increasing rapidly at an alarming rate in Pakistan due to poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water supplies. This study shows that about 25 percent of all the illnesses in Lahore are due to severe cases of waterborne diseases. Unhygienic sanitation system is the root cause for this scenario. Drinking water, samples were collected from different zones of the city to find out the root cause of waterborne diseases. The samples from the distribution system serving 'Kachi Abbadies' (Underdeveloped areas) were much more contaminated, may be due to non-chlorination as compared to the water which is regularly chlorinated in posh areas of the city. Contribution of soakage pits in groundwater contamination is more significant at shallow depths. From the laboratory results it is clear that water distribution in underdeveloped areas of the city is highly contaminated and ground water available at shallow depth is also infected by microbial activities. Data collected from the different hospitals to investigate the problem shows that waterborne diseases vary their trend seasonally. Here in Pakistan, rainy season (July-August) reveals maximum number of cases of waterborne diseases. Proper sanitation and water supply systems are more essential to control the influence of waterborne diseases within the country. It is strongly recommended that reputable ways of communications are urgently required to highlight the diseases related to unsafe drinking water. (author)

  7. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Yazmín Ramírez-Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

  8. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa: Beyond Method 1623

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia Current detection methodologies 2. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Building a “Protoz...

  9. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Protozoa Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVERVIEW I. Brief introduction to waterborne Cryptosporidium Historical perspective on detecting Cryptosporidium Current detection methodologies II. US EPA’s waterborne protozoan research program Detecting, typing, and tracking sources of Cryptosporidium contami...

  10. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the Design Basis and Beyond Design Basis accidents to be used in the future study

  11. Waterborne UV coating for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    (Full Text): Solvent borne industrial coatings are being replaced by environment friendly coatings like Ultra Violet (UV) or Electron Beam (Eb) cured coatings, Powder coatings and Waterborne coatings. Waterborne systems enjoy the biggest share from this shift. UV and EB coatings provide the advantages of instant cure at room temperature, high scratch and abrasion resistance combined with excellent chemical resistance. Polyurethane (PU) chemistry is the dominant chemistry in Industrial coatings as they provide a very high level of performance. Most PU coatings are solvent based 2-component systems comprising of a resin and a cross linker. Polyurethane dispersions (PUD) in water in single pack are available but mainly addresses the Do It Yourself (DIY) market because of their slow drying speeds. Performance of PUD in most cases is inferior to solvent borne 2-component PU systems.Therefore the combination of PU dispersion and UV/EB curable technology has led to new innovative waterborne polymers called UV curable polyurethane dispersions (UVPUD). UVPUD are zero VOC systems as they are coalescent free. They are higher in molecular weight than standard UV curable products resulting in lower shrinkage coatings and provide good adhesion to substrates. Their low-viscosity makes them suitable for application by spray, curtain coater and even roller coater, without having to use monomers. UVPUD display superior chemical and mechanical properties necessary to protect high quality surface from the challenging usage conditions. UVPUD resins are therefore tailor-made to address performance needs like excellence in outdoor durability, scratch resistance, stain resistance, adhesion etc. UVPUD technology is now growing rapidly in industrial coatings for applications such as resilient flooring, wooden parquet flooring, automotive interior plastics, mobile phones etc. (Author)

  12. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Following a request from the States of South Carolina and Georgia, downstream radiological consequences from postulated accidental aqueous releases at the three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be examined. This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the accidents to be used in the future study

  13. Giardiasis: a return of waterborne disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spofford, W.O. Jr.

    Complacency about safe water supply has turned to concern over possible chemical contamination and waterborne disease, giardiasis, caused by a protozoan. A case study of an outbreak of giardiasis in Pennsylvania raises questions about water treatment strategies, which must necessarily vary because of differences in public water systems. While giardiasis is an unpleasant and uncomfortable disease, it is not as serious as typhoid, dysentery, and other diseases. The costs of analyzing water systems to detect and eliminate the risk of contamination may exceed the costs of the disease itself. Americans have grown used to safe drinking water, however, and may conclude that the benefits are worth the cost. 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Funari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Change in climate and water cycle will challenge water availability but it will also increase the exposure to unsafe water. Floods, droughts, heavy storms, changes in rain pattern, increase of temperature and sea level, they all show an increasing trend worldwide and will affect biological, physical and chemical components of water through different paths thus enhancing the risk of waterborne diseases. This paper is intended, through reviewing the available literature, to highlight environmental changes and critical situations caused by floods, drought and warmer temperature that will lead to an increase of exposure to water related pathogens, chemical hazards and cyanotoxins. The final aim is provide knowledge-based elements for more focused adaptation measures.

  15. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Env ronmental Management and Tox cology, Un vers ty of Agr culture, PMB 2240,. Abeokuta, Ogun .... and a modern sector) that has implications for ... plastered with cement. ..... residents are at–risk of water-borne diseases.

  16. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: I am using published data...

  17. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  18. Is Waterborne Disease Still an Issue in the US?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Michael Beach discusses the changing face of waterborne disease in the US over the past century and how healthcare providers can apply this information to their patients.

  19. [Waterborne diseases outbreaks in the Czech Republic, 1995-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozísek, F; Jeligová, H; Dvoráková, A

    2009-08-01

    Despite considerable advances in drinking water safety assurance and adherence to the public health standards, waterborne diaseases outbreaks have still been observed even in industrialized countries. The study objective was to map such outbreaks in the Czech Republic in 1995-2005. In this study, an outbreak is the occurrence of more cases of disease than normally expected within a specific place over a given period of time and a waterborne disease is a disease where water is the vehicle or source of infection. The data on waterborne outbreaks was obtained from the EPIDAT database (national infectious diseases reporting system) information provided by epidemiologists of all regional public health authorities and the National Reference Laboratory for Legionella. In 1995 - 2005, 33 outbreaks with water indicated as the route of transmission were recorded in the Czech Republic. The leading cause was unsafe drinking water (27 outbreaks), mainly from wells (19 outbreaks); nevertheless, the most serious consequences were observed in two outbreaks caused by microbiologically contaminated hot water. Other sources of waterborne infection were mineral water springs, a swimming pool and a brook. The total of reported cases of waterborne diseases was 1655, 356 hospitalisations and ten deaths due to legionellosis were recorded. The highest number of outbreaks (7) as well as the highest number of cases (841) were reported in 1997. Comparison of two five-year periods, i.e. 1996-2000 and 2001-2005, showed a nearly one third decrease in the total of outbreaks and a half reduction in the total of cases in the latter. In view of the limited length of monitoring, it is not possible to say with certainty whether it is a random distribution or an actual trend. Almost two thirds of cases were diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis of probable infectious origin and other frequent waterborne diseases were viral hepatitis A and bacillary dysentery. When analyzing the described outbreaks, it

  20. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  1. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  2. Oil-Acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, E.M.S.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  3. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  4. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... 2014. Genetic –based investigations of three prevalent waterborne protozoa parasites in drinking water sources in Daloa, Cote d'Ivoire. 6536 step method, used for the detection of species belonging to Enterococcus genus. These membrane filtration (MF) based techniques do not require any additional.

  5. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Waterborne Disease Still an Issue in the US?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Michael Beach discusses the changing face of waterborne disease in the US over the past century and how healthcare providers can apply this information to their patients.  Created: 8/27/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/22/2012.

  7. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa parasites in drinking water sources in Daloa district in Côte d'Ivoire. ... Low-income households should be aware of the risk of drinking water from wells and the need to boil or treated drinking water to avoid diarrheal diseases related thereto. Conclusion ...

  8. Waterborne Disease Case Investigation: Public Health Nursing Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gina K; Canclini, Sharon B; Fripp, Jon; Fripp, William

    2017-01-01

    The lack of safe drinking water is a significant public health threat worldwide. Registered nurses assess the physical environment, including the quality of the water supply, and apply environmental health knowledge to reduce environmental exposures. The purpose of this research brief is to describe a waterborne disease simulation for students enrolled in a public health nursing (PHN) course. A total of 157 undergraduate students completed the simulation in teams, using the SBAR (Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation) reporting tool. Simulation evaluation consisted of content analysis of the SBAR tools and debriefing notes. Student teams completed the simulation and articulated the implications for PHN practice. Student teams discussed assessment findings and primarily recommended four nursing interventions: health teaching focused on water, sanitation, and hygiene; community organizing; collaboration; and advocacy to ensure a safe water supply. With advanced planning and collaboration with partners, waterborne disease simulation may enhance PHN education. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(1):39-42.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Waterborne Diseases: Moving Toward Designing Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Smith, Shanon M; Carlton, Elizabeth J

    2018-06-01

    Climate change threatens progress achieved in global reductions of infectious disease rates over recent decades. This review summarizes literature on potential impacts of climate change on waterborne diseases, organized around a framework of questions that can be addressed depending on available data. A growing body of evidence suggests that climate change may alter the incidence of waterborne diseases, and diarrheal diseases in particular. Much of the existing work examines historical relationships between weather and diarrhea incidence, with a limited number of studies projecting future disease rates. Some studies take social and ecological factors into account in considerations of historical relationships, but few have done so in projecting future conditions. The field is at a point of transition, toward incorporating social and ecological factors into understanding the relationships between climatic factors and diarrheal diseases and using this information for future projections. The integration of these components helps identify vulnerable populations and prioritize adaptation strategies.

  10. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  11. Nanoclay Dispersion and its Effect on Properties of Waterborne Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Honarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes as in coatings and adhesives formulations have attracted considerable attention because they are non-toxic, non-flammable and friendly to environment. Besides environmental management, the flexibility, low temperature property, high tensile strength, good adhesion and improved rheological property are specific properties of waterborne polyurethanes. Also low production cost of water borne polyurethanes over solvent-borne polyurethanes is also a reason for their applications. However, these materials have some defects such as weak water resistance and low adhesion in the moisture environment due to sensitivity of their hydrophilic ionic bonds, ether groups, urethane and ester groups to hydrolysis which need to be improved. Also, low heat resistance of these materials is due to a relatively low crystalline melting point or glass transition temperature of hard segments. One of the ways to solve this problem and improve its properties for different applications is the addition of inorganic fillers especially nano-sized layered silicates within polyurethane matrix. In this way water resistance, heat resistance, mechanical properties and modulus increase simultaneously. In this research, waterborne polyurethane nanocomposites with PTMG polyol, IPDI, DMPA (internal emulsifier, TEA (neutralizer and 1, 3 and 5weight % of Cloisite 30B as reinforcement were synthesized and characterized. Polarity of the samples was investigated by contact angle test and dispersion of nano particles in the samples was characterized by X-Ray and TEM, Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties were measured by TGA and DMTA, respectively. The results showed that incorporation of clay into polyurethanes did reduce water absorption and increased heat resistance, modulus, particle size and contact angle.In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes including coatings and adhesives have attracted considerable attention because they

  12. The impact of waterborne LPG imports on US markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, L.

    1994-01-01

    After a winter like most of the US has gone through this year it is certainly apropos to discuss the effect of waterborne LPG imports on the market. Due to time constraints this paper will be limited to global LPG activity as it relates to the US. To provide some credibility to the following comments, it should be stated that Commercial Services Company tracks every large LPG carrier in the world from the LPG lifting point to it's discharge destination and the commercial activity involved in the delivery

  13. Detection of Waterborne Viruses Using High Affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Zeynep; Gittens, Micah; Guerreiro, Antonio; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Walker, Jimmy; Piletsky, Sergey; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-07-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptor ligands which can recognize and specifically bind to a target molecule. They are more resistant to chemical and biological damage and inactivation than antibodies. Therefore, target specific-MIP nanoparticles are aimed to develop and implemented to biosensors for the detection of biological toxic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi toxins that cause many diseases and death due to the environmental contamination. For the first time, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) targeting the bacteriophage MS2 as the template was investigated using a novel solid-phase synthesis method to obtain the artificial affinity ligand for the detection and removal of waterborne viruses through optical-based sensors. A high affinity between the artificial ligand and the target was found, and a regenerative MIP-based virus detection assay was successfully developed using a new surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor which provides an alternative technology for the specific detection and removal of waterborne viruses that lead to high disease and death rates all over the world.

  14. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  15. Feeding reduces waterborne Cu bioaccumulation in a marine rabbitfish Siganus oramin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Sen; Zhou, Yanyan; Gao, Na; Zhang, Li; Green, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne metal uptake has been extensively studied and dietary metal assimilation is increasingly recognized in fish, whilst the interaction between the two uptake routes is largely overlooked. This study compared the waterborne Cu bioaccumulation ("6"5Cu as tracer) in a juvenile rabbitfish at different feeding regimes (starvation (SG), feeding normal diet (NDG) or diet supplemented with extra Cu (DCG)) to test the hypothesis that feeding can influence waterborne metal uptake in marine fish. NDG and DCG diet was fed as a single meal and then all fish were exposed to waterborne "6"5Cu for 48 h, during which the time course sampling was conducted to determine "6"5Cu bioaccumulation, chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. The results revealed that SG fish accumulated the highest "6"5Cu, followed by NDG (61% of SG), whilst DCG fish accumulated the lowest "6"5Cu (34% of SG). These results suggested a protective effect of feeding against waterborne Cu bioaccumulation. This effect was most notable between 10 min and 16 h when there was chyme in gastrointestinal tract (GT). Dietary Cu assimilation mainly occurred before 16 h after feeding. Waterborne "6"5Cu influx rate in the GT was positively correlated with "6"5Cu contents of chyme in NDG, whereas it was largely negatively correlated with "6"5Cu contents of chyme in DCG. The waterborne Cu uptake in the GT was mainly influenced by the chyme flow and dietary Cu assimilation. Overall, our findings suggested that feeding has an important effect on waterborne metal uptake and that both the feeding status of the fish and the relative metal exposure through water and food should be considered in prediction of the metal bioaccumulation and biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Feeding shows a protective effect against waterborne Cu uptake in fish. • The elevated dietary Cu can greatly suppress the waterborne Cu uptake. • The presence of chyme reduces Cu uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. • Feeding status has

  16. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  17. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by miniemulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Murillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Four waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization from a hyperbranched alkyd resin (HBR, methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA and acrylic acid (AA, by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO and ammonium persulfate (AP as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (Tg, content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly monomodal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time of the HBRAA were good.

  18. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Borrull, C; Palà, M; Caubet, I; Bach, P; Nuín, C; Espinet, L; Torres, J; Mirada, G

    2003-01-01

    The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain). We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts) as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149). The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7). No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptable and suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection).

  19. Knowledge Mapping for Climate Change and Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C.; Höuser, Christoph; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E.; Frechen, Tobias; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The authors extracted from the PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases all articles published between 1998 and 2009 that were relevant to climate change and food- and waterborne diseases. Any material within each article that provided information about a relevant pathogen and its relationship with climate and climate change was summarized as a key fact, entered into a relational knowledge base, and tagged with the terminology (predefined terms) used in the field. These terms were organized, quantified, and mapped according to predefined hierarchical categories. For noncholera Vibrio sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., data on climatic and environmental influences (52% and 49% of the total number of key facts, respectively) pertained to specific weather phenomena (as opposed to climate change phenomena) and environmental determinants, whereas information on the potential effects of food-related determinants that might be related to climate or climate change were virtually absent. This proportion was lower for the other pathogens studied (Campylobacter sp. 40%, Salmonella sp. 27%, Norovirus 25%, Listeria sp. 8%), but they all displayed a distinct concentration of information on general food-and water-related determinants or effects, albeit with little detail. Almost no information was available concerning the potential effects of changes in climatic variables on the pathogens evaluated, such as changes in air or water temperature, precipitation, humidity, UV radiation, wind, cloud coverage, sunshine hours, or seasonality. Frequency profiles revealed an abundance of data on weather and food-specific determinants, but also exposed extensive data deficiencies, particularly with regard to the potential effects of climate change on the pathogens evaluated. A reprioritization of public health research is warranted to ensure that funding is dedicated to explicitly studying the effects of changes in climate variables on food- and waterborne diseases. PMID:24771989

  20. Sanitation and risks of waterborne diseases in Aholouyèmè in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-04-30

    Apr 30, 2016 ... 2 Laboratory Pierre PAGNEY: Climate, Water, Ecosystems and ... Objective: The present study aims to analyze the risk of diseases related to .... Figure 3: Monthly rhythm of rains and waterborne pathologies from 2010 to 2013.

  1. Excel file of salivary antibody analysis for Boqueron Beach study, Puerto Rico for six waterborne pathogens.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is the raw Luminex antibody responses to six common waterborne pathogens reported in MFI (Median Fluorescence Intensity) units. This dataset is...

  2. Quantifying the impact of climate change on enteric waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, N.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change, among other factors, will impact waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water worldwide, possibly increasing the risk of diseases caused by these pathogens. So far, the impacts are only determined qualitatively and thorough quantitative estimates of future pathogen

  3. Evaluation and specification of high build and special use waterborne pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High build waterborne traffic paints and highly retro-reflective elements were applied at various locations to evaluate their : practicality for use by NYSDOT Maintenance forces. In addition, highly reflective elements were applied within grooved in ...

  4. Design of self-dispersible charged-polymer building blocks for waterborne polyurethane dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez-Pardo, I.; Sun, P.; van Benthem, R.A.T.M.; Esteves, A.C.C.

    2018-01-01

    Waterborne polyurethane dispersions (PUDs) currently have a wide spectrum of applications as coating resins for biomedical products, food packaging, cosmetics and traditional coatings. At present, PUDs are commonly prepared by the “prepolymer extension” method in which isocyanate terminated

  5. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  6. Effect of nitrogen-doped carbon dots on the anticorrosion properties of waterborne epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Siming; Cui, Mingjun; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) are prepared by solvothermal method and the effect of NCDs on the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy (EP) is investigated. Scanning probe microscopy results show that the size of the NCDs is about 4–6 nm. In addition, the anticorrosion property of NCD-incorporated waterborne epoxy coatings is investigated via electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the impedance modulus of 2.0% NCDs/EP is 364 times higher than that of blank EP after 800 h of immersion, indicating significant enhancement in the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy coating. The reason is that NCDs with lots of surface functional groups can connect with waterborne epoxy to suppress enlargement of the pores, and reduce the diffusion of oxygen in the coating, thus cutting off the connection between the substrate and oxygen, and delaying corrosion of the substrate.

  7. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca 2+ in the form of CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 μg/l as CdNO 3 for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca 2+ , and Na + in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca 2+ /g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca 2+ diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca 2+ and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca 2+ and Cd. As the Ca 2+ concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca 2+ uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca 2+ (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na + uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca 2+ surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca 2+ /g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca 2+ , Na + , and Cl - levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca 2+ protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca 2+ uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 μg/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca 2+ (but not Na + ) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca 2+ reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca 2+ -rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation

  8. Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

  9. Contribution of waterborne radon to home air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 is a member of the uranium decay chain and is formed from the decay of radium-226. Radon and its decay products emit alpha particles during the decay process. If radon is inhaled, alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon and its daughters increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon is soluble in water; thus when radon comes in contact with groundwater it dissolves. The radon concentration in groundwater may range from 100 pCi/L to 1,000,000 pCi/L. When water with a high radon level is used in the home, radon is released from the water to the air and thus can increase indoor air radon concentration. Considering the estimated health risk from radon in public water supply systems, EPA has proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 300 pCi/L for radon in public drinking water supplies. To address the health risks of radon in water and the proposed regulations, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) initiated a study to determine the contribution of waterborne radon to radon levels in indoor household air

  10. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  11. Reported waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease in Australia are predominantly associated with recreational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Katie; Kirk, Martyn; Sinclair, Martha; Hall, Robert; Leder, Karin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the frequency and circumstances of reported waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Australia. Examination of data reported to OzFoodNet between 2001 and 2007. During these seven years, 6,515 gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported to OzFoodNet, most of which were classified as being transmitted person-to-person or from an unknown source. Fifty-four (0.83%) outbreaks were classified as either 'waterborne' or 'suspected waterborne', of which 78% (42/54) were attributed to recreational water and 19% (10/54) to drinking water. Of the drinking water outbreaks, implicated pathogens were found on all but one occasion and included Salmonella sp. (five outbreaks), Campylobacter jejuni (three outbreaks) and Giardia (one outbreak). There have been few waterborne outbreaks detected in Australia, and most of those reported have been associated with recreational exposure. However, there are difficulties in identifying and categorising gastroenteritis outbreaks, as well as in obtaining microbiological and epidemiological evidence, which can result in misclassification or underestimation of water-associated events. Gastroenteritis surveillance data show that, among reported water-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, recreational exposure is currently more common than a drinking water source. However, ongoing surveillance for waterborne outbreaks is important, especially as drought conditions may necessitate replacement of conventional drinking water supplies with alternative water sources, which could incur potential for new health risks. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Stability of biodegradable waterborne polyurethane films in buffered saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying Yi; Hung, Kun-Che; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2015-09-21

    The stability of polyurethane (PU) is of critical importance for applications such as in coating industry or as biomaterials. To eliminate the environmental concerns on the synthesis of PU which involves the use of organic solvents, the aqueous-based or waterborne PU (WBPU) has been developed. WBPU, however, may be unstable in an electrolyte-rich environment. In this study, the authors reported the stability of biodegradable WBPU in the buffered saline solutions evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Various biodegradable WBPU films were prepared by spin coating on coverslip glass, with a thickness of ∼300 nm. The surface AFM images of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol-based WBPU revealed nanoglobular structure. The same feature was observed when 20% molar of the PCL diol soft segment was replaced by polyethylene butylenes adipate diol. After hydration in buffered saline solutions for 24 h, the surface domains generally increased in sizes and became irregular in shape. On the other hand, when the soft segment was replaced by 20% poly(l-lactide) diol, a meshlike surface structure was demonstrated by AFM. When the latter WBPU was hydrated, the surface domains appeared to be disconnected. Results from the attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the surface chemistry of WBPU films was altered after hydration. These changes were probably associated with the neutralization of carboxylate by ions in the saline solutions, resulting in the rearrangements of soft and hard segments and causing instability of the WBPU.

  13. Structural analysis in support of the waterborne transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The safety of the transportation of radioactive materials by road and rail has been well studied and documented. However, the safety of waterborne transportation has received much less attention. Recent highly visible waterborne transportation campaigns have led to DOE and IAEA to focus attention on the safety of this transportation mode. In response, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a program to establish a method to determine the safety of these shipments. As part of that program the mechanics involved in ship-to-ship collisions are being evaluated to determine the loadings imparted to radioactive material transportation packages during these collisions. This paper will report on the results of these evaluations

  14. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  15. Burden of Disease Attributed to Waterborne Transmission of Selected Enteric Pathogens, Australia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Katherine B; O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2017-06-01

    AbstractUniversal access to safe drinking water is a global priority. To estimate the annual disease burden of campylobacteriosis, nontyphoidal salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and norovirus attributable to waterborne transmission in Australia, we multiplied regional World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of the proportion of cases attributable to waterborne transmission by estimates of all-source disease burden for each study pathogen. Norovirus was attributed as causing the most waterborne disease cases (479,632; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0-1,111,874) followed by giardiasis and campylobacteriosis. The estimated waterborne disability-adjusted life year (DALY) burden for campylobacteriosis (2,004; 95% UI: 0-5,831) was 7-fold greater than other study pathogens and exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (1 × 10 -6 DALY per person per year) by 90-fold. However, these estimates include disease transmitted via either drinking or recreational water exposure. More precise country-specific and drinking water-specific attribution estimates would better define the health burden from drinking water and inform changes to treatment requirements.

  16. Bridging adhesion and barrier properties with functional dispersions : towards waterborne anti-corrosion coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    The successful preparation of waterborne anti-corrosion coatings based on maleic anhydride containing copolymers is described in this thesis. To obtain good anticorrosion coatings, three different properties should be present in a coating system; they should display good mechanical properties, good

  17. A COMPARISON OF THREE ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF WATERBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One criterion on which chlorine treatment of water may be based is the concentration (C) in mg/l multiplied by the time (t) in min of exposure or Ct values. We compared different Ct values on waterborne pathogenic bacteria by cultural assay for viability and 2 assays that mea...

  18. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  19. Global Warming and Trans-Boundary Movement of Waterborne Microbial Pathogens - Book Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtle increases in temperature can have profound impacts on the prevalence of various waterborne microbial pathogens. Such impacts may be seen in three major areas, 1) fecally contaminated drinking water, 2) fresh produce that has been irrigated or processed with contaminated wa...

  20. Facile approach to fabricate waterborne polyaniline nanocomposites with environmental benignity and high physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Wen, Huan; Hu, Bin; Fei, Guiqiang; Shen, Yiding; Sun, Liyu; Yang, Dong

    2017-03-01

    Waterborne polyaniline (PANI) dispersion has got extensive attention due to its environmental friendliness and good processability, whereas the storage stability and mechanical property have been the challenge for the waterborne PANI composites. Here we prepare for waterborne PANI dispersion through the chemical graft polymerisation of PANI into epichlorohydrin modified poly (vinyl alcohol) (EPVA). In comparison with waterborne PANI dispersion prepared through physical blend and in situ polymerisation, the storage stability of PANI-g-EPVA dispersion is greatly improved and the dispersion keeps stable for one year. In addition, the as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA film displays more uniform and smooth morphology, as well as enhanced phase compatibility. PANI is homogeneously distributed in the EPVA matrix on the nanoscale. PANI-g-EPVA displays different morphology at different aniline content. The electrical conductivity corresponds to 7.3 S/cm when only 30% PANI is incorporated into the composites, and then increases up to 20.83 S/cm with further increase in the aniline content. Simultaneously, the tensile strength increases from 35 MPa to 64 MPa. The as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA dispersion can be directly used as the conductive ink or coatings for cellulose fibre paper to prepare flexible conductive paper with high conductivity and mechanical property, which is also suitable for large scalable production.

  1. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  2. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M

    2004-03-30

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca{sup 2+} in the form of CaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 {mu}g/l as CdNO{sub 3} for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca{sup 2+} diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca{sup 2+} and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. As the Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca{sup 2+} uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca{sup 2+} (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na{sup +} uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca{sup 2+} surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, and Cl{sup -} levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca{sup 2+} protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 {mu}g/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca{sup 2+} (but not Na{sup +}) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca{sup 2+}-rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  4. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  5. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  6. A waterborne outbreak of multiple diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli infections associated with drinking water at a school camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This outbreak points to the importance of drinking water quality management in group facilities where underground water is used and emphasizes the need for periodic sanitation and inspection to prevent possible waterborne outbreaks.

  7. Particulate carbon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surakka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted to the atmosphere in combustion processes. Carbon particles are very small and have a long residence time in the air. Black Carbon, a type of carbon aerosol, is a good label when transport of combustion emissions in the atmosphere is studied. It is also useful tool in air quality studies. Carbon particles absorb light 6.5 to 8 times stronger than any other particulate matter in the air. Their effect on decreasing visibility is about 50 %. Weather disturbances are also caused by carbon emissions e.g. in Kuwait. Carbon particles have big absorption surface and capacity to catalyze different heterogenous reactions in air. Due to their special chemical and physical properties particulate carbon is a significant air pollution specie, especially in urban air. Average particulate carbon concentration of 5.7 μg/m 2 have been measured in winter months in Helsinki

  8. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  9. Effect of Zinc Phosphate on the Corrosion Behavior of Waterborne Acrylic Coating/Metal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxia; Song, Dongdong; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Jin; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-06-14

    Waterborne coating has recently been paid much attention. However, it cannot be used widely due to its performance limitations. Under the specified conditions of the selected resin, selecting the function pigment is key to improving the anticorrosive properties of the coating. Zinc phosphate is an environmentally protective and efficient anticorrosion pigment. In this work, zinc phosphate was used in modifying waterborne acrylic coatings. Moreover, the disbonding resistance of the coating was studied. Results showed that adding zinc phosphate can effectively inhibit the anode process of metal corrosion and enhance the wet adhesion of the coating, and consequently prevent the horizontal diffusion of the corrosive medium into the coating/metal interface and slow down the disbonding of the coating.

  10. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  11. Implications of biofilm-associated waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts for the water industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angles, Mark L; Chandy, Joseph P; Cox, Peter T; Fisher, Ian H; Warnecke, Malcolm R

    2007-08-01

    Waterborne Cryptosporidium has been responsible for drinking water-associated disease outbreaks in a number of developed countries. As a result of the resistance of Cryptosporidium to chlorine, which is typically applied as a final barrier to protect the quality of distributed drinking water, current management practices are focused on source-water management and water treatment as ways of preventing Cryptosporidium from entering drinking-water supplies. In the event that treatment barriers fail, surprisingly little is known of the fate of oocysts once they enter a distribution system. To assess properly the risks of waterborne Cryptosporidium, a more thorough understanding of the fate of oocysts in water distribution systems, with emphasis on Cryptosporidium-biofilm interactions, is required.

  12. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  13. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Roisin M; Bartram, Jamie K; Cramer, Elaine H; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C D

    2004-01-01

    The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance.

  14. Water and infection : Epidemiological studies of epidemic and endemic waterborne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Infections transmitted by water continue to be a public health problem both in developing and in developed countries. In the developed countries, the classical waterborne diseases such as typhoid and cholera are almost eliminated, whereas other pathogens and challenges have emerged. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate and describe aspects of water-associated infections in a Nordic setting. Contaminated water may act as a transmitter of infectious disease by various routes. E...

  15. Synthesis of waterborne, branched, functional poly(urethane)s and theire applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ongun, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethanes are an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. Their versatile chemistry enables researchers to design novel materials ranging from liquid, soft and rubbery solids to rigid thermoplastic and thermoset polymer for elastomeric materials, coating and adhesive. The present study focuses on synthesizing waterborne, branched and chemically functional polyurethanes with unique architectures via novel methodologies for coating ...

  16. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  17. Aspergillosis in the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina: isolation of waterborne hyphae and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Victoria J; Sammarco, Paul W; Caruso, John H

    2014-07-03

    The octocoral disease aspergillosis is caused by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus sydowii. The possibility of secondary (horizontal) transmission of aspergillosis among common sea fans Gorgonia ventalina would require waterborne transmission of hyphae and/or spores. A laboratory filtration experiment confirmed that fungal hyphae and spores were shed into the water by infected fans. This suggests that secondary infection might be possible in this species. It remains to be determined whether healthy fans actually develop aspergillosis after contact with hyphae-laden water.

  18. Classification and prediction of river network ephemerality and its relevance for waterborne disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Larsen, Joshua; Ceperley, Natalie; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of waterborne diseases hinges on the interactions between hydrology and ecology of hosts, vectors and parasites, with the long-term absence of water constituting a strict lower bound. However, the link between spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological ephemerality and waterborne disease transmission is poorly understood and difficult to account for. The use of limited biophysical and hydroclimate information from otherwise data scarce regions is therefore needed to characterize, classify, and predict river network ephemerality in a spatially explicit framework. Here, we develop a novel large-scale ephemerality classification and prediction methodology based on monthly discharge data, water and energy availability, and remote-sensing measures of vegetation, that is relevant to epidemiology, and maintains a mechanistic link to catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, with reference to the context of Burkina Faso in sub-Saharan Africa, we extract a relevant set of catchment covariates that include the aridity index, annual runoff estimation using the Budyko framework, and hysteretical relations between precipitation and vegetation. Five ephemerality classes, from permanent to strongly ephemeral, are defined from the duration of 0-flow periods that also accounts for the sensitivity of river discharge to the long-lasting drought of the 70's-80's in West Africa. Using such classes, a gradient-boosted tree-based prediction yielded three distinct geographic regions of ephemerality. Importantly, we observe a strong epidemiological association between our predictions of hydrologic ephemerality and the known spatial patterns of schistosomiasis, an endemic parasitic waterborne disease in which infection occurs with human-water contact, and requires aquatic snails as an intermediate host. The general nature of our approach and its relevance for predicting the hydrologic controls on schistosomiasis occurrence provides a pathway for the explicit inclusion of

  19. Rainfall-runoff model for prediction of waterborne viral contamination in a small river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, E.; Dommar, C.; Lowe, R.; Polcher, J.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present a lumped rainfall-runoff model aimed at providing useful information for the prediction of waterborne viral contamination in small rivers. Viral contamination of water bodies may occur because of the discharge of sewage effluents and of surface runoff over areas affected by animal waste loads. Surface runoff is caused by precipitation that cannot infiltrate due to its intensity and to antecedent soil water content. It may transport animal feces to adjacent water bodies and cause viral contamination. We model streamflow by separating it into two components: subsurface flow, which is produced by infiltrated precipitation; and surface runoff. The model estimates infiltrated and non-infiltrated precipitation and uses impulse-response functions to compute the corresponding fractions of streamflow. The developed methodologies are applied to the Glafkos river, whose catchment extends for 102 km2 and includes the city of Patra. Streamflow and precipitation observations are available at a daily time resolution. Waterborne virus concentration measurements were performed approximately every second week from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2012. Samples were taken at several locations: in river water upstream of Patras and in the urban area; in sea water at the river outlet and approximately 2 km south-west of Patras; in sewage effluents before and after treatment. The rainfall-runoff model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and precipitation data. The model contribution to waterborne viral contamination prediction was benchmarked by analyzing the virus concentration measurements together with the estimated surface runoff values. The presented methodology may be a first step towards the development of waterborne viral contamination alert systems. Predicting viral contamination of water bodies would benefit sectors such as water supply and tourism.

  20. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  1. Infected Donor Biomass and Active Feeding Increase Waterborne Transmission of Ichthyophonus sp. to Rainbow Trout Sentinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPatra, S E; Kocan, R M

    2016-06-01

    The precise nature of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission among wild fishes has eluded description for over a century. Transmission among piscivores is direct, via ingestion of infected prey, but there is also evidence for waterborne transmission between infected and uninfected individuals. Transmission among planktivores is believed to be via a waterborne infectious cell, but definitive proof of this mechanism has not been forthcoming. To explore possible mechanisms of transmission we used Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model system and examined the consequence of housing infected donor fish with uninfected (sentinel) fish, without physical contact. We examined two variables linked to transmission: (1) feeding and nonfeeding sentinel fish, and (2) biomass of infected donor fish. Specific-pathogen free sentinel trout were placed in fine-mesh baskets suspended in tanks containing varying numbers of larger Ichthyophonus-infected donor fish and held for 10 weeks, during which time they were examined by in vitro explant culture for the presence of Ichthyophonus. Treatment groups consisted of fed and unfed sentinels housed with infected donors of increasing biomass. After 10 weeks infection prevalence in fed sentinels was significantly higher than in unfed sentinels, and Ichthyophonus was detected earlier in fed fish than in unfed fish. There was no correlation between infection prevalence and donor biomass in fed sentinels, but there was a strong correlation between infection prevalence and increasing donor biomass in unfed sentinels. These data suggest that Ichthyophonus is maintained in wild fish populations by two distinct mechanisms: (1) waterborne infectious cells ingested directly from the water by planktivores, and (2) both infected prey and waterborne infectious cells ingested by piscivores. Received November 13, 2015; accepted February 13, 2016.

  2. Decreased waterborne pathogenic bacteria in an urban aquifer related to intense shallow geothermal exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Gasco-Cavero, Samanta; Garrido, Eduardo; Mejías, Miguel; Epting, Jannis; Navarro-Elipe, Mercedes; Alejandre, Carmen; Sevilla-Alcaine, Elena

    2018-08-15

    The implications of intensive use of shallow geothermal energy resources in shallow urban aquifers are still not known for waterborne pathogens relevant to human health. Firstly, we hypothesized that waterborne enteric pathogens would be relatively increased in heated groundwater plumes. To prove this, microbiological sampling of 31 piezometers covering the domain of an urban groundwater body affected by microbiological contamination and energetically exploited by 70 groundwater heat pump systems was performed. Mean differences of pathogenic bacteria contents between impacted and non-impacted monitoring points were assessed with a two-tailed independent Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Surprisingly, the results obtained revealed a significant and generalized decrease in waterborne pathogen contents in thermally impacted piezometers compared to that of non-impacted piezometers. This decrease is hypothesized to be caused by a heat shock to bacteria within the heat exchangers. The statistically significant negative correlations obtained between waterborne pathogen counts and temperature could be explained by the spatial distribution of the bacteria, finding that bacteria start to recover with increasing distance from the injection point. Also, different behavior groups fitting exponential regression models were found for the bacteria species studied, justified by the different presence and influence of several aquifer parameters and major, minor and trace elements studied, as well as the coexistence with other bacteria species. The results obtained from this work reinforce the concept of shallow geothermal resources as a clean energy source, as they could also provide the basis to control the pathogenic bacteria contents in groundwater bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Shihui; Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun; Li, Wei; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-dopedpolyaniline (SPANi) with good conductivity and dispersibility in water was copolymerized by aniline and its derivative. • Environmental friendly SPANi/epoxy composite coating with remarkable anti-corrosion performance was prepared. • The corrosion product of pure epoxy or composite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Abstract: Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  4. Competence in water-borne heating systems in buildings; Kompetanse innen vannbaarene varmesystemer i bygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarstein, Stig; Palm, Linn Therese; Naess, Bente Haukland; Nossum, Aase; Johnsen, Morten

    2009-01-15

    Trade participants in water-borne heating systems in buildings has experienced mistakes in all phases and of all participants of a project. When water-borne heating system functions, there is almost no follow up. This report is based on a qualitative survey where a several central participants, who on a daily basis are involved in projects with water-borne heating systems, are interviewed or have participated in focus group meetings. Following points illustrate experiences made by the operators in occasions where competence in trade is insufficiencies and mistakes occur: - Property developer lacks ordering competence and has problems in ordering quality. Consultant submit services of minor quality. Performance is of another quality than the supplier. Administration / maintenance lacks competence in how to run the system and without introduction and training in the heating system they take over a system that is over dimensioned and hard to regulate. The trade as a whole knows all the challenges, but the participants gives mainly the impression that the fault is lac of competence for all the other participants - not them self. This report points out measures and Enova can support competence improving measures which on long term will improve the quality from the participants. The trade is recommended to look into project execution, how competence is involved at the right moment, improving of control and documentation routines and at termination / hand over. (AG).14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Li, Wei [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Self-dopedpolyaniline (SPANi) with good conductivity and dispersibility in water was copolymerized by aniline and its derivative. • Environmental friendly SPANi/epoxy composite coating with remarkable anti-corrosion performance was prepared. • The corrosion product of pure epoxy or composite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Abstract: Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  6. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg -1 day -1 . The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day -1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L -1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta exposed to waterborne zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Chungmin; Ling Minpei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment approach that integrates predicted tissue concentrations of zinc (Zn) with a concentration-response relationship and leads to predictions of survival risk for pond abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta as well as to the uncertainties associated with these predictions. The models implemented include a probabilistic bioaccumulation model, which linking biokinetic and consumer-resource models, accounts for Zn exposure profile and a modified Hill model for reconstructing a dose-response profile for abalone exposed to waterborne Zn. The growth risk is assessed by hazard quotients characterized by measured water level and chronic no-observed effect concentration. Our risk analyses for H. diversicolor supertexta reared near Toucheng, Kouhu, and Anping, respectively, in north, central, and south Taiwan region indicate a relatively low likelihood that survival is being affected by waterborne Zn. Expected risks of mortality for abalone were estimated as 0.46 (Toucheng), 0.36 (Kouhu), and 0.29 (Anping). The predicted 90th-percentiles of hazard quotient for potential growth risk were estimated as 1.94 (Toucheng), 0.47 (Kouhu), and 0.51 (Anping). These findings indicate that waterborne Zn exposure poses no significant risk to pond abalone in Kouhu and Anping, yet a relative high growth risk in Toucheng is alarming. Because of a scarcity of toxicity and exposure data, the probabilistic risk assessment was based on very conservative assumptions. - A novel risk assessment method was developed for abalone.

  10. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  11. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  12. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  13. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  14. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  15. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  16. Fully glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane nanocarriers: Preparation, redox-sensitivity, and triggered intracellular drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omrani, Ismail; Babanejad, Niloofar; Shendi, Hasan Kashef; Nabid, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-nabid@sbu.ac.ir

    2017-01-01

    Polyurethanes are important class of biomaterials that are extensively used in medical devices. In spite of their easy synthesis, polyurethanes that are fully degradable in response to the intracellular reducing environment are less explored for controlled drug delivery. Herein, a novel glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane (WPU) nanocarrier for redox triggered intracellular delivery of a model lipophilic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) is reported. The WPU was prepared from polyaddition reaction of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a novel linear polyester polyol involving disulfide linkage, disulfide labeled chain extender, dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA) using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst. The resulting polyurethane self-assembles into nanocarrier in water. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed fast swelling and disruption of nanocarriers under an intracellular reduction-mimicking environment. The in vitro release studies showed that DOX was released in a controlled and redox-dependent manner. MTT assays showed that DOX-loaded WPU had a high in vitro antitumor activity in both HDF noncancer cells and MCF- 7 cancer cells. In addition, it is found that the blank WPU nanocarriers are nontoxic to HDF and MCF-7 cells even at a high concentration of 2 mg/mL. Hence, nanocarriers based on disulfide labeled WPU have appeared as a new class of biocompatible and redox-degradable nanovehicle for efficient intracellular drug delivery. - Highlights: • A novel fully glutathione degradable waterborne polyurethane was developed. • The waterborne nanocarrier with disulfide bonds in both hard and soft segment were developed for redox-triggered intracellular delivery of DOX. • The polyester diol bearing disulfide bonds in the backbone was prepared by a polycondensation polymerization reaction.

  17. Are soil and waterborne parasitic infections health risk for worker populations in southeast Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Ak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The soil and waterborne parasitic infections rate is high degree in developed and developing countries. Migratory workers have greater exposure to these parasitic infections and a lot of morbidity due to these infections in workers. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the presence of soil and waterborne parasites in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone of southeast Turkey. Methods: A total of 25 environmental samples (18 soil samples and 7 water samples were taken from The Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone, in two different seasons (summer and winter. All of the samples were screened for parasites using microscopic examination and culture methods. The parasites were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analysis. Results: The prevalence of soil and water transmitted parasites was found to be positive 52% (13/25 in summer while there is no any parasites in winter. It was found 22.3% (4/18 Acanthamoeba (genotype4, 16.6% (3/18 Ascaris lumbricoides, 11.1% (2/18 Strongoides stercoralis in soil samples and 14.3% (1/7 Acanthamoeba (genotype 4, 42.9% (3/7 Blastocystis (subtype3 in all of water samples. Conclusion: The migratory worker waves have always shaped the ethnic composition and public health problem of the province of Gaziantep. Climate change has the potential to influence prevalence of parasite and our study has shown that increased prevalence of parasite in summer. The global target for the coming years should be to remove the deaths from earth and waterborne parasitic infections in the worker populations. Thus, we prevent the distribution of parasitic infections in our country.

  18. Acid monomer analysis in waterborne polymer systems by targeted labeling of carboxylic acid functionality, followed by pyrolysis - gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, T; Okhuijsen, R; Oerlemans, I; Schoenmakers, P J; Peters, R

    2018-05-14

    Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - (PyGC) is a common method to analyse the composition of natural and synthetic resins. The analysis of acid functionality in, for example, waterborne polyacrylates and polyurethanes polymers has proven to be difficult due to solubility issues, inter- and intramolecular interaction effects, lack of detectability in chromatographic analysis, and lack of thermal stability. Conventional analytical techniques, such as PyGC, cannot be used for the direct detection and identification of acidic monomers, due to thermal rearrangements that take place during pyrolysis. To circumvent this, the carboxylic acid groups are protected prior to thermal treatment by reaction with 2-bromoacetophenone. Reaction conditions are investigated and optimised wrt. conversion measurements. The aproach is applied to waterborne polyacryalates and the results are discussed. This approach enables identification and (semi)quantitative analysis of different acid functionalities in waterborne polymers by PyGC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue-specific Bio-accumulation of Metals in Fish during Chronic Waterborne and Dietary Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile (120-day three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala were exposed to chronic sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50/LD50 of waterborne and dietary copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co, separately, in glass aquaria under constant water temperature (29oC, pH (7.5 and hardness (225 mgL-1 for 12 weeks. Waterborne and dietary exposures caused significantly variable accumulation of metals in three fish species that followed Zn>Ni>Cd>Co>Cu. Fish liver showed significantly higher tendency to accumulate Cu (69.64±25.35 µg g-1, Cd (68.93±21.65 µg g-1, Zn (91.46±29.53 µg g-1, Ni (74.64±18.61 µg g-1 and Co (22.65±20.56 µg g-1, followed by that of kidney and gills, with significant differences while muscle and bones exhibited significantly least tendency to accumulate all metals. Labeo rohita (31.63±2.43 µg g-1 and C. mrigala (31.43±13.70 µg g-1 exhibited significantly higher ability to amass metals than that of C. catla (27.96±10.28 µg g-1. Waterborne exposure caused significantly higher accumulation of metals in fish liver (72.69±27.91 µg g-1, followed by that in kidney, gills, skin, muscle, fins and bones with the average concentrations of 45.14±18.70, 39.47±21.13, 30.81±12.64, 22.65±17.34, 22.23±11.74 and 12.14±6.25 µg g-1, respectively. Dietary exposure resulted into significant escalation of metals in fish liver (58.23±32.44 µg g-1 while it was lowest in bones. Waterborne exposure caused significantly higher accumulation of all metals in fish body than that of dietary treatments.

  20. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  1. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  2. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  3. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  4. A physiological toxicokinetic model for dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namdari, R.; Law, F.C.P. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model was developed to describe the disposition of pyrene in trout following a bolus injection into the dorsal aorta. In the present study, the PB-TK model was adapted for dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout. A skin compartment with transdermal flux described mathematically by the permeability-area-concentration product was added to the PB-TK model to allow prediction of pyrene concentrations in target organs and blood on the basis of exposure concentration at the skin surface. Physiologically relevant parameters e.g., organ volume, blood flow rate, and tissue/blood partitioning coefficient which were derived from the model were similar to those reported in the previous publication. The dermal PB-TK model was validated by exposing the trunk of trout (400--500 g) to stagnant water containing 24 ppm pyrene in a specially designed chamber for 4 hr, 24 hr or 48 hr. The trout were sacrificed at the conclusion of pyrene exposure and the tissues analyzed for unchanged pyrene by HPLC. In separate experiments, trout were implanted with dorsal aorta cannuli before the trunks were exposed to stagnant water containing 24 ppm pyrene in the chamber for 4 hr. At specific time intervals during and after pyrene exposure, blood samples were withdrawn through the cannula and analyzed for pyrene by HPLC. The agreement between simulated and experimentally obtained values shows that this model is an appropriate tool to predict dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout.

  5. Rapid Identification of Seven Waterborne Exophiala Species by RCA DNA Padlock Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, M J; Vicente, V A; Feng, Peiying; Naseri, A; Sun, Jiufeng; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; de Hoog, G S

    2018-03-05

    The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing. The ITS rDNA region of seven Exophiala species (E. equina, E. salmonis, E. opportunistica, E. pisciphila, E. aquamarina, E. angulospora and E. castellanii) along with the close relative Veronaea botryosa was sequenced and aligned for the design of specific padlock probes for the detection of characteristic single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The assay demonstrated to successfully amplify DNA of target fungi, allowing detection at the species level. Amplification products were visualized on 1% agarose gels to confirm specificity of probe-template binding. Amounts of reagents were reduced to prevent the generation of false positive results. The simplicity, tenderness, robustness and low expenses provide padlock probe assay (RCA) a definite place as a very practical method among isothermal approaches for DNA diagnostics.

  6. Epidemicity thresholds for water-borne and water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Rinaldo, Andrea; Gatto, Marino

    2018-06-14

    Determining the conditions that favor pathogen establishment in a host community is key to disease control and eradication. However, focusing on long-term dynamics alone may lead to an underestimation of the threats imposed by outbreaks triggered by short-term transient phenomena. Achieving an effective epidemiological response thus requires to look at different timescales, each of which may be endowed with specific management objectives. In this work we aim to determine epidemicity thresholds for some prototypical examples of water-borne and water-related diseases, a diverse family of infections transmitted either directly through water infested with pathogens or by vectors whose lifecycles are closely associated with water. From a technical perspective, while conditions for endemicity are determined via stability analysis, epidemicity thresholds are defined through generalized reactivity analysis, a recently proposed method that allows the study of the short-term instability properties of ecological systems. Understanding the drivers of water-borne and water-related disease dynamics over timescales that may be relevant to epidemic and/or endemic transmission is a challenge of the utmost importance, as large portions of the developing world are still struggling with the burden imposed by these infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Norovirus transmitted through drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Nuín, C; Alsedà, M; Llovet, T; Mazana, R; Domínguez, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investigation into an outbreak of waterborne disease caused by Norovirus due to the consumption of contaminated drinking water. The first week after the school summer holidays we detected an outbreak of gastroenteritis at a school in Borges Blanques (Lleida, Spain). A retrospective cohort study was carried out to investigate: water consumption and food (six items). We assessed RNA Norovirus by RT-PCR in 6 stool samples. The risk of gastroenteritis was assessed by applying adjusted risk ratio (RRa) analysis at 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 45% (96/213). The main symptoms were: abdominal pain, 88.4% (84/95); nausea, 65.9% (62/94), and vomiting, 64.6% (62/96). The consumption of school drinking water was statistically associated with the disease (RRa: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.3-6.2). The school water tank was dirty, but this drinking water was qualified as potable. Six stool samples gave positive results for Norovirus. Norovirus caused this waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through treated drinking water. It should be obligatory to regularly clean school drinking water deposit tanks, especially after the summer holidays.

  8. A status survey of common water-borne diseases in desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, M M; Chhabra, Chetna

    2004-03-01

    Water is scarce and, in general, a low quality resource in desert areas and the Indian desert is no exception. With this in view, the present study was taken up to survey the status of common water-borne diseases epidemiological trends in the desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan). In the city, 15.5 per cent population and 44.5 per cent families were found to suffer from one or more common water-borne diseases including amoebiasis, diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice and typhoid. No case of fluorosis was recorded. The highest incidence was that of diarrhoea (5.4 per cent population). The worst affected and safe zones in the city were identified and the trends of different diseases in different zones of the city are discussed. The highest incidence of diseases was noted during summer (58.8 per cent) followed by winter (34.1 per cent) and monsoon (7.0 per cent). Relationship of diseases with population attributes like age, education, economy and family size are also discussed. Attributes for contamination of drinking water have been tried to identify and safety measures suggested.

  9. Evolutionary Control of Infectious Disease: Prospects for Vectorborne and Waterborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Ewald

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory may contribute to practical solutions for control of disease by identifying interventions that may cause pathogens to evolve to reduced virulence. Theory predicts, for example, that pathogens transmitted by water or arthropod vectors should evolve to relatively high levels of virulence because such pathogens can gain the evolutionary benefits of relatively high levels of host exploitation while paying little price from host illness. The entrance of Vibrio cholerae into South America in 1991 has generated a natural experiment that allows testing of this idea by determining whether geographic and temporal variations in toxigenicity correspond to variation in the potential for waterborne transmission. Preliminary studies show such correspondences: toxigenicity is negatively associated with access to uncontaminated water in Brazil; and in Chile, where the potential for waterborne transmission is particularly low, toxigenicity of strains declined between 1991 and 1998. In theory vector-proofing of houses should be similarly associated with benignity of vectorborne pathogens, such as the agents of dengue, malaria, and Chagas' disease. These preliminary studies draw attention to the need for definitive prospective experiments to determine whether interventions such as provisioning of uncontaminated water and vector-proofing of houses cause evolutionary reductions in virulence

  10. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R N

    2000-06-22

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.

  11. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  12. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Kienhuis, P. [RIZA, (Netherlands); Duus, R. [Norwegian Standard Association (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization: applications in pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Aitziber; Degrandi-Contraires, Elise; Canetta, Elisabetta; Creton, Costantino; Keddie, Joseph L; Asua, José M

    2011-04-05

    Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles for application as pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were prepared by one-step miniemulsion polymerization. The addition of polyurethane to a standard waterborne acrylic formulation results in a large increase in the cohesive strength and hence a much higher shear holding time (greater than seven weeks at room temperature), which is a very desirable characteristic for PSAs. However, with the increase in cohesion, there is a decrease in the relative viscous component, and hence there is a decrease in the tack energy. The presence of a small concentration of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the acrylic copolymer led to phase separation within the particles and created a hemispherical morphology. The tack energy was particularly low in the hybrid containing MMA because of the effects of lower energy dissipation and greater cross-linking. These results highlight the great sensitivity of the viscoelastic and adhesive properties to the details of the polymer network architecture and hence to the precise composition and synthesis conditions.

  14. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  15. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S.; Hansen, A.B.; Kienhuis, P.; Duus, R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  16. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence performance of a waterborne polyurethane-based polymeric dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianhai, Hu, E-mail: hxyh@aiai.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Building Energy Efficiency Research Institute, Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Xingyuan, E-mail: zxym@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Jin [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Building Energy Efficiency Research Institute, Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230022 (China); Dai, Jiabing [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-10-15

    A novel anionic waterborne polyurethane-based fluorescent dye WPU-DV26 was synthesized by incorporating the molecular structure of disperse violet 26 (DV26) into the polyurethane chain. The structure of WPU-DV26 was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–vis absorption analysis. Comparing to the UV–vis spectrum of DV26, WPU-DV26 showed a hypsochromic shift from the absorption maxima of 518, 558, 609 nm to 510, 548, 586 nm, respectively. WPU-DV26 can form stable latex in water. The number average molecular weight and its distribution index, and average latex particle size for WPU-DV26 were determined to be 2.33×10{sup 4}, 1.36 and 80 nm, respectively. The improved thermal stability of WPU-DV26 can be attributed to the embedded anthraquinone unit of DV26. It was found that both the intensity and stability of the fluorescence of WPU-DV26 latex were improved significantly compared with those of DV26. -- Highlights: ► A waterborne polyurethane-based polymeric dye was synthesized. ► The fluorescence intensity of WPU-DV26 emulsion was enhanced greatly compared with that of DV26. ► The fluorescence stability of WPU-DV26 emulsion was fine not only for long term storage but also for fluorescence quencher.

  18. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  19. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  20. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of disease attributable to drinking water are not common in the U.S., but they do still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences, particularly in sensitive and immunocompromised populations. From 1971 to 2002, there were 764 documented waterborne outbreaks associated with drinking water, resulting in 575,457 cases of illness and 79 deaths (Blackburn et al. 2004; Calderon 2004); however, the true impact of disease is estimated to be much higher. If properly applied, current protocols in municipal water treatment are effective at eliminating pathogens from water. However, inadequate, interrupted, or intermittent treatment has repeatedly been associated with waterborne disease outbreaks. Contamination is not evenly distributed but rather affected by the number of pathogens in the source water, the age of the distribution system, the quality of the delivered water, and climatic events that can tax treatment plant operations. Private water supplies are not regulated by the USEPA and are generally not treated or monitored, although very few of the municipal systems involved in documented outbreaks exceeded the USEPA's total coliform standard in the preceding 12 mon (Craun et al. 2002). We provide here estimates of waterborne infection and illness risks in the U.S. based on the total number of water systems, source water type, and total populations exposed. Furthermore, we evaluated all possible illnesses associated with the microbial infection and not just gastroenteritis. Our results indicate that 10.7 M infections/yr and 5.4 M illnesses/yr occur in populations served by community groundwater systems; 2.2 M infections/yr and 1.1 M illnesses/yr occur in noncommunity groundwater systems; and 26.0 M infections/yr and 13.0 M illnesses/yr occur in municipal surface water systems. The total estimated number of waterborne illnesses/yr in the U.S. is therefore estimated to be 19.5 M/yr. Others have recently estimated

  1. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  2. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung [Buhmwoo Institute of Technology Research, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU.

  5. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  6. Risk-based approach to appraise valve closure in the clam Corbicula fluminea in response to waterborne metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-M.; Jou, L.-J.; Chen, B.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a risk-based approach to assess how the valve closure behavior of Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea responds to waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). We reanalyzed the valve closure response data from published literature to reconstruct the response time-dependent dose-response profiles based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model. We integrated probabilistic exposure profiles of measured environmental Cu and Cd concentrations in the western coastal areas of Taiwan with the reconstructed dose-response relationships at different integration times of response to quantitatively estimate the valve response risk. The risk assessment results implicate exposure to waterborne Cu and Cd may pose no significant risk to clam valve activity in the short-time response periods (e.g., <30 min), yet a relative high risk for valve closure response to waterborne Cu at response times greater than 120 min is alarming. We successfully linked reconstructed dose-response profiles and EC50-time relationships associated with the fitted daily valve opening/closing rhythm characterized by a three-parameter lognormal function to predict the time-varying bivalve closure rhythm response to waterborne metals. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of future design of biological monitoring systems. - A model was developed to link valve closure in clams to concentrations of metals in water

  7. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  8. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingjun; Ren, Siming; Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan; Zhang, Guangan; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2017-03-01

    Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT-) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT-, as proved by Raman and UV-vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 106 Ω cm2) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  9. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  10. Removal of two waterborne pathogenic bacterial strains by activated carbon particles prior to and after charge modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Engels, Eefje; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2006-01-01

    Waterborne diseases constitute a threat to public health despite costly treatment measures aimed at removing pathogenic microorganisms from potable water supplies. This paper compared the removal of Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by negatively and positively charged

  11. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  12. A biodynamic model predicting waterborne lead bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: Influence of water chemistry and in situ validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urien, N.; Uher, E.; Billoir, E.; Geffard, O.; Fechner, L.C.; Lebrun, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Metals bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms are considered to be a good indicator of bioavailable metal contamination levels in freshwaters. However, bioaccumulation depends on the metal, the species, and the water chemistry that influences metal bioavailability. In the laboratory, a kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulated in Gammarus pulex. Uptake and elimination rate constants were successfully determined and the effect of Ca 2+ on Pb uptake was integrated into the model. Thereafter, accumulated Pb concentrations in organisms were predicted with the model and compared with those measured in native populations from the Seine watershed (France). The predictions had a good agreement with the bioaccumulation levels observed in native gammarids and particularly when the effect of calcium was considered. To conclude, kinetic parameters experimentally derived for Pb in G. pulex are applicable in environmental conditions. Moreover, the consideration of the water's chemistry is crucial for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation. - Highlights: • Kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulation in G. pulex. • Ca 2+ inhibits Pb uptake by G. pulex in the laboratory. • Model predictions were compared to bioaccumulated Pb in native G. pulex. • Model accurately predicts waterborne bioaccumulated Pb in gammarids. • Considering the influence of Ca 2+ improves the model predictions in the field. - An experimentally-derived kinetic model considering the effect of calcium was relevant to predict the waterborne Pb bioaccumulation in native Gammarus pulex

  13. Kuwaiti oil fires—Particulate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Amin, Mohamed B.

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) matters using a high-volume sampler and inhalable particulate matters using PM-10 samplers were collected at various locations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during and after the Kuwaiti oil fires. The collected samples were analysed for toxic metals and oil hydrocarbon concentrations including some carcinogenic organic compounds in addition to gravimetric analysis. The concentration values of particulate matters were determined on a daily basis at Dhahran. Abqaiq, Rahima, Tanajib and Jubail locations. The analyses of the filters show a high concentration of the inhalable particulate at various locations, especially when north or northwest winds were blowing. It was found that the inhalable particulate concentration exceeded the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) permissible limit of 340 μg m- 3 at most of these locations during May-October 1991. A trend between the total suspended particulate and inhalable particulate measured concurrently at the same locations was observed and a regression equation was developed to correlate PM-10 data with the total suspended particulate data.

  14. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  15. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO 4 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  16. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  17. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  18. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Siming [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Guangan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xue, Qunji, E-mail: qjxue@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were well dispersed by using water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer as dispersant. • The best corrosion performance of waterborne epoxy coatings was achieved with the addition of 1 wt% h-BN. • The decrease of the pores and defects of coating matrix inhibits the diffusion and water absorption of corrosive medium in the coating. - Abstract: Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT{sup −}) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT{sup −}, as proved by Raman and UV–vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2}) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  19. Measurement of waterborne radon in the drinking water of the Dera Ismail Khan city using active and passive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Tabassum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is considered to be the second largest contributor to the indoor radon concentration after soil. Therefore, measurement of waterborne radon has remained a point of interest for many researchers. The main objective of this study is to study waterborne radon activity in the city of Dera Ismail Khan. In this context, water samples were collected from different locations of the city and waterborne radon was measured using a pylon vacuum water degassing system and CR-39 based radon detectors. The pylon system measured waterborne radon activities in samples of hand pumps and motor driven pumps varying from 0.015 to 0.066 Bq/L and 0.021 to 0.145 Bq/L with average values of 0.041 ± 0.015 Bq/L and 0.076 ± 0.024 Bq/L, respectively. Whereas CR-39 based measured values ranged from 0.042 to 0.125 Bq/L and 0.075 to 0.158 Bq/L with average values of 0.081 ± 0.021 Bq/L and 0.120 ± 0.020 Bq/L, respectively. The estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon from drinking water using pylon and CR-39 based radon detectors for hand and motor pump samples was found to be 1.055×10-4 mSv and 1.947×10-4 mSv, and 2.067×10-4 mSv and 3.058×10-4 mSv, respectively. The waterborne radon concentrations and as a result the annual effective dose expected to be received from it are within the recommended safe limits.

  20. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  1. Waterborne cadmium and nickel impact oxidative stress responses and retinoid metabolism in yellow perch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defo, Michel A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and Ni affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Liver rdh-2 transcription levels increase in fish exposed to waterborne Cd. • Liver REH and LdRAT activities increase with increasing kidney Cd concentration. • Changes at molecular levels do not always mean changes at the functional levels. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. - Abstract: In this experiment, we studied the transcriptional and functional (enzymatic) responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to metal stress, with a focus on oxidative stress and vitamin A metabolism. Juvenile yellow perch were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) for a period of 6 weeks. Kidney Cd and Ni bioaccumulation significantly increased with increasing metal exposure. The major retinoid metabolites analyzed in liver and muscle decreased with metal exposure except at high Cd exposure where no variation was reported in liver. A decrease in free plasma dehydroretinol was also observed with metal exposure. In the liver of Cd-exposed fish, both epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level and corresponding enzyme activities retinyl ester hydrolase and lecithin dehydroretinyl acyl transferase increased. In contrast, muscle epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level decreased with Cd exposure. Among antioxidant defences, liver transcription levels of catalase, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were generally enhanced in Cd-exposed fish and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, except for microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. No consistent pattern in antioxidant defence responses was observed between molecular and biochemical response when fish were exposed to Ni, suggesting a non-synchronous response of antioxidant defence in fish exposed to

  2. Waterborne cadmium and nickel impact oxidative stress responses and retinoid metabolism in yellow perch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C. [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd and Ni affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Liver rdh-2 transcription levels increase in fish exposed to waterborne Cd. • Liver REH and LdRAT activities increase with increasing kidney Cd concentration. • Changes at molecular levels do not always mean changes at the functional levels. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. - Abstract: In this experiment, we studied the transcriptional and functional (enzymatic) responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to metal stress, with a focus on oxidative stress and vitamin A metabolism. Juvenile yellow perch were exposed to two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) for a period of 6 weeks. Kidney Cd and Ni bioaccumulation significantly increased with increasing metal exposure. The major retinoid metabolites analyzed in liver and muscle decreased with metal exposure except at high Cd exposure where no variation was reported in liver. A decrease in free plasma dehydroretinol was also observed with metal exposure. In the liver of Cd-exposed fish, both epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level and corresponding enzyme activities retinyl ester hydrolase and lecithin dehydroretinyl acyl transferase increased. In contrast, muscle epidermal retinol dehydrogenase 2 transcription level decreased with Cd exposure. Among antioxidant defences, liver transcription levels of catalase, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were generally enhanced in Cd-exposed fish and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, except for microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. No consistent pattern in antioxidant defence responses was observed between molecular and biochemical response when fish were exposed to Ni, suggesting a non-synchronous response of antioxidant defence in fish exposed to

  3. Particulate filtration in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The removal of particulate radioactive material from exhaust air or gases is an essential feature of virtually all nuclear facilities. Recent IAEA publications have covered the broad designs of off-gas and air cleaning systems for the range of nuclear power plants and other facilities. This report is a complementary guidebook that examines in detail the latest developments in the design, operation, maintenance and testing of fibrous air filters. The original draft of the report was prepared by three consultants, M.W. First, of the School of Public Health, Harvard University, United States of America, K.S. Robinson, from the UKAEA Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, and H.G. Dillmann, of the Kernforschungzentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM), at which the report was reviewed and much additional information contributed, was attended by 11 experts and was held in Vienna, from 30 May to 3 June 1988. 64 refs, 41 figs, 10 tabs

  4. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowty, Heather; Wang, Chyi-Shan

    2005-04-01

    The fabrication of water-borne polyurethane nanocomposites containing multi-wall nanotubes has presented a significant technological challenge to those in the polymer community. Such conductive polyurethanes are of great interest to the paint and coatings industry for use in electrical grounding and shielding. Currently, these materials are formed by strong acidic reflux of the nanotubes and subsequent dispersal in the polymer matrix. This treatment can result in significant shortening of the tubes and degradation of the resulting mechanical and electrical transport properties. Here we present an alternate technique in which various conductive and non-conductive water-soluble polymers are physi-adsorbed to the surface of the nanotube. These interactions with the nanotubes result in highly uniform suspensions of water-based urethane coatings and bulk materials. We will examine the polymer chemistry and morphologies of these nanostructured materials and the resulting thermal, electrical and mechanical properties.

  6. Structure, properties and application of a novel low-glossed waterborne polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianjun; Zheng, Wen; Zeng, Wenbo; Zhang, Dongqiao; Peng, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) with low gloss was prepared successfully and used as surface modifier to adjust the gloss of leather. The structure and morphology of the WPU films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then the factors affecting the gloss, light transmittance and water absorption of WPU films including varieties and amount of chain extenders, n NCO /n OH molar ratio and 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl sulfonic acid sodium content.etc were studied. Results showed that the WPU film possessed a broad particle size distribution combined with a relatively large particle size. This kind of novel WPU would be widely used in polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane synthetic leather surface.

  7. Development of water-borne thermosetting paint by radiation-induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Katakai, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1981-01-01

    In previous papers the features of γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization were studied to use the emulsion as vehicles for water-borne paint. In this paper, the physical properties of thermosetting paints made with emulsions containing N-(n-butoxymethyl)acrylamide (NBM) and hydroxyl and carboxyl functionality were investigated. Since NBM moieties can react with amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, NBM copolymer emulsions prepared in this study have the self-crosslinking capability. As far as it was investigated, it was difficult to prepare a stable emulsion containing 10% of NBM by the conventional emulsion polymerization by using a water soluble radical initiator such as persulfate. In addition to 1-liter reactor, a pilot-scale plant of 70 liters reactor was used for γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization. Experimental details are given, and results are discussed. (author)

  8. Biophysical, infrastructural and social heterogeneities explain spatial distribution of waterborne gastrointestinal disease burden in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Andrés; Estrada-Barón, Alejandra; Serrano-Candela, Fidel; Bojórquez, Luis A.; Eakin, Hallie; Escalante, Ana E.

    2018-06-01

    Due to unplanned growth, large extension and limited resources, most megacities in the developing world are vulnerable to hydrological hazards and infectious diseases caused by waterborne pathogens. Here we aim to elucidate the extent of the relation between the spatial heterogeneity of physical and socio-economic factors associated with hydrological hazards (flooding and scarcity) and the spatial distribution of gastrointestinal disease in Mexico City, a megacity with more than 8 million people. We applied spatial statistics and multivariate regression analyses to high resolution records of gastrointestinal diseases during two time frames (2007–2009 and 2010–2014). Results show a pattern of significant association between water flooding events and disease incidence in the city center (lowlands). We also found that in the periphery (highlands), higher incidence is generally associated with household infrastructure deficiency. Our findings suggest the need for integrated and spatially tailored interventions by public works and public health agencies, aimed to manage socio-hydrological vulnerability in Mexico City.

  9. The importance of waterborne disease outbreak surveillance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Franz Craun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the causes of disease outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water in the United States have helped inform prevention efforts at the national, state, and local levels. This article describes the changing nature of disease outbreaks in public water systems during 1971-2008 and discusses the importance of a collaborative waterborne outbreak surveillance system established in 1971. Increasing reports of outbreaks throughout the early 1980s emphasized that microbial contaminants remained a health-risk challenge for suppliers of drinking water. Outbreak investigations identified the responsible etiologic agents and deficiencies in the treatment and distribution of drinking water, especially the high risk associated with unfiltered surface water systems. Surveillance information was important in establishing an effective research program that guided government regulations and industry actions to improve drinking water quality. Recent surveillance statistics suggest that prevention efforts based on these research findings have been effective in reducing outbreak risks especially for surface water systems.

  10. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    -)cysts (1x10(2); 10 replicates) was successfully amplified using real-time PCR.ConclusionsThe use of a metallic filter, sonication and air backwash' were key factors for creating a highly efficient system for recovery of apparently undamaged protozoa.Significance and Impact of the StudyThis reagent......AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx....... 400l. Changes in the viability was evaluated by seeding wild type (oo-)cysts (1x10(4)) followed by sonication for 5, 10, 20 or 40s (five replicates for each period). Flow cytometry analysis showed negligible increase in the mortality of (oo-)cysts exposed to 5-10s of sonication. Recovery rate...

  11. Waterborne microorganisms and biofilms related to hospital infections: strategies for prevention and control in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletti, Raquel Vannucci; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2016-02-01

    Water is the main stimulus for the development of microorganisms, and its flow has an important role in the spreading of contaminants. In hospitals, the water distribution system requires special attention since it can be a source of pathogens, including those in the form of biofilms often correlated with resistance of microorganisms to various treatments. In this paper, information relevant to cases of nosocomial infections involving water circuits as a source of contaminants is compiled, with emphasis on the importance of microbiological control strategies to prevent the installation, spreading and growth of microorganisms in hospitals. An overview of the worldwide situation is provided, with emphasis on Brazilian hospitals. Different approaches normally used to control the occurrence of nosocomial infections due to waterborne contaminants are analyzed, and the use of the polysaccharide chitosan for this specific application is briefly discussed.

  12. The effect of polyether functional polydimethylsiloxane on surface and thermal properties of waterborne polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guikai; Lu, Ming; Rui, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    Waterborne polyurethanes (WPU) modified with polyether functional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were synthesized by pre-polymerization method using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as hard segments and polybutylene adipate glycol (PBA) and polyether functional PDMS as soft segments. The effect of polyether functional PDMS on phase separation, thermal properties, surface properties including surface composition, morphology and wettability were investigated by FTIR, contact angle measurements, ARXPS, SEM-EDS, AFM, TG and DSC. The results showed that the compatibility between urethane hard segment and PDMS modified with polyether was good, and there was no distinct phase separation in both bulk and surface of WPU films. The degradation temperature and low temperature flexibility increased with increasing amounts of polyether functional PDMS. The enrichment of polyether functional PDMS with low surface energy on the surface imparted excellent hydrophobicity to WPU films.

  13. Evaluation of the microstructure of waterborne poly(urethane-urea)s nanocomposites with hydrophilic clay (NWPUU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Gisele dos S.; Delpech, Marcia C.; Reis, Rodrigo A. dos; Pereira, Alexandre Z.I; Coelho, Aline B.

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne poly(urethane-urea)s (WPUU) and respective nanocomposites based on hydrophilic clay (NWPUU) generally show segregation between hard and soft domains, in a greater or lesser extent, which directly influences the stability of the dispersion and affect the final properties of the material. Simple characterization techniques, such as infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD), employed in this study, can generate information about the microstructure and phase miscibility, using small amounts of material. The evaluation of the results obtained from the techniques showed that increments in rigid domains content and in the amount of internal emulsifier, as well as the presence of clay, decreased the size of the crystallites (crystallinity of the soft segments). (author)'

  14. Health effects of water-borne radon: review of a proposed study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Science Advisory Board's Radiation Advisory Committee was requested to review the scientific merit of a proposal to conduct an epidemiological study of radon in indoor air. The Board accepted the request and formed a Radioepidemiology Subcommittee which responded to two overriding scientific issues: Can further epidemiological study contribute to an understanding of the risks of lung cancer associated with household exposures. The Subcommittee concludes that scientific uncertainties in current epidemiological studies (chiefly studies of uranium miners) could be further reduced through direct investigations of the domestic population. Is the proposed study under review by the Office of Research and Development, entitled Health Effects of Waterborne Radon, appropriately designed to address the risk. For reasons cited in the attached report, the Subcommittee concludes that it is not appropriately designed

  15. Waterborne polyurethane single-ion electrolyte from aliphatic diisocyanate and various molecular length of polyethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The waterborne polyurethane (WPU dispersions from the reaction of cycloaliphatic diisocyanates [4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate (H12MDI and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI] and polyethylene glycol (PEG with various molecular lengths were synthesized using our modified acetone process. Differetial scanning calorimeter (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were utilized to characterize WPU films for the behavior of their crystallinity and H-bonding of WPU films. The Tg value of WPU increases with increasing the molecular length of PEG, whereas the Tm of WPU decreases with increasing PEG length. Alternating current (AC impedance experiments were performed to determine the ionic conductivities of WPU films. The WPU gel electrolytes exhibits an ionic conductivity as high as ~ 10-5 S/cm at room temperature.

  16. Spatially explicit fate factors of waterborne nitrogen emissions at the global scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Mayorga, Emilio; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    water. Spatial aggregation of the FFs at the continental level decreases this variation to 1 order of magnitude or less for all routes. Coastal water residence time was found to show inconsistency and scarcity of literature sources. Improvement of data quality for this parameter is suggested......Purpose: Marine eutrophication impacts due to waterborne nitrogen (N) emissions may vary significantly with their type and location. The environmental fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) forms is essential to understand the impacts they may trigger in receiving coastal waters. Current life...... and river basin resolution. Methods: The FF modelling work includes DIN removal processes in both inland (soil and river) and marine compartments. Model input parameters are the removal coefficients extracted from the Global NEWS 2-DIN model and residence time of receiving coastal waters. The resulting FFs...

  17. Water Quality Survey of Splash Pads After A Waterborne Salmonellosis Outbreak--Tennessee, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Joshua L; Manners, Judy; Miller, Susan; Shepherd, Craig; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-06-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of salmonellosis are uncommon. The Tennessee Department of Health investigated a salmonellosis outbreak of 10 cases with the only common risk factor being exposure to a single splash pad. Risks included water splashed in the face at the splash pad and no free residual chlorine in the water system. We surveyed water quality and patron behaviors at splash pads statewide. Of the 29 splash pads participating in the water quality survey, 24 (83%) used a recirculating water system. Of the 24, 5 (21%) water samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for E. coli, Giardia, norovirus, or Salmonella. Among 95 patrons observed, we identified common high-risk behaviors of sitting on the fountain or spray head and putting mouth to water. Water venue regulations and improved education of patrons are important to aid prevention efforts.

  18. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by mini emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Grupo de Investigacion en Materiales Polimericos (GIMAPOL), Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia); Lopez, Betty [Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle, Medellin (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Four waterborne hyper branched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA) were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization from a hyper branched alkyd resin (HBR), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA), by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ammonium persulfate (AP) as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction) and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly mono modal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time) of the HBRAA were good. (author)

  19. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  20. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core-shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  1. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  2. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

  3. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Monitoring of Waterborne Parasites in Two Drinking Water Treatment Plants: A Study in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reena Leeba; Ithoi, Init; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff; Tan, Tian Chye; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2016-06-28

    The occurrence of waterborne parasites coupled with water parameters at various processing sites of two drinking water treatment plants (A and B) and seven distribution system (DS) sites in Sarawak, Malaysia were studied. Ten liters of water underwent immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique to detect the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts. The remaining supernatant was used to detect other parasites whilst 50 mL of water sample was each used in the detection of free-living amoebae and fecal coliforms. Sampled water was positive for Giardia (32.9%; 28/85), Cryptosporidium (18.8%; 16/85) followed by Spirometra ova-like (25.9%; 22/85), Blastocystis-like (25.9%; 22/85), nematode larvae-like (8.2%; 7/85) and Taenia ova-like (1.2%; 1/85). Meanwhile, 90.2% (55/61) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Naegleria via cultivation and of these, 11 isolates were confirmed as Acanthamoeba genotype T3 (5/7) and T4 (2/7) followed by Naegleria sp. (4/11), Naegleria italica (2/11), Naegleria australiensis (1/11), Naegleria angularis (1/11) and Vahlkampfia sp. (3/11). Cryptosporidium, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria were also detected in one of the seven tested DS sites. Only Giardia and Cryptosporidium showed significant correlations with fluoride and fecal coliforms. These results describe the occurrence of waterborne parasites that will assist key stakeholders in mitigating contamination at the specific sites.

  5. Hydroclimatic drivers, Water-borne Diseases, and Population Vulnerability in Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water-borne diarrheal disease outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region, such as cholera, rotavirus, and dysentery, show distinct seasonal peaks and spatial signatures in their origin and progression. However, the mechanisms behind these seasonal phenomena, especially the role of regional climatic and hydrologic processes behind the disease outbreaks, are not fully understood. Overall diarrheal disease prevalence and the population vulnerability to transmission mechanisms thus remain severely underestimated. Recent findings suggest that diarrheal incidence in the spring is strongly associated with scarcity of freshwater flow volumes, while the abundance of water in monsoon show strong positive correlation with autumn diarrheal burden. The role of large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that tend to modulate meteorological, hydrological, and environmental conditions over large regions and the effects on the ecological states conducive to the vectors and triggers of diarrheal outbreaks over large geographic regions are not well understood. We take a large scale approach to conduct detailed diagnostic analyses of a range of climate, hydrological, and ecosystem variables to investigate their links to outbreaks, occurrence, and transmission of the most prevalent water-borne diarrheal diseases. We employ satellite remote sensing data products to track coastal ecosystems and plankton processes related to cholera outbreaks. In addition, we investigate the effect of large scale hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., droughts and floods, El Nino) to identify how diarrheal transmission and epidemic outbreaks are most likely to respond to shifts in climatic, hydrologic, and ecological changes over coming decades. We argue that controlling diarrheal disease burden will require an integrated predictive surveillance approach - a combination of prediction and prevention - with recent advances in climate-based predictive capabilities and demonstrated successes in primary and tertiary prevention

  6. Modeling the effect of water chemistry on the bioaccumulation of waterborne cadmium in zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2010-10-01

    The present study aims at investigating the effects of Zn, Ca, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the waterborne Cd bioaccumulation of a freshwater bivalve (Dreissena polymorpha). Mussels were exposed for 48 h at 3 µg/L of Cd in different media. Their physiological activities were assessed by separately measuring the filtration rate in the same exposure water. Increased Zn (from 3 to 89 µg/L) and Ca (from 37 to 131 mg/L) concentrations in water led to a threefold and sevenfold reduction of Cd bioaccumulation, whereas the effect of DOC varied greatly depending on its concentration. At low DOC concentrations (from 0.2 to 1.1 mg/L), the uptake of Cd increased, whereas at higher concentrations (from 1.1 to 17.1 mg/L), the uptake decreased. The filtration activity was not strongly influenced by either Zn or Ca concentration, whereas it was modified in enriched DOC media in the same manner as Cd uptake. A competitive model was built to predict the waterborne uptake rate constant of Cd (k (u)) as a function of Zn and Ca concentrations in the water. Over the range of DOC concentrations we tested, organic matter was shown to influence Cd bioaccumulation in two ways: by modifying Cd speciation and thus its bioavailability and its interaction with the biological membrane, and by affecting the mussel's physiology and therefore its sensitivity to metal. The present study provides a useful means of adjusting the toxicokinetic constant to the water's physicochemical characteristics and proposes a unifying model that takes into account the different geochemical and biological influences on bioaccumulation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2182-2189. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.

    2009-10-01

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  8. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  9. Removal of particulates from nuclear offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate removal from nuclear offgases can be broken down into three parts: pretreatment, prefiltration, and absolute filtration. Pretreatment, using conventional air cleaning devices in most cases, is sometimes required to temper the gases and remove heavy concentrations of particulate matter. Prefiltration, if required, serves primarily to protect the final filter stages from heavy dust loadings in order to extend their life. HEPA filters are the most commonly used ''absolute'' filtration devices and are always required for removal of submicrometer particulates that cannot be removed effectively by other devices

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  11. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  12. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  13. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate Matter (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting ... U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department ...

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  15. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  16. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  17. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  18. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  19. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  20. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  1. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  2. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  3. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  4. Contacting particulate solids with liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for contacting particulate solids with a fluid. The particular applications described are 1) an acid dissolver for dissolving plutonium from plutonium contaminated ash produced by the incineration of waste such as rubber gloves, tissue paper etc. and 2) apparatus for dissolving gel spheres of nuclear fuel material. The liquid, e.g. acid for use in a leaching process flows through a vertical conduit and past a series of baffles spaced along the axis of the conduit. Each baffle defines a mixing chamber and provides a small gap around its perimeter between the baffle and the wall of the conduit. The baffles are provided with sloping top surfaces for preventing solid particles from settling on the baffles and sloping undersurfaces to improve mixing of the liquid and the solid particles. The liquid flows upwards in the conduit but solid particles may be fed from the top or from the bottom of the conduit to mix with the liquid. Gas may be introduced to promote improved flow conditions. (U.K.)

  5. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Shukla, Pravesh C.; Dhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  6. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  7. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  8. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  9. Removal of the microorganisms from water. Part 1: Introduction, water-borne disease and the microorganisms involved.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duuren, FR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available coccosis Infectious hepatitis Lepto. spirosis Paratyphoid fever Poliomye? lids Schistoso miasis Shigellosis Taeniasis and Cysticer cosis Tularemia Typhoid fever Fun gal Wide clinical F. nte nc Intestinal Sub cutaneous Liver... in the spread (this) disease. Forward strides taken since, in sanitation and water ply practice, have all but eliminated the incidence of ~h major water-borne diseases as cholera and typhoid er in the western world. The improvements which ye been effected...

  10. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Cross-talk between waterborne and dietary uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappal, Ravinder; Burka, John; Dawson, Susan; Kamunde, Collins

    2009-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis was studied at the tissue and gill subcellular levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following waterborne and dietary exposures, singly and in combination. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 150 or 600 μg l -1 waterborne Zn, 1500 or 4500 μg g -1 dietary Zn, and a combination of 150 μg l -1 waterborne and 1500 μg g -1 dietary Zn for 40 days. Accumulation of Zn in tissues and gill subcellular fractions was measured. At the tissue level, the carcass acted as the main Zn depot containing 84-90% of whole body Zn burden whereas the gill held 4-6%. At the subcellular level, the majority of gill Zn was bioavailable with the estimated metabolically active pool being 81-90%. Interestingly, the nuclei-cellular debris fraction bound the highest amount (40%) of the gill Zn burden. There was low partitioning of Zn into the detoxified pool (10-19%) suggesting that sequestration and chelation are not major mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in rainbow trout. Further, the subcellular partitioning of Zn did not conform to the spill-over model of metal toxicity because Zn binding was indiscriminate irrespective of exposure concentration and duration. The contribution of the branchial and gastrointestinal uptake pathways to Zn accumulation depended on the tissue. Specifically, in plasma, blood cells, and gill, uptake from water was dominant whereas both pathways appeared to contribute equally to Zn accumulation in the carcass. Subcellularly, additive uptake from the two pathways was observed in the heat-stable proteins (HSP) fraction. Toxicologically, Zn exposure caused minimal adverse effects manifested by a transitory inhibition of protein synthesis in gills in the waterborne exposure. Overall, subcellular fractionation appears to have value in the quest for a better understanding of Zn homeostasis and interactions between branchial and gastrointestinal uptake pathways

  11. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of zinc in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Cross-talk between waterborne and dietary uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappal, Ravinder; Burka, John; Dawson, Susan [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca

    2009-03-09

    Zinc homeostasis was studied at the tissue and gill subcellular levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following waterborne and dietary exposures, singly and in combination. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 150 or 600 {mu}g l{sup -1} waterborne Zn, 1500 or 4500 {mu}g g{sup -1} dietary Zn, and a combination of 150 {mu}g l{sup -1} waterborne and 1500 {mu}g g{sup -1} dietary Zn for 40 days. Accumulation of Zn in tissues and gill subcellular fractions was measured. At the tissue level, the carcass acted as the main Zn depot containing 84-90% of whole body Zn burden whereas the gill held 4-6%. At the subcellular level, the majority of gill Zn was bioavailable with the estimated metabolically active pool being 81-90%. Interestingly, the nuclei-cellular debris fraction bound the highest amount (40%) of the gill Zn burden. There was low partitioning of Zn into the detoxified pool (10-19%) suggesting that sequestration and chelation are not major mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in rainbow trout. Further, the subcellular partitioning of Zn did not conform to the spill-over model of metal toxicity because Zn binding was indiscriminate irrespective of exposure concentration and duration. The contribution of the branchial and gastrointestinal uptake pathways to Zn accumulation depended on the tissue. Specifically, in plasma, blood cells, and gill, uptake from water was dominant whereas both pathways appeared to contribute equally to Zn accumulation in the carcass. Subcellularly, additive uptake from the two pathways was observed in the heat-stable proteins (HSP) fraction. Toxicologically, Zn exposure caused minimal adverse effects manifested by a transitory inhibition of protein synthesis in gills in the waterborne exposure. Overall, subcellular fractionation appears to have value in the quest for a better understanding of Zn homeostasis and interactions between branchial and gastrointestinal uptake pathways.

  12. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR WATERBORNE MERCURY REMOVAL AT THE Y12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Hg-contaminated processing water produced at Y-12 facility is discharged through the storm drain system, merged at Outfall 200, and then discharged to EFPC. Most of the baseflow mercury at Outfall 200 arises from a small number of short sections of storm drain. This report discusses the waterborne mercury treatment technologies to decrease mercury loading to the surface water of EFPC at Y-12 NSC. We reviewed current available waterborne Hg treatment technologies based on the specific conditions of Y-12 and identified two possible options: SnCl2 reduction coupled with air stripping (SnCl2/air stripping) and sorption. The ORNL 2008 and 2009 field studies suggested that SnCl2/air stripping has the capability to remove waterborne mercury with efficiency higher than 90% at Outfall 200. To achieve this goal, dechlorination (i.e., removing residual chlorine from water) using dechlorinating agents such as thiosulfate has to be performed before the reduction. It is unclear whether or not SnCl2/air stripping can reduce the mercury concentration from ~1000 ng/L to 51 ng/L at a full-scale operation. Therefore, a pilot test is a logical step before a full-scale design to answer questions such as Hg removal efficiency, selection of dechlorinating agents, and so on. The major advantages of the SnCl2/air stripping system are: (1) expected low cost at high flow (e.g., the flow at Outfall 200); and (2) production of minimum secondary waste. However, there are many environmental uncertainties associated with this technology by introducing tin to EFPC ecosystem, for example tin methylation causing abiotic Hg methylation, which should be addressed before a full-scale implementation. Mercury adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) is a proven technology for treating Hg at Y-12. The ONRL 2010 lab sorption studies suggest that thiol-based resins hold the promise to combine with GAC to form a more cost-effective treatment system. To achieve a treatment goal of 51 ng/L at Outfall

  13. Spatially explicit models, generalized reproduction numbers and the prediction of patterns of waterborne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.; Gatto, M.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Righetto, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-12-01

    Metacommunity and individual-based theoretical models are studied in the context of the spreading of infections of water-borne diseases along the ecological corridors defined by river basins and networks of human mobility. The overarching claim is that mathematical models can indeed provide predictive insight into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and by anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. To support the claim, we examine the ex-post reliability of published predictions of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak from four independent modeling studies that appeared almost simultaneously during the unfolding epidemic. For each modeled epidemic trajectory, it is assessed how well predictions reproduced the observed spatial and temporal features of the outbreak to date. The impact of different approaches is considered to the modeling of the spatial spread of V. cholera, the mechanics of cholera transmission and in accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities. A generalized model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus constructed and applied to the year-long dataset of reported cases now available. Specific emphasis will be dedicated to models of human mobility, a fundamental infection mechanism. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective, supporting the conclusion that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control. Although explicit spatial modeling is made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, transportation infrastructure, population distribution, and sanitation, the precise condition under which a waterborne disease epidemic can start in a spatially explicit setting is

  14. Comparison of supervised machine learning algorithms for waterborne pathogen detection using mobile phone fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Feng, Steve; Liang, Kyle; Nadkarni, Rohan; Benien, Parul; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that affects millions of people every year worldwide, causing a diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Timely detection of the presence of the cysts of this parasite in drinking water is important to prevent the spread of the disease, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we provide extended experimental testing and evaluation of the performance and repeatability of a field-portable and cost-effective microscopy platform for automated detection and counting of Giardia cysts in water samples, including tap water, non-potable water, and pond water. This compact platform is based on our previous work, and is composed of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, a disposable sample processing cassette, and a custom-developed smartphone application. Our mobile phone microscope has a large field of view of 0.8 cm2 and weighs only 180 g, excluding the phone. A custom-developed smartphone application provides a user-friendly graphical interface, guiding the users to capture a fluorescence image of the sample filter membrane and analyze it automatically at our servers using an image processing algorithm and training data, consisting of >30,000 images of cysts and >100,000 images of other fluorescent particles that are captured, including, e.g. dust. The total time that it takes from sample preparation to automated cyst counting is less than an hour for each 10 ml of water sample that is tested. We compared the sensitivity and the specificity of our platform using multiple supervised classification models, including support vector machines and nearest neighbors, and demonstrated that a bootstrap aggregating (i.e. bagging) approach using raw image file format provides the best performance for automated detection of Giardia cysts. We evaluated the performance of this machine learning enabled pathogen detection device with water samples taken from different sources (e.g. tap water, non-potable water, pond water) and achieved a

  15. Comparison of supervised machine learning algorithms for waterborne pathogen detection using mobile phone fluorescence microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice

    2017-06-14

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that affects millions of people every year worldwide, causing a diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Timely detection of the presence of the cysts of this parasite in drinking water is important to prevent the spread of the disease, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we provide extended experimental testing and evaluation of the performance and repeatability of a field-portable and cost-effective microscopy platform for automated detection and counting of Giardia cysts in water samples, including tap water, non-potable water, and pond water. This compact platform is based on our previous work, and is composed of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, a disposable sample processing cassette, and a custom-developed smartphone application. Our mobile phone microscope has a large field of view of ~0.8 cm2 and weighs only ~180 g, excluding the phone. A custom-developed smartphone application provides a user-friendly graphical interface, guiding the users to capture a fluorescence image of the sample filter membrane and analyze it automatically at our servers using an image processing algorithm and training data, consisting of >30,000 images of cysts and >100,000 images of other fluorescent particles that are captured, including, e.g. dust. The total time that it takes from sample preparation to automated cyst counting is less than an hour for each 10 ml of water sample that is tested. We compared the sensitivity and the specificity of our platform using multiple supervised classification models, including support vector machines and nearest neighbors, and demonstrated that a bootstrap aggregating (i.e. bagging) approach using raw image file format provides the best performance for automated detection of Giardia cysts. We evaluated the performance of this machine learning enabled pathogen detection device with water samples taken from different sources (e.g. tap water, non-potable water, pond water) and achieved

  16. Comparison of supervised machine learning algorithms for waterborne pathogen detection using mobile phone fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Koydemir Hatice

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that affects millions of people every year worldwide, causing a diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Timely detection of the presence of the cysts of this parasite in drinking water is important to prevent the spread of the disease, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we provide extended experimental testing and evaluation of the performance and repeatability of a field-portable and cost-effective microscopy platform for automated detection and counting of Giardia cysts in water samples, including tap water, non-potable water, and pond water. This compact platform is based on our previous work, and is composed of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, a disposable sample processing cassette, and a custom-developed smartphone application. Our mobile phone microscope has a large field of view of ~0.8 cm2 and weighs only ~180 g, excluding the phone. A custom-developed smartphone application provides a user-friendly graphical interface, guiding the users to capture a fluorescence image of the sample filter membrane and analyze it automatically at our servers using an image processing algorithm and training data, consisting of >30,000 images of cysts and >100,000 images of other fluorescent particles that are captured, including, e.g. dust. The total time that it takes from sample preparation to automated cyst counting is less than an hour for each 10 ml of water sample that is tested. We compared the sensitivity and the specificity of our platform using multiple supervised classification models, including support vector machines and nearest neighbors, and demonstrated that a bootstrap aggregating (i.e. bagging approach using raw image file format provides the best performance for automated detection of Giardia cysts. We evaluated the performance of this machine learning enabled pathogen detection device with water samples taken from different sources (e.g. tap water, non-potable water, pond

  17. Comparison of supervised machine learning algorithms for waterborne pathogen detection using mobile phone fluorescence microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Feng, Steve; Liang, Kyle; Nadkarni, Rohan; Benien, Parul; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that affects millions of people every year worldwide, causing a diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Timely detection of the presence of the cysts of this parasite in drinking water is important to prevent the spread of the disease, especially in resource-limited settings. Here we provide extended experimental testing and evaluation of the performance and repeatability of a field-portable and cost-effective microscopy platform for automated detection and counting of Giardia cysts in water samples, including tap water, non-potable water, and pond water. This compact platform is based on our previous work, and is composed of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, a disposable sample processing cassette, and a custom-developed smartphone application. Our mobile phone microscope has a large field of view of ~0.8 cm2 and weighs only ~180 g, excluding the phone. A custom-developed smartphone application provides a user-friendly graphical interface, guiding the users to capture a fluorescence image of the sample filter membrane and analyze it automatically at our servers using an image processing algorithm and training data, consisting of >30,000 images of cysts and >100,000 images of other fluorescent particles that are captured, including, e.g. dust. The total time that it takes from sample preparation to automated cyst counting is less than an hour for each 10 ml of water sample that is tested. We compared the sensitivity and the specificity of our platform using multiple supervised classification models, including support vector machines and nearest neighbors, and demonstrated that a bootstrap aggregating (i.e. bagging) approach using raw image file format provides the best performance for automated detection of Giardia cysts. We evaluated the performance of this machine learning enabled pathogen detection device with water samples taken from different sources (e.g. tap water, non-potable water, pond water) and achieved

  18. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  20. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  1. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  2. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunhua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS, caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh, is emerging as a major disease in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that predispose catfish to vAh infection and establish a waterborne challenge model that mimics natural occurrence of MAS. Results of this study indicated that wounding on the fish body surface was one of the key factors that predisposed catfish to vAh infection via waterborne route. Relatively uniform wounds were created by clipping part of the fish adipose fin. Adipose fin clipped (Af-clipped fish behaved normally in terms of swimming and feeding and no mortality occurred in the control treatment (a mock challenge. When subjected to challenge in vAh-infected water, Af-clipped fish were highly susceptible, showing typical symptoms of MAS observed in the field. The mortality rate of Af-clipped fish was significantly associated with vAh concentration, challenge time and water temperature. About 90% mortality occurred within 48 h when Af-clipped fish were challenged for 1 h with vAh at the concentration of 2 × 107 colony forming units per mL of water (27 ± 1 °C. The waterborne challenge model was further tested using four field isolates including A. hydrophila and A. veronii. All vAh isolates caused about 90% mortality of Af-clipped fish and one isolate of Aeromonas veronii caused no mortality under the same challenge conditions. The waterborne challenge model described in this study would facilitate urgently-needed studies of MAS prevention (such as wound avoidance and healing and control (such as prophylactic vaccination; antibiotics treatment and probiotics screening. Keywords: Adipose fin, Channel catfish, Motile Aeromonas septicemia, Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, Waterborne challenge

  3. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container (∼100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide range of stress

  4. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  5. Waterborne parasites and physico-chemical assessment of selected lakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onichandran, Subashini; Kumar, Thulasi; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Chye, Tan Tian; Ithoi, Init; Dungca, Julieta Z; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling, Lau Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and waterborne parasites in selected recreational lakes from Malaysia. Samples were collected from seven stations of Recreational Lake A (RL-A) and six stations of Recreational Lake B (RL-B). The samples were processed to detect the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using immunomagnetic separation kit, helminth eggs or ova by bright field microscopy and Acanthamoeba spp. by cultivation in non-nutrient agar. Chemical parameters such as ammonia, chlorine, fluoride, nitrate and nitrite and physical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH, salinity, temperature and total dissolved solid were also measured. Both lakes were freshwater with salinity ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 ppt. Most stations of these lakes were contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Ascaris spp. and hookworm. Schistosoma spp. was found in RL-B only, while Acanthamoeba spp. was found in all stations. Of all sampling sites, station 5 of RL-B is the most contaminated. Linear regression and correlation analysis revealed that Giardia spp. and Schistosoma spp. showed a significant negative correlation with turbidity (p Malaysia. Future work on heavy metals (chromium, copper, mercury and zinc) is recommended to enhance the overall water quality monitoring and to take appropriate safety measures to ensure maintenance of good water standards.

  6. Waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp caused by two norovirus genogroups: GI and GII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Waarbeek, Henriëtte L G; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Vennema, Harry; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2010-03-01

    A cross-border gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp was associated with drinking water from a farmer's well. A retrospective cohort study was performed to identify size and source of the outbreak, as well as other characteristics. Epidemiological investigation included standardized questionnaires about sex, age, risk exposures, illness and family members. Stool and water (100mL) samples were analyzed for bacteria, viruses and parasites. Questionnaires were returned by 84 scouts (response rate 82%), mean age of 13 years. The primary attack rate was 85% (diarrhoea and/or vomiting). Drinking water was the strongest independent risk factor showing a dose-response effect with 50%, 75%, 75%, 93% and 96% case prevalence for 0, 1, 2-3, 4-5 and >5 glasses consumed, respectively. Norovirus (GI.2 Southampton and GII.7 Leeds) was detected in 51 stool specimens (75%) from ill scouts. Water analysis showed fecal contamination, but no norovirus. The secondary attack rate was 20%. This remarkable outbreak was caused by a point-source infection with two genogroups of noroviruses most likely transmitted by drinking water from a well. Finding a dose-response relationship was striking. Specific measures to reduce the risk of waterborne diseases, outbreak investigation and a good international public health network are important.

  7. Waterborne Electrospinning of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) by Control of Environmental Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolaert, Ella; Ryckx, Paulien; Geltmeyer, Jozefien; Maji, Samarendra; Van Steenberge, Paul H M; D'hooge, Dagmar R; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Clerck, Karen

    2017-07-19

    With increasing toxicity and environmental concerns, electrospinning from water, i.e., waterborne electrospinning, is crucial to further exploit the resulting nanofiber potential. Most water-soluble polymers have the inherent limitation of resulting in water-soluble nanofibers, and a tedious chemical cross-linking step is required to reach stable nanofibers. An interesting alternative route is the use of thermoresponsive polymers, such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), as they are water-soluble beneath their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) allowing low-temperature electrospinning while the obtained nanofibers are water-stable above the LCST. Moreover, PNIPAM nanofibers show major potential to many application fields, including biomedicine, as they combine the well-known on-off switching behavior of PNIPAM, thanks to its LCST, with the unique properties of nanofibers. In the present work, based on dedicated turbidity and rheological measurements, optimal combinations of polymer concentration, environmental temperature, and relative humidity are identified allowing, for the first time, the production of continuous, bead-free PNIPAM nanofibers electrospun from water. More specifically, PNIPAM gelation was found to occur well below its LCST at higher polymer concentrations leading to a temperature regime where the viscosity significantly increases without compromising the polymer solubility. This opens up the ecological, water-based production of uniform PNIPAM nanofibers that are stable in water at temperatures above PNIPAM's LCST, making them suitable for various applications, including drug delivery and switchable cell culture substrates.

  8. A Waterborne Pursuit-Deterrent Signal Deployed by a Sea Urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard-Brennand, Hannah; Poore, Alistair G B; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2017-06-01

    Selection by consumers has led to the evolution of a vast array of defenses in animals and plants. These defenses include physical structures, behaviors, and chemical signals that mediate interactions with predators. Some of the strangest defensive structures in nature are the globiferous pedicellariae of the echinoderms. These are small venomous appendages with jaws and teeth that cover the test of many sea urchins and sea stars. In this study, we report a unique use of these defensive structures by the collector sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. In both the laboratory and the field, globiferous pedicellariae were unpalatable to fish consumers. When subject to simulated predator attack, sea urchins released a cloud of pedicellaria heads into the water column. Flume experiments established the presence of a waterborne cue associated with this release of pedicellariae that is deterrent to predatory fish. These novel results add to our understanding of how the ecosystem-shaping sea urchin T. gratilla is able to reach high densities in many reef habitats, with subsequent impacts on algal cover.

  9. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  10. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: → An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. → A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. → An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. → Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  11. Waterborne disease outbreak detection: an integrated approach using health administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coly, S; Vincent, N; Vaissiere, E; Charras-Garrido, M; Gallay, A; Ducrot, C; Mouly, D

    2017-08-01

    Hundreds of waterborne disease outbreaks (WBDO) of acute gastroenteritis (AGI) due to contaminated tap water are reported in developed countries each year. Such outbreaks are probably under-detected. The aim of our study was to develop an integrated approach to detect and study clusters of AGI in geographical areas with homogeneous exposure to drinking water. Data for the number of AGI cases are available at the municipality level while exposure to tap water depends on drinking water networks (DWN). These two geographical units do not systematically overlap. This study proposed to develop an algorithm which would match the most relevant grouping of municipalities with a specific DWN, in order that tap water exposure can be taken into account when investigating future disease outbreaks. A space-time detection method was applied to the grouping of municipalities. Seven hundred and fourteen new geographical areas (groupings of municipalities) were obtained compared with the 1,310 municipalities and the 1,706 DWN. Eleven potential WBDO were identified in these groupings of municipalities. For ten of them, additional environmental investigations identified at least one event that could have caused microbiological contamination of DWN in the days previous to the occurrence of a reported WBDO.

  12. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, John M; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-11-25

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  13. Waterborne Campylobacter jejuni epidemic in a Finnish hospital for rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautelin, H; Koota, K; von Essen, R; Jahkola, M; Siitonen, A; Kosunen, T U

    1990-01-01

    A waterborne Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Heinola, Finland, in November-December 1986 is described. 32 patients and 62 members of the staff developed gastrointestinal symptoms. C. jejuni heat-stable serotype 45 was isolated from the faeces of 32 enteritis patients and from none of the controls. No other enteropathogens were found. Positive serological responses to C. jejuni acid extract antigen were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 34% of the symptomatic hospital patients, in 40% of the symptomatic staff members, and in 10% of the controls. The clinical course of the illness was mostly mild and self-limited. No striking progress in the arthritis symptoms of the patients was found after the outbreak. The hospital has its own water supply. C. jejuni of the same serotype as the epidemic strain was isolated from the water of the pipeline system. After a careful examination some aged components of the waterworks were found to be responsible for leaks that resulted in the contamination of the water.

  14. pH dependence of the properties of waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives containing acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Canetta, Elisabetta; Weerakkody, Tecla G; Keddie, Joseph L; Rivas, Urko

    2009-03-01

    Polymer colloids are often copolymerized with acrylic acid monomers in order to impart colloidal stability. Here, the effects of the pH on the nanoscale and macroscopic adhesive properties of waterborne poly(butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) films are reported. In films cast from acidic colloidal dispersions, hydrogen bonding between carboxylic acid groups dominates the particle-particle interactions, whereas ionic dipolar interactions are dominant in films cast from basic dispersions. Force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope and macroscale mechanical measurements show that latex films with hydrogen-bonding interactions have lower elastic moduli and are more deformable. They yield higher adhesion energies. On the other hand, in basic latex, ionic dipolar interactions increase the moduli of the dried films. These materials are stiffer and less deformable and, consequently, exhibit lower adhesion energies. The rate of water loss from acidic latex is slower, perhaps because of hydrogen bonding with the water. Therefore, although acid latex offers greater adhesion, there is a limitation in the film formation.

  15. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties. (author)

  16. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Polimeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  17. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A. (Maine Univ., Orono (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties.

  18. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Ching [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, Mingdao University, Changhua, 52345, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: {yields} An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. {yields} A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. {yields} An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. {yields} Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  19. Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-min; Liu, Di; Liu, Gui-feng; Chen, Jian; Huo, Shu-ping; Kong, Zhen-wu

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset nanocomposites were prepared from a waterborne terpene-maleic ester type epoxy resin (WTME) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The curing behaviors of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were measured with rotational rheometer. The results show that the storage modulus (G') of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites increased with the increase of CNWs content. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate that the incorporation of CNWs in WTME matrix caused microphase separation and destroyed the compactness of the matrix. This effect leads to the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites slightly decrease with the increase of CNWs content, which were confirmed by both DSC and DMA tests. The mechanical properties of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were investigated by tensile testing. The Yong's modulus (E) and tensile strength (σb) of the nanocomposites were significantly reinforced by the addition of CNWs. These results indicate that CNWs exhibit excellent reinforcement effect on WTME matrix, due to the formation and increase of interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonds between CNWs nano-filler and the WTME matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Migration of particulates in permeable rock columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The migration of radioactive material through soil and permeable rock formations have become a major topic of concern due to the interest in the licensing of new radioactive waste disposal sites. Previously, research has been conducted in relation to deep repositories; however, similar situations arise in the vadose zone, where there is a higher probability of naturally-occurring particulates of organic nature and for the incursion of water. Test data has provided information which suggests that particulates will travel through porous media subject to various delay mechnisms and must be included in any consideration of waste migration. Data concerning particulate migration must and should be considered in the future when radioactive waste disposal sites are licensed

  2. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  3. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  4. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroin, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  6. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; Liang, Jennifer L; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Yu, Patricia A; Painter, John; Moore, Matthew R; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting waterborne disease and outbreak (WBDO)-related data. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize WBDOs associated with recreational water that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and one previously unreported outbreak from 2002. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. During 2003-2004, a total 62 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 26 states and Guam. Illness occurred in 2,698 persons, resulting in 58 hospitalizations and one death. The median outbreak size was 14 persons (range: 1-617 persons). Of the 62 WBDOs, 30 (48.4%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents, chemicals, or toxins; 13 (21.0%) were outbreaks of dermatitis; and seven (11.3%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness (ARI). The remaining 12 WBDOs resulted in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), meningitis (n = one), leptospirosis (n = one), otitis externa (n = one), and mixed illnesses (n = eight). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 1,945 (72

  7. Novel electrochromic devices based on composite films of poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-waterborne polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-H.; Chong, L.-W.; Huang, L.-M.; Lee, Y.-L.; Wen, T.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Waterborne polyurethane (WPU) was spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. Poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline) (PDMA) was deposited using electrochemical polymerization as conducting composite film on the above WPU/ITO electrode and used as an electrode in an electrochromic device assembly. Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) coated ITO glass was used as the other electrode with LiClO 4 doped gelled polyethylene oxide (PEO) as polymer electrolyte. The configuration of an electrochromic device was assembled: ITO/WPU-PDMA II LiClO 4 -PC-PEO (400,000) II WO 3 /ITO, where PC represents propylene carbonate. The characterization of the single electrodes, ITO/WPU-PDMA composite, ITO/WO 3 , and the device was performed by using cyclic voltammetry. The columbic efficiency (CE) of the ITO/WPU-PDMA composite and ITO/WO 3 electrodes were close to 100%. The optical contrast of the single electrodes and the device were determined by UV-vis spectroelectrochemical studies. A visible contrast in color upon switching the potential from -1.50 to +1.50 V was noticed for the device. The device was pale yellow at -1.5 V and dark green at +1.5 V. The CE of the device was 91%. Double potential chronamperomtry was used to determine the response time of coloring and bleaching processes. The bleaching process was found to be faster than coloring. The stability of the device was established by polarizing the device and recording the UV-vis spectrum in open circuit conditions. Bleaching state is more stable than coloring state

  8. Synthesis of waterborne polyurethane containing alkoxysilane side groups and the properties of the hybrid coating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qi; Guo, Longhai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qiu, Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Xiao, Weidong; Du, Dianxing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • A diol with side-chain trimethoxysilane (DEA-Si) was synthesized using 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MAPTS) and diethanolamine (DEA). • The crosslinking structure could in situ formed within the WPU matrix through sol-gel process. • The Si tends to shift to the polymer-air interface due to the flexible long alkyl-ester side chain. • The incorporation of DEA-Si enhanced mechanical and surface hydrophobic properties of WPU films. - Abstract: A series of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) containing alkoxysilane side groups were synthesized by using the dihydroxy functionalized alkoxysilane. The diol with trimethoxysilane groups at the side chains was synthesized via Michael addition between 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MAPTS) and diethanolamine (DEA). The silane diol was applied as the chain extender for the NCO-endcapped prepolymer of isophorone diisocyanate, polycarbonate diol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid and 1,4-butanediol. The products with the silane content varied from 1.2 to 16.5 wt% were dispersed in water after neutralization. The effect of the silane diol on the particle size and morphology of the WPU dispersion was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was carried out on the coating film of the WPU, revealing that the long flexible side chain is favorable for the silane components to emigrate toward the film surface and crosslink during the film formation process. As a result, both the surface contact angle to water and water adsorption of the WPU coating films increased with the silane content. Furthermore, the mechanical properties including the modulus and tensile strength of the films were also improved by the incorporation of silane diol.

  9. Sensitivity of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) to waterborne silver exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, G; Grosell, M; Wood, C

    2001-10-01

    The physiological effects of waterborne silver exposure (added as AgNO(3)) on spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, were evaluated at 30, 200 and 685 microg silver per l in 30 per thousand seawater. These concentrations cover the toxic range observed for freshwater teleosts, where silver is extremely toxic, to seawater teleosts which tolerate higher silver concentrations. However, these levels are considerably higher than those that occur in the normal environment. At 685 microg l(-1), dogfish died within 24 h. Causes of death were respiratory as well as osmoregulatory failure. Arterial P(a)O(2) rapidly declined below 20 Torr, and blood acidosis (both respiratory and metabolic) occurred. Urea excretion increased dramatically and plasma urea dropped from 340 to 225 mM. There were pronounced increases in plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and Mg(2+), indicative of ionoregulatory failure due to increased diffusive permeability as well as inhibited NaCl excretion. At 200 microg l(-1), fish died between 24 and 72 h of silver exposure. The same physiological events occurred with a small time delay. At 30 microg l(-1), effects were much less severe, although slight mortality (12.5%) still occurred. Respiratory alkalosis occurred, together with moderate elevations in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Silver accumulated to the highest concentrations on gills, with only low levels in the intestine, in accord with the virtual absence of drinking. Na(+)/K(+)-ATP-ase activities of gill and rectal gland tissue were impaired at the highest silver concentration. Normal gill function was impaired due to swelling and fusion of lamellae, lamellar aneurism and lifting of the lamellar epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that this elasmobranch is much more sensitive (about 10-fold) to silver than marine teleosts, with silver's toxic action exerted on the gill rather than on the intestine, in contrast to the latter.

  10. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: a promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Bartlett, Christopher L R; Diskin, Arthur; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-07-01

    Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1971, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Data presented summarize 48 outbreaks that occurred during January 2007--December 2008 and 70 previously unreported outbreaks. WBDOSS includes data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, recreational water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent (WUI). Public health agencies in the states, U.S. territories, localities, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating outbreaks and reporting them voluntarily to CDC by a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and WUI are summarized in this report. Outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported separately. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 48 outbreaks that occurred during 2007--2008. Of these 48 outbreaks, 36 were associated with drinking water, eight with WNID, and four with WUI. The 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 32 (88.9%) of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks; 21 (58.3%) outbreaks were associated with bacteria, five (13.9%) with viruses, three (8.3%) with parasites, one (2.8%) with a chemical, one (2.8%) with both bacteria and viruses, and one (2.8%) with both bacteria and parasites. Four outbreaks (11.1%) had unidentified etiologies. Of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks, 22 (61.1%) were outbreaks of

  12. Macroalgal Morphogenesis Induced by Waterborne Compounds and Bacteria in Coastal Seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grueneberg

    Full Text Available Axenic gametes of the marine green macroalga Ulva mutabilis Føyn (Ria Formosa, locus typicus exhibit abnormal development into slow-growing callus-like colonies with aberrant cell walls. Under laboratory conditions, it was previously demonstrated that all defects in growth and thallus development can be completely abolished when axenic gametes are inoculated with a combination of two specific bacterial strains originally identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. These bacteria release diffusible morphogenetic compounds (= morphogens, which act similar to cytokinin and auxin. To investigate the ecological relevance of the waterborne bacterial morphogens, seawater samples were collected in the Ria Formosa lagoon (Algarve, Southern Portugal at 20 sampling sites and tidal pools to assess their morphogenetic effects on the axenic gametes of U. mutabilis. Specifically the survey revealed that sterile-filtered seawater samples can completely recover growth and morphogenesis of U. mutabilis under axenic conditions. Morphogenetic activities of free-living and epiphytic bacteria isolated from the locally very abundant Ulva species (i.e., U. rigida were screened using a multiwell-based testing system. The most represented genera isolated from U. rigida were Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Sulfitobacter followed by Psychrobacter and Polaribacter. Several naturally occurring bacterial species could emulate MS2 activity (= induction of cell divisions regardless of taxonomic affiliation, whereas the MS6 activity (= induction of cell differentiation and cell wall formation was species-specific and is probably a feature of difficult-to-culture bacteria. Interestingly, isolated bacteroidetes such as Algoriphagus sp. and Polaribacter sp. could individually trigger complete Ulva morphogenesis and thus provide a novel mode of action for bacterial-induced algal development. This study also highlights that the accumulation of algal

  13. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C D [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  14. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C.D. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  15. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  16. Effect of condensable species on particulate fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, K.K.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Malayeri, M.R.; Muller-Steinhagen, H.; Watkinson, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The flue gases emanating from the combustion of fuels or gasification process invariably comprises particulate matter and many chemical species in vapor form. The temperature of the flue gases gradually reduces when passing through different sections of heat exchanger like superheater, evaporator

  17. Effect of condensable species on particulate fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, K.K.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The flue gases emanating from the combustion of fuels or gasification process invariably comprise particulate matter and many chemical species in vapor form. The temperature of the flue gases gradually reduces when passing through different sections of heat exchanger, such as the superheater,

  18. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  19. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al 2 O 3 , or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na + ions. The loading of SiC or Al 2 O 3 particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  20. Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2012-01-01

    Glints are bright light spots created by particulate media like cirrus clouds, glaciers, and wavy water surfaces. They are seen around the specular reflection angle. In this paper, the glints from such scattering/reflecting media are described in a unified manner through the probability density for facet tilts. Various kinds of these probability densities for wavy surfaces are defined and classified. The concept of the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for rough surfaces instead of the conventional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is introduced for characterization of the glints. The simple equations connecting the DSCS and the probability densities for facet tilts are derived. It is shown that the glints from particulate media and wavy surface are very similar at small incidence angles and they are significantly different at slant incidence. -- Highlights: ► Differential scattering cross section unifies particulate media and wavy surfaces. ► The glint pattern is a mapping of the probability density function for facet tilts. ► Shadowing is a crucial aspect of glint pattern formation. ► Glint patterns discriminate between the particulate media and wavy surfaces.

  1. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  2. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE, vinyl acetate (VAc, n-butyl acrylate (BA, Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA. The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  4. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Kheireddine, Malika; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non

  5. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  6. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  7. Kinetics of Waterborne Alkyd/Acrylic Hybrid Resin Free Radical Polymerization by Two Systems of Redox and Thermal Initiators

    OpenAIRE

    shirin Madadi; ali akbar Yousefi; elham Keshmirizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of radical polymerizations of waterborne alkyd/acrylic hybrid resin via batch mini-emulsion technique was studied using redox initiators (TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/AsAc  and  TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS) at relatively low temperatures and thermal initiators (BPO, KPS and AIBN) at higher temperatures to seek the most suitable initiator system. At the end of all reactions the unreacted monomer content was reduced using post-polymerization technique; consequently, leading to increased monomer conversion an...

  8. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Amin, M.; Amber, M.; Malik, M.W.; Sherwani, S.K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  9. Effects of chronic exposure to waterborne copper and nickel in binary mixture on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Jamwal, Ankur; Niyogi, Som

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Fish trios (1 male: 2 female; n = 5-6) were exposed for 21 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Ni), (ii) waterborne Cu (45 μg/L), (iii) waterborne Ni (270 μg/L), and (iv) binary mixture of waterborne Cu and Ni (45 and 270 μg/L, respectively). Fish fecundity (cumulative egg production) was found to be the most sensitive reproductive endpoint, and the interaction of Cu and Ni elicited an additive effect on egg production. Tissue-specific accumulation of both metals was not influenced by the interaction of Cu and Ni, except an increased Cu and Ni burden in the carcass and ovary, respectively, were recorded. The expressions of hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) and the circulating estradiol level in females were also not affected by the metal-mixture treatment. However, co-exposure to waterborne Cu and Ni resulted in a significant downregulation of the hepatic vitellogenin gene in females, which was associated with the maximum upregulation of the hepatic metallothionein gene. In addition, a significant alteration of ovarian histopathology (decreased abundance of post-vitellogenic follicles, and increased follicular atresia) was also observed only in females exposed to Cu and Ni in mixture. Collectively, these observations suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu and Ni in binary mixture may impair fish reproductive capacity by inducing histopathological damage in ovarian tissue, and disrupting of energy homeostasis in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  11. A novel silanized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/fluorinated waterborne polyurethane pressure sensitive adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Heqing, E-mail: fuhq@scut.edu.cn; Wang, Yin; Chen, Weifeng; Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The hydrophobicity, thermal stability, dynamic mechanical properties, as well as adhesive properties of silanized. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/fluorinated waterborne polyurethane (SC/FWPU) were improved with the incorporation of silanized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} into FWPU. • The higher the spreading-penetration parameter is, the faster the contact angle reaches equilibrium, and the faster the SC/FWPU pressure sensitive adhesive penetrates and spreads. - Abstract: A novel silanized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/fluorinated waterborne polyurethane (SC/FWPU) pressure sensitive adhesive was synthesized and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and contact angle tester. The adhesive properties were measured in a test machine. Experimental results showed that the hydrophobicity, thermal stability, dynamic mechanical properties, as well as adhesive properties of SC/FWPU were improved with the incorporation of SC into FWPU. The dynamic hydrophobicity can be well described by the wetting kinetic model. The spreading-penetration parameter increased with an increase in SC content. The higher the spreading-penetration parameter is, the faster the contact angle reaches equilibrium, and the faster the SC/FWPU pressure sensitive adhesive penetrates and spreads.

  12. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL -1 (control), 50 BqL -1 and 100 BqL -1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh -1 , the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh -1 ) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  13. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  14. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  16. The effects of acute waterborne exposure to sublethal concentrations of molybdenum on the stress response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea D Ricketts

    Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.

  17. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  18. Exploitation of Nanotechnology for the Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens: State-of-the-Art and Future Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, Helen; Balharry, Dominique; Gaiser, Birgit; Johnston, Helinor

    2015-09-15

    Contaminated drinking water is one of the most important environmental contributors to the human disease burden. Monitoring of water for the presence of pathogens is an essential part of ensuring drinking water safety. In order to assess water quality it is essential to have methods available to sample and detect the type, level and viability of pathogens in water which are effective, cheap, quick, sensitive, and where possible high throughput. Nanotechnology has the potential to drastically improve the monitoring of waterborne pathogens when compared to conventional approaches. To date, there have been no reviews that outline the applications of nanotechnology in this area despite increasing exploitation of nanotechnology for this purpose. This review is therefore the first overview of the state-of-the-art in the application of nanotechnology to waterborne pathogen sampling and detection schemes. Research in this field has been centered on the use of engineered nanomaterials. The effectiveness and limitations of nanomaterial-based approaches is outlined. A future outlook of the advances that are likely to emerge in this area, as well as recommendations for areas of further research are provided.

  19. The Effects of Acute Waterborne Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Molybdenum on the Stress Response in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Chelsea D.; Bates, William R.; Reid, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if molybdenum (Mo) is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo) and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit) and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills) stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73), hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout. PMID:25629693

  20. Effects of waterborne zinc on reproduction, survival and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea) on guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Cristina; Cable, Joanne; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

    2007-03-01

    Recent reviews indicate that pollutants in the surrounding macroenvironment directly influence the population dynamics, distribution and dispersal of fish ectoparasites, often leading to increased parasitism. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of sublethal concentrations of waterborne zinc (up to 240 microg Zn/L) on survival, reproduction and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli, a viviparous monogenean infecting the skin and fins of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Parasite survival and reproduction on the fish were recorded daily for individual parasites maintained in isolated containers. Both survival and reproduction were reduced in 30 and 120 microg Zn/L, compared with 0, 15, and 60 microg Zn/L indicating direct toxic effects of Zn on the parasite. However, as generation time was unaffected by Zn, we attribute the reduced reproduction to the shorter lifespan. Parasite survival off the fish was monitored hourly. Average lifespan of the detached parasites decreased linearly from 19.5 h in 0 microg Zn/L to 17.3h in 240 microg Zn/L, further supporting the direct toxic effect of Zn to the parasite. In addition, temporal dynamics of parasite morphometrics were monitored from mini-epidemics sampled after 1, 5, 10, and 15 days exposure to various Zn concentrations. All morphological parameters decreased significantly in response both to concentration and duration of exposure to waterborne Zn. Together these data clearly indicate that concentrations as low as 120 microg Zn/L are directly toxic to G. turnbulli.

  1. Detection of Waterborne Protozoa, Viruses, and Bacteria in Groundwater and Other Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the prevalence of various waterborne pathogens in water samples collected in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and the applicability of Escherichia coli as an indicator of pathogen contamination in groundwater were assessed. Fifty-three water samples, including shallow groundwater and river water, were analyzed to examine the presence of protozoan (oo)cysts via fluorescence microscopy and that of viral and bacterial genomes via quantitative PCR. At least one of the seven types of pathogens tested (i.e., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, and Vibrio cholerae) was detected in 68% (15/22) of the shallow dug well water samples; groundwater in the shallow dug wells was more contaminated compared with that in shallow tube wells (8/15, 53%). River water and sewage samples were contaminated with extremely high concentrations of multiple pathogens, whereas a tap water sample supplied by a water tanker tested positive for human adenoviruses and V. cholerae. The detection of host-specific Bacteroidales genetic markers revealed the effects of human and animal feces on groundwater contamination. The tested pathogens were sometimes detected even in E. coli-negative groundwater samples, indicative of the limitations of using E. coli as an indicator for waterborne pathogens in groundwater.

  2. Modeling erosion and accretion along the Illinois Lake Michigan shore using integrated airborne, waterborne and ground-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, K. E.; Brown, S.; Larson, T. H.; Theuerkauf, E.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Phillips, A.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment distribution at the Illinois Lake Michigan shoreline is constantly changing in response to increased human activities and complex natural coastal processes associated with wave action, short and long term fluctuations in lake level, and the influence of coastal ice. Understanding changes to volume, distribution and thickness of sand along the shore through time, is essential for modeling shoreline changes and predicting changes due to extreme weather events and lake-level fluctuation. The use of helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) method and integration with ground-based and waterborne geophysical and geologic methods provides high resolution spatial rich data required for modeling the extent of erosion and accretion at this dynamic coastal system. Analysis and interpretation of HTEM, ground and waterborne geophysical and geological data identify spatial distribution and thickness of beach and lake-bottom sand. The results provide information on existence of littoral sand deposits and identify coastal hazards such as lakebed down-cutting that occurs in sand-starved areas.

  3. Stable Photocatalytic Paints Prepared from Hybrid Core-Shell Fluorinated/Acrylic/TiO2 Waterborne Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bonnefond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air and water is one of the major concerns towards the development of a sustainable world in the 21st century. In this context many efforts are devoted to the design of photocatalytic paints able to degrade chemical and biological impurities present in air and water. In this work, the photocatalytic activity of hybrid films formed from the blends of pure acrylic or core/shell fluorinated/acrylic waterborne dispersions and photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions was first assessed. The films show photocatalytic activity (inactivation of the Escherichia coli bacteria under UV irradiation at the substrate-film interface, but very reduced activity in the air-film interface due to the substantially lower amount of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the vicinity of this interface. In a second step, the fluorinated/(methacrylic core-shell hybrid dispersions were used as binders in the formulation of waterborne photocatalytic paints and the stability of the paints, in terms of gloss retain and color change, was assessed during 5000 hours of accelerated weathering tests (QUV-B. Although a decrease in gloss retention and increased color change occurs during the first 1000 hours of exposure, no further change of these properties takes place, which is an excellent indication of stable photocatalytic paints.

  4. Structure Sensitivity Study of Waterborne Contaminant Hydrogenation Using Shape- and Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; McCalman, Dorrell C.; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Schneider, William F.; Werth, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic reduction with Pd has emerged as a promising technology to remove a suite of contaminants from drinking water, such as oxyanions, disinfection byproducts, and halogenated pollutants, but low activity is a major challenge for application. To address this challenge, we synthesized a set of shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles and evaluated the activity of three probe contaminants (i.e., nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and diatrizoate) as a function of facet type (e.g., (100), (110), (111)), ratios of low- to high-coordination sites, and ratios of surface sites to total Pd (i.e., dispersion). Reduction results for an initial contaminant concentration of 100 μM show that initial turnover frequency (TOF0) for nitrite increases 4.7-fold with increasing percent of (100) surface Pd sites (from 0% to 95.3%), whereas the TOF0 for NDMA and for diatrizoate increases 4.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, with an increasing percent of terrace surface Pd sites (from 79.8% to 95.3%). Results for an initial nitrite concentration of 2 mM show that TOF0 is the same for all shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles. Trends for TOF0 were supported by results showing that all catalysts but one were stable in shape and size up to 12 days; for the exception, iodide liberation in diatrizoate reduction appeared to be responsible for a shape change of 4 nm octahedral Pd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations for the free energy change of hydrogen (H2), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) adsorption and a two-site model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism suggest that competition of adsorbates for different Pd sites can explain the TOF0 results. Our study shows for the first time that catalytic reduction activity for waterborne contaminant removal varies with the Pd shape and size, and it suggests that Pd catalysts can be tailored for optimal performance to treat a variety of contaminants for drinking water. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: A promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A., E-mail: mouchtourib@med.uth.gr [Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Bartlett, Christopher L.R. [University College London, Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Diskin, Arthur [Royal Caribbean Cruise Line, Miami (United States); Hadjichristodoulou, Christos [Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece)

    2012-07-01

    Background: Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. Objectives: To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Methods: Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. Results: A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Conclusions: Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We conducted risk assessment and developed a Water Safety Plan on a cruise ship. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 53 hazards and hazardous events were

  6. Structure Sensitivity Study of Waterborne Contaminant Hydrogenation Using Shape- and Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2013-03-01

    Catalytic reduction with Pd has emerged as a promising technology to remove a suite of contaminants from drinking water, such as oxyanions, disinfection byproducts, and halogenated pollutants, but low activity is a major challenge for application. To address this challenge, we synthesized a set of shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles and evaluated the activity of three probe contaminants (i.e., nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and diatrizoate) as a function of facet type (e.g., (100), (110), (111)), ratios of low- to high-coordination sites, and ratios of surface sites to total Pd (i.e., dispersion). Reduction results for an initial contaminant concentration of 100 μM show that initial turnover frequency (TOF0) for nitrite increases 4.7-fold with increasing percent of (100) surface Pd sites (from 0% to 95.3%), whereas the TOF0 for NDMA and for diatrizoate increases 4.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, with an increasing percent of terrace surface Pd sites (from 79.8% to 95.3%). Results for an initial nitrite concentration of 2 mM show that TOF0 is the same for all shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles. Trends for TOF0 were supported by results showing that all catalysts but one were stable in shape and size up to 12 days; for the exception, iodide liberation in diatrizoate reduction appeared to be responsible for a shape change of 4 nm octahedral Pd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations for the free energy change of hydrogen (H2), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) adsorption and a two-site model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism suggest that competition of adsorbates for different Pd sites can explain the TOF0 results. Our study shows for the first time that catalytic reduction activity for waterborne contaminant removal varies with the Pd shape and size, and it suggests that Pd catalysts can be tailored for optimal performance to treat a variety of contaminants for drinking water. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: A promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A.; Bartlett, Christopher L.R.; Diskin, Arthur; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Background: Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. Objectives: To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Methods: Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. Results: A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Conclusions: Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. - Highlights: ► We conducted risk assessment and developed a Water Safety Plan on a cruise ship. ► 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment.

  8. Modeling Leptospirosis in Trinidad, West Indies: A Waterborne Zoonosis of Increasing Public Health Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, M. C.; Opadeyi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease which is considered one of the most common and widely spread bacterial zoonosis and a growing global public health problem. Transmission in humans is caused by direct or indirect contact with contaminated water, soil or infected urine, blood or tissue of carrier animals. Because of the similarity with influenza, dengue and viral hepatitis symptoms it is often misdiagnosed with these diseases, but as the leptospirosis progresses, internal organs can be compromised, causing severe syndromes (e.g. Weil's disease), and potentially can cause death. In less developed countries, leptospirosis is often poorly recognized. In humid tropics and subtropics, where this disease has a high impact, climatic and environmental factors, such as rainfall, floods, land cover and their modifications have been frequently related to the occurrence of leptospirosis. In these regions one of the main problems for the study of the role of environmental factors on disease dynamics is the lack of accurate data since, in many cases, data are either unavailable or do not exist at all. Between 1980 and 2005 a total of 12,475 cases of leptospirosis were reported from all Caribbean countries, with 2,370 (19%) of these corresponding to Trinidad and Tobago, where the current average annual incidence rate is 1.84 per 100,000 population based on confirmed cases. In order to explore the underlying spatial variability of leptospirosis occurrence as related to environmental and socio-economic factors, a series of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were developed. GWR was used to examine the determinants of leptospirosis in the communities of Trinidad using a total of 1,549 reported cases and 250 confirmed cases from 1998 to 2008. MODIS satellite imagery and GIS analysis were used to develop a series of covariables for each community including land cover, vegetation indices, wetness index (ln (α/tanβ)), river length per Ha, topography, percentage of free

  9. A large waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in Norway: The need to focus on distribution system safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Helge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 7 May 2007 the medical officer in Røros (population 5600 reported 15 patients with gastroenteritis. Three days later he estimated hundreds being ill. Untreated tap water from a groundwater source was suspected as the vehicle and chlorination was started 11 May. Campylobacter was isolated from patients' stool samples. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and describe the extent of the outbreak. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study among a random sample of customers of Røros and neighbouring Holtålen waterworks. Holtålen, which has a different water source, was used as a control city. We conducted telephone interviews to gather data on illness from all household members. One randomly selected household member was asked about detailed exposure history. The regional hospital laboratory tested patients' stools for enteropathogens. Campylobacter isolates were typed by AFLP for genetic similarity at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Local authorities conducted the environmental investigation. Results We identified 105 cases among 340 individuals from Røros and Holtålen (Attack Rate = 31%. Tap water consumption was the only exposure associated with illness. Among randomly selected household members from Røros, a dose-response relationship was observed in daily consumed glasses of tap water (χ2 for trend = 8.1, p = 0.004. Campylobacter with identical AFLP was isolated from 25 out of 26 submitted stool samples. No pathogens were detected in water samples. We identified several events that might have caused pressure fall and influx of contaminated water into the water distribution system. On two occasions, pressure fall was noticed and parts of the distribution system were outdated. Conclusion The investigation confirmed a waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in Røros. Although no single event was identified as the cause of contamination, this outbreak illustrates the vulnerability

  10. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1} during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic

  11. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  12. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  13. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  14. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restini, C.V.; Massarani, G.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author) [pt

  15. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  16. POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF, whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  17. L'univers des particules une introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Au début du XXe siècle, les scientifiques imaginaient que l'ensemble du monde était construit à partir de trois "particules élémentaires" (électron, proton, photon). Depuis, nous avons appris que notre univers contient un nombre considérable de particules - soit des corps individualisés d'extension réduite - de natures et de caractéristiques très diverses, qu'il serait illusoire de chercher à énumérer de manière formelle et systématique. C'est pourquoi le propos de ce livre suit une stratégie fondamentalement différente. Il s'organise autour de certaines propriétés générales que laissent apparaître l'observation et l'étude des particules dans leur existence et leur conduite primaire. Aussi, chacune des parties de cet ouvrage rassemble plusieurs chapitres de thèmes voisins, mais un sujet donné peut également être traité en divers endroits et, de ce fait, être abordé sous différents angles de manière complémentaire. De telles compositions et décompositions d'éléments proche...

  18. Sampling/classification of gasifier particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature and pressure real time extractive sampling probe for particulate monitoring was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and tested on Morgantown Energy Technology Center's 42 inch fixed bed gasifier. The probe was specifically designed for the conditions of highly loaded particulate and condensable streams, that exist at the outlet of a fixed bed gasifier. Some of the salient features of the probe are: porous tube gas injection, aerodynamic particle classification in the presence of condensable vapors, β gauge particle detection, and micro processor control. Three of the key design problems were the separation of the particles from the vapor without promoting condensation, the prevention of plugging, and real time monitoring. Some plugging did occur over the seven day sampling period, but by over pressurizing and back purging the clog was blown back into the process stream. The tests validate the proof of concept of the sampling probe and indicated that the particulate output from the bed came in the form of bursts (several minutes in duration) rather than in the form of a steady stream

  19. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  20. Removal of waterborne pathogens from liver transplant unit water taps in prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a proposal for a cost-effective, proactive infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Hu, B J; Qin, L; Lin, Y E; Watanabe, H; Zhou, Q; Gao, X D

    2014-04-01

    Hospital water supplies often contain waterborne pathogens, which can become a reservoir for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We surveyed the extent of waterborne pathogen contamination in the water supply of a Liver Transplant Unit. The efficacy of point-of-use (POU) water filters was evaluated by comparative analysis in routine clinical use. Our baseline environmental surveillance showed that Legionella spp. (28%, 38/136), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, 11/136), Mycobacterium spp. (87%, 118/136) and filamentous fungi (50%, 68/136) were isolated from the tap water of the Liver Transplant Unit. 28.9% of Legionella spp.-positive water samples (n = 38) showed high-level Legionella contamination (≥10(3) CFU/L). After installation of the POU water filter, none of these pathogens were found in the POU filtered water samples. Furthermore, colonizations/infections with Gram-negative bacteria determined from patient specimens were reduced by 47% during this period, even if only 27% (3/11) of the distal sites were installed with POU water filters. In conclusion, the presence of waterborne pathogens was common in the water supply of our Liver Transplant Unit. POU water filters effectively eradicated these pathogens from the water supply. Concomitantly, healthcare-associated colonization/infections declined after the POU filters were installed, indicating their potential benefit in reducing waterborne HAIs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. The impact of meteorology on the occurrence of waterborne outbreaks of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC): a logistic regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Jean; Morris Downes, Margaret; Adley, Catherine C

    2016-02-01

    This study analyses the relationship between meteorological phenomena and outbreaks of waterborne-transmitted vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in the Republic of Ireland over an 8-year period (2005-2012). Data pertaining to the notification of waterborne VTEC outbreaks were extracted from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting system, which is administered through the national Health Protection Surveillance Centre as part of the Health Service Executive. Rainfall and temperature data were obtained from the national meteorological office and categorised as cumulative rainfall, heavy rainfall events in the previous 7 days, and mean temperature. Regression analysis was performed using logistic regression (LR) analysis. The LR model was significant (p < 0.001), with all independent variables: cumulative rainfall, heavy rainfall and mean temperature making a statistically significant contribution to the model. The study has found that rainfall, particularly heavy rainfall in the preceding 7 days of an outbreak, is a strong statistical indicator of a waterborne outbreak and that temperature also impacts waterborne VTEC outbreak occurrence.

  2. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  3. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne and waterborne Ag uptake from Ag NPs in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Selck, Henriette; Croteau, Marie-Noele

    2018-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (Me-NPs) are increasingly used in various products, such as inks and cosmetics, enhancing the likelihood of their release into aquatic environments. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling their bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity in aquatic biota will help support environmental risk assessment. Here we characterized unidirectional parameters for uptake and elimination of silver (Ag) in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete Tubifex tubifex after waterborne (0.01–47 nmol Ag/L) and dietborne (0.4–482 nmol Ag/g dw sed.) exposures to Ag NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Worms accumulated Ag from AgNO3more efficiently than from Ag NPs during waterborne exposure. The Ag uptake rate constants from water were 8.2 L/g/d for AgNO3 and 0.34 L/g/d for Ag NPs. Silver accumulated from both forms was efficiently retained in tissues, as no significant loss of Ag was detected after up to 20 days of depuration in clean media. High mortality (~50%) during depuration (i.e. after 17 days) was only observed for worms exposed to waterborne AgNO3 (3 nmol/L). Sediment exposures to both Ag forms resulted in low accumulation, i.e., the uptake rate constants were 0.002 and 0.005 g/g/d for AgNO3 and Ag NPs, respectively. Avoidance was only observed for worms exposed to sediment amended with AgNO3. Incorporation of the estimated rate constants into a biodynamic model predicted that sediment is likely the most important route of uptake for Ag in both forms in ecologically relevant aquatic environments. However, inference of bioavailability from our estimations of Ag assimilation efficiencies (AE) suggests that Ag (AE: 3–12% for AgNO3 and 0.1–0.8% for Ag NPs) is weakly bioavailable from sediment for this species. Thus, Ag amended to sediment as NPs might not pose greater problems than 'conventional' Ag for benthic organisms such as T. tubifex.

  4. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  5. Particulate versus non-particulate corticosteroids for transforaminal nerve root blocks. Comparison of outcomes in 494 patients with lumbar radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2018-03-15

    We set out to compare outcomes in CT-guided lumbar transforaminal nerve root block patients receiving either particulate or non-particulate corticosteroids. This was a retrospective comparative effectiveness outcomes study on two cohorts of lumbar radiculopathy patients. 321 received particulate and 173 non-particulate corticosteroids at CT-guided transforaminal lumbar nerve root injections. The particulate steroid was used from October 2009 until May 2014 and the non-particulate steroid was used from May 2014. Pain levels were collected at baseline using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Overall 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at these same time points (primary outcome). The proportions of patients 'improved' were compared between the two groups using the Chi-square test. The NRS change scores were compared using the unpaired t-test. A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with particulate steroids were improved at 1 week (43.2 % vs. 27.7 %, p = 0.001) and at 1 month (44.3 % vs. 33.1 %, p = 0.019). Patients receiving particulate steroids also had significantly higher NRS change scores at 1 week (p = 0.02) and 1 month (p = 0.007). Particulate corticosteroids have significantly better outcomes than non-particulate corticosteroids. (orig.)

  6. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi-Canister Overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage

  7. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage

  8. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  9. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  10. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  11. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  12. The Effect of Improved Crosslink Density on the Properties of Waterborne Polyurethanes Using Sol-Gel Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ryul; Park, Jin Hwan [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Water-based systems are dominating the coating market because of worldwide VOCs regulations. Research is focusing especially on waterborne polyurethane (WPU) because of its unique mechanical and chemical properties. However, commercial WPU consists of linear thermoplastic polymers with polar groups on the main chain, which do not perform as well as solvent-borne PU in a two-pack system. In this study, APTES were used as a chain crosslink agent to overcome commercial WPU's limited performance. WPUs synthesized by using a sol-gel process were evaluated with FT-IR, particle analysis, TGA, tensile tests, pull-off tests, SEM, and EIS. The results showed that WPUs with added APTES had better thermal stability, mechanical properties, and water resistance than did WPUs without added APTES. Consequently, the sol-gel process increased the crosslink density of WPUs and modified the WPU's own properties.

  13. A comparative study of reverse osmosis and activated charcoal, two inexpensive and very effective ways to remove waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.T.; Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two year comparative study of waterborne radon removal reveals that reverse osmosis is consistently more effective than the use of activated charcoal. Reverse osmosis is a process by which water is forced under a pressure sufficient to overcome osmotic pressure through a semipermeable membrane, leaving behind impurities. Removal effectiveness for dissolved organic, dissolved ionic and suspended impurities are typically above 90%. Systems designed for home use to remove impurities from water dispensed at a convenient tap cost about $2000 and commonly consist of a sediment filter, a carbon prefilter, and a reverse osmosis container. A tank of activated charcoal can work equally well, and cost $500-$1000. However, the tank of charcoal becomes measurably enriched in gamma-emitters

  14. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  15. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Larno, Valerie; Floriani, Magali; Devaux, Alain; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  16. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  17. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  18. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  19. Determining the 95% limit of detection for waterborne pathogen analyses from primary concentration to qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokdyk, Joel P.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Spencer, Susan K.; Burch, Tucker R; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The limit of detection (LOD) for qPCR-based analyses is not consistently defined or determined in studies on waterborne pathogens. Moreover, the LODs reported often reflect the qPCR assay alone rather than the entire sample process. Our objective was to develop an approach to determine the 95% LOD (lowest concentration at which 95% of positive samples are detected) for the entire process of waterborne pathogen detection. We began by spiking the lowest concentration that was consistently positive at the qPCR step (based on its standard curve) into each procedural step working backwards (i.e., extraction, secondary concentration, primary concentration), which established a concentration that was detectable following losses of the pathogen from processing. Using the fraction of positive replicates (n = 10) at this concentration, we selected and analyzed a second, and then third, concentration. If the fraction of positive replicates equaled 1 or 0 for two concentrations, we selected another. We calculated the LOD using probit analysis. To demonstrate our approach we determined the 95% LOD for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, adenovirus 41, and vaccine-derived poliovirus Sabin 3, which were 11, 12, and 6 genomic copies (gc) per reaction (rxn), respectively (equivalent to 1.3, 1.5, and 4.0 gc L−1 assuming the 1500 L tap-water sample volume prescribed in EPA Method 1615). This approach limited the number of analyses required and was amenable to testing multiple genetic targets simultaneously (i.e., spiking a single sample with multiple microorganisms). An LOD determined this way can facilitate study design, guide the number of required technical replicates, aid method evaluation, and inform data interpretation.

  20. Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2008-11-01

    The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Pratibha, E-mail: rkpratibha@yahoo.com; Merwyn, S.; Agarwal, G. S.; Tripathi, B. K.; Pant, S. C. [Defence Research and Development Establishment (India)

    2012-01-15

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500-1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100-200 nm width near the base and 50-100 nm width at the tapered ends and {approx}25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 Degree-Sign C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 {mu}g/mL nano CuO killed 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 {mu}g/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  2. Particulate characterization by PIXE multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Grant, Patrick G.; Kotula, Paul G.; Doyle, Barney L.; Richardson, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining particulate compositional maps from scanned PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) measurements is extremely difficult due to the complexity of analyzing spectroscopic data collected with low signal-to-noise at each scan point (pixel). Multivariate spectral analysis has the potential to analyze such data sets by reducing the PIXE data to a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (that include both spectral and image information). We have adapted the AXSIA (automated expert spectral image analysis) program, originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories to quantify electron-excited X-ray spectroscopy data, for this purpose. Samples consisting of particulates with known compositions and sizes were loaded onto Mylar and paper filter substrates and analyzed by scanned micro-PIXE. The data sets were processed by AXSIA and the associated principal component spectral data were quantified by converting the weighting images into concentration maps. The results indicate automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis is useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of compositional components needed for locating individual particles-of-interest on large area collection media

  3. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, Mustapha; Noack, Yves; Boukla, Moussa; Benyaich, Fouad

    2009-01-01

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m 3 , above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities [fr

  4. Vale nails down reduction of diesel particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed innovations for reducing emissions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from light-duty underground vehicles. DPM is a byproduct of diesel-powered equipment. Controlling these emissions at the source of generation is necessary for a healthy work environment and more cost effective than fresh air ventilation to reduce contaminant concentrations. Previous diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems required extensive human intervention, but this was deemed too inefficient. A DPF system that does not require human intervention was developed and proved successful in filter regeneration, longevity, and reliability. This DPF system uses a sintered metal filter element, a base metal, fuel-borne catalyst with an on-board dosing system, an electric heater that uses on-board power, and a sensor-based control unit. Software in the control unit adjusts fuel dosing rates and heater timing to ensure filter regeneration for different engines and operating scenarios. The new filter system is robust, and it has a compact design and long service-intervals. The product is still being tested to determine the costs and service life of the filter. More testing on fuel additives was deemed to be warranted, as was designing filter elements for larger engines used in heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  6. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample and...

  8. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a ''wavy film,'' while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs

  9. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  10. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  11. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  12. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  13. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  14. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  15. Is there a difference in treatment outcomes between epidural injections with particulate versus non-particulate steroids?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the outcomes of patients after interlaminar computed tomography (CT)-guided epidural injections of the lumbar spine with particulate vs. non-particulate steroids. 531 consecutive patients were treated with CT-guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with steroids and local anaesthetics. 411 patients received a particulate steroid and 120 patients received a non-particulate steroid. Pain levels were assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and overall reported 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post-injection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Patients receiving particulate steroids had statistically significantly higher NRS change scores (p = 0.0001 at 1 week; p = 0.0001 at 1 month). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving particulate steroids reported relevant improvement (PGIC) at both 1 week and 1 month post injection (p = 0.0001) and they were significantly less likely to report worsening at 1 week (p = 0.0001) and 1 month (p = 0.017). Patients treated with particulate steroids had significantly greater pain relief and were much more likely to report clinically relevant overall 'improvement' at 1 week and 1 month compared to the patients treated with non-particulate steroids. (orig.)

  16. Is there a difference in treatment outcomes between epidural injections with particulate versus non-particulate steroids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of patients after interlaminar computed tomography (CT)-guided epidural injections of the lumbar spine with particulate vs. non-particulate steroids. 531 consecutive patients were treated with CT-guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with steroids and local anaesthetics. 411 patients received a particulate steroid and 120 patients received a non-particulate steroid. Pain levels were assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and overall reported 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post-injection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Patients receiving particulate steroids had statistically significantly higher NRS change scores (p = 0.0001 at 1 week; p = 0.0001 at 1 month). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving particulate steroids reported relevant improvement (PGIC) at both 1 week and 1 month post injection (p = 0.0001) and they were significantly less likely to report worsening at 1 week (p = 0.0001) and 1 month (p = 0.017). Patients treated with particulate steroids had significantly greater pain relief and were much more likely to report clinically relevant overall 'improvement' at 1 week and 1 month compared to the patients treated with non-particulate steroids. (orig.)

  17. Ultra fine particulates. Small particulates with large consequences?; Ultrafijn stof. Kleine deeltjes met grote gevolgen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensema, A.; Keuken, M.; Kooter, I.; Verbeek, R.; Van Vugt, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations of ultra fine particles (and elementary carbon) have increased significantly near traffic routes. The amount of ultra fine particles (and the chemical composition of particulate matter) are related to traffic emissions and are therefore relevant to the established health effects. Better insight in the effectiveness of particulate matter policy requires more attention for ultra fine particles than just maintaining the standards for PM2,5 and PM10. [mk]. [Dutch] De concentraties van ultrafijne deeltjes (en elementair koolstof) zijn fors verhoogd in de buurt van verkeerswegen. Het aantal ultrafijne deeltjes (en de chemische samenstelling van fijnstof) gerelateerd aan verkeersemissies lijkt daarom relevant voor de vastgestelde gezondheidseffecten. Voor een beter inzicht in de effectiviteit van het fijnstofbeleid is meer aandacht nodig voor ultrafijne deeltjes dan alleen handhaving van de normen voor PM2,5 en PM10.

  18. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  19. Particulates in Europe; Fijn stof in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeftens, M.; Brunekreef, B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Although the same air quality standards apply across Europe, there are large differences in concentration within, but also between countries. There are also differences between the methods that these countries use for regular monitoring networks, which makes a direct comparison of concentrations difficult. The ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) mapped the differences in the European particulate concentrations using one unified measuring method [Dutch] Hoewel voor heel Europa dezelfde luchtkwaliteitsnormen gelden, bestaan er grote concentratieverschillen binnen, maar ook tussen landen. Ook zijn er verschillen tussen de meetmethoden die deze landen binnen reguliere meetnetten hanteren, wat een directe vergelijking van concentraties vaak moeilijk maakt. Het ESCAPE-project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) bracht de Europese fijnstofcontrasten in kaart met behulp van 1 identieke meetmethode.

  20. Recent observations of particulates in Nitinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalovskaya, S.; Anderegg, J.; Humbeeck, J. van

    2008-01-01

    In spite of 40 years of history of Nitinol, the issues regarding its inclusions have been poorly explored. In our brief studies, conducted within the projects on surface design using Auger, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electrons microscopy, we discovered that particulates in NiTi medical alloys were always based on Ti: either ∼Ti 2 NiO oxide, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide or oxidized titanium carbide. Nonmetallic particles were rather brittle, had various shapes and sizes, and revealed different solubility in chemical solutions. The matrix material surrounding inclusions showed a tendency to localized corrosion. It was hypothesized that release of inclusion debris in the human body due to corrosion might compromise biocompatibility of Nitinol

  1. Method for identifying particulate fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufts, B J

    1960-01-01

    A method is described for identifying particulates containing fluorides and other complex fluorine compounds such as fluorosilicate in samples collected on membrane filters. The filter is treated with lead chloride to precipitate lead chlorofluoride at each fluoride-containing spot. This microspot is identified by examination in a light microscope. Sulfate and phosphate, which also precipitate if present, can be distinguished and do not interfere. Calibrations are given for the fluorides and the more insoluble salts, relating the original particle size to the reaction site size. Thus, the mass of the particles can be calculated. Results of some field tests in an area of fluoride pollution are given, and compared with standard testing procedures.

  2. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  3. Production, handling and characterization of particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Meesters, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale.  The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses  issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum...

  4. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, Fernando; Franklin, Natasha M.; Tuttle, Ryan B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca 2+ and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca 2+ on branchial Ca 2+ transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca 2+ . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 μg/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 μg/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca 2+ ). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca 2+ supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca 2+ supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca 2+ exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms

  5. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011). Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of

  6. Characterization of waterborne nitrogen emissions for marine eutrophication modelling in life cycle impact assessment at the damage level and global scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods lack a consistent and globally applicable characterization model relating nitrogen (N, as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIN) enrichment of coastal waters to the marine eutrophication impacts at the endpoint level. This paper introduces a method...... to calculate spatially explicit characterization factors (CFs) at endpoint and damage to ecosystems levels, for waterborne nitrogen emissions, reflecting their hypoxia-related marine eutrophication impacts, modelled for 5772 river basins of the world....

  7. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  8. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  9. Comparison of testing methods for particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four testing methods for particulate filters were compared by using the test rigs of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection: 1) Measurement of filter penetration P as a function of particle size d by using a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol and a scintillation particle counter; 2) Modified sodium flame test for measurement of total filter penetration P for various polydisperse NaC1 test aerosols; 3) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol labelled with short-lived radon daughter products; 4) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a special paraffin oil test aerosol (oil fog test used in FRG according DIN 24 184, test aerosol A). The investigations were carried out on sheets of glass fibre paper (five grades of paper). Detailed information about the four testing methods and the used particle size distributions is given. The different results of the various methods are the base for the discussion of the most important parameters which influence the filter penetration P. The course of the function P=f(d) shows the great influence of the particle size. As expected there was also found a great dependence both from the test aerosol as well as from the principle and the measuring range of the aerosol-measuring device. The differences between the results of the various test methods are greater the lower the penetration. The use of NaCl test aerosol with various particle size distributions gives great differences for the respective penetration values. On the basis of these results and the values given by Dorman conclusions are made about the investigation of particulate filters both for the determination of filter penetration P as well as for the leak test of installed filters

  10. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2018-03-16

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non-algal particles (aNAP) to the total particulate absorption coefficients are determined using a numerical decomposition method (NDM). The NDM is validated by comparing the NDM derived values of aph and aNAP with simulated values of aph and aNAP are found to be in excellent agreement for the selected wavelengths (i.e., 443, 490, 555, and 676nm) with high correlation coefficient (R2), low root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), and with a slope close to unity. Further analyses showed that the total particulate absorption coefficients (i.e., ap(443)average = 0.01995m−1) were dominated by phytoplankton absorption (i.e., aph(443)average = 0.01743m−1) with a smaller contribution by non-algal particles absorption (i.e., aNAP(443)average = 0.002524m−1). The chlorophyll a is computed using the absorption based Line Height Method (LHM). The derived chlorophyll-specific absorption ((a⁎ph = aph(λ)/ChlLH)) showed more variability in the blue part of spectrum as compared to the red part of spectrum representative of the package effect and changes in pigment composition. A new parametrization proposed also enabled the reconstruction of a⁎ph(λ) for the Red Sea. Comparison of derived spectral constants with the spectral constants of existing models showed that our study A(λ) values are consistent with the existing values, despite there is a divergence with the B(λ) values. This study provides valuable information derived from the particulate absorption properties and its spectral variability and this would help us to determine the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a and its host of variables for the Red Sea.

  11. Kinetics of waterborne fluoropolymers prepared by one-step semi-continuous emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene, vinyl acetate, butyl acrylate and Veova 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Z.; Wang, M. H.; Wang, Z. F.; Bian, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Due to using gaseous fluorine monomer with toxicity, waterborne fluoropolymers are synthesized by semi-continuous high-pressure emulsion polymerization method which differs from free-pressure emulsion polymerization. To dates, the research on preparing process and kinetics for high-pressure emulsion polymerization is reported relatively less, which hinders researchers from understanding of mechanisms for monomer-fluorinated emulsion polymerization. The paper also provides a new method by element auxiliary analysis to calculate kinetics parameters of high-pressure emulsion polymerization. Based on aforementioned consideration, waterborne fluoropolymers were prepared by copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), butyl acrylate (BA) and vinyl ester of versatic acid (Veova 10) using potassium persulfate as initiator and mixed surfactants. The kinetics of emulsion polymerization of waterborne fluoropolymers was then investigated. Effects of emulsifier concentration, initiator concentration, and polymerization temperature on polymerization rate (Rp) were evaluated, and relationship was described as Rp∝[I]0.10 and Rp∝[E]0.12. The apparent activation energy was determined to be 33.61 kJ·mol-1. Moreover, the relative conversion rate of CTFE with the other monomers was observed, and results indicated that CTFE monomer more uniformly copolymerized with the other monomers. The resulting emulsion properties and pressure change in an autoclave were evaluated at different stirring rates. The initial reaction time, defined as the beginning time of dropwise addition, was determined by the change in solid content and particle size of emulsion.

  12. Quantification of microbial risks to human health caused by waterborne viruses and bacteria in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; van der Steen, P; Foppen, J W A; Lens, P N L

    2014-02-01

    To determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne viruses and bacteria in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda), a typical slum in Sub-Saharan Africa. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out to determine the magnitude of microbial risks from waterborne pathogens through various exposure pathways in Bwaise III in Kampala (Uganda). This was based on the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., rotavirus (RV) and human adenoviruses F and G (HAdV) in spring water, tap water, surface water, grey water and contaminated soil samples. The total disease burden was 680 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 persons per year. The highest disease burden contribution was caused by exposure to surface water open drainage channels (39%) followed by exposure to grey water in tertiary drains (24%), storage containers (22%), unprotected springs (8%), contaminated soil (7%) and tap water (0.02%). The highest percentage of the mean estimated infections was caused by E. coli O157:H7 (41%) followed by HAdV (32%), RV (20%) and Salmonella spp. (7%). In addition, the highest infection risk was 1 caused by HAdV in surface water at the slum outlet, while the lowest infection risk was 2.71 × 10(-6) caused by E. coli O157:H7 in tap water. The results show that the slum environment is polluted, and the disease burden from each of the exposure routes in Bwaise III slum, with the exception of tap water, was much higher than the WHO reference level of tolerable risk of 1 × 10(-6) DALYs per person per year. The findings of this study provide guidance to governments, local authorities and nongovernment organizations in making decisions on measures to reduce infection risk and the disease burden by 10(2) to 10(5) depending on the source of exposure to achieve the desired health impacts. The infection risk may be reduced by sustainable management of human excreta and grey water, coupled with risk communication during hygiene awareness

  13. Examining waterborne and dietborne routes of exposure and their contribution to biological response patterns in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D.; Dubé, Monique G.; Squires, Allison J.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Objective (i) was achieved by isolating each route of exposure (diet, water and the combination of the two) and comparing it to a control. The metal mining effluent studied encompassed several different effluent types including: mine water, mill facility, tailing impoundment, treatment pond, treatment facility, seepage and surface drainage effluent. Experiment 1 examined exposure pathways by isolating effluent exposure through the diet, water or the combination of the two. Experiment 2 examined whether differences in Fathead minnow responses occurred when fish were fed a live or frozen (dead) diet of chironomids. Multiple trophic levels (consumers and carnivores) were placed in each artificial stream simultaneously. Primary route of exposure to Fathead minnow when held in control water and fed effluent-exposed chironomid larvae. - Abstract: The objectives of the current study were: (i) to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of water and diet as routes of exposure causing toxicity in fathead minnow (FHM) exposed to metal mining effluents (MME) using a full factorial water/food experimental design (Experiment 1), and (ii) to assess differences in the effects of food quality on toxicity by comparing FHM fed both a live and frozen diet of Chironomus dilutus (Experiment 2). The results showed significant increases in general water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, conductivity) and various metals in the effluent treatment waters compared to control waters, with maximum increase seen in the multi-trophic streams. Metals accumulation (Rb, Al, Se, Sr, Tl, Ce, Co, Cu, Pb) effects of both waterborne and multi-trophic exposures were significant in one or more fathead minnow tissue type (muscle, gonads, liver, larvae) relative to those in the control systems. Condition factor and liver somatic index (LSI) of FHM were also significantly affected in both exposures by one or both routes of exposure (water and/or diet). In addition, cumulative

  14. Cholera Vaccination Campaign Contributes to Improved Knowledge Regarding Cholera and Improved Practice Relevant to Waterborne Disease in Rural Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibana, Omowunmi; Franke, Molly; Teng, Jessica; Hilaire, Johanne; Raymond, Max; Ivers, Louise C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haiti's cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV) might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti. Methodology/Principal Findings We administered baseline surveys on knowledge and practice relevant to cholera and waterborne disease to every 10th household during a census in rural Haiti in February 2012 (N = 811). An OCV campaign occurred from May–June 2012 after which we administered identical surveys to 518 households randomly chosen from the same region in September 2012. We compared responses pre- and post-OCV campaign. Post-vaccination, there was improved knowledge with significant increase in percentage of respondents with ≥3 correct responses on cholera transmission mechanisms (odds ratio[OR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.52–2.40), preventive methods (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.46–2.30), and water treatment modalities (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.16–3.50). Relative to pre-vaccination, participants were more likely post-OCV to report always treating water (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.28–2.05). Respondents were also more likely to report hand washing with soap and water >4 times daily post-vaccine (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03–1.64). Knowledge of treating water as a cholera prevention measure was associated with practice of always treating water (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14–1.89). Post-vaccination, knowledge was associated with frequent hand washing (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.35–4.51). Conclusion An OCV campaign in rural Haiti was associated with significant improvement in cholera knowledge and practices related to waterborne disease. OCV can be part of comprehensive cholera control and reinforce, not detract from, other control efforts in Haiti. PMID:24278498

  15. Cholera vaccination campaign contributes to improved knowledge regarding cholera and improved practice relevant to waterborne disease in rural Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Aibana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Haiti's cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti.We administered baseline surveys on knowledge and practice relevant to cholera and waterborne disease to every 10th household during a census in rural Haiti in February 2012 (N = 811. An OCV campaign occurred from May-June 2012 after which we administered identical surveys to 518 households randomly chosen from the same region in September 2012. We compared responses pre- and post-OCV campaign. Post-vaccination, there was improved knowledge with significant increase in percentage of respondents with ≥ 3 correct responses on cholera transmission mechanisms (odds ratio[OR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.52-2.40, preventive methods (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.46-2.30, and water treatment modalities (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.16-3.50. Relative to pre-vaccination, participants were more likely post-OCV to report always treating water (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.28-2.05. Respondents were also more likely to report hand washing with soap and water >4 times daily post-vaccine (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.64. Knowledge of treating water as a cholera prevention measure was associated with practice of always treating water (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89. Post-vaccination, knowledge was associated with frequent hand washing (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.35-4.51.An OCV campaign in rural Haiti was associated with significant improvement in cholera knowledge and practices related to waterborne disease. OCV can be part of comprehensive cholera control and reinforce, not detract from, other control efforts in Haiti.

  16. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Particulate and soluble 210Pd activities in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Craig, H.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate and soluble, 210 Pb activities have been measured by filtration of large-volume water samples at two stations in the South Atlantic. Particulate phase 210 Pb (caught by a 0.4-μm filter) varies from 0.3% of total 210 Pb in equatorial surface water to 15% in the bottom water. The 'absolute activity' of 210 Pb per unit mass of particulate matter is about 10 7 times the activity of soluble 210 Pb per unit mass of water, but because the mass ratio of particulate matter to water is about 10 -8 , the particulate phase carries only about 10% of the total activity. In Antarctic surface water the particulate phase carries 40% of the total 210 Pb activity; the absolute activity of this material is about the same as in other water masses and the higher fraction is due to the much larger concentration of suspended matter in surface water in this region. In the equatorial Atlantic the particulate phase 210 Pb activity increases with depth, by a factor of 40 from surface to bottom, and by a factor of 4 from the Antarctic Intermediate water core to the Antarctic Bottom Water. (Auth.)

  18. A laser particulate spectrometer for a space simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Richmond, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate contaminants. Detection of the particulates is achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meters/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high-vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  19. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  20. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  1. Effects of salinity on short-term waterborne zinc uptake, accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyogi, Som; Blewett, Tamzin A.; Gallagher, Trevor; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Wood, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc accumulation in the euryhaline green crab is partially salinity dependent. • Zinc accumulates mainly in the gills of green crab during acute waterborne exposure. • Branchial zinc and calcium transport in the green crab occurs via a common pathway. • Acute waterborne Zn exposure disrupts calcium and zinc homeostasis in the green crab. - Abstract: Waterborne zinc (Zn) is known to cause toxicity to freshwater animals primarily by disrupting calcium (Ca) homeostasis during acute exposure, but its effects in marine and estuarine animals are not well characterized. The present study investigated the effects of salinity on short-term Zn accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the euryhaline green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The kinetic and pharmacological properties of short-term branchial Zn uptake were also examined. Green crabs (n = 10) were exposed to control (no added Zn) and 50 μM (3.25 mg L"−"1) of waterborne Zn (∼25% of 96 h LC_5_0 in 100 seawater) for 96 h at 3 different salinity regimes (100%, 60% and 20% seawater). Exposure to waterborne Zn increased tissue-specific Zn accumulation across different salinities. However, the maximum accumulation occurred in 20% seawater and no difference was recorded between 60% and 100% seawater. Gills appeared to be the primary site of Zn accumulation, since the accumulation was significantly higher in the gills relative to the hepatopancreas, haemolymph and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure induced a slight increase in haemolymph osmolality and chloride levels irrespective of salinity. In contrast, Zn exposure elicited marked increases in both haemolymph and gill Ca levels, and these changes were more pronounced in 20% seawater relative to that in 60% or 100% seawater. An in vitro gill perfusion technique was used to examine the characteristics of short-term (1–4 h) branchial Zn uptake over an exposure concentration range of 3–12 μM (200–800 μg L"−"1). The rate of short-term branchial Zn

  2. Effects of salinity on short-term waterborne zinc uptake, accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield, BC (Canada); Blewett, Tamzin A. [Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield, BC (Canada); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Gallagher, Trevor [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Fehsenfeld, Sandra [Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield, BC (Canada); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield, BC (Canada); Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Zinc accumulation in the euryhaline green crab is partially salinity dependent. • Zinc accumulates mainly in the gills of green crab during acute waterborne exposure. • Branchial zinc and calcium transport in the green crab occurs via a common pathway. • Acute waterborne Zn exposure disrupts calcium and zinc homeostasis in the green crab. - Abstract: Waterborne zinc (Zn) is known to cause toxicity to freshwater animals primarily by disrupting calcium (Ca) homeostasis during acute exposure, but its effects in marine and estuarine animals are not well characterized. The present study investigated the effects of salinity on short-term Zn accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the euryhaline green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The kinetic and pharmacological properties of short-term branchial Zn uptake were also examined. Green crabs (n = 10) were exposed to control (no added Zn) and 50 μM (3.25 mg L{sup −1}) of waterborne Zn (∼25% of 96 h LC{sub 50} in 100 seawater) for 96 h at 3 different salinity regimes (100%, 60% and 20% seawater). Exposure to waterborne Zn increased tissue-specific Zn accumulation across different salinities. However, the maximum accumulation occurred in 20% seawater and no difference was recorded between 60% and 100% seawater. Gills appeared to be the primary site of Zn accumulation, since the accumulation was significantly higher in the gills relative to the hepatopancreas, haemolymph and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure induced a slight increase in haemolymph osmolality and chloride levels irrespective of salinity. In contrast, Zn exposure elicited marked increases in both haemolymph and gill Ca levels, and these changes were more pronounced in 20% seawater relative to that in 60% or 100% seawater. An in vitro gill perfusion technique was used to examine the characteristics of short-term (1–4 h) branchial Zn uptake over an exposure concentration range of 3–12 μM (200–800 μg L{sup −1}). The rate of short

  3. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  4. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  5. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hollow structure and huge specific surface area. The growth of HSS was an inward-growth mechanism along template. Notably, we have provided a new and interesting fundamental principle for HSS materials by precisely controlling the ethanol-to-water volume ratio. In addition, the as-obtained HSS were mixed with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to prepare WPU/HSS composite membrane. Various characterizations (SEM, TEM, FT-IR and TGA) revealed the morphology, polydispersity and adherence between HSS and WPU. Performance tests showed that the introduction of HSS can improve the water vapor permeability of composite membrane, promoting its water resistance and mechanical performance at the same time.

  6. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins.

  7. Mitochondrial energetic metabolism perturbations in skeletal muscles and brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to low concentrations of waterborne uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerebours, Adelaide; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Brethes, Daniel [CNRS, UMR 5095, Institut de Biochimie et Genetique Cellulaires, Universite Victor Segalen-Bordeaux 2 (France); Frelon, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jp.bourdineaud@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [CNRS, UMR 5095, Institut de Biochimie et Genetique Cellulaires, Universite Victor Segalen-Bordeaux 2 (France)

    2010-10-01

    Anthropogenic release of uranium (U), originating from the nuclear fuel cycle or military activities, may considerably increase U concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems above the naturally occurring background levels found throughout the environment. With a projected increase in the world-wide use of nuclear power, it is important to improve our understanding of the possible effects of this metal on the aquatic fauna at concentrations commensurate with the provisional drinking water guideline value of the World Health Organization (15 {mu}g U/L). The present study has examined the mitochondrial function in brain and skeletal muscles of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, exposed to 30 and 100 {mu}g/L of waterborne U for 10 and 28 days. At the lower concentration, the basal mitochondrial respiration rate was increased in brain at day 10 and in muscles at day 28. This is due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability, resulting in a decrease of the respiratory control ratio. In addition, levels of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV) increased in brain at day 10, and those of COX-I increased in muscles at day 28. Histological analyses performed by transmission electron microscopy revealed an alteration of myofibrils and a dilatation of endomysium in muscle cells. These effects were largest at the lowest concentration, following 28 days of exposure.

  8. Legionella longbeachae detected in an industrial cooling tower linked to a legionellosis outbreak, New Zealand, 2015; possible waterborne transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, C N; Harte, D J; Weir, R P; Allen, L J; Knightbridge, K J; Wood, P R T

    2017-08-01

    A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires' disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers. There was 100% DNA sequence homology between cooling tower and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila sg1 using sequence-based typing analysis; no clinical L. longbeachae isolates were available to compare with environmental isolates. Routine monitoring of the towers prior to the outbreak failed to detect any legionella. Data from this outbreak indicate that L. pneumophila sg1 transmission occurred from the cooling towers; in addition, L. longbeachae transmission was suggested but remains unproven. L. longbeachae detection in cooling towers has not been previously reported in association with legionellosis outbreaks. Waterborne transmission should not be discounted in investigations for the source of L. longbeachae infection.

  9. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  10. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  11. Kinetics of Waterborne Alkyd/Acrylic Hybrid Resin Free Radical Polymerization by Two Systems of Redox and Thermal Initiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shirin Madadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of radical polymerizations of waterborne alkyd/acrylic hybrid resin via batch mini-emulsion technique was studied using redox initiators (TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/AsAc  and  TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS at relatively low temperatures and thermal initiators (BPO, KPS and AIBN at higher temperatures to seek the most suitable initiator system. At the end of all reactions the unreacted monomer content was reduced using post-polymerization technique; consequently, leading to increased monomer conversion and flm formation with improved properties. The kinetics of mini-emulsion polymerization showed that in all redox initiator systems (Fe2+ catalyst + EDTA chelating agent, the radials are produced at relatively low temperature with more effcient control of the reactor temperature. It was found that at 45°C TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS redox initiator system leads to 98% monomer conversion, a much higher rate than that of systems involved thermal initiators.

  12. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  13. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  15. Observations on particulate organic nitrates and unidentified components of NOy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Egeløv, A.H.; Granby, K.

    1995-01-01

    A method to determine the total content of particulate organic nitrates (PON) has been developed and ambient air measurements of PON, NO, NO2, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), gas NOy and particulate inorganic nitrate have been performed in the spring and early...... summer al an agricultural site in Denmark and compared with measurements of ozone, H2O2, SO2, formic acid, acetic acid and methane sulphonic acid. The gas NOy detector determines the sum NO + NO2 + HNO2 + HNO3 + PAN + PPN + gas phase organic nitrates + 2 x N2O5 + NO3. The content of residual gas NOy...... = gas NOy + particulate inorganic nitrate). Residual gas NOy was much higher than the particulate fraction of organic nitrates (PON). PON was only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of concentrations of photochemical oxidants in connection with high-pressure systems suggesting atmospheric processes being the major source...

  16. Life Support Systems: Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control task: Work in the area of trace contamination and...

  17. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  18. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  19. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  20. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  1. Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...

  2. Ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Wang, Tianyu; Mao, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    A method for ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite was demonstrated. The effects of the CALIOP receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter profile were first removed. The two-way transmittance of the overlying atmosphere was then estimated as the ratio of the measured ocean surface attenuated backscatter to the theoretical value computed from wind driven wave slope variance. Finally, particulate backscatter was estimated from the depolarization ratio as the ratio of the column-integrated cross-polarized and co-polarized channels. Statistical results show that the derived particulate backscatter by the method based on CALIOP data agree reasonably well with chlorophyll-a concentration using MODIS data. It indicates a potential use of space-borne lidar to estimate global primary productivity and particulate carbon stock.

  3. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  4. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  5. Atmospheric oxidative chemistry of organic particulate emissions from fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    "Construction and characterization of the University of Vermont Environmental Chamber (UVMEC) : were completed in this last phase of the project. The primary function of the UVMEC is to enable : tropospheric particulate formation and aging studies to...

  6. AIRWAY EPITHELIAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS: ROLE OF METAL INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations with particulate matter (PM) air pollution and daily respiratory morbidity - including exacerbations of asthma. Data are needed to elucidate which PM subcomponents may be mediating disease exacerbation in ind...

  7. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  8. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G; Cecinato, A [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  9. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  10. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  11. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, C.; Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm -3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  12. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  13. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberger, Steven R.; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  14. Particulate Emissions and Biodiesel: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Angelovič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current mode of transport using fuel it cannot be characterized as harmless to human health or as sustainable. The whole process of extracting, processing and using of petroleum products can be seen as the raw material cycle in nature. This cycle also cause serious damage to the environment and human health. Many studies on air pollutant emissions with biodiesel have been carried out worldwide. Studies have shown that diesel-powered vehicles are the major contributors of PM emissions. PM particulates are especially important in regard to adverse health outcomes, such as increased cardiovascular, respiratory morbidity and mortality rates, due to their larger active surface and the higher likelihood of deposition in the alveolar region of the lungs. Hence, it is overwhelming argument that the use of biodiesel instead of diesel causes reduce of PM emissions. Of course, this reduction will become smaller with the reduction of biodiesel proportion in the blended fuel. The trend with which PM emissions of biodiesel will be reduced, is due to lower aromatic and sulfur compounds and higher cetane number for biodiesel, but the more important factor is the higher oxygen content.

  15. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  17. Inventory of primary particulates emissions; Inventaire des emissions de particules primaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    CITEPA carried out a national inventory on particulate emissions. This report presents the results of this study for a great number of sectors and it covers a larger number of sources than the previous CITEPA inventories on particles and some other inventories carried out by International organisms (TNO, IIASA). In particular, at the present time, fugitive dust emissions for some sources are rarely taken into account in inventories because of poor knowledge and they are still the subject of researches in order to validate the emission results. (author)

  18. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  19. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  20. Large impact of small particulates; Grote invloed van klein fijnstof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemstra-Holtkamp, I.V.L. [Astma Fonds, Leusden (Netherlands)

    2006-06-15

    PM2.5 particulates are responsible for a large part of thousands of people that die of air pollution. The Asthma Fund in the Netherlands wants the Dutch government to take specific action and measures for those small particulates. [Dutch] PM2.5 is verantwoordelijk voor een groot deel van de 1000-en mensen die elk jaar sterven door luchtverontreiniging. Het Astma Fonds wil dat de overheid aparte maatregelen neemt voor PM2.5.

  1. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  2. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  3. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  4. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  5. Method and apparatus for removing volatile hydrocarbons from particulate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for heating solid particulate mineral compositions. It comprises: a counterflow ratable drum having a first end and an opposite second end, a first portion of the drum extending from the first end for a first length and having a first diameter along the first length, and a second portion of the drum secured to and extending from the first portion to the second end for a second length and having a second diameter along the second length, the second diameter being less than the first diameter, a burner adjacent the first end for introducing and directing hot gases of combustion into the first portion of the drum toward the second end, means for introducing particulate composition into the drum at the second end, means for directing the particulate composition along the drum from the second end toward the first end, and means for recovering composition at the first end, means for removing a gaseous mixture of organic volatiles, gases of combustion and fine particles of the particulate composition adjacent the second drum end, means for separating fine particles of the particulate composition from the gaseous mixture, and means for returning the separated fine particulate composition particles to the first portion of the drum

  6. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  7. Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10 6.6 L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth

  8. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Nano indentation of particulate and polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Aisha

    2001-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the formation and rupture mechanisms of agglomerates is essential when seeking to model equipment designed to produce and process such agglomerated particulate solids. In the work to be described the nano-indentation of two-dimensional agglomerate films was carried out in order to establish a means of identifying the generic breakage mechanisms of agglomerated systems. Data analysis techniques are developed that enable the individual inter-particle junction strengths to be calculated for a model system consisting of rather mono-dispersed colloidal silica particles (20-24 nm diameter) bound with a poly(methyl methacrylate). Applied load and penetration depth data in the range (10 mN and 500 nm respectively) are provided as a function of loading time during a continuous loading. It is argued that these data enable the sequence of the discrete binder bridge failures to be observed thus giving a quantitative indication of the breakage mechanism of this agglomerate system as well as reflect the agglomerate structure. The secondary objective of this work was to produce a range of agglomerates with different mechanical properties, without changing the type and amount of binder or prime particles used in the system. This was achieved by altering the mechanical properties of the binder, poly(methyl methacrylate), by the use of a variety of solvents. From data obtained using nano-indentation on thin films of the treated polymer, brittle and ductile forms of poly(methyl methacrylate) could be distinguished. These trends are reflected, to some degree, in the mechanical response of the agglomerated layers. (author)

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  11. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  13. Influence of waterborne gallic and pelargonic acid exposures on biochemical and reproductive parameters in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2017-01-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are biologically derived substances receiving a growing interest as eco-friendly biocides with potential applications in freshwater system management. However, some data gaps remain to address their chronic ecotoxicity issue, particularly for fish. This work aimed at investigating the sublethal effects of a long-term waterborne exposure of zebrafish to these compounds. Mature fish were exposed to gallic or pelargonic acid at the concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L during one month under semi-static conditions. Fecundity, hatching rate and median hatching time were regularly evaluated. Circulating sex hormone levels (11 ketotestosterone -11 KT, 17 βestradiol -E2-), plasma vitellogenin (Vtg), and gonad histology were monitored in males and females after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total glutathione peroxydase (GPx) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities were assessed as enzymatic biomarkers of exposure in fish liver. Significant increases of GPx activity were reported in females exposed to both type of chemicals regardless the contamination level. Moreover, 5 mg/L gallic acid induced a decrease in 11-KT levels for males. For fish exposed to pelargonic acid, decreases in circulating hormone levels were reported respectively at 0.05 and 5 mg/L for 11-KT in males, and at 0.5 mg/L for E2 in females. However, no histological alteration in gonads neither significant variation in reproductive performances were detected following zebrafish exposure to gallic or pelargonic acid. Additional investigations concerning the mode of application and the environmental fate of these substances may warrant their further use in freshwater systems at concentrations compatible with biocidal/allelochemical effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 227-240, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Potential sources of bias in the use of Escherichia coli to measure waterborne diarrhoea risk in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Arnold, Benjamin F; Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Colford, John M; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the standard water quality indicator for diarrhoea risk. Yet, the association between E. coli and diarrhoea is inconsistent across studies without a systematic assessment of methodological differences behind this variation. Most studies measure water quality cross-sectionally with diarrhoea, risking exposure misclassification and reverse causation. Studies use different recall windows for self-reported diarrhoea; longer periods increase potential outcome misclassification through misrecall. Control of confounding is inconsistent across studies. Additionally, diarrhoea measured in unblinded intervention trials can present courtesy bias. We utilised measurements from a randomised trial of water interventions in Bangladesh to assess how these factors affect the E. coli-diarrhoea association. We compared cross-sectional versus prospective measurements of water quality and diarrhoea, 2-versus 7-day symptom recall periods, estimates with and without controlling for confounding and using measurements from control versus intervention arms of the trial. In the control arm, 2-day diarrhoea prevalence, measured prospectively 1 month after water quality, significantly increased with log 10 E. coli (PR = 1.50, 1.02-2.20). This association weakened when we used 7-day recall (PR = 1.18, 0.88-1.57), cross-sectional measurements of E. coli and diarrhoea (PR = 1.11, 0.79-1.56) or did not control for confounding (PR = 1.20, 0.88-1.62). Including data from intervention arms led to less interpretable associations, potentially due to courtesy bias, effect modification and/or reverse causation. By systematically addressing potential sources of bias, our analysis demonstrates a clear relationship between E. coli in drinking water and diarrhoea, suggesting that the continued use of E. coli as an indicator of waterborne diarrhoea risk is justified. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A waterborne outbreak of multiple diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli infections associated with drinking water at a school camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Soojin; Shin, Eunkyung; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Yonghoon; Kim, Cheon Hyeon; Hwang, Min Ah; Jin, Chan Mun; Na, Kyoungin; Lee, Jin; Cho, Enhi; Kang, Byung-Hak; Kwak, Hyo-Sun; Seong, Won Keun; Kim, Junyoung

    2018-01-01

    In June 2015, a local public health laboratory was notified that students had developed gastroenteritis symptoms after attending a camp. An outbreak investigation was conducted to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the correlations between the illness and specific exposures at the school camp. All attendees were interviewed with a standard questionnaire that addressed clinical symptoms, food consumption, and environmental exposures. Clinical specimens were cultured using standard microbiological methods for bacterial and viral pathogens. The genetic relationships of all isolates were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total 188 patients with symptoms of diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and nausea were identified. The completed questionnaires suggested that the consumption of drinking water was likely to be linked to this outbreak. Using microbiological methods, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli were isolated, and the isolates from both patient stool and environmental water samples displayed indistinguishable XbaI-PFGE patterns. The water system in the camp used groundwater drawn from a private underground reservoir for cooking and drinking. The environmental investigation revealed some problems with the water supply system, such as the use of inappropriate filters in the water purifier and a defect in the pipeline between the reservoir and the chlorination device. This outbreak points to the importance of drinking water quality management in group facilities where underground water is used and emphasizes the need for periodic sanitation and inspection to prevent possible waterborne outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic Solvent-Free Fabrication of Durable and Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Paper from Waterborne Fluorinated Cellulose Nanofiber Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, Avijit; Ganayee, Mohd Azhardin; Jakka Ravindran, Swathy; Tam, Kam Chiu; Das, Sarit Kumar; Ras, Robin H A; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2017-11-28

    In view of a great demand for paper-based technologies, nonwettable fibrous substrates with excellent durability have drawn much attention in recent years. In this context, the use of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), the smallest unit of cellulosic substrates (5-20 nm wide and 500 nm to several microns in length), to design waterproof paper can be an economical and smart approach. In this study, an eco-friendly and facile methodology to develop a multifunctional waterproof paper via the fabrication of fluoroalkyl functionalized CNFs in the aqueous medium is presented. This strategy avoids the need for organic solvents, thereby minimizing cost as well as reducing safety and environmental concerns. Besides, it widens the applicability of such materials as nanocellulose-based aqueous coatings on hard and soft substrates including paper, in large areas. Water droplets showed a contact angle of 160° (±2°) over these surfaces and rolled off easily. While native CNFs are extremely hydrophilic and can be dispersed in water easily, these waterborne fluorinated CNFs allow the fabrication of a superhydrophobic film that does not redisperse upon submersion in water. Incorporated chemical functionalities provide excellent durability toward mechanochemical damages of relevance to daily use such as knife scratch, sand abrasion, spillage of organic solvents, etc. Mechanical flexibility of the chemically modified CNF composed paper remains intact despite its enhanced mechanical strength, without additives. Superhydrophobicity induced excellent microbial resistance of the waterproof paper which expands its utility in various paper-based technologies. This includes waterproof electronics, currency, books, etc., where the integrity of the fibers, as demonstrated here, is a much-needed criterion.

  17. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Pons

    Full Text Available Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S. indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs. Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks.The objectives of this study were to: 1 identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2 summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3 identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports.Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis.From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7% and lack of water treatment (20.2% were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001. There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively.More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  18. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Truong, Jenifer; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis. From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (pwater source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  19. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO 2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO 2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO 2 NPs (48h LC 50 of 4.21mgL -1 ) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC 50 of 11.35mgL -1 ). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions of waterborne and dietary cadmium on the expression of calcium transporters in the gills of rainbow trout: Influence of dietary calcium supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Fernando [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: galvezf@lsu.edu; Franklin, Natasha M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Tuttle, Ryan B. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2007-08-30

    Recent studies have shown that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation strongly inhibits uptake of Ca{sup 2+} and Cd at the fish gill. To better understand the influence of dietary Ca{sup 2+} on branchial Ca{sup 2+} transport, we examined the expression of two trout gill calcium transporters during waterborne and dietary Cd exposure, at two different levels of dietary Ca{sup 2+}. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to monitor epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) and sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) mRNA levels following 7-28 days of exposure to these treatments. In brief, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to control, 3 {mu}g/L waterborne Cd, 500 mg/kg dietary Cd, or a combined 3 {mu}g/L waterborne plus 500 mg/kg dietary Cd exposure, supplemented with either 20 mg/g or 60 mg/g dietary calcium (Ca{sup 2+}). Two-way analysis of variance was used to discern the main effects of Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation on ECaC and NCX mRNA levels. We found that dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation decreased significantly ECaC mRNA expression on days 14 and 21. In comparison, NCX mRNA levels were not influenced by dietary Ca{sup 2+} supplementation, but rather were significantly inhibited in the combined waterborne and dietary Cd exposure on day 7 alone. Statistical analysis found no interactive effects between Cd exposure and dietary Ca{sup 2+} exposure at any time point, except for day 28.This study provides evidence of the importance of nutritional status on the transcriptional regulation of ion transport at the fish gill. We discuss the importance of diet and nutritional status to the development of new regulatory approaches, such as the biotic ligand model, which currently do not account for the significance of diet on metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms.

  1. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. On-road particulate emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  3. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  4. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  5. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  7. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  8. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  9. Generalized Effective Medium Theory for Particulate Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites is strongly dependent on the size, shape, orientation and dispersion uniformity of the inclusions. To correctly estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, all these factors should be included in the prediction model. In this paper, the formulation of a generalized effective medium theory for the determination of the effective thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites with multiple inclusions is presented. The formulated methodology takes into account all the factors mentioned above and can be used to model nanocomposites with multiple inclusions that are randomly oriented or aligned in a particular direction. The effect of inclusion dispersion non-uniformity is modeled using a two-scale approach. The applications of the formulated effective medium theory are demonstrated using previously published experimental and numerical results for several particulate nanocomposites.

  10. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churches, D.K.

    1999-10-01

    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ''Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ''Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document. (author)

  11. Electrification of particulates in industrial and natural multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.

  12. Gaseous and particulate air pollutants in the Northeastern Mediterranean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soner Erduran, M.; Tuncel, Semra G.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) and particulate matter were measured for a 6-month period and the concentration of gas phase nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was measured for a 1-month period in the North-eastern Mediterranean atmosphere (Kuecuek Calticak, Antalya) using a 'filter pack' system that was developed and optimised in our laboratory. Among all the gas phase pollutants, HNO 3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 μg m -3 ) followed by ammonia. Most of the measured parameters showed variation in time depending on strengths of source regions and meteorological conditions. Nitric acid is found mostly in particulate form, but gas to particulate partitioning of SO 2 shows seasonal variation. Wind trajectory analyses indicate that the major contribution to the observed concentrations come mostly from Eastern Europe and Blacksea regions as well as the southern sector

  13. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favez, O.

    2008-02-01

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  14. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  15. The association of drinking water quality and sewage disposal with Helicobacter pylori incidence in infants: the potential role of water-borne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Penny B; Goodman, Karen J; O'Rourke, Kathleen M; Groves, Frank D; Sinha, Debajyoti; Nicholas, Joyce S; VanDerslice, Jim; Lackland, Daniel; Mena, Kristina D

    2010-03-01

    The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, is unknown although waterborne transmission is a likely pathway. This study investigated the hypothesis that access to treated water and a sanitary sewerage system reduces the H. pylori incidence rate, using data from 472 participants in a cohort study that followed children in Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, from April 1998, with caretaker interviews and the urea breath test for detecting H. pylori infection at target intervals of six months from birth through 24 months of age. The unadjusted hazard ratio comparing bottled/vending machine water to a municipal water supply was 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.01) and comparing a municipal sewer connection to a septic tank or cesspool, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.20). After adjustment for maternal education and country, the hazard ratios decreased slightly to 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.00) and 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 1.21), respectively. These results provide moderate support for potential waterborne transmission of H. pylori.

  16. Field evaluation of a new point-of-use faucet filter for preventing exposure to Legionella and other waterborne pathogens in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Julianne L; Peters, Tammy; Shafer, Raymond; MacMurray, Brian; Stout, Janet E

    2014-11-01

    Opportunistic waterborne pathogens (eg, Legionella, Pseudomonas) may persist in water distribution systems despite municipal chlorination and secondary disinfection and can cause health care-acquired infections. Point-of-use (POU) filtration can limit exposure to pathogens; however, their short maximum lifetime and membrane clogging have limited their use. A new faucet filter rated at 62 days was evaluated at a cancer center in Northwestern Pennsylvania. Five sinks were equipped with filters, and 5 sinks served as controls. Hot water was collected weekly for 17 weeks and cultured for Legionella, Pseudomonas, and total bacteria. Legionella was removed from all filtered samples for 12 weeks. One colony was recovered from 1 site at 13 weeks; however, subsequent tests were negative through 17 weeks of testing. Total bacteria were excluded for the first 2 weeks, followed by an average of 1.86 log reduction in total bacteria compared with controls. No Pseudomonas was recovered from filtered or control faucets. This next generation faucet filter eliminated Legionella beyond the 62 day manufacturers' recommended maximum duration of use. These new POU filters will require fewer change-outs than standard filters and could be a cost-effective method for preventing exposure to Legionella and other opportunistic waterborne pathogens in hospitals with high-risk patients. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of waterborne nitrite on hematological parameters and stress indicators in olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus, raised in bio-floc and seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Lok-Ji; Kim, Su Kyoung; Choi, Hye Sung; Hur, Young Baek

    2018-06-11

    Juvenile olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus (mean weight 2.69 ± 0.31 g), were raised in bio-floc and seawater for six months, these P. olivaceus (mean weight 280.1 ± 10.5 g, mean length 28.37 ± 2.3 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of waterborne nitrite (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg NO 2 - /L) for 7 days. None of the P. olivaceus individuals exposed to bio-floc and seawater containing waterborne nitrite concentrations of 200 mg/L for 7 days survived. Hematological parameters (hemoglobin and hematocrit) were significantly reduced by nitrite exposure. Regarding plasma components, the concentrations of glucose, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) increased significantly in response to nitrite exposure, whereas cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased. Stress indicators, including concentrations of plasma glucose, cortisol, and liver and gill concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. The results of the study indicate that nitrite exposure affected the hematological parameters and stress indicators of P. olivaceus raised in bio-floc and seawater, and these changes were more prominent in the P. olivaceus raised in seawater than those raised in bio-floc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from small scale firewood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the serious adverse effects of residential firewood use is the deterioration in air quality caused by wood-smoke. Low combustion zone temperatures, flame quenching, poor gas mixing, and lack of oxygen all contribute to relatively high emissions of particulates and CO. Average emission rates for particulates of 11 g/h for modern woodheaters can certainly be improved upon. More research effort is needed to reduce emissions from cooking stoves used in developing countries and more public information on correct heater use is needed in the developed countries. (author)

  19. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    constitute each about 5 wt-% of the collected suspended particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 µm. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about 1 µm for the bitumen particles...... % of this concentration derives from adsorbed particles on both leaf sides. The remainder is either respired through stomata or incorporated in the epicuticular wax layer. The fact that a substantial amount of the airborne tire and bitumen particles occur in the submicron range permits long range transportation...

  20. Role of oxidative damage in toxicity of particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Folkmann, Janne K

    2010-01-01

    composition play important roles in the oxidative potential of particulates. Studies in animal models indicate that particles from combustion processes (generated by combustion of wood or diesel oil), silicate, titanium dioxide and nanoparticles (C60 fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) produce elevated levels......Particulates are small particles of solid or liquid suspended in liquid or air. In vitro studies show that particles generate reactive oxygen species, deplete endogenous antioxidants, alter mitochondrial function and produce oxidative damage to lipids and DNA. Surface area, reactivity and chemical...

  1. In situ fate and partitioning of waterborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seongjin [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jong Seong, E-mail: jskocean@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinsoon [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhee; Kim, Woong-Ki; Jung, Jinho; Hyun, Seunghun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyojin; Choi, Heeseon J. [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecology, GeoSystem Research Corporation, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Codling, Garry [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2013-02-15

    Concentrations, distributions, fate, and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated in surface water (n = 34) collected from the Youngsan and Nakdong River Estuaries of South Korea. Thirteen individual PFAAs in water and suspended solids (SS) were quantified by use of HPLC–MS/MS. PFAAs were detected in all samples, which indicated that they were widely distributed in the study area. Greater concentrations of PFAAs were found at some inland sites which seemed to be affected by direct input from point sources, such as wastewater treatment plants, and/or indirect diffusive sources, such as surface runoff. Spatial distributions of PFAAs in estuaries along transects toward the open sea demonstrated that these chemicals were transported to the outer region primarily by water discharged during the rainy season. Field-based partition coefficients (K{sub d}) for long-chain PFAAs (C ≥ 8) were significantly correlated with salinity (r{sup 2} = 0.48 to 0.73, p < 0.01); K{sub d} values increased exponentially as a function of salinity. Due to the ‘salting-out’ effect, PFAAs were largely scavenged by adsorption onto SS and/or sediments in estuarine environments. In addition, values for K{sub d} of those PFAAs were directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms in the PFAAs. Salting constants of selected PFAAs were notably greater than those of other environmental organic contaminants, which indicated that adsorption of PFAAs is largely associated with salinity. Overall, the results of the present study will provide better understanding of the fate and transport of PFAAs in the zone of salinity boundary that can be used for developing fate models of PFAAs in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: ► In situ fate and partitioning of PFAAs were described along salinity gradients in estuaries. ► Salinity was found to be the key factor controlling adsorption of waterborne PFAAs. ► The K{sub d} for longer-chain PFAAs (C ≥ 8) increased as

  2. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalec, François-Gaël [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Holzner, Markus [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Menu, Dominique [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Hwang, Jiang-Shiou [National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Marine Biology, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Souissi, Sami, E-mail: sami.souissi@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LOG, Station Marine de Wimereux, F-62930 Wimereux (France); CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France)

    2013-08-15

    increase in speed and activity resembles an escape reaction permitting copepods to evade stressful conditions. Overall, these results indicate that environment-relevant concentrations of pollutants can induce rapid changes in copepod behavior. Since behavioral processes represent a fundamental element in the ecology of copepods, our results raise concern about the effects of background levels of pollution on a major component of the plankton community. The long-term response of copepods to waterborne pollutants, their synergistic effects and their interactions with other environmental factors need further investigation.

  3. Comparison of waterborne and intraperitoneal exposure to fipronil in the Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii on acute toxicity and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Alijani Ardeshir

    Full Text Available Fipronil is an effective insecticide widely used in agriculture with potential ecotoxicological consequences. The median lethal dose (LD50 and concentration (LC50 of fipronil in 16.3 g Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings were determined. To determine the LD50, a total of 133 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (7 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850 mg/kg. Fish were injected intraperitoneally and monitored at 96 h. The LD50 of fipronil was 632 mg/kg suggesting it was slightly toxic to the Caspian white fish. To determine LC50, 114 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (6 fish/tank including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 μg/L. The LC50 of fipronil was 572 μg/L, which was highly toxic to the fish. The degree of tissue change (DTC in vital organs from moribund fish exposed via waterborne exposure showed severe damage (DTC: 71 ± 52 for 700 μg/L in the gill, including aneurisms, extensive fusion and necrosis. The fish exposed through the intraperitoneal route seemed to have severe lesions (DTC: 66 ± 50 for 750 mg/kg in the kidney, involving hemorrhage, tubular degeneration and necrosis. The liver had no significant differences in DTC values between the two routes and showed pyknosis and sinusoid dilation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining did not show any histological alterations in the brain but nissl staining showed some alterations in distribution of purkinje cells. Generally, this study showed that the route of exposure to fipronil not only affects its acute toxicity but also determines the main target organs of toxicity and histopathological alterations in Caspian white fish. Keywords: Fipronil, Caspian white fish, Acute toxicity, Administration route

  4. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami

    2013-01-01

    speed and activity resembles an escape reaction permitting copepods to evade stressful conditions. Overall, these results indicate that environment-relevant concentrations of pollutants can induce rapid changes in copepod behavior. Since behavioral processes represent a fundamental element in the ecology of copepods, our results raise concern about the effects of background levels of pollution on a major component of the plankton community. The long-term response of copepods to waterborne pollutants, their synergistic effects and their interactions with other environmental factors need further investigation

  5. Exposure to waterborne Cu inhibits cutaneous Na⁺ uptake in post-hatch larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Brauner, Colin J; Wood, Chris M

    2014-05-01

    In freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), two common responses to acute waterborne copper (Cu) exposure are reductions in ammonia excretion and Na(+) uptake at the gills, with the latter representing the likely lethal mechanism of action for Cu in adult fish. Larval fish, however, lack a functional gill following hatch and rely predominantly on cutaneous exchange, yet represent the most Cu-sensitive life stage. It is not known if Cu toxicity in larval fish occurs via the skin or gills. The present study utilized divided chambers to assess cutaneous and branchial Cu toxicity over larval development, using disruptions in ammonia excretion (Jamm) and Na(+) uptake (Jin(Na)) as toxicological endpoints. Early in development (early; 3 days post-hatch; dph), approximately 95% of Jamm and 78% of Jin(Na) occurred cutaneously, while in the late developmental stage (late; 25 dph), the gills were the dominant site of exchange (83 and 87% of Jamm and Jin(Na), respectively). Exposure to 50 μg/l Cu led to a 49% inhibition of Jamm in the late developmental stage only, while in the early and middle developmental (mid; 17 dph) stages, Cu had no effect on Jamm. Jin(Na), however, was significantly inhibited by Cu exposure at the early (53% reduction) and late (47% reduction) stages. Inhibition at the early stage of development was mediated by a reduction in cutaneous uptake, representing the first evidence of cutaneous metal toxicity in an intact aquatic organism. The inhibitions of both Jamm and Jin(Na) in the late developmental stage occurred via a reduction in branchial exchange only. The differential responses of the skin and gills to Cu exposure suggest that the mechanisms of Jamm and Jin(Na) and/or Cu toxicity differ between these tissues. Exposure to 20μg/l Cu revealed that Jamm is the more Cu-sensitive process. The results presented here have important implications in predicting metal toxicity in larval fish. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is currently used to predict

  6. Distribution and seasonal variation of concentrations of particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Fernandes, V.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO), total particulate uronic acid (TPURA) and total particulate neutral carbohydrate (TPNCHO) concentrations and composition. Strong spatial, temporal and depth related variations were evident in the distribution...

  7. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016

  8. Daily variability of suspended particulate concentrations and yields and their effect on river particulates chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meybeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily total suspended solids concentrations (TSS, mg L-1, yields (Y, kg day-1 km-2 and runoff (q, L s-1 km-2 in world rivers are described by the median (C50, the upper percentile (C99, the discharge-weighted average concentrations (C*, and by their corresponding yields (Y50, Y99, Y* and runoff (q*, q50, q99. These intra-station descriptors range over two to six orders of magnitude at a given station. Inter-station variability is considered through three sets of dimensionless metrics: (i q*/q50, C*/C50 and Y*/Y50, defining the general temporal variability indicators, and q99/q50, C99/C50 and Y99/Y50, defining the extreme variability indicators; (ii river flow duration (W2 and flux duration (M2 in 2% of time; and (iii the truncated rating curve exponent (b50sup of the C vs q relationship for the upper flows. The TSS and Y variability, measured on US, French and world rivers, are first explained by hydrological variability through the b50sup metric, the variability amplifier, then by basin size, erodibility, relief and lake occurrence. Yield variability is the product of runoff variability × TSS variability. All metrics are considerably modified after river damming. The control of river particulate matter (RPM composition by TSS or yields depends on the targeted component. For major elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, the average RPM chemistry is not dependent on C* and Y* in most world hydroregions, except in the tropical hydrobelt where it is controlled by basin relief. By contrast, the particulate organic carbon content (POC, as a percentage of RPM is inversely correlated to TSS concentrations for (i intra-station measurements in any hydroregion, and (ii inter-station average POC and TSS figures in world rivers. TSS controls heavy metal content (ppm in highly contaminated basins (e.g. Cd in the Seine vs the Rhone, and total metal concentration (ng/L in all cases. Relations between RPM composition and TSS should be taken into account

  9. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  10. Characteristics of Airborne Particulates Containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Monazite Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Go, A Ra; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The properties included particulate size distribution, concentration, shape, density, and radioactivity concentration. Monazite is one of the minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Therefore, external and internal exposure can be occurred to the workers in monazite industry. The major exposure pathway of the workers is internal exposure due to inhalation of airborne particulates. According to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation dose due to inhaled particulates containing NORM depends on particulate properties. Therefore, ICRP recommended the internal dose assessment using measured physicochemical properties of the airborne particulates. In the absence of specific information, ICRP provided default reference values. In this study, we characterized physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The databases of particulate information can be used for accurate internal dose assessment of worker.

  11. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  12. The evaluation of a ceramic diesel particulate filter in an underground mine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.H.; Bucheger, D.; Patton, M.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper details the collection of diesel exhaust particulate from the instrumented Wagner ST5A load-haul-dump vehicle during a simulated ore loading and hauling operation. An evaluation of the exhaust included measurements to determine the effect of the Corning diesel particulate filter (DPF) on air quality, and the effect of operating variables and fuel additives on DPF regeneration. The results demonstrate the important effects of other mine particulate sources on the particulate collection efficiency

  13. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  14. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  15. Effect of Particulates Generated from Asphalt Production on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    in air, including dust, soot, dirt, smoke and liquid droplets. Particulate matter is of localized importance near roads, cement works, and other industrial areas. Apart from screening out sunlight, dust on leaf blocks stomata and lowers their conductants to Carbon iv oxide (Jitin and Manish, 2014). Asphalt, which is also referred ...

  16. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  17. Diesel particulate emission in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, WCA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available measurements was confirmed by comparison of duplicate samples with analyses conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in the UK. Furthermore, good agreement in readings was obtained between the Horiba instrument and the R&P direct-reading analyser... ......................................................................................................3 2.2 Characteristics and biological significance of particulates.................................................... 3 2.3 Animal studies...

  18. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = 0.43(Mp1 + Mp2)/(Dct + Ds) + 0.57(Mp3 + Mp2)/(Dht = Ds) where: (1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate... the cold start test, in miles. (6) Dht = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of...

  19. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  20. Distribution spatiale intra-urbaine des particules fines : monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2014 ... En outre, l'accumulation des particules fines est faible pendant un mois pluvieux par rapport à un mois sec ..... benjamina, et la structure (tige, branches) des arborées ... par Zhang et al., (2006) sur des feuilles de Pinus pumila.

  1. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  2. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  3. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  4. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  5. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  6. Characteristics, Causes, and Evaluation of Helicopter Particulate Visual Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS

  7. Membrane Characteristics for Removing Particulates in PFC Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Pc (Per fluorocarbon) decontamination process is one of best methods to remove hot particulate adhered at inside surface of hot cell and surface of equipment in hot cell. It was necessary to develop a particulate filtration equipment to reuse Pc solution used on Pc decontamination due to its high cost and to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contamination characteristics of hot particulate were investigated and then a filtration process was presented to remove hot particulate in Pc solution generated through Pc decontamination process. The removal efficiency of Pvdf (Poly vinylidene fluoride), Pp (Polypropylene), Ceramic (Al 2 O 3 ) filter showed more than 95%. The removal efficiency of Pvdf filter was a little lower than those of other kiters at same pressure (3 psi). A ceramic filter showed a higher removal efficiency with other filters, while a little lower flux rate than other filters. Due to inorganic composition, a ceramic filter was highly stable against radio nuclides in comparison with Pvdf and Pp membrane, which generate H 2 gas in α-radioactivity atmosphere. Therefore, the adoption of ceramic filter is estimated to be suitable for the real nitration process.

  8. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particulate nitrogen (PN)and AS concentrations and composition.The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l.Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth.AS concentration decreased from the south to ...

  9. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the three sites; it accounts for a mean of 61% ±20 in Ramisi, 97% ±0.7 in Shirazi and 65% ±29 in Mtwapa. These high detritus levels are expected because of the allochthonous supply of particulate material by the river in Ramisi and the contribution from mangroves, which fringe the banks of the estuary and the creeks.

  11. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  12. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  13. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  14. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  15. Determination of trace elements in urban airborne particulates (PM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the air quality in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne particulates (PM10). Samples were collected over a 12 month period (March 2011 to April 2012) using two high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 size selective inlet. The concentrations of ...

  16. Characterization of biological particulate loads in metropolitan air

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Snow; R. D. Schein; W. J. Moroz

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric particulate load includes a wide range of naturally occurring particles of biological origin that serve as a reservoir of allergenic agents in respiratory disease. Improved knowledge of potential aeroallergens is needed by medical clinicians. Aims are to better characterize air spora, qualitatively and quantitatively, and determine daily (by hour)...

  17. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  18. DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmack, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented

  19. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  20. Seasonal changes in suspended particulate component in Bombay High oil field (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, K.L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Venkat, K.

    of phytoplankton biomass. Ratio of silicate and nitrate to phosphate was 16:16:1 for monsoon and postmonsoon periods. Annual values of particulate carbohydrates, particulate proteins and particulate lipids in surface waters ranged from 40 to 265 mu g l sup(-1), 21...

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  2. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  3. 30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine the particulate index. 7.89... Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.89 Test to determine the particulate index. The test shall be... measured and recorded at each test mode. (ii) The data required for use in the particulate index...

  4. The geocentric particulate distribution: Cometary, asteroidal, or space debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ratcliff, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Definition of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) particulate environment has been refined considerably with the analysis of data from NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Measurements of the impact rates from particulates ranging from sub-micron to millimetres in dimension and, especially, information on their directionality has permitted new scrunity of the sources of the particulates. Modelling of the dynamics of both bound (Earth orbital) and unbound (hyperbolic interplanetary) particulates intercepting LDEF's faces leads to the conclusion that the source is dominantly interplanetary for particle dimensions of greater than some 5 microns diameter; however the anisotropy below this dimension demands lower velocities and is compatible with an orbital component. Characteristics of the LDEF interplanetary component are compatible with familiar meteoroid sources and deep space measurements. Understanding of the orbital component which exceeds the interplanetary flux by a factor of 4 is less clear; although the very small particulates in orbit have been associated with space debris (Lawrance and Brownlee, 1986) this data conflicts with other measurements (McDonnell, Carey and Dixon, 1984) at the same epoch. By analysis of trajectories approaching the Earth and its atmosphere, we have shown that a significant contribution could be captured by aerocapture, i.e., atmospheric drag, from either asteroidal or cometary sources; such enhancement is unlikely however to provide the temporal and spatial fluctuations observed by the LDEF Interplanetary Dust Experiment (Mullholland et al. 1992). A further new mechanism is also examined, that of aerofragmentation capture, where an atmospheric grazing trajectory, which would not normally lead to capture, leads to fragmentation by thermal or mechanical shock; the microparticulates thus created can be injected in large numbers, but only into short-lifetime orbits. The concentration in one particular orbit plane, could explain the

  5. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  6. Waterborne Polymeric Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    polymer of neopentyl glycol (NPC) and isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI) as an example: CH 3 0 CH3 0 CH- HO !Ch,,C h OCNH CH.NHCO, HCCH.OH CIF CH- Groun...copolymer of isophoronediisocyanate with neopentyl glycol and dimethylolpropionic acid. And the solibilitv parameter calculations must include this...copolymer of isophoronediiisocyanate with a diol mixture of 85 inol percent neopentyl glycol and 15 inol percent dimethyl- olpropionic acid. 0 0 0 it 0

  7. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    ... This comprehensive report recommends the development and use of a “tool box†approach by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and others for assessing microbial water quality in which available...

  8. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    Recent and forecasted advances in microbiology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry have made it timely to reassess the current paradigm of relying predominantly or exclusively on traditional...

  9. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    ... not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â...

  10. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  11. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  12. Characteristics of thin and coarse particulates of urban and natural brazilian aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.Q.; Tabacnics, M.H.; Artaxo, P.; Andrade, M.F.; Kerr, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin and coarse particulate were sampled during the period 1982-1985 in a natural coastal forest (Jureia), and five urban-industrial regions (Vitoria, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte). The time variation of the concentration in the air, and the relative elementary composition of the thin and coarse particulate, sampled by thin and Coarse Particulate Sampler (AFG), were determined by gravimetric method and PIXE analysis respectively. The results demonstrated that the ground dust and salt from the sea are unequivocally one of the largest sources of coarse particulate, and also the ground is a significant thin particulate source. 25 refs, 22 figs, 28 tabs. (L.C.J.A.)

  13. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  14. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piniero, T.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Reis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Recent developments in particulate control with low-rank fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.J.; Laudal, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations appear to be focusing on fine particle emissions rather than total mass particulate emissions. There is concern that electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) may not be able to meet potentially stricter finer particle emission standards. A new development in the area of fabric filtration is the use of flue gas-conditioning agents to reduce particulate emissions and pressure drop. Theoretical analysis of the factors that control the size of a baghouse indicates that pulse-jet baghouses can be designed to operate at much higher air-to-cloth ratios than is currently employed. To help optimize performance of both ESPs and baghouses, quantitative characterization of the cohesive properties of fly ash is necessary. Appropriate methods are determination of aerated and packed porosity and measurement of tensile strength as a function of porosity

  18. Les Particules élémentaires: Self–portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Prince

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps no French novel in the past fifteen years has received more critical attention than Michel Houellebecq’s Les Particules élémentaires and perhaps none has evoked stronger reactions with regard to the (literary values it espouses and represents. This (self-portrait, like any portrait, accents certain features more than others. It concentrates on refuting charges of nihilism, reactionaryism, sexism, and racism; it stresses Houellebecq’s novel’s attention to form and its thematic clarity as well as its determination to say something rather than nothing; and, through a consideration of its references to various media, arts, and texts, of its pet peeves and true delights, it specifies the nature and ambition of Les Particules élémentaires , the kind of text it is or aspires to be.

  19. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  20. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  1. Bioengineering towards self-assembly of particulate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-12-01

    There is an unmet demand for safe and efficient vaccines for prevention of various infectious diseases. Subunit vaccines comprise selected pathogen specific antigens are a safe alternative to whole organism vaccines. However they often lack immunogenicity. Natural and synthetic self-assembling polymers and proteins will be reviewed in view their use to encapsulate and/or display antigens to serve as immunogenic antigen carriers for induction of protective immunity. Recent advances made in in vivo assembly of antigen-displaying polyester inclusions will be a focus. Particulate vaccines are inherently immunogenic due to enhanced uptake by antigen presenting cells which process antigens mediating adaptive immune responses. Bioengineering approaches enable the design of tailor-made particulate vaccines to fine tune immune responses towards protective immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rechargeable particulate filter for radioactive contaminated gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    A system is disclosed which includes a closed housing having a plurality of rectangularly configured beds with perforated sidewalls longitudinally disposed in housing in laterally spaced disposition with each other. Alternate spaces at inlet end are closed and alternate spaces opposite the open ends are closed at exit end whereby contaminated gas is laterally squeezed through the beds filled with particulate adsorbent. The lower portions of the beds funnel into longitudinally extending discharge chutes enclosed within respective wells, the lower edges of the chutes rising at a constant angle above the well floor. An evacuation system coupled to the wells suctions the pile of particulate from the most remote portion of the chutes first. 3 claims, 7 drawing figures

  3. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  4. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  5. Electrokinetic deposition of waterborne, particlate FeO(OH) and MnO2 on stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.-P.

    1977-01-01

    The study forms part of a programme of research into corrosion product behaviour in progress at Studsvik Energiteknik AB. Attention is in this instance focused on the incluence of electrokinetic factors upon the deposition of particulate corrosion products. The work has involved the development of experimental apparatus and techniques and investigation of the deposition characteristics of FeO(OH) and MnO 2 at temperatures below 100 deg C. The experimental results indicate that the deposition rate of the compounds under review depends mainly upon the zeta potential (zeta) of particles and of the test section wall. The deposition rate attains a maximum when the zeta potential is at a minimum or zero. Deposition occurs when |zeta|< approximately 40 m. Outside this interval deposition is not observed. Furthermore, the deposition rate maximum depends upon the rate of change of pH both as regards its magnitude and its position on the pH scale. This dependence can be accounted for in terms of a general drain of material from the loop as deposition proceeds and a difference in zeta potential between particles and the wall surface of the test section. (author)

  6. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  8. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of particulate fractions using polyvinyl chloride microculture wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, B E; Sealock, R

    1984-10-01

    A method is described for immunoelectron microscopy of particulate subcellular fractions using polyvinyl chloride (soft) microculture wells as mechanical supports and reaction vessels. Appropriate quantities of particles are centrifuged onto the well bottoms, fixed and permeabilized if necessary, then labeled by standard procedures, fixed in glutaraldehyde and tannic acid, and prepared for thin section electron microscopy. The centrifugation, the fixations, and the embedment in Epon are discussed in detail.

  9. Removal of both dissolved and particulate iron from groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    H. van Dijk; H. Leijssen; L. Rietveld; A. Abrahamse; K. Teunissen

    2008-01-01

    Iron is the primary source for discolouration problems in the drinking water distribution system. The removal of iron from groundwater is a common treatment step in the production of drinking water. Even when clear water meets the drinking water standards, the water quality in the distribution system can deteriorate due to settling of iron (hydroxide) particles or post-treatment flocculation of dissolved iron. Therefore it is important to remove dissolved and particulate iron to a large exten...

  10. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitr...

  11. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  12. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  13. The UK market for dust and particulate removal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The report has a market overview of dust and particulate removal equipment, 1995-1999 and has specific market reports, by value, of fabric, ceramic and sintered filters, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers (venturi, plate and others) and cyclones. It gives environmental expenditure by UK industry and discusses factors affecting supply, demand and success in the market. An overview is given of the industry structure and profiles are presented of 15 companies. Lists of contracts, trade associations and relevant journals are included. 33 tabs.

  14. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  15. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  16. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  17. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  18. Controlling exposure to DPM : diesel particulate filters vs. biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugarski, A.D.; Shi, X.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with Mine Safety and Health Administration regulations, mining companies are required to reduce miners exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) to 160 μg/m 3 of total carbon. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, disposable filter elements (DFEs), and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are among the most effective strategies and technologies for curtailing DPM at its source. Substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel blends is also considered to be a plausible solution by many underground mine operators. Studies were conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Diesel Laboratory at Lake Lynn Experimental Mine to evaluate various control technologies and strategies available to the underground mining industry to reduce exposure to DPM. The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of diesel aerosols (DPM) emitted by engines in an underground mine were also evaluated. The DPF and DFE systems were found to be highly effective in reducing total particulate and elemental carbon mass concentrations, total aerosol surface concentrations and, in most cases, concentrations of diesel aerosols in occupational settings such as underground mines. Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuels had the potential to reduce the mine air concentrations of total DPM, although the rate of reduction varied depending on engine operating conditions. The disadvantage of using biodiesel fuels was an increase in the fraction of particle-bound volatile organics and concentration of aerosols for light-load engine operating conditions.

  19. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J

    1991-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP) and airport visibility from every sixth day sampling for 10 years to fit a predictive model for TSP. Predicted daily TSP concentrations were then correlated with daily mortality counts in Poisson regression models controlling for season, weather, time trends, overdispersion, and serial correlation. A significant correlation (P less than 0.0001) was found between predicted TSP and daily mortality. This correlation was independent of sulfur dioxide, but not vice versa. The magnitude of the effect was very similar to results recently reported from Steubenville, Ohio (using actual TSP measurements), with each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in TSP resulting in a 6% increase in mortality. Graphical analysis indicated a dose-response relationship with no evidence of a threshold down to concentrations below half of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter.

  20. Subsurface migration of radioactive waste materials by particulate transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Craft, T.F.; Powell, G.F.; Wahlig, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The role of suspended particles as carriers of dissolved nuclides from high-level radioactive waste repositories has been investigated. Depending on the concentrations of suspended particles and the nature of the invading water, it has been found that cationic nuclides may be competitively adsorbed on suspended clay particles, the partitioning being largely determined by pH, temperature, and comparative surface areas of particulates and surrounding rocks. Column tests with activated particles have been conducted and showed that the clay particles pass readily through porous mineral columns and are increasingly retained if salinity is increased. Retention in basalt columns is stronger in the presence of high concentrations of sodium and calcium ions and has been explained in terms of van der Waals forces. The range of particulate migration then depends on the condition of the rock surfaces, the persistence of a clay coating, and the total dissolved ion concentration. For adsorbable waste ions, this may represent a pathway comparable in significance to ion-exchange-controlled migration. For some bed materials, the particulate movement displayed a prompt and a delayed component; the nature of the delay mechanism is not fully understood at present