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Sample records for waterborne gastroenteritis viruses

  1. WATERBORNE OUTBREAK OF GASTROENTERITIS ASSOCIATED WITH A NOROVIRUS

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    The Wyoming Department of Health investigated an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among persons who dined at a tourist saloon in central Wyoming during October 2001. Human caliciviruses (HuCVs) were suspected as the etiological agent of the outbreak based upon the incubation ...

  2. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

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    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks.

  3. Aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

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    Kaikkonen, S; Räsänen, S; Rämet, M; Vesikari, T

    2010-08-01

    Aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. In addition to several Asian countries, South America and Africa, Aichi virus has also recently been found in Europe. Our objective was to study the causative role of Aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland. We analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of acute gastroenteritis. The screening was done by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 519-bp segment and a 223-bp segment in the 3CD junction region of non-structural proteins. Aichi virus was detected in five stool samples (0.5%), of which four were co-infections with other gastroenteritis viruses. Two Aichi virus genotypes, A and B, were found. Aichi virus appears to be rare in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

  4. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

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    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain. We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149. The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7. No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. Conclusions: This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptableand suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection.

  5. Viruses in recreational water-borne disease outbreaks: a review.

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    Sinclair, R G; Jones, E L; Gerba, C P

    2009-12-01

    Viruses are believed to be a significant cause of recreationally associated water-borne disease. However, they have been difficult to document because of the wide variety of illnesses that they cause and the limitations in previous detection methods. Noroviruses are believed to be the single largest cause of outbreaks, which have been documented in the published literature 45% (n = 25), followed by adenovirus (24%), echovirus (18%), hepatitis A virus (7%) and coxsackieviruses (5%). Just under half of the outbreaks occurred in swimming pools (49%), while the second largest outbreak occurred in lakes or ponds (40%). The number of reported outbreaks associated with noroviruses has increased significantly in recent years probably because of better methods for virus detection. Inadequate disinfection was related to 69% (n = 18) of swimming pool outbreaks. A lack of required reporting and nonuniform water quality and chlorination/disinfection standards continues to contribute to water-borne recreational disease outbreaks.

  6. Gastroenteritis and the novel picornaviruses aichi virus, cosavirus, saffold virus, and salivirus in young children.

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    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Gyhrs, Mette Louise; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Court; Böttiger, Blenda

    2013-07-01

    During the last few years many new human picornaviruses have been discovered due to advances in metagenomics and other molecular biological approaches. The clinical significance and the occurrence are only sparsely described. To determine the epidemiology and clinical significance of infections with the novel human picornaviruses, aichi virus, cosavirus, salivirus, and saffold virus in infants in Denmark. We tested 1393 stool samples from a birth cohort of 454 children for these viruses. Samples were collected at ages 6, 10 and 15 months, and at episodes of gastroenteritis. Samples were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. Each study participant had a diary, where the parents reported episodes of disease, including gastroenteritis. Aichi virus, salivirus and saffold virus were detected in 6, 9 and 38 of the children, respectively, but cosavirus was not detected in any of the children. There was a clear seasonal variation with most infections occurring in autumn and winter. A statistically significant association between the findings of salivirus and gastrointestinal disease was demonstrated. There was no association between gastrointestinal disease and the presence of aichi virus or saffold virus. The newly discovered human picornaviruses aichi virus, saffold virus, and salivirus are circulating in Danish children, with the most common being saffold virus. Saffold virus was seen almost exclusively in the autumn and winter period. Salivirus was the only virus, which was significantly associated with gastroenteritis, although the number of positive samples was rather low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

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    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  8. Analysis of Aichi virus and Saffold virus association with pediatric acute gastroenteritis.

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    Li, Li-Li; Liu, Na; Yu, Jei-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Li, Shan; Stine, O Colin; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) and Saffold virus (SAFV) have been reported in children with acute gastroenteritis and respiratory disease worldwide; however, their causative role in acute gastroenteritis remains ambiguous. To assess the clinical association of AiV and SAFV with acute gastroenteritis in the pediatric population. A case-control study involving 461 paired stool samples from pediatric cases with diarrhea and healthy controls was conducted in China. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen AiV and SAFV. In the 461 paired samples, AiV and SAFV were more prevalent among asymptomatic children than children with acute gastroenteritis (0.87% vs. 0.43% and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, respectively), with no significant differences between groups (p=0.142 and p=0.478, respectively). Cox regression model analysis revealed no correlation between AiV (odds ratio, OR=2.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-6.54) or SAFV infection (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 0.86-2.15) and diarrhea. High viral loads were found in both AiV- and SAFV-positive groups, with no significant difference in viral load between the groups (p=0.507 and p=0.677, respectively). No other known enteric pathogens were found in the AiV-positive samples but common in SAFV-positive cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 6 AiV subjects clustered with genotype B. All 7 SAFV-positive cases and 8 of 13 SAFV-positive controls were genotyped successfully; the genotypes identified included SAFV-1, SAFV-2 SAFV-3, and SAFV-6. Our study revealed no association of these viruses in acute gastroenteritis in children. These viruses may have the ability to replicate in humans; however, the infections are usually asymptomatic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

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    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  10. Novel approach for detection of enteric viruses to enable syndrome surveillance of acute viral gastroenteritis.

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    Svraka, Sanela; van der Veer, Bas; Duizer, Erwin; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Koopmans, Marion; Vennema, Harry

    2009-06-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with viruses, particularly noroviruses, being the leading cause in developed countries. In The Netherlands, systematic surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks of suspected viral etiology was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. Since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported has been increasing, and with that comes the need for sensitive assays that can be performed quickly. In addition, the diagnostic demand changed so that now the proportion of samples from hospitals is higher and there is a need for patient-based test results. In order to target the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis, we reviewed our data on outbreaks of gastroenteritis and the prevalence of individual viruses to provide a priority list of viruses for which samples should be evaluated. Random primers were used to replace the separate specific primers for each virus used in the reverse transcription steps. The individual PCR assays were replaced by multiplex PCR assays. We employed a two-step method in which in the first step we screened for the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis, noroviruses of genogroup II and rotaviruses of group A, with equine arteritis virus used as the internal control. Subsequently, in the second step, two parallel PCR assays were developed for the detection of noroviruses of genogroup I and equine arteritis virus in one run and adenoviruses, sapoviruses, and astroviruses in the other run. The specificities of the assays were calculated to be 92.5% for the assay for noroviruses of genogroup I and 100% for the assays for all other viruses, the detection limits were equal for all viruses, and the turnaround time was reduced to 1 day compared to the at least 3 days required for the methods used previously. This approach allows the targeted, rapid, and cost-effective elucidation of the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  11. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

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    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Viruses in Feces from Unsolved Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Humans

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    Moore, Nicole E.; Wang, Jing; Hewitt, Joanne; Croucher, Dawn; Williamson, Deborah A.; Paine, Shevaun; Yen, Seiha; Greening, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of an outbreak of gastroenteritis in humans cannot always be determined, and ∼25% of outbreaks remain unsolved in New Zealand. It is hypothesized that novel viruses may account for a proportion of unsolved cases, and new unbiased high-throughput sequencing methods hold promise for their detection. Analysis of the fecal metagenome can reveal the presence of viruses, bacteria, and parasites which may have evaded routine diagnostic testing. Thirty-one fecal samples from 26 gastroenteritis outbreaks of unknown etiology occurring in New Zealand between 2011 and 2012 were selected for de novo metagenomic analysis. A total data set of 193 million sequence reads of 150 bp in length was produced on an Illumina MiSeq. The metagenomic data set was searched for virus and parasite sequences, with no evidence of novel pathogens found. Eight viruses and one parasite were detected, each already known to be associated with gastroenteritis, including adenovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and Dientamoeba fragilis. In addition, we also describe the first detection of human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) in Australasia. Metagenomics may thus provide a useful audit tool when applied retrospectively to determine where routine diagnostic processes may have failed to detect a pathogen. PMID:25339401

  13. Prevalence of Norwalk-like virus infections in cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Osaka City, Japan.

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    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2003-04-01

    Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the 1999-2000 season, Arg320-like strains, which may be genetic recombinants, suddenly appeared and spread.

  14. Viruses Causing Gastroenteritis: The Known, The New and Those Beyond

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    Oude Munnink, Bas B.; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    The list of recently discovered gastrointestinal viruses is expanding rapidly. Whether these agents are actually involved in a disease such as diarrhea is the essential question, yet difficult to answer. In this review a summary of all viruses found in diarrhea is presented, together with the

  15. Circulation of Aichi virus genotype B strains in children with acute gastroenteritis in India.

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    Verma, H; Chitambar, S D; Gopalkrishna, V

    2011-11-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is considered as one of the major health problems affecting humans of all ages. A number of viruses have been recognized as important causes of this disease. Recently, Aichi virus has been shown to play an aetiological role in sporadic infections and outbreaks of AG. A study on surveillance of enteric viruses was conducted during 2004-2008 in three cities in Maharashtra state, western India. A total of 1240 stool specimens from children aged ≤8 years hospitalized for AG were screened for the presence of Aichi virus by RT-PCR of the 3C-3D junction region followed by sequencing for the identification of genotype. Aichi virus was detected at a prevalence of 1·1% in the Aichi virus genotype B in India.

  16. Aichi virus IgG seroprevalence in Tunisia parallels genomic detection and clinical presentation in children with gastroenteritis.

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    Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Hassine, Mouna; Bour, Jean-Baptiste; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Mastouri, Maha; Aho, Ludwig-Serge; Gharbi-Khelifi, Hakima; Aouni, Zaidoun; Sakly, Nabil; Chouchane, Slaheddine; Neji-Guédiche, Mohamed; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2010-07-01

    Aichi virus has been described as a novel causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, we report the seroprevalence distribution of Aichi virus in Tunisia. A panel of 1,000 sera was screened by applying an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G specific for Aichi virus. A considerable prevalence (92%) of antibody to Aichi virus was found across all age groups. The specific anti-Aichi virus antibodies increased with age, from a high rate (68.8%) in children under 10 years old to about 100% in persons more than 60 years old. We found a statistically significant increase in levels of antibody to Aichi virus according to the age of patients. Immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected among five children. A high frequency of Aichi virus monoinfections in hospitalized children with severe gastroenteritis was previously observed in Tunisia. Aichi virus causes diarrhea with dehydration, fever, and vomiting. This work is the first to establish a correlation between the high seroprevalence of specific Aichi virus antibodies, clinical presentation, and a high frequency of isolation of Aichi virus by genomic characterization in stools of children suffering from gastroenteritis. Our data show the importance and emerging character of Aichi virus in the viral etiology of pediatric gastroenteritis.

  17. Lactogenic immunity to transmissible gastroenteritis virus induced by a subunit immunogen.

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    Gough, P M; Frank, C J; Moore, D G; Sagona, M A; Johnson, C J

    1983-12-01

    A subunit prepared from transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus and used to immunize 24 gilts prior to farrowing induced production of specific antibody in the serum and milk. Challenge of pigs, two to seven days of age and suckling on the vaccinated gilts, with the Illinois strain of TGE virus resulted in morbidity of 28% and mortality of 4% as compared with 100 and 73%, respectively, for control piglets. Piglets nursing on a sow which had been immunized approximately 10 months previously were not protected, indicating that lactogenic immunity may be of short duration. Revaccination of this animal resulted in an anamnestic response.

  18. Comparison of three multiplex gastrointestinal platforms for the detection of gastroenteritis viruses.

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    Chhabra, Preeti; Gregoricus, Nicole; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Halasa, Natasha; Chappell, James; Hassan, Ferdaus; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Ward, M Leanne; Bowen, Michael; Payne, Daniel C; Vinjé, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Viruses are major etiological agents of childhood gastroenteritis. In recent years, several molecular platforms for the detection of viral enteric pathogens have become available. We evaluated the performance of three multiplex platforms including Biofire's Gastrointestinal Panel (FilmArray), Luminex xTAG ® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), and the TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the detection of five gastroenteritis viruses using a coded panel of 300 archived stool samples. The FilmArray detected a virus in 199 (96.1%) and the TAC in 172 (83.1%) of the 207 samples (187 samples positive for a single virus and 20 samples positive for more than one virus) whereas the GPP detected a virus in 100 (78.7%) of the 127 (97 positive for one virus and three positive for more than one virus) samples. Overall the clinical accuracy was highest for the FilmArray (98%) followed by TAC (97.2%) and GPP (96.9%). The sensitivity of the FilmArray, GPP and TAC platforms was highest for rotavirus (100%, 95.8%, and 89.6%, respectively) and lowest for adenovirus type 40/41 (97.4%, 57.9% and 68.4%). The specificity of the three platforms ranged from 95.6% (rotavirus) to 99.6% (norovirus/sapovirus) for the FilmArray, 99.6% (norovirus) to 100% (rotavirus/adenovirus) for GPP, and 98.9% (astrovirus) to 100% (rotavirus/sapovirus) for TAC. The FilmArray demonstrated the best analytical performance followed by TAC. In recent years, the availability of multi-enteric molecular testing platforms has increased significantly and our data highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these platforms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

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    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  20. Gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with Norwalk-like viruses and their investigation by nested RT-PCR

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    Mitchell Frederick

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norwalk-like viruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of vomiting and diarrhoea. In healthy individuals infection is often mild and short-lived but in debilitated patients infection can be severe. It is essential that the virus laboratory can offer a sensitive and specific test, delivered in a timely manner. Methods We have developed a nested reverse transcriptase PCR based on published primers against the RNA polymerase gene and after comparison with electronmicroscopy used the assay to investigate 31 outbreaks of gastroenteritis. These were in diverse situations including nursing homes, small district hospitals, large general hospitals, a ferry ship, hotels, restaurants and staff canteens. Results A positive diagnosis was made in 30/31 outbreaks investigated giving an overall outbreak positive detection rate of 97%. At an individual patient level there was a positive diagnostic rate of 11.5% in a large hospital environment to 100% in smaller outbreak situations. The average patient positive rate was 34%. In addition we investigated 532 control faecal specimens from adults. Of these 530 were negative and 2 were repeatedly positive. Conclusions It is essential that insensitive electronmicroscopy is replaced with the more sensitive reverse transcription PCR assays. These tests should be made available "on call" at weekends and public holidays. It is also important that outbreaks of NLV infection are monitored using sensitive RT-PCR assays so that the laboratory information can be used in ascertaining the spread and duration of the outbreak

  1. Genotyping of gastroenteric viruses in hospitalised children: first report of norovirus GII.21 in Brazil

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    Mônica Simões Rocha Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study (April-September 2003 was designed to investigate the roles of the main viruses responsible for cases of acute infantile gastroenteritis in hospitalised children up to two years of age. The viruses were identified in 64.7% (88/136 of the cases and the detection rates of rotavirus A (RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus were 41.9% (57/136, 30.3% (24/79 and 12.7% (7/55, respectively. RVA and NoV were detected in 20 of the 24 reported nosocomial infection cases. This study identified the first circulation of the genotype NoV GII.21 in Brazil and highlights the need to establish differential diagnoses through active laboratorial surveillance.

  2. BROTE DE GASTROENTERITIS POR VIRUS NORWALK EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS DE GRANADA

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    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal- Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15- 18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  3. The duration of gastrointestinal and joint symptoms after a large waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis in Finland in 2007--a questionnaire-based 15-month follow-up study.

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    Janne Laine

    Full Text Available An extensive drinking water-associated gastroenteritis outbreak took place in the town of Nokia in Southern Finland in 2007. 53% of the exposed came down with gastroenteritis and 7% had arthritis-like symptoms (joint swelling, redness, warmth or pain in movement according to a population-based questionnaire study at 8 weeks after the incident. Campylobacter and norovirus were the main pathogens. A follow-up questionnaire study was carried out 15 months after the outbreak to evaluate the duration of gastrointestinal and joint symptoms. 323 residents of the original contaminated area were included. The response rate was 53%. Participants were inquired about having gastroenteritis during the outbreak and the duration of symptoms. Of those with gastroenteritis, 43% reported loose stools and abdominal pain or distension after the acute disease. The prevalence of symptoms declined promptly during the first 3 months but at 15 months, 11% reported continuing symptoms. 32% of the respondents with gastroenteritis reported subsequent arthritis-like symptoms. The disappearance of arthritis-like symptoms was more gradual and they levelled off only after 5 months. 19% showed symptoms at 15 months. Prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms correlated to prolonged arthritis-like symptoms. High proportion of respondents continued to have arthritis-like symptoms at 15 months after the epidemic. The gastrointestinal symptoms, instead, had declined to a low level.

  4. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

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    Sonia Maria Raboni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV, RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV. NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26% were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5, HAdV/NoV (3 and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1. The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.

  5. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

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    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  6. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

  7. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

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    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  10. Rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A K; Pai, C H

    1988-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Dehydration, which is often isotonic, occurs in 40 to 80% of patients. Rehydration and maintenance of proper fluid and electrolyte balance remains the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, development of efficient diagnostic methods has led to better understanding of the morphology of the virus, the epidemiology and natural history, as well as the importance of rotavirus disease. Rapid progress in the development and improvement of rotavirus vaccines has also been made. Among the vaccine candidates currently available, both the bovine rotavirus strain RIT 4237 and the rhesus rotavirus strain MMU 18006 have undergone extensive clinical trials and both have shown promising results.

  11. Epidemiology of human parechovirus, Aichi virus and salivirus in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Lo, Kin-Land; Que, Tak-Lun; Lee, Rodney A; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P

    2014-10-18

    Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully understood. In addition, no report on the circulation of these viruses in Hong Kong is available. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of HPeV, AiV and SalV in fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong. Fecal samples from hospitalized children with gastroenteritis were subject to detection of HPeV, AiV and SalV by RT-PCR using consensus primers targeted to their 5'UTRs. Positive samples were subject to capsid and/or 3CD region analysis for genotype determination. The epidemiology of HPeV, AiV and SalV infections was analyzed. Among 1,708 fecal samples subjected to RT-PCR using primers targeted to 5'UTR of HPeV, AiV and SalV, viruses were detected in 55 samples, with 50 positive for HPeV only, 3 positive for AiV only, 1 positive for both HPeV and AiV, and 1 positive for both HPeV and SalV. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 gene of the 33 HPeV strains revealed the presence of genotypes of HPeV- 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, among which HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype circulating in our population. The peak activity of HPeV infection was in fall. Of the 3 children with AiV infection, the 3 AiV strains were found to belong to genotype A based on the phylogenetic analysis of their partial VP1 and 3CD regions. The genotype of a SalV strain detected in this study could not be determined. Co-detection of different pathogens was observed in 24 samples (43.6%) of 55 fecal samples positive for HPeV, AiV and SalV. HPeV, AiV and SalV were detected in fecal samples of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Hong Kong, with the former having the highest prevalence. HPeV-1 was the predominant genotype among HPeVs, while genotype A was the predominant genotype among AiVs in this study.

  12. Sequence analysis of the ORF 7 region of transmissible gastroenteritis viruses isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2008-02-01

    Three (KT2, 133, and DAE) transmissible gastroenteritis viruses (TGEVs) were isolated from pigs suspected of having TGE in Korea. One, KT2 (KT2-L), was passaged 128 times (KT2-H) in swine testicular cells. The open reading frame 7 (ORF 7) gene from each of the four TGEVs (KT2-L, KT2-H, 133, and DAE), which is located at the 3' end of the TGEV genome, was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amplified PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and compared with published sequences of non-Korean TGEV strains. Differences in replication and cytopathic effect (CPE) between the KT2-L and KT2-H strains in swine testicular cells were investigated. Korean TGEV field strains had 94.8-99.6% nucleotide and 92.1-98.7% amino acid sequence similarity with each other, and 87.8-100.0% nucleotide and 84.2-100.0% amino acid sequence similarity with non-Korean TGEV strains. Compared to the original KT2-L strain, the KT2-H strain differed by 2.2 and 3.9% in nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. Specifically, the KT2-H had six nucleotide and two amino acid deletions compared to the original KT2-L strain. In phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 7 gene, Korean TGEV strains were clustered into two groups. One group (KT2-L, KT2-H, 133) was related to TGEV strains isolated in Japan. Another Korean TGEV isolate (DAE) was related to a strain from China and one from the USA. The Korean TGEV isolates appear to have evolved from a separate lineage of TGEV strain. Differences in growth rate and CPE between the KT2-L and KT2-H strains were discovered in swine testicular cells (STCs). The KT2-H strain exhibited a higher replication rate than KT2-L and produced a CPE distinctly different from that of the KT2-L strain.

  13. Assembly of pseudorabies virus genome-based transfer vehicle carrying major antigen sites of S gene of transmissible gastroenteritis virus: potential perspective for developing live vector vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Xiaofeng; Tian, Zhijun; Li, Yijing

    2007-03-01

    Two severe porcine infectious diseases, pseudorabies (PR) and transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) respectively often result in serious economic loss in animal husbandry worldwide. Vaccination is the important prevention means against both infections. To achieve a PRV genome-based virus live vector, aiming at further TGEV/PRV bivalent vaccine development, a recombinant plasmid pUG was constructed via inserting partial PK and full-length gG genes of PRV strain Bartha K-61 amplified into pUC119 vector. In parallel, another recombinant pHS was generated by introducing a fragment designated S1 encoding the major antigen sites of S gene from TGEV strain TH-98 into a prokaryotic expression vector pP(RO)EX HTc. The SV40 polyA sequence was then inserted into the downstream of S1 fragment of pHS. The continuous region containing S1fragment, SV40 polyA and four single restriction enzyme sites digested from pHS was subcloned into the downstream of gG promoter of pUG. In addition, a LacZ reporter gene was introduced into the universal transfer vector named pUGS-LacZ. Subsequently, a PRV genome-based virus live vector was generated via homologous recombination. The functionally effective vector was purified and partially characterized. Moreover, the potential advantages of this system are discussed.

  14. Immune responses induced by recombinant Bacillus subtilis expressing the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Chunxiao; Zhu, Liqi; Xing, Xianping; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets, results in enormous economic loss in swine-producing areas of the world. To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of TGE, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B. subtilis CotGSG) displaying the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) protein and discussed its immune function to intestinal submucosal dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that the recombinant B. subtilis had the ability to recruit more DCs to sample B. subtilis CotGSG, migrate to MLNs, and induce immune responses. Immunized piglets with B. subtilis CotGSG could significantly elevate the specific SIgA titers in feces, IgG titers and neutralizing antibodies in serum. Collectively, our results suggested that recombinant B. subtilis CotGSG expressing the TGEV S protein could effectively induce immune responses via DCs, and provided a perspective on potential novel strategy and approach that may be applicable to the development of the next generation of TGEV vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A corn-based delivery system for animal vaccines: an oral transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccine boosts lactogenic immunity in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamphear, Barry J; Jilka, Joseph M; Kesl, Lyle; Welter, Mark; Howard, John A; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2004-06-23

    Recombinant plant expression systems offer a means to produce large quantities of selected antigens for subunit vaccines. Cereals are particularly well-suited expression vehicles since the expressed proteins can be stored at relatively high concentrations for extended periods of time without degradation and dry seed can be formulated into oral vaccines suitable for commercial applications. A subunit vaccine candidate directed against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and expressed in corn seed has been developed for oral delivery to swine. Here, we show that this vaccine, when administered to previously sensitized gilts, can boost neutralizing antibody levels in the animals' serum, colostrum and milk. Thus, this vaccine candidate is effective at boosting lactogenic immunity and is appropriate to pursue through large-scale field trials preceding commercialization.

  16. A novel RT-multiplex PCR for detection of Aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus among infants and children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Chan-It, Wisoot; Khamrin, Pattara; Shimizu, Hideaki; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    A novel reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect Aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus. A mixture of four pairs of published specific primers, 6261 and 6779, ev22(+) and ev22(-), F1 and R1, 188F and 542R, was used to amplify the viral genomes and specifically generate four different amplicon sizes of 519, 270, 440, and 354 bp for Aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus, respectively. A total of 247 fecal specimens previously screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus-negative, collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan from July 2007 to June 2008, were tested further for the presence of the four viruses, Aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus, by RT-multiplex PCR. The total detection rate of these viruses was 26.7% (66 out of 247 samples). Of these, HPeV, EVs, and HBoV were identified in 20, 41, and 5 specimens. No Aichi virus was found among these subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of RT-multiplex PCR were assessed and demonstrated a strong validation against RT-monoplex PCR. This is the first report of detecting these types of viruses in fecal samples from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis by RT-multiplex PCR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Lobna S; Raouf, Randaa K Abdel; Sayede, Rokaya M El; Wakkadd, Amany S El; Shoaib, Ashraf R; Ali, Hanan M; Refay, Amira S El

    2015-12-15

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important protective role in the recognition and clearance of enteric pathogens. This study was designed to assess if mucosal integrity "measured by secretory IgA (SIgA)" is a protective factor from more epithelial alteration "measured by glutathione transferase" in infants with Rota gastroenteritis and its relation to infants' feeding pattern. This study was conducted on 79 infants aged 6 months and less from those diagnosed as having gastroenteritis and admitted to Gastroenteritis Department in Abo El Rish Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University. Plasma glutathione s-transferases and Stool SIgA were measured using ELISA technique. Rota virus detection was done by Reverse transcriptase PCR. SIgA was found to be significantly positive in exclusive breast fed infants, Glutathione transferase was significantly more frequently positive in Rota positive cases than Rota negative cases by Reverse transcriptase PCR. A significant negative correlation between Glutathione transferase and Secretory IgA was found, (p Rota viral gastroenteritis.

  18. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus isolated from acute gastroenteritis patients in the Seoul region of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-H; Kim, E-J; Lee, J-H; Choi, S-S; Kim, M-S; Jung, S-S; Han, G-Y; Yun, H-S; Chun, D-S; Oh, S-S; Kim, H-S

    2009-10-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a major public health problem throughout the world. As a result of declining HAV endemic in Korea, an increasing number of children and adolescents have become susceptible to HAV infection. HAV is related with sanitation conditions of the environment and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, either through person-to-person contact or by contaminated water and food. The present study has been carried out to determine the phylogenetic analysis and circulating patterns of HAV strains detected from hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the Seoul region of Korea. In total, 2,782 stool specimens from hospitalized patients with AGE collected in October 2006 to September 2007 in Seoul were tested for HAV. A pair comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of a 159-bp base region at the putative VP1/2A junction of 85 Seoul isolates revealed that the most common HAV strain circulating in the region during 2006-2007 was subgenotype IA. HAV phylogenetic studies can provide important information on the genetic characteristics of HAV from AGE patients who may subsequently become the source of infection in Korea.

  19. Virus Genotype Distribution and Virus Burden in Children and Adults Hospitalized for Norovirus Gastroenteritis, 2012–2014, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C.W.; Leung, Ting F.; Chung, Tracy W.S.; Kwok, Angela K.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Paul K.S.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year hospital-based study on norovirus gastroenteritis among children and adults between August 2012 and September 2014. A total of 1,146 norovirus cases were identified. Young children (aged ≤ 5 years) accounted for a majority (53.3%) of cases. Hospitalization incidence exhibited a U-shaped pattern with the highest rate in young children (1,475 per 100,000 person-years), followed by the elderly aged > 84 years (581 per 100,000 person-years). A subset (n = 395, 34.5%) of cases were selected for norovirus genotyping and noroviral load measurement. Non-GII.4 infections were more commonly observed in young children than in older adults (aged > 65 years) (20.5% versus 9.2%; p norovirus vaccination strategy. PMID:26082165

  20. The Duration of Gastrointestinal and Joint Symptoms after a Large Waterborne Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Finland in 2007 – A Questionnaire-Based 15-Month Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Janne; Lumio, Jukka; Toikkanen, Salla; Virtanen, Mikko J.; Uotila, Terhi; Korpela, Markku; Kujansuu, Eila; Kuusi, Markku

    2014-01-01

    An extensive drinking water-associated gastroenteritis outbreak took place in the town of Nokia in Southern Finland in 2007. 53% of the exposed came down with gastroenteritis and 7% had arthritis-like symptoms (joint swelling, redness, warmth or pain in movement) according to a population-based questionnaire study at 8 weeks after the incident. Campylobacter and norovirus were the main pathogens. A follow-up questionnaire study was carried out 15 months after the outbreak to evaluate the duration of gastrointestinal and joint symptoms. 323 residents of the original contaminated area were included. The response rate was 53%. Participants were inquired about having gastroenteritis during the outbreak and the duration of symptoms. Of those with gastroenteritis, 43% reported loose stools and abdominal pain or distension after the acute disease. The prevalence of symptoms declined promptly during the first 3 months but at 15 months, 11% reported continuing symptoms. 32% of the respondents with gastroenteritis reported subsequent arthritis-like symptoms. The disappearance of arthritis-like symptoms was more gradual and they levelled off only after 5 months. 19% showed symptoms at 15 months. Prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms correlated to prolonged arthritis-like symptoms. High proportion of respondents continued to have arthritis-like symptoms at 15 months after the epidemic. The gastrointestinal symptoms, instead, had declined to a low level. PMID:24465569

  1. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Gastroenteritis Viruses Occurring Naturally in the Stream Waters of Manaus, Central Amazônia, Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miagostovich, Marize P.; Ferreira, Fabiana F. M.; Guimarães, Flávia R.; Fumian, Túlio M.; Diniz-Mendes, Leonardo; Luz, Sérgio Luiz B.; Silva, Luciete A.; Leite, José Paulo G.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the presence of the four main viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in a hydrographic network impacted by a disordered urbanization process, a 1-year study was performed involving water sample collection from streams in the hydrographic basin surrounding the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Thirteen surface water sample collection sites, including different areas of human settlement characterized as urban, rural, and primary forest, located in the Tarumã-Açu, São Raimundo, Educandos, and Puraquequara microbasins, were defined with a global positioning system. At least one virus was detected in 59.6% (31/52) of the water samples analyzed, and rotavirus was the most frequent (44.2%), followed by human adenovirus (30.8%), human astrovirus (15.4%), and norovirus (5.8%). The viral contamination observed mainly in the urban streams reflected the presence of a local high-density population and indicated the gastroenteritis burden from pathogenic viruses in the water, principally due to recreational activities such as bathing. The presence of viral genomes in areas where fecal contamination was not demonstrated by bacterial indicators suggests prolonged virus persistence in aquatic environments and emphasizes the enteric virus group as the most reliable for environmental monitoring. PMID:18065620

  2. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

  3. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis in adults: drinking plenty of liquids such as fruit juices, sports ... as the child is hungry giving infants breast milk or full strength ... solutions Older adults and adults with weak immune systems should also ...

  4. Application of a Reverse Transcription-PCR for Identification and Differentiation of Aichi Virus, a New Member of the Picornavirus Family Associated with Gastroenteritis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.; Sugiyama, M.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sakae, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Aichi viruses isolated in Vero cells from seven patients in five gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan, five Japanese returning from Southeast Asian countries, and five local children in Pakistan with gastroenteritis were examined for differentiation based on their reactivities with a monoclonal antibody to a standard strain (A846/88) and a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of three genomic regions. The RNA sequences were determined for 519 bases of these 17 isolates at the putative junction between the C terminus of 3C and the N terminus of 3D. The analyses revealed an approximately 90% homology between these isolates, which were then divided into two groups: group 1 (genotype A) included six isolates from four outbreaks and one isolate from a traveler and group 2 (genotype B) included one isolate from the other outbreak, four isolates from returning travelers, and all of the isolates from the Pakistani children. Based on the isolate sequences, a primer pair and a biotin-labeled probe were designed for amplification and detection of 223 bases at the 3C-3D junction of Aichi virus RNA in fecal specimens. The Aichi virus RNA was detected in 54 (55%) of 99 fecal specimens from the patients in 12 (32%) of 37 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Japan. Of the 12 outbreaks, 11 were suspected to be due to genotype A. These results indicated that RT-PCR can be a useful tool to detect Aichi virus in stool samples and that a sequence analysis of PCR products can be employed to identify the prevalent strain in each incident. PMID:10921958

  5. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism(s remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in porcine kidney (PK-15 cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14 was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  6. Potential for Waterborne and Invertebrate Transmission of West Nile Virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dusek, Robert J; Shivers, Jan; Hofmeister, Erik

    2017-07-15

    In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 to 20,000 eared grebes ( Podiceps nigricollis ) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in >86 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture in the carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no activity of mosquitoes, the primary vectors of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. The transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high salt content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in the transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 to 150 ppt NaCl, and brine shrimp incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL. IMPORTANCE Following a major West Nile virus die-off of eared grebes and bald eagles at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, in November to December 2013, this study assessed the survival of West Nile virus (WNV) in water as saline as that of the GSL and whether brine shrimp, the major food for migrating grebes, could have played a role as a vector for the virus. While mosquitoes are the major vector of WNV, under certain circumstances, transmission may occur through contaminated water and invertebrates as food. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. RT-PCR identification and typing of astroviruses and Norwalk-like viruses in hospitalized patients with gastroenteritis: evidence of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, O; Belliot, G; Mollat, C; Piloquet, H; Chamoux, C; Laveran, H; Monroe, S S; Billaudel, S

    2000-09-01

    Astroviruses (HAstVs) and 'Norwalk-like viruses' (NLV) are frequent causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, though no data on the strains in circulation or their prevalence is available for France. We applied molecular methods to detect HAstVs and NLVs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in fecal samples collected during a 2-year period from children and adults hospitalized with gastroenteritis. All samples negative for rotavirus and adenovirus by latex agglutination which contained small (25-40 nm) viral particles observed by electron microscopy (EM) were examined by RT-PCR. RT-PCR products were sequenced to characterize the HAstV and NLV strains present. A total of 75 samples were analyzed by RT-PCR, of which 15 were positive for HAstV and 24 for NLV. Several distinct strains of serotype 1 HAstV, the predominant serotype, circulated during the period. Nineteen of the 24 NLVs were of the G2 genogroup including Mexico-like (n=10), Bristol-like (n=8), and Hawaii-like viruses (n=1); two were genogroup 1. Overall, seven (47%) of the 15 HAstV infections and nine (37.5%) of the 24 NLV infections appeared to be nosocomially acquired based on the date of admission in hospital and the date of illness. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of nosocomial infections caused by NLV and HAstV.

  8. Construction of a bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing S genes of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yudi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liao, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaobo; Cao, Sanjie; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Liu, Wumei

    2016-06-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can cause severe diarrhea in newborn piglets and led to significant economic losses. The S proteins are the main structural proteins of PEDV and TGEV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. In this study, a DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) co-expressing S proteins of TGEV and PEDV delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was constructed and its immunogenicity in piglets was investigated. Twenty-day-old piglets were orally immunized with SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) at a dosage of 1.6 × 10(11) CFU per piglet and then booster immunized with 2.0 × 10(11) CFU after 2 weeks. Humoral immune responses, as reflected by virus neutralizing antibodies and specific IgG and sIgA, and cellular immune responses, as reflected by IFN-γ, IL-4, and lymphocyte proliferation, were evaluated. SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) simultaneously elicited immune responses against TGEV and PEDV after oral immunization. The immune levels started to increase at 2 weeks after immunization and increased to levels statistically significantly different than controls at 4 weeks post-immunization, peaking at 6 weeks and declined at 8 weeks. The humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses induced by SL7207 (pAXD-PS1-TS) were significantly higher than those of the PBS and SL7207 (pVAXD) (p < 0.01). In particular, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were higher than those induced by the single-gene vaccine SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1) (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) possess the immunological functions of the two S proteins of TGEV and PEDV, indicating that SL7207 (pVAXD-PS1-TS) is a candidate oral vaccine for TGE and PED.

  9. Assessment of Gastroenteric Viruses Frequency in a Children's Day Care Center in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: A Fifteen Year Study (1994–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mônica Simões Rocha; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Tinga, Anna Carolina De Castro; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Costa, Filipe Aníbal Carvalho; de Oliveira, Solange Artimos; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This 15-year study aimed to determine the role of the main viruses responsible for acute infantile gastroenteritis cases in a day care center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1994 to 2008, 539 fecal samples were obtained from 23 outbreaks as well as sporadic cases that occurred in this period. The detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) was investigated both by classical and molecular methods of viral detection. RVA was detected by enzymatic immune assay and/or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and genotyped by using semi-nested multiplex PCR. NoV and AstV were subsequently tested by real time PCR in all RVA-negative samples and genotyped throughout genome sequencing. Three protocols for molecular characterization of NoV nucleotide sequencing were performed with the partial nucleotide sequencing of genomic regions known as region B (polymerase gen), C and D (capsid gen).Viruses were identified in 47.7% (257/539) of the cases, and the detection rates of RVA, NoV and AstV in16.1% (87/539), 33.4% (151/452), and 6.3% (19/301), respectively. Most gastroenteritis cases were reported in autumn and winter, although NoV presented a broader monthly distribution. Viruses' detection rates were significantly higher among children aged less than 24 months old, although NoV cases were detected in all age groups. RVA genotypes as G1P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8] and G1+G3P[8] and RVA was no longer detected after 2005. NoV characterization revealed genotypes variability circulating in the period as GI.2, GI.3, GI.8 GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.4 variants 2001 and 2006b, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12 and GII.17. AstV genotypes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were also characterized. Those data demonstrate the impact of NoV infection in cases of infantile gastroenteritis, surpassing RVA infection responsible for high morbidity rate in children under five years old. PMID:22448271

  10. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses frequency in a children's day care center in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: a fifteen year study (1994-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Simões Rocha Ferreira

    Full Text Available This 15-year study aimed to determine the role of the main viruses responsible for acute infantile gastroenteritis cases in a day care center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1994 to 2008, 539 fecal samples were obtained from 23 outbreaks as well as sporadic cases that occurred in this period. The detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV was investigated both by classical and molecular methods of viral detection. RVA was detected by enzymatic immune assay and/or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and genotyped by using semi-nested multiplex PCR. NoV and AstV were subsequently tested by real time PCR in all RVA-negative samples and genotyped throughout genome sequencing. Three protocols for molecular characterization of NoV nucleotide sequencing were performed with the partial nucleotide sequencing of genomic regions known as region B (polymerase gen, C and D (capsid gen.Viruses were identified in 47.7% (257/539 of the cases, and the detection rates of RVA, NoV and AstV in16.1% (87/539, 33.4% (151/452, and 6.3% (19/301, respectively. Most gastroenteritis cases were reported in autumn and winter, although NoV presented a broader monthly distribution. Viruses' detection rates were significantly higher among children aged less than 24 months old, although NoV cases were detected in all age groups. RVA genotypes as G1P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8] and G1+G3P[8] and RVA was no longer detected after 2005. NoV characterization revealed genotypes variability circulating in the period as GI.2, GI.3, GI.8 GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.4 variants 2001 and 2006b, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12 and GII.17. AstV genotypes 1, 2, 4 and 5 were also characterized. Those data demonstrate the impact of NoV infection in cases of infantile gastroenteritis, surpassing RVA infection responsible for high morbidity rate in children under five years old.

  11. EOSINOPHILIC GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Štabuc

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterised by infiltrating eosinophils into one or more layers of gastrointestinal tract and various gastrointestinal manifestations. Signs and symptoms are related to the layer and extent of bowel involved with eosinophilic infiltration bowel with mucosa, muscle, subserosa or all three affected. Steroid therapy remains the corner stone of treatment.Patients and methods. This paper describes a case of 70-yearold male patient with eosinophilic mucosal disease of upper intestinal wall repeatedly admitted because of epigastralgias, nausea, vomiting and losing weight. Because of hypereosinophilia, a biopsy of duodenal mucosa was performed, despite the normal endoscopic appearance. Numerous eosinophilic infiltrates were histologically confirmed in mucosa and submucosa and remission followed metilprednisolon therapy.Results. After two years signs of ilness reapearred, and again metilprednisolon therapy was followed by remission which still last.Conclusions. EGE needs to be recognized by the clinician because it can masquerade as the irritable bowel syndrome. The diagnosis of EGE is confirmed by a characteristic biopsy. Treatment is empiric and gauged to the severity of the clinical manifestations.

  12. Metagenomic sequencing for surveillance of food- and waterborne viral diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. Nieuwenhuijse (David F.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA plethora of viruses can be transmitted by the food- and waterborne route. However, their recognition is challenging because of the variety of viruses, heterogeneity of symptoms, the lack of awareness of clinicians, and limited surveillance efforts. Classical food- and waterborne viral

  13. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of Aichi Virus, a Distinct Member of the Picornaviridae Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Sakae, Kenji; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Suzuki, Yasumoto; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Takeda, Naokazu; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Shudo

    1998-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a novel enteric virus, Aichi virus, associated with nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans was determined. The Aichi virus genome proved to be a single-stranded positive-sense RNA molecule with 8,251 bases excluding a poly(A) tail; it contains a large open reading frame with 7,302 nucleotides that encodes a potential polyprotein precursor of 2,433 amino acids. The genome contains a 5′ nontranslated region (NTR) with 712 bases and a 3′ NTR with 240 bases followed by a poly(A) tail. The structure of the genome, VPg–5′ NTR–leader protein–structural proteins–nonstructural proteins–3′ NTR–poly(A), was found to be typical of a picornavirus. The VP0-VP3 and VP3-VP1 cleavage sites were determined to be Q-H and Q-T, respectively, by N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses using purified virion proteins. Possible cleavage sites, Q-G, Q-A, and Q-S, which cleave P2 and P3 polyproteins were found to be similar to those of picornaviruses. A dendrogram based on 3Dpol proteins indicated that Aichi virus is genetically distinct from the known six genera of picornaviruses including entero-, rhino-, cardio-, aphtho-, and hepatovirus and echovirus 22. Considering this together with other properties of the virus (T. Yamashita, S. Kobayashi, K. Sakae, S. Nakata, S. Chiba, Y. Ishihara, and S. Isomura, J. Infect. Dis. 164:954–957, 1991), we propose that Aichi virus be regarded as a new genus of the family Picornaviridae. PMID:9733894

  14. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is

  15. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  16. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25715048

  17. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni.

  18. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitis - cytomegalovirus; Gastroenteritis - cytomegalovirus; Gastrointestinal CMV disease ... or after bone marrow or organ transplant Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease Rarely, serious CMV infection involving ...

  19. Polymerase chain reaction detection of small round-structured viruses from two related hospital outbreaks of gastroenteritis using inosine-containing primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S M; Lambden, P R; Deng, Y; Lowes, J A; Lineham, S; Bushell, J; Rogers, J; Caul, E O; Ashley, C R; Clarke, I N

    1995-02-01

    Two outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the UK which occurred nine days apart at Lymington and Southampton hospitals were investigated. The clinical and epidemiological features of both outbreaks were characteristic of small round-structured virus (SRSV) infection with rapid onset of diarrhoea and/or nausea and vomiting and propagation of the outbreaks by secondary spread. SRSV particles were observed by immune electron microscopy (EM) in 60% of faecal samples from both outbreaks and no other pathogens were detected. The index case for the second outbreak was a patient who was admitted with diarrhoea and vomiting after being discharged from Lymington hospital during the first outbreak. The possibility that the two outbreaks were caused by the same strain of SRSV was investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). New inosine-containing PCR primers were designed to amplify the RNA polymerase region of SRSV cDNA from genetic groups I and II. The PCR using the group II primers achieved a higher detection rate for SRSVs in faecal samples (68% of samples positive from both outbreaks) than immune EM. SRSVs were not detected using the group I primers or using conventional degenerate PCR primers. The nucleotide sequences of PCR amplicons from both outbreaks were identical providing molecular epidemiological evidence for the involvement of a single SRSV strain. Comparison of the RNA polymerase region of this virus with the equivalent regions of genetic group I (69.4-75.0% amino acid identify) and genetic group II (88.9-100% amino acid and 77.1-88.1% nucleotide identity) SRSVs revealed that the causative SRSV was a distinct member of genetic group II.

  20. Field validation of a commercial blocking ELISA to differentiate antibody to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus and to identify TGEV-infected swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Susy; Josephson, Gaylan; McEwen, Beverly; Maxie, Grant; Antochi, Mioara; Eernisse, Ken; Nayar, Gopi; Halbur, Pat; Erickson, Gene; Nilsson, Ernst

    2002-03-01

    A commercially available blocking ELISA was analyzed for its ability to identify antibodies to porcine coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV] or porcine respiratory coronavirus [PRCV]), to differentiate antibodies to TGEV and PRCV, and to identify TGEV-infected herds. Nine sera from uninfected pigs, 34 sera from 16 pigs experimentally infected with TGEV, and sera from 10 pigs experimentally infected with PRCV were evaluated using both the TGEV/PRCV blocking ELISA and a virus neutralization (VN) assay. The ELISA was not consistently effective in identifying pigs experimentally infected with TGEV until 21 days postinfection. Sera from 100 commercial swine herds (1,783 sera; median 15 per herd) were similarly evaluated using both tests. Thirty of these commercial herds had a clinical history of TGEV infection and a positive TGEV fluorescent antibody test recorded at necropsy within the last 35 months, while 70 herds had no history of clinical TGEV infection. The blocking ELISA and the VN showed good agreement (kappa 0.84) for the detection of porcine coronavirus antibody (TGEV or PRCV). The sensitivity (0.933) of the ELISA to identify TGEV-infected herds was good when considered on a herd basis. The ELISA was also highly specific (0.943) for the detection of TGEV-infected herds when the test results were evaluated on a herd basis. When sera from specific age groups were compared, the ELISA identified a greater proportion (0.83) of pigs in herds with TGEV antibody when suckling piglets were used. In repeatability experiments, the ELISA gave consistent results when the same sera were evaluated on different days (kappa 0.889) and when sera were evaluated before and after heating (kappa 0.888). The blocking ELISA was determined to be useful for herd monitoring programs and could be used alone without parallel use of the VN assay for the assessment of large swine populations for the detection of TGEV-infected herds.

  1. Investigation of the Enteric Adenovirus Antigen Frequency by Immunochromotographic Method in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Akpınar; Hatice Akpınar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gastroenteritis is the third common cause of death due to infections. After rotavirus, adenoviruses are also one of the reasons frequently seen in gastroenteritis in infants and children. This study is performed to determine the incidence of enteric virus serotype 40 and 41 in children with acute gastroenteritis in order to enable prompt and appropriate treatment. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of patients who attended our clinic with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis...

  2. Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna S. Sherif

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: Breast feeding should be encouraged and highly recommended in the first two years of life as it provides Secretory IgA to breast fed infants who in turn protect them against epithelial damage caused by Rota viral gastroenteritis.

  3. Acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung M Chow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chung M Chow1, Alexander KC Leung2, Kam L Hon11Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China; 2Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Acute gastroenteritis is a very common disease. It causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. Viruses are ­responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as i­ntravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly r­ecommended as the first line therapy. However, the oral rehydration solution is described as an underused simple solution. Vomiting is one of the main reasons to explain the underuse of oral rehydration therapy. Antiemetics are not routinely recommended in treating acute gastroenteritis, though they are still commonly prescribed. Ondansetron is one of the best studied antiemetics and its role in enhancing the compliance of oral rehydration therapy and decreasing the rate of hospitalization has been proved recently. The guidelines regarding the recommendation on antiemetics have been changed according to the evidence of these recent studies.Keywords: gastroenteritis, vomiting, antiemetic, ondansetron, rotavirus, oral rehydration therapy, intravenous therapy, guideline

  4. Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus in water samples collected from different region of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia

    2016-12-23

    Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

  5. Encuesta epidemiológica sobre coronavirus porcinos en la Región de Murcia mediante la técnica E.L.I.S.A. con antígeno concentrado de virus de la gastroenteritis transmisible

    OpenAIRE

    Cubero Pablo, María José

    1989-01-01

    Hemos realizado en la Región de Murcia una investigación epidemiológica sobre los coronavirus porcinos- virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible (TGEV) y/o Coronavirus Respiratorio Porcino (PCRV)- mediante una técnica inmuno-enzimática (ELISA indirecta). La encuesta serológica se ha llevado a cabo en 1987 en la población de cerdos reproductores y la muestra investigada (6.000 reproductores de 480 granjas) es representativa respecto a los reproductores y a las explotaciones – y dentro de ella...

  6. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  7. A waterborne outbreak involving hepatitis A virus genotype IA at a residential facility in the Republic of Korea in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunkyung; Kim, Jin Seok; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Oh, Sung Suck; Kwon, MunJu; Kim, Soojin; Park, Jungsun; Kwak, Hyo-Sun; Chung, Gyung Tae; Kim, Chul-Joong; Kim, Junyoung

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a major cause of acute hepatitis, has had the highest occurrence among group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases in Korea since 2010.Recently,the annual increase in the HAV infection rate among young adults has become a public health concern. The aim of this study was to describe an outbreak of acute hepatitis in a residential facility in April 2015 and to identify potential sources of this outbreak. Sera from all exposed residents were tested for anti-HAV IgM or IgG antibodies by ELISA. Clinical (sera and stool) and environmental samples were screened for the presence of HAV RNA using one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR. The VP3-VP1 regions of HAV were analyzed using the BLAST database and MEGA7 software. Of the 82 persons in the facility, 12 (14.6%, including 10 residents and 2 health care workers) were diagnosed with hepatitis A. Clinical symptoms were evident in 9 individuals, one of whom died, and the remaining four patients were asymptomatic. Traceback investigation revealed that HAV-RNA (genotype IA) was detected in the patients' stools and the groundwater used in the facility. We described an HAV outbreak in a facility for the disabled due to using a water supply that was mixed with contaminated groundwater. Therefore, HAV vaccination and periodic water inspections in group facilities should be emphasized to prevent HAV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Septicemia following rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Eric; Aviner, Shraga

    2013-03-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a prevalent childhood illness rarely complicated by secondary bacterial sepsis. Although there are case reports of septicemia after rotavirus infection, there are no recent reviews on this topic. To add new cases of septicemia after rotavirus to the literature, review the few cases of septicemia after rotavirus that have been reported, calculate the incidence of septicemia in children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis, and discuss the characteristics of septicemia after rotavirus infection and implications for current pediatric practice. We identified children whose illness was complicated by septicemia from among all hospitalizations at our facility for rotavirus gastroenteritis from May 1999 through May 2010. We also review the few cases reported in the English literature. We identified two cases of septicemia from among 632 hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in this time period, for an incidence rate of 0.32%, which is comparable to other estimates in the English literature. The typical course for cases of bacterial superinfection involves a second peak of high fever; other clinical signs are variable. Septicemia after rotavirus gastroenteritis is a rare but dangerous entity. Early identification of a child developing bacterial superinfection after rotavirus, as in any case of sepsis, is of the utmost importance, as is obtaining blood cultures in a child with a rotavirus infection and a second fever spike.

  9. Excess healthcare costs of a large waterborne outbreak in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Elisa; Laine, Janne; Virtanen, Mikko J; Snellman, Marja; Hujanen, Timo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Kujansuu, Eila; Lumio, Jukka; Ruutu, Petri; Kuusi, Markku

    2013-11-01

    The economic effects of waterborne outbreaks have rarely been reported. A large waterborne outbreak occurred in the town of Nokia in Finland in 2007 with half of the population in the contaminated area suffering from gastroenteritis. We studied the healthcare costs of this outbreak. Healthcare costs were studied using register data from the Nokia Health Care Centre, data collected in the regional university hospital, and data from laboratory register on stool samples. Total excess healthcare costs were EUR 354,496, which is approximately EUR 10 per resident of Nokia. There were 2052 excess visits because of gastroenteritis in Nokia Health Care Centre, 403 excess episodes in the university hospital, and altogether over 2000 excess stool samples due to the outbreak. Care in the Nokia Health Care Centre accounted for 44% and care in the university hospital for 42% of the excess healthcare costs while stool samples accounted for only 10%. Despite the high morbidity, the total cost was low because most patients had a relatively mild illness. The situation would have been worse if the microbes involved had been more hazardous or if the financial situation of the community had been worse. Prevention of waterborne outbreaks is important, as there is a risk of severe short- and long-term health effects and substantial health-economic costs.

  10. Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif, Lobna S.; Abdel Raouf, Randaa K.; Rokaya M. El Sayede; Amany S. El Wakkadd; Shoaib, Ashraf R.; Ali, Hanan M.; Amira S. El Refay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important protective role in the recognition and clearance of enteric pathogens. AIM: This study was designed to assess if mucosal integrity “measured by secretory IgA (SIgA)” is a protective factor from more epithelial alteration “measured by glutathione transferase” in infants with Rota gastroenteritis and its relation to infantsꞌ feeding pattern. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 79 infants aged 6 months and les...

  11. BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

  12. Hydrologic, land cover and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in great lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes tributaries deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal variability of waterborne pathogens, protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) and human (8) and bovine (8) viruses from eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes watersh...

  13. Gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Vinje, J.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duijnhoven, Y.T.P.H. van

    1998-01-01

    De incidentie van huisartsconsulten voor gastro-enteritis van 77 per 10.000 persoonjaren lijkt een lichte daling te vertonen t.o.v. de incidentie van 90 per 10.000 persoonjaren in een vergelijkbaar onderzoek in 1992-1993. De belangrijkste verwekkers van gastro-enteritis waarvoor de huisarts wordt

  14. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  15. Multiplex tests to identify gastrointestinal bacteria, viruses and parasites in people with suspected infectious gastroenteritis: a systematic review and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Karoline; Mistry, Hema; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Royle, Pam; McCarthy, Noel; Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Manuel, Rohini; Mason, James

    2017-04-01

    Gastroenteritis is a common, transient disorder usually caused by infection and characterised by the acute onset of diarrhoea. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify common bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens using molecular testing. By providing test results more rapidly than conventional testing methods, GPP tests might positively influence the treatment and management of patients presenting in hospital or in the community. To systematically review the evidence for GPP tests [xTAG ® (Luminex, Toronto, ON, Canada), FilmArray (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and Faecal Pathogens B (AusDiagnostics, Beaconsfield, NSW, Australia)] and to develop a de novo economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of GPP tests with conventional testing in England and Wales. Multiple electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database were searched from inception to January 2016 (with supplementary searches of other online resources). Eligible studies included patients with acute diarrhoea; comparing GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques; and patient, management, test accuracy or cost-effectiveness outcomes. Quality assessment of eligible studies used tailored Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2, Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards and Philips checklists. The meta-analysis included positive and negative agreement estimated for each pathogen. A de novo decision tree model compared patients managed with GPP testing or comparable coverage with patients managed using conventional tests, within the Public Health England pathway. Economic models included hospital and community management of patients with suspected gastroenteritis. The model estimated costs (in 2014/15 prices) and quality-adjusted life-year losses from a NHS and Personal Social Services perspective. Twenty-three studies informed the review of clinical evidence (17 xTAG, four

  16. Waterborne Viruses and F-Specific Coliphages in Mixed-Use Watersheds: Microbial Associations, Host Specificities, and Affinities with Environmental/Land Use Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Brassard, Julie; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2017-02-01

    From the years 2008 to 2014, a total of 1,155 water samples were collected (spring to fall) from 24 surface water sampling sites located in a mixed-used but predominantly agricultural (i.e., dairy livestock production) river basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. Water was analyzed for viable F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-specific RNA (F-RNA) (genogroup I [GI] to GIV) coliphage and a suite of molecularly detected viruses (norovirus [GI to GIV], torque teno virus [TTV], rotavirus, kobuvirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, hepatitis A, and hepatitis E). F-DNA and F-RNA coliphage were detected in 33 and 28% of the samples at maximum concentrations of 2,000 and 16,300 PFU · 100 ml(-1), respectively. Animal TTV, human TTV, kobuvirus, astrovirus, and norovirus GIII were the most prevalent viruses, found in 23, 20, 13, 12, and 11% of samples, respectively. Viable F-DNA coliphage was found to be a modest positive indicator of molecularly detected TTV. F-RNA coliphage, unlike F-DNA coliphage, was a modest positive predictor of norovirus and rotavirus. There were, however, a number of significant negative associations among F-specific coliphage and viruses. F-DNA coliphage densities of >142 PFU · 100 ml(-1) delineated conditions when ∼95% of water samples contained some type of virus. Kobuvirus was the virus most strongly related to detection of any other virus. Land use had some associations with virus/F-specific coliphage detection, but season and surface water flow were the variables that were most important for broadly delineating detection. Higher relative levels of detection of human viruses and human F-RNA coliphage were associated with higher relative degrees of upstream human land development in a catchment. This study is one of the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate relationships among F-specific coliphages and a large suite of enteric viruses in mixed-use but agriculturally dominated surface waters in Canada. This study suggested that relationships between viable F

  17. Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Chalmers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most commonly reported vehicle of transmission in Cryptosporidium outbreaks. While mains drinking water quality is highly regulated in industrialised countries, treated recreational water venues remain highly variable and these have emerged as important settings in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks benefit from supplementary microbiological evidence and, more recently, the application of molecular typing data to link isolates from cases to each other and to suspected sources. This article documents how waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks are identified and reported, how such outbreaks have acted as drivers of regulatory change, and some of the recent developments in the detection and investigation of these outbreaks and their spread, especially the application of molecular typing assays.

  18. The coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus causes infection after receptor-mediated endocytosis and acid-dependent fusion with an intracellular compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Delmas, B; Besnardeau, L

    1998-01-01

    adsorption to the pAPN-MDCK cells. TGEV was also observed in endocytic pits and apical vesicles after 3 to 10 min of incubation at 38 degrees C. The number of pits and apical vesicles was increased by the TGEV incubation, indicating an increase in endocytosis. After 10 min of incubation, a distinct TGEV......-pAPN-containing population of large intracellular vesicles, morphologically compatible with endosomes, was found. A higher density of pAPN receptors was observed in the pits beneath the virus particles than in the surrounding plasma membrane, indicating that TGEV recruits pAPN receptors before endocytosis. Ammonium chloride...... and bafilomycin A1 markedly inhibited the TGEV infection as judged from virus production and protein biosynthesis analyses but did so only when added early in the course of the infection, i.e., about 1 h after the start of endocytosis. Together our results point to an acid intracellular compartment as the site...

  19. Water quality and occurrence of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Nkeng, George Elambo; Takem, Gloria Eyong Eneke

    2009-01-01

    The monthly occurrence and mean age distribution of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon (1995-2006) were studied and probable causes of diseases spread were established. Diseases of interest included gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. Water-borne disease occurrence was observed to follow a seasonal pattern with peaks occurring between the months of January and May followed by drops between June and October and rose again from November. Children below 5 years were found to be more vulnerable to diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery while persons between 15-44 years were more vulnerable to typhoid and cholera. Physico-chemically, water samples had turbidities varying between 5.5-86 NTU, pH values between 4.2 and 7.1 and zero residual chlorine. Bacteriological analysis showed that the total coliform count was averagely 74/100 ml, the faecal colform count was 43/100 ml and the faecal streptococci count was 27/100 ml. Lack of access to potable water, absence of sanitation facilities and environmental factors could be advanced as the probable causes of water-borne disease spread.

  20. Report on waterborne diseases: The polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enteric viruses in water; Rapporto sulle malattie infettive di origine idricamerizzazione a catena per l`identificazione dei virus enterici nell`acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscillo, M.; La Rosa, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-12-01

    A variety of human infectious diseases are associated with the pollution of water by enteric viruses. The epidemiological data on cases associated with drinking and recreational water show Norwalk, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus and enteroviruses as the etiological agents. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is certainly the most reliable technique available for the rapid identification of these viruses in water samples.

  1. Norovirus and Medically Attended Gastroenteritis in U.S. Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C.; Vinjé, Jan; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Hall, Caroline B.; Chappell, James; Bernstein, David I.; Curns, Aaron T.; Wikswo, Mary; Shirley, S. Hannah; Hall, Aron J.; Lopman, Benjamin; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed. METHODS We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in hospitals, emergency departments, and outpatient clinical settings. The children resided in one of three U.S. counties during the years 2009 and 2010. Fecal specimens were tested for norovirus and rotavirus. We calculated population-based rates of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis and reviewed billing records to determine medical costs; these data were extrapolated to the U.S. population of children younger than 5 years of age. RESULTS Norovirus was detected in 21% of young children (278 of 1295) seeking medical attention for acute gastroenteritis in 2009 and 2010, with norovirus detected in 22% (165 of 742) in 2009 and 20% (113 of 553) in 2010 (P = 0.43). The virus was also detected in 4% of healthy controls (19 of 493) in 2009. Rotavirus was identified in 12% of children with acute gastroenteritis (152 of 1295) in 2009 and 2010. The respective rates of hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits for the norovirus were 8.6, 146.7, and 367.7 per 10,000 children younger than 5 years of age in 2009 and 5.8, 134.3, and 260.1 per 10,000 in 2010, with an estimated cost per episode of $3,918, $435, and $151, respectively, in 2009. Nationally, we estimate that the average numbers of annual hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits due to norovirus infection in 2009 and 2010 among U.S. children in this age group exceeded 14,000, 281,000, and 627,000, respectively, with more than $273 million in treatment costs each year. CONCLUSIONS Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically attended acute

  2. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  3. Development of rhabdomyolysis in a child after norovirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Tomohiro; Yonetani, Ryoko; Ito, Eisuke; Yoneta, Makiko; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tokiko; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2016-11-04

    In children, the most significant cause of rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown is viral infection. However, there are no reports that norovirus, a gastroenteric virus that commonly infects children, specifically causes rhabdomyolysis. Here, we report the first pediatric case of norovirus-associated rhabdomyolysis. The patient, a 2-year-old boy with fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, was referred to our hospital with dysstasia and transaminitis. He was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Additionally, norovirus genogroup GII was detected from stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, and thereafter, the norovirus GII.4 variant was identified. However, the association between rhabdomyolysis and the isolated norovirus variant was not clarified. After treatment the patient recovered without renal failure or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rhabdomyolysis is a disease for which there is a need for early detection and treatment. If abnormal posture or muscle weakness is observed during the course of gastroenteritis, blood and urinary tests should be performed to rule out rhabdomyolysis.

  4. Вocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Krasnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the data on the most important causative factors of acute gastroenteritis in children and on relatively new pathogens, such as bocavirus (HBoV, considering modern potential for verification of viral disorders. Human HBoV, belonging to Parvoviridae family, has been isolated from nasopharyngeal discharge in children with acute respiratory viral infection in 2005. Later on it was registered as a respiratory pathogen. Despite symptoms of an acute respiratory disease, HBoVinfected patients frequently present with acute gastroenteritis. In various regions of the world, fecal HBoV DNA has been found in children with acute intestinal infection by means of the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing. Molecular genetic studies showed the presence of 4 genetically different viral types. HBoV genotype 1 is more frequently found in nasopharyngeal smears from children with acute respiratory viral infection, whereas HBoV genotypes 2, 3, and 4 are isolated from feces in those with acute gastroenteritis. If HBoV is an intestinal pathogen, remain an unresolved issue. There is a  high rate of HBoV co-infection (up to 60% and more with other intestinal viruses in children with acute gastroenteritis. High fecal DNA titers found in the studies in children with acute gastroenteritis have shown that HBoV is not only present in the bowel, but also is replicating there. The importance of studies on characteristics of molecular evolution of bocavirus is undoubted, while there are gaps in knowledge on its life cycle, mechanisms of genome replication; there is neither cultivation technique for this virus, nor animal models for disorders it may cause. The assay for anti-HBoV detection in human serum has been studied only in acute respiratory disease; high rates of HBoV seropositive patients and high antibody titers have been found in children correlating with a high viral load. It could be relevant to study prevalence and genetic variance

  5. [Norovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in northeastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Artur; Pogorzelska, Elzbieta; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Rozkiewicz, Dorota; Ołdak, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Noroviruses belonging to the family of Caliciviridae are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. In the current study incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis was estimated in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis using commercially available ELISA tests. Epidemiological data were correlated with basic demographic findings. A hundred and forty nine children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in the study. Screening for common viruses causing gastroenteritis: rotavirus and adenovirus was performed and than stool samples were frozen and stored in children were tested positive for Norowirus group two. In total noroviruses were found in 11.4% of children included in the study. Children with norovirus infection were 3 weeks to 15 years old (mean age 5.9 years). Seasonal peak of norovirus infection was seen in September through December. The infectious agent has not been identified in 43% of investigated children. Our results support important role of noroviruses as a causing agent of gastroenteritis in children in Northeastern Poland. The importance of noroviruses may grow as rotavirus infections are likely to be eliminated due to wide introduction of vaccine in the nearest future. Routine testing for noroviruses should be considered in clinical practice.

  6. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  7. [Comparative analysis on clinical manifestations for gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Jia, Li-ying; Qian, Yuan; Chen, Dong-mei; Zhang, You; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2009-04-01

    To compare the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus in infants and young children in Beijing. Stool specimens were collected from infants and young children with acute diarrhea who visited the Affiliated Children's Hospital to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2002 to December 2006. Registration form was designed for clinical data collection for each patient from whom specimen was collected. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were used to detect rotavirus and Human norovirus, respectively. Among 779 stool specimens tested for rotavirus, 263 were positive (33.8%), and norovirus positive specimens were 79 out of 318 (24.8%) specimens tested. Most of the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses were quite similar with no significant difference, except for fever. The seasonal distribution of these two viruses were different with the peak of rotavirus infection was in cold weather between October and January, as indicated by the peak of the positive rates of the virus detection. The infection of norovirus seemed no obvious peak in the year. Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for acute diarrhea among infants and young children while. Norovirus is also an important pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. No significant difference was found out for clinical manifestations for the gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses.

  8. Persistent Norovirus Contamination of Groundwater Supplies in Two Waterborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2018-03-01

    Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures. Moreover, the long-term persistence of noro- and adenovirus genomes was investigated. Noroviruses were detected in water samples from both outbreaks after the intrusion of wastewater into the drinking water sources. In the outbreak I, the removal efficiency of norovirus genome (3.0 log 10 removal) in the sand filter of onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and during the transport through the soil into the groundwater well was lower than the removal efficiencies of E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, and spores of C. perfringens (6.2, 6.0, > 5.9, and > 4.8 log 10 removals, respectively). In the outbreak II, cleaning of massively contaminated groundwater well and drinking water distribution network proved challenging, and noro- and adenovirus genomes were detected up to 3 months (108 days). The long-term persistence study showed that noro- and adenovirus genomes can remain detectable in the contaminated water samples up to 1277 and 1343 days, respectively. This study highlights the transport and survival properties of enteric viruses in the environment explaining their potency to cause waterborne outbreaks.

  9. Detection of caliciviruses associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis in Salvador, an urban center in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.T.P. Xavier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis caused by viruses is one of the leading causes of infantile morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of human caliciviruses of the genera norovirus and sapovirus in children up to 3 years of age with acute gastroenteritis from low-income communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. This study is an extension of previous work carried out to establish the profile of the most prevalent enteric pathogens present in these communities. In this report, 139 fecal samples, collected from July 2001 to January 2002 were analyzed by RT-PCR and 13 (9% were positive for human caliciviruses. By sequencing, seven isolates were characterized as norovirus genogroup GII and one as sapovirus genotype GII/1. Sequencing of the previously detected group-A rotaviruses and human astroviruses was also performed and revealed the circulation of rotavirus group A genotypes G1P[8] and G9P[8], and human astrovirus genotypes 6, 7, and 8. No mixed infection was observed. Community-based studies provide geographically representative information on disease burden. However, there are only a few reports in developing countries concerning the genotypes of the most important gastroenteric viruses detected in such communities. The present findings demonstrate the wide diversity of genotypes of the most important viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis circulating in low-income communities.

  10. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  11. Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chih Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative pathogen is rarely identified in the emergency department (ED, since the results of cultures are usually unavailable. As a result, antimicrobial treatment may be overused. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathogens, risk factors of acute gastroenteritis, and predictors of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the ED. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of 627 stool samples and 612 matched pairs. Results: Viruses (41.3% were the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with noroviruses (32.2% being the most prevalent, followed by bacteria (26.8% and Giardia lamblia (12.4%. Taking antacids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57–6.53, household members/classmates with gastroenteritis (aOR 4.69; 95% CI, 2.76–7.96, attending a banquet (aOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64–3.20, dining out (aOR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13–2.54, and eating raw oysters (aOR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.61–5.94 were highly associated with gastroenteritis. Elders (aOR 1.04; 05% CI, 1.02–1.05, those with CRP >10 mg/L (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62, or those who were positive for fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62 or fecal occult blood (aOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03–3.77 were more likely to be hospitalized in ED. In addition, presence of fecal leukocytes (time ratio [TR] 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06–1.41, abdominal pain (TR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07–1.41, and frequency of vomiting (TR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.98 were significantly associated with the duration of acute gastroenteritis. Presence of fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.42–3.05, winter season (aOR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.74, frequency of diarrhea (aOR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01–2.83, and eating shrimp or crab (aOR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.23 were highly associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55–0.63. Conclusions: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis was highly associated with

  12. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Blumenstein Yogesh M Shastri Jürgen Stein

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake,chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction,and patients who are critically...

  13. Investigation of the Enteric Adenovirus Antigen Frequency by Immunochromotographic Method in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Akpınar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastroenteritis is the third common cause of death due to infections. After rotavirus, adenoviruses are also one of the reasons frequently seen in gastroenteritis in infants and children. This study is performed to determine the incidence of enteric virus serotype 40 and 41 in children with acute gastroenteritis in order to enable prompt and appropriate treatment. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens of patients who attended our clinic with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis between January 2013 and December 2013 were examined for the presence of enteric adenovirus (Ad40 and Ad41 antigen using immunochromatographic methods. Results: One hundred and two stool samples from 3206 were positive for adenovirus antigens. Adenovirus antigen positive-patients aged 0-5 years constituted 82.3% of patients. Adenovirus infections were observed in all seasons of the year. Conclusion: In our country, the epidemiology of adenovirus infection is not known very well. According to the data we obtained from the results of this study, we assume that idntifying viral agent in patients with diarrhea in an accurate, prompt and reliable way can prevent unnecessary antibiotic use and can contribute seroepidemiologic data in childhood gastroenteritis in our region.

  14. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  15. Oncogenic Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus in Water Environments: Is There a Potential for Waterborne Transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, M; Di Bonito, P; La Rosa, G

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne exposure to human viruses through contact with sewage-contaminated water environments can result in infections associated with a wide range of illnesses. Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most commonly encountered manifestations of waterborne viral illness. Respiratory diseases, neurological diseases and paralysis can also occur. Whether viral infections resulting in health outcomes like cancer might also be transmitted by the waterborne route is unknown. Recently, viruses belonging to two oncogenic groups-Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Human Polyomaviruses (HPyVs)-have been detected in urban sewages worldwide. The latter have also been identified in other water environments. HPVs are epitheliotropic viruses responsible for several diseases of skin and mucosae, from common warts to squamous intraepithelial lesions that can either heal or progress to invasive carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus or oropharynx. Human PyVs infect different tissues and organs, causing infections that are usually subclinical in immunocompetent individuals but can be serious in immunocompromised hosts. These pathogens belong to a family of DNA tumour viruses. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a HPyV identified in recent years, has attracted much attention due to its link with a rare and aggressive form of human cancer. Merkel cell carcinoma, the incidence of which has tripled over the past two decades. JC polyomavirus and BK polyomavirus are also potentially oncogenic. The observed abundance and wide dissemination of HPVs and HPyVs in water environments strongly suggest the need to shed light on the fate of these viruses in water environments and to elucidate their potential for waterborne transmission. Such information is essential for the improvement of wastewater management programs in terms of both sewage treatment and water quality surveillance.

  16. A gastroenteritis outbreak investigation, NIGDE city center, March 2014

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    Ebru Tozan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigde city center, during 18–30 March 2014, 1288 acute gastroenteritis cases were admitted to hospitals and family health centers. We investigated to identify the cause, mode of transmission, implement control measures, prevent future outbreaks. Methods: In case-control study to test the hypothesis “The source of this outbreak is contaminated tap water”, we reviewed health records for ICD-10 codes (A09, R11, K52 during 18–30 March. We defined probable case as onset of vomiting or diarrhea among 0-14 age-group resident of 15 neighborhoods with highest attack rates.. We compared 88 case-patients and randomly selected age-group-matched neighborhood controls. We tested clinical specimens, water samples. Results: Main symptoms of probable cases were diarrhea (80.7%, abdominal pain (84.1%, nausea (89.8%, vomiting (84.1%, fever (55.7%. When drinking only bottled water was taken as reference, drinking only tap water was 6.5 times higher in case patients (ORadj=6.5, 95%Cl=2.1–19.1. Of the 6 stool specimens, 4 tested positive for rotavirus. Water samples were positive for Escherichia coli, coliform bacteria. Free chlorine level was zero ppm in 5 of 7 samples. Conclusions: Contaminated tap water caused this rotavirus outbreak. The point of contamination couldn’t be identified. We recommended, drinking tap water chlorination, monitoring should be done regularly to prevent waterborne outbreaks.Key words: Water, Diarrhea, Case-Control Studies, Rotavirus, Outbreaks.

  17. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  18. Occurrence of Waterborne Pathogens and Escherichia coli at Offshore Drinking Water Intakes in Lake Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, T. A.; Khan, I. U. H.; Bouchard, R.; Guo, J.; Hill, S.; Locas, A.; Moore, L.; Neumann, N.; Nowak, E.; Payment, P.; Yang, R.; Yerubandi, R.; Watson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of waterborne pathogens was investigated at three drinking water intakes located about 2 km offshore in Lake Ontario. Water sampling was conducted over 3 years for Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., cultivable enteric viruses, and water quality parameters. All pathogens were detected in the offshore source water for each water treatment plant (WTP1 to WTP3), although at relatively low frequencies and concentrations. Giardia was the most common pathogen, occ...

  19. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  20. Epidemiology of Classic and Novel Human Astrovirus: Gastroenteritis and Beyond

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    Diem-Lan Vu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur. This review provides an update on the epidemiology of both classic and novel human astroviruses, and a comprehensive view on confirmed or potential association between astrovirus and human disease.

  1. HUMAN CALICIVIRUS OUTBREAK OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN AN AGED-CARE FACILITY

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    Iztok Štrumbelj

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human caliciviruses represent a genetically and antigenetically diverse group of single-stranded RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans. In last two years the number of notified gastroenteric cases in Slovenia is increasing. From January till November 2002 already 574 calicivirus cases have been confirmed. Majority of cases were observed in preschool and school children but no cases were described in the aged-care facility.Methods. An outbreak of gastroenteritis in an aged-care facility occured. After onset of the outbreak an epidemiological questionnaire and inspection of local conditions were realized. Stool samples from home residents were analysed to find out bacteriological and/or viral aetiology. Direct electron microscopy and RT-PCR assay was performed to detect caliciviruses. Viral RNA was amplified using specific primers and PCR products were identified in hybridisation test.Results. The outbreak started suddenly on the second floor, where the attack rate was the highest. On the other floors the illness started later and the attack rate was lower. Sixty-one (40,1% residents from 152 became ill and additionally 15 (22,4% employees from 67. The outbreak ended after ten days. Electron microscopy or/and RT-PCR revealed Norovirus members of family Caliciviridae in 9 of 10 stool specimens. As determined by RT-PCR and hybridisation assay viruses corresponded to genogroup II, genetic cluster 1 (closely related to the Hawaii virus and genetic cluster 4 (closely related to the Lordsdale virus.Conclusions. Presented data support a significant role for caliciviruses as causative agents of gastroenteritis in elderly persons in Slovenia.

  2. Detection and genomic characterization of Aichi viruses in stool samples from children in Monastir, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Hassine, Mouna; Gharbi-Khelifi, Hakima; Sakly, Nabil; Chouchane, Slaheddine; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2009-07-01

    Aichi virus has been associated with acute gastroenteritis in adults and children. Stool samples were collected from 788 Tunisian children suffering from diarrhea. Aichi virus was found in 4.1% of the cases. The high proportion of monoinfections and the high frequency of hospitalizations support the role of Aichi virus in pediatric gastroenteritis.

  3. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-31

    nausea, vomit- ing, low grade fever, abdominal cramps, headache, anorexia, myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly ...infant, debilitated or malnourished patient. Viral gastroenteritis occurs primarily in two epidemiologically distinct clin- ical forms (1). One entity is

  4. Prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj, 2011

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    P Khodadadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aim: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating and gastroenteritis among children worldwide. . The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj. Methods: This cross sectional – descriptive study was done on 184 stool samples of children younger than 7 years of age hospitalized at Imam Sajjad hospital of Yasuj in 2011 due to acute gastroenteritis. All samples were routinely analyzed for detection of rotavirus by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA test. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 184 samples analyzed, 52(28.26% were positive.The Results showed significant relationship between the seasonal distribution and virus detection (p=0/001. The highest incidence of rotavirus was seen in autumn with frequency of (48.08% and the lowest in spring (5.77%. Conclusions: According to high prevalence of rotavirus infection, continual surveillance is necessary to provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines and perform diarrhea prevention programs. Key words: Rotavirus, Gastroenteritis, Prevalence, Elisa

  5. Adenovirus, calicivirus and astrovirus detection in fecal samples of hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

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    Marcia Sueli Assis Andreasi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed fecal samples from hospitalized children up to three years of age with acute gastroenteritis at Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from May 2000-January 2004. Astrovirus and calicivirus were detected by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction and adenovirus was detected using the Rotavirus and Adenovirus combined immunoenzyme assay. Astrovirus, adenovirus and calicivirus were detected at rates of 3.1%, 3.6% and 7.6%, respectively. These results re-emphasize the need for the establishment of regional vigilance systems to evaluate the impact of enteric viruses on viral gastroenteritis.

  6. waterborne South Africa Canoeists and diseases in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waterborne. South Africa. Canoeists and diseases in. C. c. APPLETON, I. W. BAILEY. Summary. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) in canoeists in South Africa was estimated from examinations of urine samples taken from participants in the 1988 and 1989 Duzi Canoe Marathons on the ...

  7. ABO blood grouping in Egyptian children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Hala Gouda; Abdel Samie, Ola M; Saleh, Maysa Tawhid; Sherif, Lobna S; Abdalmoneam, Naglaa; Kholoussi, Naglaa M; Kholoussi, Shams M; El-Taweel, Ahmed N

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important public health problem all over the world, causing a notable economic burden in both developing and developed countries. To explore the relationship between blood group typing, rotavirus gastroenteritis, and its severity in Egyptian children. A cross sectional case control study was conducted on 231 cases of acute gastroenteritis attending the outpatient clinic of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. Full history taking, clinical examination, and clinical data collection were done. Blood samples were collected for an ABO grouping. Stool samples were tested for viral gastroenteritis agents. Rota positive cases of GE were significantly more prevalent among cases with blood group A (p fever (p rotavirus gastroenteritis. This could highlight an important risk factor, which could play a significant role for the pathogenesis of rotavirus gastroenteritis and severity as well. Furthermore, more intervention care could be needed for blood group A paediatric patients, if gastroenteritis especially rotavirus affect this group to avoid comorbidities.

  8. Astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children of less than 5 years of age in Taiwan, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chen; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Hsiung, Chao A; Chang, Wan-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2012-08-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common illness in children under 5 years old. Although rotavirus is a leading cause, other viruses including astrovirus are also important, but have been the subject of limited studies. This is a prospective study to investigate astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Taiwan. From January 2009 to December 2009, children below 5 years of age admitted to three hospitals in Taiwan due to acute gastroenteritis were eligible for this study. Stool specimens were sent for the detection of astrovirus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; once positive for astrovirus, the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of each strain was performed. A total of 989 children were enrolled during the study period. The overall positive rate of astrovirus was 1.6%, ranging from 1.03% to 2.26% in different hospitals, while rotavirus accounted for 20.2% of the patients. Six of the 16 children (37.5%) with astroviral infection had documented coinfection with rotavirus. The median age of infection was 28.2 months. The seasonal distribution of astrovirus peaked from April to June. Diarrhea alone (40% vs. 2.1%, p fever, vomiting and diarrhea (30% vs. 71%, p = 0.0062) in children with astroviral infection alone than in those with rotaviral infection alone. The mean duration of diarrhea was significantly longer in patients with mixed infection than those with astroviral infection alone (6.8 vs. 4.2 days, p = 0.013). Respiratory symptoms were noted in 10 children (62.5%). Serotype HAstV-1 was the most common (68.8%). Astrovirus accounted for 1.6% of infections in children under 5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Taiwan. Compared with those caused by rotavirus, the incidence of gastroenteritis in hospitalized children caused by astrovirus was low and the disease severity was mild. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J; Brown, David W; Estes, Mary K; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  10. ELISA for the serology of FIP virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Kroon; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja

    1979-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus serology is described. The assay is analogous to a previously developed indirect heterologous immunofluorescence test (IFT) in which transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) viral antigen was used.

  11. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  12. Acute Liver Dysfunction in the Course of Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with abdominal pain and malaise who showed delayed symptom of acute gastroenteritis came to see us. Her illness was diagnosed as norovirus infection, but liver dysfunction accompanied this gastroenteritis. We investigated the pathogenesis of this hepatitis for all causes including drugs, but we could not detect norovirus infection. The liver damage improved shortly in course of the gastroenteritis. She recovered completely within 2 weeks without any damage left. Norovirus-induced liver dysfunction is not known, and there is no report in the literature. We report, for the first time, the case of liver dysfunction with norovirus gastroenteritis.

  13. Estimated waterborne commerce statistics for calendar year 1998 : national totals and selected inland waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-30

    In order to provide waterborne commerce information as soon as possible, the Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center(WCSC) has prepared this summary document of estimated waterborne commerce statistics for calendar year 1998. The foreign import and exp...

  14. Estimated waterborne commerce statistics for calendar year 1996 : national totals and selected inland waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In order to provide waterborne commerce information as soon as possible, the Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center (WCSC) has prepared this summary document of estimated waterborne commerce statistics for calendar year 1996. The foreign import and ex...

  15. Suspicion of viral gastroenteritis does improve compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, S; Oude-Aost, J; Stollbrink-Peschgens, C; Haefner, H; Waitschies, B; Wagner, N; Lemmen, S W

    2011-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is common on pediatric wards, increasing the need for adherence with hand hygiene recommendations in order to prevent cross-transmission. Therefore, we investigated hand hygiene reflecting complete work-day activities on pediatric wards and focused on the influence of viral gastroenteritis. There are, so far, no studies representing complete working days on pediatric wards or addressing the influence of viral gastroenteritis. This was a prospective, observational study (144 h in each group) on hand hygiene behavior in the care for children with and without suspected or proven viral gastroenteritis. We documented 40 and 30 hand hygiene opportunities per patient-day for ward-associated healthcare workers for children with and without viral gastroenteritis, respectively (P = 0.316). Healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene recommendations was significantly higher in children with viral gastroenteritis compared to those without, i.e., 72 versus 67% (P = 0.033), especially among physicians, being 92 versus 50% (P = 0.032). Compliance tended to be higher after patient contact than before, especially in the children with gastroenteritis (78 vs. 62%; P = 0.083). We conclude that viral gastroenteritis seemed to increase the number of daily opportunities for hand hygiene and did significantly increase compliance. In particular, this effect was seen after patient contact. Further research might address the awareness of undiagnosed transmissible diseases in order to prevent cross-transmissions.

  16. DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY IN CHILDREN'S ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS

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    M.D. Bakradze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at studying a series of diagnostic aspects and determination of the possible treatment of children with acute gastroenetrites according to the protocol based on international recommendations and standards. The study involved 130 children, of whom in 71 patients the presence of rotavirus antigen in coprofilters was checked via latex particle agglutination method. In 85% rotavirus infection was confirmed. It was shown that the majority of cases fall on November to may. Infant and early children are the most susceptible to rotavirus gastroenteritis. The analysis of therapy results showed that antibioticsfree treatment of watery diarrhea patients worked well, and prescription of antibacterial therapy for the concomitant bacterial infection does not influence the time of gastroenteritis reduction. The results of dehydration therapy show that oral rehydration is not always effective for the 2nd stage dehydration, especially with late treatment. However, the time of recovery (diarrhea reduction does not depend on the type of rehydration or symptomatic therapy. A diagnostic algorithm that helps use the minimum diagnostic methods in stationary conditions and at the same time provides the optimum scope of therapeutic intervention was worked out.Key words: rotavirus infection, children, rehydration, antibacterial therapy.

  17. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in hospitalized young children with acute gastroenteritis in southern Taiwan: According to major pathogens

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    Ning Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Methods: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites. Results: Totally 441 patients were enrolled in this study. Salmonella spp. was the leading cause of disease (21.8%, followed by norovirus (17.0%, Clostridium difficile (9.5%, and rotavirus (9.3%. Norovirus identification rate was the highest among patients less than 6 months of age, while Salmonella was highest among patients between 2 and 3 years old. Patients with Salmonella infection frequently presented with fever, lethargy, bloody stool, and elevated serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP; norovirus and rotavirus infection frequently presented with vomiting. Salmonella gastroenteritis also resulted in longer hospitalization and more frequent antibiotics administration. C. difficile could be isolated from both gastroenteritis patients and control children. Conclusion: Salmonella spp. was the most common pathogen of AGE in hospitalized children in southern Taiwan during 2014–2016, followed by norovirus and rotavirus. Further monitoring of epidemiology characteristics among cardinal pathogens of pediatric gastroenteritis is necessary. Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, Children, Epidemiology, Taiwan

  18. Seasonal screening for viral gastroenteritis in young children and elderly hospitalized patients: is it worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrows, C L; Turner, P C

    2014-06-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is common, especially in young children. In adults, particularly amongst the elderly, it can lead to outbreaks at a time when demands on clinical services are at their peak. To evaluate seasonal screening of young children and elderly patients with suspected viral gastroenteritis using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for enteric viruses within a general hospital setting. Stool samples from 200 children aged five years and under were screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus and norovirus using multiplex PCR and a combined rotavirus/adenovirus immunochromatographic test (ICT) during the winter of 2012. Diarrhoeal samples submitted to the laboratory from 195 adults aged 65 years and over attending as inpatients were also evaluated by multiplex PCR. One or more enteric viruses were detected by PCR in 56% of children. Rotavirus was the most prevalent virus, found in 19% of samples. Enteric (diarrhoea-associated) adenovirus was detected in 5% of samples and non-enteric adenovirus was detected in 14% of samples. Astrovirus, norovirus and sapovirus were detected in 18%, 12% and 10% of samples, respectively. The ICT yielded a slightly lower rate for rotavirus and enteric adenovirus, but gave more rapid results. Norovirus, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected in 15%, 2.5% and 1% of elderly adults attending hospital as inpatients, respectively. Rapid screening of young children (for rotavirus, adenovirus and norovirus) and symptomatic, elderly adults (for norovirus) during winter months may help to limit nosocomial spread. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Norovirus: a growing cause of gastroenteritis in catalonia (Spain)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A; Torner, N; Broner, S; Bartolomé, R; Guix, S; de Simón, M; Godoy, P; Moreno, A; Company, M; Balanyà, P J; Sala, M R; Torra, R; Ferrús, G; Parrón, I; Barrabeig, I; Domínguez, A

    2013-10-01

    Infectious acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major health problem worldwide. Salmonella is a leading cause of AGE outbreaks, but viruses may be responsible for up to 80% of cases. We compared the frequency and characteristics of AGE out breaks in Catalonia due to norovirus and Salmonella and the changes in these outbreaks from 2000 through 2010. In 2006 through 2010, we also investigated the distribution by season, setting, and implicated food, the incidence rates of cases associated, and the hospitalization rates. Differences in proportions were estimated by Pearson's chi-square test, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. In 2000 through 2010, the number of AGE outbreaks caused by Salmonella decreased and those caused by norovirus significantly increased. From 2006 onward, norovirus was the most common etiology in AGE outbreaks, but in foodborne outbreaks, Salmonella was the more common cause until 2010. The incidence rate per 10(5) inhabitants was greater for norovirus (20.81 versus 3.97, P Catalonia. Foodborne AGE outbreaks were more commonly caused by norovirus than by Salmonella only in 2010, the last year of the study.

  20. Brote de gastroenteritis en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Cortes José María

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe el estudio de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de inicio explosivo y probable origen hídrico, en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete, en el mes de noviembre de 1999 y que afectó a 104 residentes y a 35 trabajadores. El cuadro clínico se caracterizó por la presentación de vómitos y diarrea como síntomas dominantes. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se realiza un análisis descriptivo de datos y cruce de variables mediante tablas simples. El análisis multivariante se realiza mediante modelos de regresión logística para la fase explosiva y de transmisión de persona a persona. Resultados: La tasa de ataque fue del 45,8% para residentes y de 33,7% en trabajadores. Se encontró asociación entre la utilización del comedor principal de la residencia y el inicio explosivo del brote así como entre la presencia inicial de un caso en habitaciones compartidas y la transmisión de persona a persona. Se aisló virus Norwalk-like en heces de 4 enfermos. Conclusiones: El análisis de las características clínicas y epidemiológicas, así como los resultados de laboratorio confirman la implicación del virus Norwalk-like como agente causal en este brote.

  1. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Menon

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia.Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group.Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2% were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6% were norovirus GI, 150(8.1% norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4% were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4% were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8% were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6% GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0% with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3% ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428 were at a significantly lower risk (48/190 of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01.This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  2. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  3. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  4. Efficacy of a transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus with an altered ORF-3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R D

    2001-01-01

    Serial passage of virulent transmissible gastroenteritis virus through cell culture reduced its virulence in 3-day-old piglets. Intramuscular inoculation of pregnant gilts with 2 doses of this modified-live virus elicited a level of lactogenic immunity that protected their nursing piglets against a lethal dose of challenge virus. Sequence analysis of a 637-bp fragment of the spike gene containing most of the aminopeptidase receptor and the 4 major antigenic sites from the original and the serially passed viruses were nearly identical. Gel analysis revealed that the fragment from the ORF-3 gene of virulent virus was smaller than the corresponding fragment from the serially passed virus. Sequence analysis of the fragment from the passed virus revealed that the sequence between nt 5310 and nt 5434 was replaced by a 636-bp fragment from the polymerase 1A gene. This replacement resulted in the loss of the CTAAACTT leader RNA-binding site and ATG start codon for the ORF-3A gene but it did not affect the ORF-3B gene.

  5. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of disease attributable to drinking water are not common in the U.S., but they do still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences, particularly in sensitive and immunocompromised populations. From 1971 to 2002, there were 764 documented waterborne outbreaks associated with drinking water, resulting in 575,457 cases of illness and 79 deaths (Blackburn et al. 2004; Calderon 2004); however, the true impact of disease is estimated to be much higher. If properly applied, current protocols in municipal water treatment are effective at eliminating pathogens from water. However, inadequate, interrupted, or intermittent treatment has repeatedly been associated with waterborne disease outbreaks. Contamination is not evenly distributed but rather affected by the number of pathogens in the source water, the age of the distribution system, the quality of the delivered water, and climatic events that can tax treatment plant operations. Private water supplies are not regulated by the USEPA and are generally not treated or monitored, although very few of the municipal systems involved in documented outbreaks exceeded the USEPA's total coliform standard in the preceding 12 mon (Craun et al. 2002). We provide here estimates of waterborne infection and illness risks in the U.S. based on the total number of water systems, source water type, and total populations exposed. Furthermore, we evaluated all possible illnesses associated with the microbial infection and not just gastroenteritis. Our results indicate that 10.7 M infections/yr and 5.4 M illnesses/yr occur in populations served by community groundwater systems; 2.2 M infections/yr and 1.1 M illnesses/yr occur in noncommunity groundwater systems; and 26.0 M infections/yr and 13.0 M illnesses/yr occur in municipal surface water systems. The total estimated number of waterborne illnesses/yr in the U.S. is therefore estimated to be 19.5 M/yr. Others have recently estimated

  6. Rice water in treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H B

    1981-07-11

    In Singapore the World Health Organization's (WHO's) oral electrolyte solution for the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis has been used for 6 years and rice water has been used for 8 years. The rice water is the water used in preparing boiled rice or congee and is a slightly starchy solution. As the impression was that rice water was as effective as or even better than the oral electrolyte solution, a trial was conducted of the 2 solutions in babies with gastroenteritis admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of the National University of Singapore. Alternate cases were assigned consecutively to the oral electrolyte solution or to rice water. There were 63 patients on oral electrolyte and 67 on rice water. Milk was totally withdrawn for 24 hours after admission and the babies were put on 1 or the other oral solution. Intravenous 3.75% glucose and 0.23% saline was given at the same time to babies considered to be more dehydrated. On day 2, quarter strength powdered milk was given, followed by half strength on day 3, three-quarters strength on day 4, and full strength on day 5. Electrolyte and urea values were compared, both for "drip" versus "no drip" within oral treatment groups and between electrolyte solution and rice water groups (20 comparisons altogether). There were only 3 significant differences, and these might be explained by the intravenous drip and by the better water absorption from rice water than from the oral electrolyte solution. The most obvious difference in the 2 groups was in the effect on diarrhea (stools/day). Rice water cut down the number of stools more effectively than did oral electrolyte solution. No patient died, and there were no pathological sequelae in any of the 130 patients. Rice water can be tried as a more practical alternative to oral electrolyte solutions since there are problems with providing oral elecrolyte solutions to all babies with diarrhea in the developing countries and ensuring sterility.

  7. Epidemiology and Factors Related to Clinical Severity of Acute Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children after the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahlee; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Yi, Hana; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung; Oh, Sohee

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate epidemiology and host- and pathogen-related factors associated with clinical severity of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children after rotavirus vaccination introduction. Factors assessed included age, co-infection with more than 2 viruses, and virus-toxigenic Clostridium difficile co-detection. Fecal samples and clinical information, including modified Vesikari scores, were collected from hospitalized children with AGE. The presence of enteric viruses and bacteria, including toxigenic C. difficile, was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among the 415 children included, virus was detected in stool of 282 (68.0%) children. Co-infection with more than 2 viruses and toxigenic C. difficile were found in 24 (8.5%) and 26 (9.2%) children with viral AGE, respectively. Norovirus (n = 130) infection, including norovirus-associated co-infection, was the most frequent infection, especially in children aged vaccination and availability of molecular diagnostic tests, which often lead to the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens.

  8. Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Funari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Change in climate and water cycle will challenge water availability but it will also increase the exposure to unsafe water. Floods, droughts, heavy storms, changes in rain pattern, increase of temperature and sea level, they all show an increasing trend worldwide and will affect biological, physical and chemical components of water through different paths thus enhancing the risk of waterborne diseases. This paper is intended, through reviewing the available literature, to highlight environmental changes and critical situations caused by floods, drought and warmer temperature that will lead to an increase of exposure to water related pathogens, chemical hazards and cyanotoxins. The final aim is provide knowledge-based elements for more focused adaptation measures.

  9. Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N A; Bondelind, M

    2017-02-01

    The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network. Pathogens causing the largest number of affected consumers were Cryptosporidium, norovirus, Giardia, Campylobacter, and rotavirus. The largest number of different pathogens was found for the treatment works and the distribution network. The largest number of affected consumers with gastrointestinal illness was for contamination events from a surface water source, while the largest number of individual events occurred for the distribution network.

  10. Clinical characteristics of seizures associated with viral gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Hitoshi; Kimura, Sadami; Etani, Yuri; Hosoi, Gaku; Maruyama, Tomoko; Noma, Haruyoshi; Kusumoto, Yoshio; Takano, Tomoko; Baba, Yoshiko; Nagai, Toshizaburo

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical features of seizures during gastroenteritis in children by comparing the norovirus and rotavirus pathogen, and the impact of fever, if present, during the seizure episodes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 293 consecutive pediatric patients admitted with viral gastroenteritis to Osaka General Hospital between November 2007 and May 2009. Eighteen patients developed seizures, 12 of whom were positive for norovirus and six for rotavirus, as revealed by antigen detection. Of these 18 seizure patients, eight presented without fever (the aFS group) and 10 presented with febrile episodes (FS group). Seizure patients in the rotavirus group (83%) were more likely to be febrile than those in the norovirus group (58%). Compared with the aFS group, 90% of patients in the FS group presented seizures at an early stage of gastroenteritis. The frequency of clustered seizures in the FS group was considerably higher than that of febrile seizures in general and was also as high as that of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG)". All seizure patients, whether febrile or afebrile, presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS), complex partial seizures (CPS), or both. Diazepam (DZP) was less effective and carbamazepine (CBZ) was completely effective for the cessation of seizures in the FS group, similar to the drug response observed in CwG. The causative pathogen (norovirus or rotavirus) affected the frequency of febrile episodes during gastroenteritis, but fever had little effect on the clinical features of seizures. However, seizures occurred earlier during gastroenteritis in the FS group. On the whole, the clinical features of febrile seizures during viral gastroenteritis may closely resemble those of "convulsions with mild gastroenteritis" (CwG) than those of febrile seizures in general with respect to the frequency of clustered seizures and the antiepileptic drug responses and may have a pathogenic mechanism distinct from those of

  11. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  12. Interaction forces between waterborne bacteria and activated carbon particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; Van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbons remove waterborne bacteria from potable water systems through attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces despite electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged cells and carbon surfaces. In this paper we quantify the interaction forces between bacteria with negatively and

  13. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks— United States, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted national surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks since 1971 in partnership with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)....

  14. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in ... due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. ... Provision of adequate potable water remains the most important tool for ...

  15. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-05-31

    central Côte d'Ivoire. In general, to measure water quality, microbiological analyses for bacteria such as Escherichia coli,. Clostridia perfringens and total coliforms (OMS,. 2008; Ahoussy et al, 2013) are done. Despite waterborne ...

  16. Waterborne Epoxy Nanocoatings Modified by Nanoemulsions and Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhenyu Wang Enhou Han Fuchun Liu Zhouhai Qian Liwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present investigation electrically conductive nanocoatings were prepared by the incorporation of graphite, nano-SiO2 concentrate, acrylic nanoemulsion and fluorocarbon emulsion onto the waterborne epoxy polymer...

  17. Conference Report: The 6th International Symposium on Waterborne Pathogens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A review of current literature on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in DW systems. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: I am using published data...

  18. Pancreatic hyperamylasemia during acute gastroenteritis: incidence and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignattari Elena

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many case reports of acute pancreatitis have been reported but, up to now, pancreatic abnormalities during acute gastroenteritis have not been studied prospectively. Objectives To evaluate the incidence and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in 507 consecutive adult patients with acute gastroenteritis. Methods The clinical significance of hyperamylasemia, related predisposing factors and severity of gastroenteritis were assessed. Results Hyperamylasemia was detected in 10.2 % of patients studied. Although amylasemia was found over four times the normal values in three cases, the clinical features of acute pancreatitis were recorded in only one case (0.1%. Hyperamylasemia was more likely (17% where a microorganism could be identified in the stools (p Salmonella spp. and in particular S. enteritidis, was the microorganism most frequently associated with hyperamylasemia [17/84 (20.2 % and 10/45 (22.2%, respectively], followed by Rotavirus, Clostridium difficile and Campylobacter spp. Patients with hyperamylasemia had more severe gastroenteritis with an increased incidence of fever (80 % vs 50.6 %, O.R. 3.0; P Conclusions Hyperamylasemia is relatively frequent, and is associated with severe gastroenteritis. However, acute pancreatitis in the setting of acute gastroenteritis, is a rare event.

  19. [Gastroenteritis-related seizures: study of incidence and clinical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa Maseri, S; Ramos Fernández, J M; Moreno Pérez, D; Urda Cardona, A; Martínez Antón, J

    2013-09-01

    Benign convulsions associated with gastroenteritis are now increasingly recognized as clinical condition to the extent that it has become an independent entity under the heading of non-epileptic situational seizures. The aim of this study is to determine the annual incidence in the reference population of our hospital and the clinical characterization of seizures associated to gastroenteritis, in the absence or presence of fever for comparison. All seizures associated with gastroenteritis treated in our hospital were prospectively collected over a period of two calendar years. The children included were aged 6 months to 6 years with seizures in the context of gastroenteritis without electrolyte abnormalities, and divided into two groups, with and without fever. There were 14 cases from a reference population of 39,900 with a homogeneous semiological presentation. The annual incidence was estimated at 1/10 000 children for afebrile seizures associated with gastroenteritis. The clinical behaviour and the incidence of seizures associated with fever and gastroenteritis was similar, but with an appearance somewhat earlier from the onset of symptoms, and at a slightly higher age. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Ozawa, Sachiko; Hall, Aron J.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus. Methods We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total) stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization) and productivity losses. Results Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2–5.7 billion) in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4–83.4 billion) in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84–99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons), high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs), while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days). Conclusions The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large costs overwhelmingly are from productivity losses resulting from acute

  1. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  2. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Thus far, an HEV outbreak has not been reported in the U.S., although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Because viruses isolated from two ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

  5. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  6. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaker, Peter L.; Corsi, Steven; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120–1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km2 than those with less than 50 cattle/km2. In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  7. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    further support for he view that immunity to Norwalk virus is not determined by serum antibody. YAnothe_ collaborative study demonstrated the localization ...study demonstrated the localization of rotavirus to the small intestine as indicated by analysis of fluid specimens obtained by string capsule; this was...vitro cultivation of this virus is inefficient. Studies reveal that mechanisms of clinical immunity to rotavirus are complex (I). It seems likely

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hajj pilgrimage

    KAUST Repository

    Padron Regalado, Eriko

    2014-05-01

    Hajj is the annual gathering of Islam practitioners in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. During the event, gastrointestinal infections are usually experienced and outbreaks have always been a concern; nevertheless, a deep and integrative study of the etiological agents has never been carried out. Here, I describe for the first time the epidemiology of pathogenic enteric viruses during Hajj 2011, 2012 and 2013. The focus of this study was the common enteric viruses Astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus and Adenovirus. An enzyme Immunoassay established their presence in 14.9%, 15.0% and 6.6% of the reported cases of acute diarrhea for 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. For the three years of study, Astrovirus accounted for the majority of the viral infections. To our knowledge, this is the first time an epidemiological study depicts Astrovirus as the main viral agent of gastroenteritis in a mass gathering event. Hajj is rich in strains of Astrovirus, Norovirus and Rotavirus. A first screening by RT-PCR resulted in ten different genotypes. Strains HAstV 2, HAstV 1 and HAstV 5 were identified for Astrovirus. GI.6, GII.3, GII.4 and GII.1 were described for Norovirus and G1P[8], G4P[8] and G3P[8] were found for Rotavirus. The majority of the Astrovirus isolates could not be genotyped suggesting the presence of a new variant(s). Cases like this encourage the use of metagenomics (and nextgeneration sequencing) as a state-of-the-art technology in clinical diagnosis. A sample containing Adenovirus particles is being used to standardize a process for detection directly from stool samples and results will be obtained in the near future. The overall findings of the present study support the concept of Hajj as a unique mass gathering event that potentiates the transmission of infectious diseases. The finding of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney, a variant originated from Australia, suggests that Hajj is a receptor of infectious diseases worldwide. This work is part of the Hajj project, a collaborative

  9. Human adenovirus spread, rainfalls, and the occurrence of gastroenteritis cases in a Brazilian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Henzel, Andréia; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-11-01

    Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization.

  10. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  11. Hepatitis E virus in the Western world—a pork‐related zoonosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christou, L; Kosmidou, M

    2013-01-01

    H epatitis  E virus ( HEV ) is a common cause of waterborne epidemics of acute hepatitis worldwide, but its natural history, ecology, clinical significance and presentation are entirely different in the developed world...

  12. Detection of Aichi virus genotype B in two lines of wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Chourouk; Hammami, Salah; Mejri, Selma; Mehri, Ines; Pothier, Pierre; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2017-08-01

    Enteric viruses are released in important quantities into the environment where they can persist for a very long time. At very low doses, they can cause human gastroenteritis, and are responsible for a substantial number of waterborne diseases. The aims of this study were multiple: firstly, to study the circulation of Aichi viruses (AiV) in wastewater sampled at the scale of a pilot wastewater treatment plant; secondly, to evaluate the performance of two wastewater treatment procedures, as natural oxidizing lagoons and rotating Biodisks, concerning the AiV removal; and finally, to determine the different type of AiV genotype found during this study. Hence, the pilot wastewater treatment plant is principally irrigated by the wastewater of three neighbouring clinics. Wastewater samples were collected during 2011 from the two lines of biological treatment procedures. AiV detection in wastewater were achieved using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique, and the identification of AiV genotype was realized by the direct sequencing of PCR products. The result revealed that AiV strains were identified in 50% (n = 51) of the wastewater samples. A significant increase of the AiV detection frequency was registered from upstream to downstream of the five ponds constituting the natural oxidizing lagoon process, and at the exit of the rotating Biodisks procedure. All detected AiV strains showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity to genotype B that has been recently observed in patients in Asia. This finding represented the first Tunisian survey that revealed and mentioned the first detection of AiV genotype B in sewage and by the same argued for a noticeable resistance or survival of this type of virus in the two lines of treatment considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine parvovirus type 2c identified from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in a litter in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, David; Vinberg, Carina; Gustafsson, Agneta; Pearce, Jacqueline; Greenwood, Neil

    2013-09-10

    A litter of recently-vaccinated puppies in Sweden experienced signs of severe haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Canine parvovirus (CPV) was suspected as the cause of this outbreak on the basis of the clinical signs and the presence of parvoviral antigen in the faeces from one of the affected pups - confirmed using a commercial in-clinic faecal antigen ELISA test kit. A concern was raised about whether the vaccine (which contained a live, attenuated strain of CPV) could have caused the disease and so further faecal samples from the affected pups were submitted for laboratory virus isolation and identification.On cell culture, two out of four faecal samples were found to be virus-positive. This was confirmed as being canine parvovirus by immuno-staining with CPV specific monoclonal antibody. The virus was then tested using a series of PCR probes designed to confirm the identity of CPV and to distinguish the unique vaccine strain from field virus. This confirmed that the virus was indeed CPV but that it was not vaccine strain. The virus was then typed by sequencing the 426 amino acid region of the capsid gene which revealed this to be a type 2c virus.Since its emergence in the late 1970s, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) has spread worldwide and is recognised as an important canine pathogen in all countries. The original CPV2 rapidly evolved into two antigenic variants, CPV2a and CPV2b, which progressively replaced the original CPV2. More recently a new antigenic variant, CPV2c, has appeared. To date this variant has been identified in many countries worldwide but there have been no reports yet of its presence in any Scandinavian countries. This case report therefore represents the first published evidence of the involvement of CPV2c in a severe outbreak of typical haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a susceptible litter of pups in Scandinavia.

  14. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Augusta Rodrigues Portes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA, norovirus (NoV, astrovirus (HAstV, bocavirus (HBoV, aichivirus (AiV, and adenovirus (HAdV. Five of nine stool samples (83% from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool. All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed.

  15. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  16. 75 FR 34146 - Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings...-based recommendations for prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. DATES...

  17. Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccarelli S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simona Ciccarelli,1 Ilaria Stolfi,1 Giuseppe Caramia2 1Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Division of Neonatology and Pediatrics, Maternal and Child Hospital "G. Salesi", Ancona, Italy Abstract: Acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. Although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. Worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. Also, some microorganisms have been found predominantly in resource-constrained nations, including Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, and the protozoan infections. Prevention remains essential, and the rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials. Because dehydration is the major complication associated with gastroenteritis, appropriate fluid management (oral or intravenous is an effective and safe strategy for rehydration. Continuation of breastfeeding is strongly recommended. New treatments such as antiemetics (ondansetron, some antidiarrheal agents (racecadotril, and chemotherapeutic agents are often proposed, but not yet universally recommended. Probiotics, also known as “food supplement,” seem to improve intestinal microbial balance, reducing the duration and the severity of acute infectious diarrhea. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines make a stronger recommendation for the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis, particularly those with documented efficacy such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Saccharomyces boulardii. To date, the

  18. THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  19. Stresshyperglykaemi hos et barn med svaer akut gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state and that as a phy......A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state...... and that as a physiological response to stress during acute illness. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Nov-18...

  20. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jo-Ann; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a Rhabdovirus that causes significant disease in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow and steelhead trout (O. mykiss). IHNV causes necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and consequently it was named infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This virus is waterborne and may transmit horizontally and vertically through virus associated with seminal and ovarian fluids. The clinical signs of disease and diagnosis; pathology; pathophysiology; and control strategies against IHNV are discussed.

  1. Waterborne outbreak among Spanish tourists in a holiday resort in the Dominican Republic, August 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez Jiménez, A; Pimentel, R; Martínez de Aragón, M V; Hernández Pezzi, G; Mateo Ontañon, S; Martínez Navarro, J F

    2004-03-01

    On 3 September 2002, the Spanish national centre of epidemiology (Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia--CNE) was alerted to a high number of gastroenteritis cases in Spanish tourists who had travelled to a hotel in Punta Cana on different days during august 2002. Entamoeba hystolitica cysts have been visualised by microscopy in the stools of several patients that sought medical attention in the Dominican Republic. The CNE informed the health authorities in the Dominican Republic and conducted in conjunction an epidemiological investigation. A descriptive study of the 76 initial cases estimated a mean illness duration of 5.1+2.9 days and a exposure period of 3.6+2.2 days. Following a retrospective cohort study, the attack rate was found to be 32.4%. Consequently, 216 (95% CI=114.75-317.25) spanish tourists had probably developed the illness. Stool samples were collected in Spain from untreated patients who still felt unwell. None of the samples were positive for E.hystolitica. On 10 September, a hygiene inspection was undertaken at the hotel. Samples of the ice and meals served at the buffet that day, yielded coliform bacteria. Consumption of water from the resort water system was the only risk factor associated with the symptoms (RR= 3.55; 95% CI =1.13-10.99). To avoid similar outbreaks occurring again at the hotel, it is essential to regularly monitor the water quality and to improve food handling hygiene standards. Basic food hygiene training for food handlers should be mandatory. An international guideline for the management foodborne and waterborne outbreaks among tourists in holiday resorts should be drawn up, involving all competent authorities of both destination and tourist origin countries.

  2. Essential veterinary education in water-borne transmission of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D D

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the reasons for the current interest in waterborne transmission of infectious agents in the veterinary curriculum. In addition, the paper provides short summaries of some of the major zoonotic outbreaks that have caused this new interest in water-borne diseases. Some curricular recommendations are made, including: basic training in modern methodologies in microbiology; a brief introduction to water and sewage treatment, with some discussion of pathogens in relation to the basic treatment processes of flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, denitrification and phosphorus removal; and an introduction to the regulations being promulgated to reduce the pathogen loading of water on farms.

  3. Use of sequence analysis of the P2 domain for characterization of norovirus strains causing a large multistate outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in Germany 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Marina; Niendorf, Sandra; Mas Marques, Andreas; Bock, C-Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Human norovirus is the main cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. It is transmitted from person to person, by fecally contaminated food or water or through virus containing aerosols originating during vomiting of infected persons. In September and October 2012, the largest foodborne norovirus outbreak in Germany so far spread over 5 Federal States (Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia) affecting nearly 11,000 people mainly in schools and child care facilities. Epidemiological and trace-back investigations supported the assumption that a batch of frozen strawberries imported from China was the likely source of the outbreak. Sequence analysis of the capsid region encoding the P2 domain was used successfully for identification of transmission routes and epidemiologic relationship but was hampered by a lack of universal primers for all known genotypes so far. In the present study, a molecular approach was designed to track outbreak-related samples from the affected states of the large foodborne outbreak in Germany. Therefore, sequence analysis within the highly variable P2 domain of the capsid gene using newly developed universal P2 primers for genogroup I and genogroup II strains in combination with sequencing of the polymerase gene (region A) and the orf1/orf2 junction (region c) was used. The sequence analysis of 138 norovirus positive stool samples suspected to be outbreak-related revealed a considerable genomic diversity. At least 3 strains of genogroup I (I.3, I.4, and I.9) and 5 strains of genogroup II (II.6, II.7, II. 8, and recombinants II.P7_II.6, and II.P16_II.13) as well as 19 samples containing mixtures of these strains were detected. Six samples were considered as not linked to the outbreak. The most prevalent genotype was GI.4 (48/132; 36%). Genotype I.9 and the recombinant strain II.P16_II.13 were detected for the first time in Germany. Notably, the genotype II.P16_II.13 could also be determined in one of the samples of

  4. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: : QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afzal, Adeel; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana; Bajwa, Sadia Z.; Latif, Usman; Feroz, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are

  5. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  6. First-year Daycare and Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, Saskia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413662977; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/353785652; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947; van der Ent, Cornelis K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164028536; Smit, Henriette A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067730043; de Hoog, Marieke L A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314446885

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daycare attendance has been associated with increased acute gastroenteritis (AGE) incidence in the first years of life. We investigated the effects of first-year daycare attendance on AGE incidence and primary care contact rate up to age 6 years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the

  7. How to Predict Oral Rehydration Failure in Children With Gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.F. Geurts (Dorien); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES:: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral

  8. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Three to five million children from among one billion with gastroenteritis die annually worldwide. The etiologic agent in developed countries is viral in 15-60% of cases, while in developing countries, bacteria and parasites are frequently reported as the etiologic factors. Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion. During a case-control study, 100 patients with gastroenteritis were enrolled into the case and control groups on the basis of convulsion or no convulsion development, respectively. This study was conducted in Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2004 to March 2007. The age of patients ranged from 2 months to 7 years, and the groups were age- and sex-matched. Body temperature (BT), severity and type of dehydration, stool exam and culture, past history of convulsion in the patient and first-degree relatives, electrolyte imbalance, and short-term prognosis were studied and compared. The mean weight of groups was not different, while the frequency of fever at the time of admission, past history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives and severity of dehydration were significantly higher in the case group (p electrolyte imbalance was observed in patients with gastroenteritis experiencing febrile convulsion.

  9. Risk Factors for Norovirus Gastroenteritis among Nicaraguan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joann F; Bowman, Natalie M; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Reyes, Yaoska; Belson, Connor; Michaels, Kenan C; Bucardo, Filemon

    2017-09-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis. Understanding norovirus epidemiology is essential for reducing disease burden. We conducted a case-control study to describe the distribution, clinical features, and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children norovirus and controls were children living in the cases' communities. Study staff interviewed mothers of enrolled cases and controls to obtain detailed exposure information including food, water, and sanitation sources; recent exposures; household characteristics; and handwashing practices. In addition, study staff requested stool samples to be tested for norovirus from select household members. We used descriptive statistics to understand the epidemiologic and clinical features of gastroenteritis episodes. To analyze potential risk factors, we used Firth's penalized logistic regression to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 102 children with gastroenteritis, 18 cases of norovirus and 31 controls. Norovirus cases occurred later in the year, corresponding to a delay in the rainy season. Cases were more likely to have a household member with norovirus in their stool as compared with controls [crude OR: 13.3 (95% CI: 2.5, 136.2) and adjusted OR: 11.5 (95% CI: 1.6, 223.2)]. In addition, alcohol-based hand sanitizer use among household members was reported for 10 (32%) of controls and but never for cases. Further research is needed to understand household transmission of norovirus in low- and middle-income countries and the potential impact of hand sanitizer use.

  10. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  11. Incidence of pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are the leading causes of preventable childhood morbidity and mortality representing more than one third of mortality among children less than 5 years of age globally 1. Mortality from pneumonia among American children decreased by more than 90% from 1939 to 1996 largely.

  12. Jaarlijkse reunie loopt uit op een gastro-enteritis explosie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsauw HHC; Bosman A; Reintjes R; de Wit MAS; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; GGD Rotterdam e.o.

    1997-01-01

    Een explosie van acute gastro-enteritis deed zich voor onder 200 deelnemers aan een reunie van oud-personeelsleden. De reunie vond plaats in een restaurant. Om de oorzaak van de explosie en de mogelijke rol van voedsel hierbij te achterhalen werd een retrospectieve cohort studie opgezet.

  13. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurhan, Gamze; Vermezoglu, Oznur; Ocal Topcu, Didem; Karbuz, Adem; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Complicating Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Immunocompetent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawano, Akiko; Araki, Mayumi; Hamahata, Yuko; Usui, Machiko; Shimoyamada, Motoko; Tamame, Takuya; Akashi, Masayuki; Sato, Seiji

    2017-06-25

    Listeria monocytogenes only occasionally causes bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent children. We report a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The patient was a previously healthy 20-month-old girl who was admitted because of sustained fever and lethargy after suffering from gastroenteritis for 6 days. The patient's peripheral white blood cell count was 18,600/µL and the C-reactive protein level was 2.44 mg/dL. A stool sample tested positive for rotavirus antigen. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample showed pleocytosis. Cultures of the CSF and stool samples revealed the presence of L. monocytogenes. The patient was successfully treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. We speculate that translocation of enteric flora across the intestinal epithelium that had been damaged by rotavirus gastroenteritis might have caused bacteremia that disseminated into the CSF. Both listeriosis and secondary systemic infection after rotavirus gastroenteritis are rare but not unknown. Initiation of appropriate treatment as soon as possible is important for all types of bacterial meningitis. This rare but serious complication should be taken into consideration even if the patient does not have any medical history of immune-related problems.

  15. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates.

  16. Incidence of pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants admitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study based on medical records of infants admitted to the Orotta Paediatric Teaching Hospital for the whole of 2006 in order to study the morbidity and mortality rates from pneumonia and gastroenteritis among infants in Eritrea using the integrated management of childhood illnesses guidelines. The main ...

  17. Human rotavirus group a serotypes causing gastroenteritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to HIV/AIDS scourge in Kenya, it is possible that rotavirus-related gastroenteritis has been aggravated in adults. The Global Alliance for Immunizations has ranked rotavirus infection a priority for vaccine, and, to ensure its success, there is a need to document the local strain(s) circulating in different regions. Methods: A ...

  18. High frequency of cultivable human subgroup F adenoviruses in stool samples from a paediatric population admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Germini, Diego; Martorana, Davide; Rodighiero, Isabella; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana

    2014-06-01

    The family Adenoviridae consists of five genera of which the genus Mastadenovirus includes human viruses classified into 57 serotypes clustered into seven subgroups (A-G). Serotypes 40 and 41 (subgroup F) are specifically associated with childhood gastroenteritis and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children after rotaviruses and noroviruses. Standard methods for laboratory diagnosis of adenovirus infection include electron microscopy (EM) and conventional cell culture (CCC), although it is widely considered that adenoviruses 40 and 41 are difficult to cultivate, such that their circulation is most likely underestimated. One hundred and ten faecal specimens from paediatric patients with gastroenteritis were confirmed positive for adenovirus by EM and/or CCC at the Virology Unit of the University Hospital of Parma, Italy, during the period January 2010-December 2012. They were analysed to determine the actual prevalence of adenovirus 40 and 41 in these patients using PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis, and to evaluate their ability to be cultivated in standard cell lines. The results showed a high prevalence of subgroup F (62.7 %), with serotype 41 (89.8 %) predominating over serotype 40 (10.2 %). Surprisingly, among the 75 adenoviruses isolated by CCC, 37 (49 %) belonged to subgroup F, suggesting a higher capacity of adenovirus 40 and 41 to replicate in cell culture than previously thought. PCR and restriction enzyme techniques provide an efficient means of diagnosing enteric adenoviruses correctly, including subgroup F adenovirus strains in young children with gastroenteritis. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claudia M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the clinical aspects have been well described, little information is available regarding the emotional, social, and economic impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family of a sick child. The objectives of this study were to: 1 assess the family impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis through qualitative interviews with parents; 2 compare the clinical severity of rotavirus-positive and negative gastroenteritis; 3 test a questionnaire asking parents to rank the importance of various factors associated with a case of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods The study enrolled parents and children (2–36 months of age brought to one of the study sites (outpatient clinic or ER if the child experienced ≥ 3 watery or looser-than normal stools and/or forceful vomiting within any 24-hour period within the prior 3 days. The clinical severity of each child's illness was rated using a clinical scoring system and stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen. Parents of rotavirus-positive children were invited to participate in focus group or individual interviews and subsequently completed a questionnaire regarding the impact of their child's illness. Results Of 62 enrolled children, 43 stool samples were collected and 63% tested positive for rotavirus. Illness was more severe in children with rotavirus-positive compared to rotavirus-negative gastroenteritis (92% vs. 37.5% rated as moderate/severe. Seventeen parents of rotavirus-positive children participated in the interviews and completed the written questionnaire. Parents were frightened by the severity of vomiting and diarrhea associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, and noted that family life was impacted in several ways including loss of sleep, missed work, and an inability to complete normal household tasks. They expressed frustration at the lack of a

  20. FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for Viral Acute Gastroenteritis Detection in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Neena; Jackson, Jami; Duffy, Susan; Chapin, Kimberle; Cohen, Daniel; Leber, Amy; Daly, Judy a; Pavia, Andrew; Larsen, Chari; Baca, Tanya; Bender, Jeffery; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Festekjian, Ara; Holmberg, Kristen; Bourzac, Kevin; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrheal diseases. The FilmArray GI Panel is a PCR based assay that detects 22 different enteric pathogens including five viruses (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, and Sapovirus (I, II, IV, and V)) in an hour. The epidemiology and management of acute viral gastroenteritis is described. Methods Children with acute gastroenteritis were prospectively enrolled at emergency departments of five geographically different pediatric facilities during 2015–2016. Stool specimens were collected and tested by the FilmArray GI Panel. Results A total of 1157 subjects were enrolled in the study. Stool specimens from 961 subjects were collected. Subjects with viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiology as identified by the FilmArray GI Panel were 429 (44.6%), 392 (40.8%), and 41 (4.3%), respectively. Viral AGE was common in winter months from October through March (274/429; 63.9%); norovirus was the leading viral agent (205/429; 47.8%) and was more commonly detected in winter months (147/205; 71.7%). Other viruses detected include Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, and Sapovirus in 94 (9.8%), 49 (5.1%), 28 (2.9%), and 97 (10.1%) specimens, respectively. Co-infections with multiple pathogens was found in 244 (25.4%) of all specimens tested. Only 39/961 subjects received a viral standard of care (SOC) test result. The FilmArray GI panel detected viruses in higher percentage of stool specimens when SOC was not requested 45% (415/922) vs. requested 36% (14/39) [P = 0.32]. Viral infections were the highest among 148 hospitalizations: virus (26.4%), bacteria (22.9%), bacteria and virus (16.9%), and parasite (0.6%) and norovirus was the leading viral etiology associated with hospitalizations (n = 27; 69.2%). AGE due to viral (24.6%) or bacterial (27.6%) causes had similar repeat visits to hospital [P = 0.45]. Conclusion Viruses are leading cause of AGE resulting in ED

  1. Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Simona; Stolfi, Ilaria; Caramia, Giuseppe

    2013-10-29

    Acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. Although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. Worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. Also, some microorganisms have been found predominantly in resource-constrained nations, including Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, and the protozoan infections. Prevention remains essential, and the rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials. Because dehydration is the major complication associated with gastroenteritis, appropriate fluid management (oral or intravenous) is an effective and safe strategy for rehydration. Continuation of breastfeeding is strongly recommended. New treatments such as antiemetics (ondansetron), some antidiarrheal agents (racecadotril), and chemotherapeutic agents are often proposed, but not yet universally recommended. Probiotics, also known as "food supplement," seem to improve intestinal microbial balance, reducing the duration and the severity of acute infectious diarrhea. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines make a stronger recommendation for the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis, particularly those with documented efficacy such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Saccharomyces boulardii. To date, the management of acute gastroenteritis has been based on the option of "doing the least": oral rehydration-solution administration, early refeeding, no testing, no unnecessary drugs.

  2. Complete genome sequence of an astrovirus identified in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus with gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenglein Mark D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A colony of domestic rabbits in Tennessee, USA, experienced a high-mortality (~90% outbreak of enterocolitis. The clinical characteristics were one to six days of lethargy, bloating, and diarrhea, followed by death. Heavy intestinal coccidial load was a consistent finding as was mucoid enteropathy with cecal impaction. Preliminary analysis by electron microscopy revealed the presence of virus-like particles in the stool of one of the affected rabbits. Analysis using the Virochip, a viral detection microarray, suggested the presence of an astrovirus, and follow-up PCR and sequence determination revealed a previously uncharacterized member of that family. Metagenomic sequencing enabled the recovery of the complete viral genome, which contains the characteristic attributes of astrovirus genomes. Attempts to propagate the virus in tissue culture have yet to succeed. Although astroviruses cause gastroenteric disease in other mammals, the pathogenicity of this virus and the relationship to this outbreak remains to be determined. This study therefore defines a viral species and a potential rabbit pathogen.

  3. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia in KwaZulu-Natal, was determined from pathology laboratory data. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be endemic in KwaZulu-Natal with laboratory-confirmed incidences ranging from 2.9 to 3.7% and 2.9 to ...

  4. Genetic-based investigation of three prevalent waterborne protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of waterborne protozoa such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica in various natural water sources from Daloa city using genetic markers. Methodology and results: A total of 34 water source samples comprising 2 from springs, ...

  5. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  6. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Waterborne Disease Still an Issue in the US?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Michael Beach discusses the changing face of waterborne disease in the US over the past century and how healthcare providers can apply this information to their patients.  Created: 8/27/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/22/2012.

  8. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two waterborne acrylic coatings were applied on spruce wood, impregnated with two copperethanolamine containing preservatives (CuE and CuEQ), one of them (CuEQ) containing a boron compound, octanoic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound as additives. Lower contact angles and deeper penetration of both ...

  9. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control. Th...

  10. A waterborne outbreak of multiple diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli infections associated with drinking water at a school camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Soojin; Shin, Eunkyung; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Yonghoon; Kim, Cheon Hyeon; Hwang, Min Ah; Jin, Chan Mun; Na, Kyoungin; Lee, Jin; Cho, Enhi; Kang, Byung-Hak; Kwak, Hyo-Sun; Seong, Won Keun; Kim, Junyoung

    2017-10-11

    In June 2015, a local public health laboratory was notified that students had developed gastroenteritis symptoms after participating in a camp. An outbreak investigation was conducted to determine the extent and cause of the outbreak. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the correlations between the illness and specific exposures at the school camp. All attendees were interviewed with a standard questionnaire that addressed clinical symptoms, food consumption and environmental exposures. Clinical specimens were cultured using standard microbiological methods for bacterial or viral pathogens. The genetic relationships of all isolates were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We identified 188 patients with symptoms of diarrhoea, abdominal pain and nausea. Their completed questionnaires suggested that the consumption of drinking water was likely to be linked to this outbreak. Using microbiological methods, we isolated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, and the isolates from both patient stools and environmental water samples displayed indistinguishable XbaI-PFGE patterns. The water system in the camp used groundwater drawn from a private underground reservoir for cooking and drinking. The environmental investigation revealed some problems with the water supply system, such as the use of inappropriate filters in the water purifier and a defect in the pipeline between the reservoir and the chlorination device. This outbreak points to the importance of drinking water quality management in group facilities using underground water and emphasizes the need for periodic sanitation and inspection to prevent possible waterborne outbreaks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with a secondary water supply system in a factory in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Guo, Hongxiong; Xu, Zhenghui; Zhou, Xiaotao; Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Lijie; Miao, Jing; Pan, Yi

    2013-03-28

    Between September 17 and October 3, 2009, hundreds of workers employed in a manufacturing factory in Shenzhen, a city in south China developed a sudden onset of acute gastroenteritis. A retrospective cohort study is designed to identify the risk factors and control this outbreak. Information on demographic characteristics, working place, the history of contact with a person having diarrhea and/or vomiting, drink water preference and frequency, eating in the company cafeteria or outside the company, hand-washing habits and eating habits is included. Furthermore, in order to find the contamination source, we investigated the environment around the underground reservoir and collected water samples from the junction between municipal supply water system and underground reservoir to test potential bacteria and virus, examine the seepage tracks on the wall of the underground reservoir from the side of septic tank, and check the integrity and attitude of this lid. Relative risk was presented and Chi-square test was performed. All the analyses were performed with OpenEpi software version 2.3.1 online. The cohort study demonstrated that the workers who had direct drink water were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer from acute gastroenteritis than those who consumed commercial bottled water. The direct drinking water, water of the tank of buildings, and the underground reservoir were positive only for norovirus. Norovirus was also detected from stool and rectal swab samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis. The underground reservoir was found to be the primary contamination source. Further environmental investigation showed that the norovirus contaminated substance entered into the underground reservoir via access holes in lid covering this underground reservoir. This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was caused by the secondary supply system contaminated by norovirus in this factory. The outbreak of gastroenteritis cases caused by norovirus frequently occurred in China due

  12. Efficacy and safety of gelatine tannate for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałek, Dorota; Kołodziej, Maciej; Konarska, Zofia; Szajewska, Hania

    2016-02-19

    Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis in children, usually caused by viruses, leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment is aimed at preventing and treating dehydration, promoting weight gain after rehydration, and reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoea. Effective and inexpensive interventions that could add to the effect of oral rehydration therapy are of interest. Recently, in many European countries, gelatine tannate is being widely marketed for treating acute gastroenteritis. Gelatine tannate is a complex of tannic acid, which possesses astringent and anti-inflammatory properties, and a protective gelatine. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of gelatine tannate for treating acute gastroenteritis in children and only scant evidence to support the use of gelatine tannate in adults. We aim to assess the efficacy of gelatine tannate for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. This will be a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis defined as a change in stool consistency to loose or liquid form (according to the Bristol Stool Form scale or Amsterdam Stool Form scale) and/or an increase in the frequency of evacuations (typically ≥ 3 in 24 h), lasting for no longer than 5 days, will be recruited. A total of 158 children will be randomised to receive either gelatine tannate (children younger than 3 years of age will receive 250 mg, 4 times/day, and those older than 3 years of age will receive 500 mg, 4 times/day) or matching placebo for 5 days. The primary outcome measure is the duration of diarrhoea. The Bioethics Committee approved the study protocol. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed paediatric journal. Abstracts will be submitted to relevant national and international conferences. NCT02280759; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  13. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Juliana; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the

  14. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  15. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of the Norovirus (NoVs infections, from October 2007 to April 2008, in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. From October 2007 to April 2008 faecal specimens were obtained from 220 infants and children (130 males, 90 males of whom 58 under 1, 60 between 1 and 2, 28 between 2 and 3, 74 between 3 and 12 years old, admitted for gastroenteritis to the Department of Paediatrics at the Campo di Marte’s Hospital in Lucca, Italy. All the specimens were examined both for the presence of bacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia spp, Aeromonas spp and enteropathogenic E. coli and for the presence of rotaviruses (HRVs and adenoviruses (AdVs. Sixty-eight frozen stool samples negative for bacteria and viruses were examined for NoVs. HRVs and AdVs were detected by the immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi test (R-Biopharm, Germany. NoVs detection was carried out by the enzyme immunoassay RIDASCREEN Norovirus 3rd Generation EIA (R-Biopharm, Germany. In the RIDASCREEN Norovirus test, specific monoclonal antibodies against antigens of several different genotypes are used in a sandwich type method. In a validation study of the RIDASCREEN Norovirus ELISA 3rd Generation at the Institute of Virology of the University of Dresden, the test correlation with the RT PCR showed the following performance, sensitivity (83.0%, specificity (100.0%, PPV (100.0%, NPV (83.0%. Results. HRVs were detected in 41.8% (89/220, AdVs in 4.1% (9/220 and Enteropathogenic bacteria were detected only in 7 (3.2% patient. NoVs were detected in 18 of 68 studied cases (26.5%. Eighty-three of the NoVs and 49% of the HRVs infections occurred in children up two years old. Conclusions. The present results point out the importance of NoVs infections in childhood hospitalization, mainly in the first two years of life.The study shows the need

  16. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Machado Fumian

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20 has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85% non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9; GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4; GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4; GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2; GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1; GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1; GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1; and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1. On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009 no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains

  17. International Standardisation of a Method for Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses in Molluscan Shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, David; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The viruses primarily associated with shellfish-borne illness are norovirus, causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Recent years have seen a proliferation of publications on methods for detection of these viruses in shellfish using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, currently...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN CHILDREN: WHAT IS NEW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of acute enteric infections in children, the majority of which affects infants, determines the necessity of development of modern recommendation on diagnostics and treatment of such conditions. The authors show data on etiology of enteric infections and results of various Russian and international research on efficacy of treatment of acute gastroenteritis, including information about sorbents, probiotics, antiemetic agents and antibacterial drugs usage. Recommendations on treatment of acute gastroenteritis are based on the modern protocol of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterologists, Hepatologists and Nutritionists (ESPGHAN, which was published in 2008. According to these recommendations, oral rehydration is one of the main components of treatment, decreasing children’s mortality rates. However due to the absence of the effect of this measure on the intestinal peristalsis, duration of the diarrhea and concomitant symptoms (abdominal pain and distension, additional therapy is necessary. In Russia combinations of enterosorbents and probiotics are used in order to relieve such conditions.

  19. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  20. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  1. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  2. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis and pyomyositis: Rare complications of rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir-Kocabaş, Bilge; Karbuz, Adem; Kara, Tuğçe Tural; Çiftçi, Ömer; Uçar, Tayfun; Fitöz, Suat; Çiftçi, Ergin; İnce, Erdal

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus may cause life-threatening complications in untreated patients during the course of gastroenteritis. Electrolyte imbalance, bacteremia and sepsis are the most common complications of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RG). It is believed that translocation of intestinal microorganisms as a result of intestinal epithelium dysfunction is the underlying mechanism of bacteremia in RG. Although Gram-negative bacteremia has been noted as a complication in RG, Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis have not been reported previously. A 22-month-old boy was admitted with complaints of fever, diarrhea and dehydration. He was diagnosed with RG complicated with S. aureus bacteremia, pyomyositis and endocarditis. We call attention to these complications in patients with prolonged or late-onset fever during RG as rare complications of the disease. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Direct and Indirect Costs of Pediatric Gastroenteritis in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joby; Joseph, Tej K; Srinivasan, Rajan; Kompithra, Rajeev Zachariah; Simon, Anna; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-07-08

    To determine costs of pediatric gastroenteritis in out-patient and in-patient facilities. Cross-sectional survey of children with acute gastroenteritis attending out-patient clinic (n=30) or admitted in the ward (n=30) for management in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India from July-September 2014 to estimate direct (drugs, tests, consultation/hospitalization) and indirect (travel, food, lost wages) costs associated with the episode. Median direct and indirect costs were Rs 590 and Rs 190 for out-patient management and Rs 7258 and Rs. 610 for hospitalization, constituting 1.1% and 11% of median annual household income, respectively. Escalating healthcare costs need tracking for evaluation of interventions.

  5. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.

  6. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Miri, Mohammad Bagher; Ehsani Ardakani, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE. PMID:27274524

  7. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  8. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laborato...

  9. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjuanes Luis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  10. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Donà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rotavirus (RV is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV and Norovirus (NV. Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74 and NVGEs (1.51 were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER, and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children.

  11. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bac...

  12. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  13. Predominance of genotype P[9]G3 in rotavirus gastroenteritis in Polish children

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarska, Anna; Kacerka, Anna; Majda-Stanis?awska, Ewa; J??wiak, Barbara; Sidorkiewicz, Ma?gorzata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus (RV) infection is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children. This paper identifies the most common genotypes of rotaviruses isolated from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis and attempts to determine any relationship between infection with a certain rotavirus genotype. Material and methods The investigated group consisted of 68 consecutive children with rotavirus gastroenteritis (confirmed by an agglutination test). Rotavirus genotype was determined in...

  14. Epidemiological aspects of human rotavirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in an area of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Martinelli, Monica; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Pinardi, Federica; De Conto, Flora; Dodi, Icilio; Virdis, Raffaele; Abelli, Laura Anna; Aloisi, Annalisa; Zerbini, Laura; Valcavi, Pierpaolo; Calderaro, Adriana; Bernasconi, Sergio; Izzi, Gian Carlo; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2004-08-01

    Human rotavirus (HRV) is recognized as the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. Due to the lack of recent reports about the surveillance of HRV infection in Italy, in this study we assessed the prevalence rate of HRV infection on 1,340 stool samples belonging to 1,264 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in the period January 2000--December 2002. The stool samples were submitted to virological investigations by electron microscopy (EM) and conventional cell culture, as well as from January 2002 by RT-PCR for norovirus detection. Reovirus-like particles observed by EM were identified by electropherotyping. Single HRV infections were detected in 302 cases (23.9%, ranging from 19.1% in 2000 to 30.2% in 2001). Mixed infections were observed in 28 cases in which HRV was found to be associated with adenovirus in 16 cases (1.3%), with picornavirus in 4 (0.3%), and with norovirus in 8 (2.1% of the 388 cases examined in 2002). The 3 major epidemic periods of HRV infections were March--May 2000 (66 cases), December 2000--May 2001 (128 cases) and September 2001--April 2002 (105 cases) with peaks in March, January and March, and January, respectively. In the periods of major incidence, single HRV infection accounted even for 52.5% of the gastroenteritis cases monthly examined. According to age distribution, 68.9% (208 cases) of HRV infected children was under 4 years (69.6%: 230/330 cases, including mixed infections) and 16.9% (51 cases) was in the 5-12-year age-group. The epidemiological aspects of HRV infection, also compared to other enteric virus infections, will contribute to assess the magnitude of the problem of HRV in different settings and to devise strategies for intervention.

  15. Prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Danish children and their families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Iturriza, Miren; Faaborg-Andersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children......This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children...

  16. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Tharani; Lee, Way-Seah; Lee, Kok-Foo; Jit, Mark; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-01-01

    While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses...

  17. Hepatitis E virus: An ancient hidden enemy in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro, Nora A; Realpe, Mauricio; Meraz-Medina, Tzintli; Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute clinical hepatitis worldwide. HEV is an RNA-containing virus and the only member of the genus Hepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Human HEV is classified into four genotypes widely distributed across the world. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and water-borne epidemics have become characteristic of hepatitis E in developing countries, including those in Latin America. The zoonotic potential of HEV is broadl...

  18. A phase trial of the oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine polarizes Th2 cell immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Hou, Xingyu; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Ma, Guangpeng; Li, Yijing

    2016-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a member of the genus Coronavirus, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. TGEV is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes highly fatal acute diarrhoea in newborn pigs. An oral Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus developed in our laboratory was used to study mucosal immune responses. In this L. casei vaccine, repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei (specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT)) were repeated 20 times and the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein was repeated 6 times. Immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus is crucial for investigations of the effect of immunization, such as the first immunization time and dose. The first immunization is more important than the last immunization in the series. The recombinant Lactobacillus elicited specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Recombinant L. casei had a strong potentiating effect on the cellular immunity induced by the oral L. casei vaccine. However, during TGEV infection, the systemic and local immune responses switched from Th1 to Th2-based immune responses. The systemic humoral immune response was stronger than the cellular immune response after TGEV infection. We found that the recombinant Lactobacillus stimulated IL-17 expression in both the systemic and mucosal immune responses against TGEV infection. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus vaccine stimulated an anti-TGEV infection Th17 pathway. The histopathological examination showed tremendous potential for recombinant Lactobacillus to enable rapid and effective treatment for TGEV with an intestinal tropism in piglets. The TGEV immune protection was primarily dependent on mucosal immunity.

  19. First report of an astrovirus type 5 gastroenteritis outbreak in a residential elderly care home identified by sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow-Macdonald, Anna A; Halley, Shona; Chandler, Daniel; Gunson, Rory; Shepherd, Samantha J; Parcell, Benjamin J

    2015-12-01

    This is the report of an outbreak of human astrovirus type 5 gastroenteritis that occurred in a residential care home for older people in June 2013 in Tayside, Scotland, and which involved seven staff members and thirteen residents. This type of astrovirus has not been found in Scotland before and is rarely described in the literature. Using molecular methods such as PCR and sequencing to detect the cause of this gastroenteritis outbreak and to contain the outbreak using Public Health measures. Following an epidemiological investigation, stool samples were sent for routine virology and microbiology testing at the local microbiology and virology laboratory and were found to be negative. Further testing with real-time PCR and gene sequencing at the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre was performed. Data on the epidemiology and the response to the outbreak was collected. All samples had a 99% match to human astrovirus type 5. The use of standard infection control precautions with the addition of transmission-based precautions most likely contained the spread of the virus in this situation. This report illustrates the importance of using PCR and sequencing to identify pathogens such as astrovirus in outbreaks of vomiting and diarrhoea in older people particularly if routine virology and microbiology tests are negative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NSP4 antibody levels in rotavirus gastroenteritis patients with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jung Sook; Kim, Young-Soo; Jun, Jin-Su; Do, Hyun Jung; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Park, Chan-Hoo; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2017-03-01

    Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) has been suggested as a pathogen of rotavirus-associated seizures. We investigated pre-existing serum antibodies against NSP4 and VP6 (the most highly immunogenic rotavirus protein) in patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis and its correlation with the occurrence of seizures. With an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IgG and IgA titers against NSP4 (genotype [A] and [B]) and VP6 were measured in acute-phase sera of 202 children aged 0.5-6.0 years with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The clinical characteristics and antibody levels were compared between patients with (seizure group) and without seizures (non-seizure group). The non-seizure and seizure groups comprised 173 and 29 patients, respectively. Age, sex, hospital stay, presence of fever, white blood cell counts, C-reactive protein, vaccine status, IgG/IgA titers for VP6, and IgA titers for both NSP4s did not differ between the groups. The seizure group showed a lower level of IgG against NSP4 [A] (184.5 vs. 163.0 U/mL; P = 0.03) and NSP4 [B] (269.0 vs. 196.0 U/mL; P = 0.02). Delayed sampling time from the onset of gastroenteritis symptoms (3 vs. 2 days; P = 0.02) and lower serum sodium level (133.4 vs. 136.3 mEq/L; P rotavirus-associated seizures. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroenteritis and the novel picornaviruses aichi virus, cosavirus, saffold virus, and salivirus in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Gyhrs, Mette Louise; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    During the last few years many new human picornaviruses have been discovered due to advances in metagenomics and other molecular biological approaches. The clinical significance and the occurrence are only sparsely described....

  2. Immunoprevalence to Six Waterborne Pathogens in Beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico: Application of a Microsphere-Based Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburne A. J. Augustine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne infectious diseases are a major public health concern worldwide. Few methods have been established that are capable of measuring human exposure to multiple waterborne pathogens simultaneously using non-invasive samples such as saliva. Most current methods measure exposure to only one pathogen at a time, require large volumes of individual samples collected using invasive procedures, and are very labor intensive. In this article, we applied a multiplex bead-based immunoassay capable of measuring IgG antibody responses to six waterborne pathogens simultaneously in human saliva to estimate immunoprevalence in beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico. Further, we present approaches for determining cutoff points to assess immunoprevalence to the pathogens in the assay. For the six pathogens studied, our results show that IgG antibodies against antigens from noroviruses GI.I and GII.4 were more prevalent (60 and 51.6%, respectively than Helicobacter pylori (21.4%, hepatitis A virus (20.2%, Campylobacter jejuni (8.7%, and Toxoplasma gondii (8% in the saliva of the study participants. The salivary antibody multiplex immunoassay can be used to examine immunoprevalence of specific pathogens in human populations.

  3. Crohn's Disease Exacerbation Induced by Edwardsiella tarda Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aman V; Rostom, Alaa; Dong, Wei-Feng; Flynn, Andrew N

    2011-09-01

    Exacerbations of Crohn's disease are not infrequently associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The recognition of synchronous infections in such patients is vital for the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, the detection of active bacterial infections may lead the clinician to delay starting biological therapy. We report here a man presenting with an exacerbation of his Crohn's disease during a trip to Thailand. Stool cultures were positive for the unusual gut pathogen Edwardsiella tarda. The patient's symptoms resolved with concurrent antibiotic and steroid therapy. This finding demonstrates the value of performing stool culture in all patients presenting with exacerbations of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  4. Crohn’s Disease Exacerbation Induced by Edwardsiella tarda Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman V. Arya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of Crohn’s disease are not infrequently associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The recognition of synchronous infections in such patients is vital for the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, the detection of active bacterial infections may lead the clinician to delay starting biological therapy. We report here a man presenting with an exacerbation of his Crohn’s disease during a trip to Thailand. Stool cultures were positive for the unusual gut pathogen Edwardsiella tarda. The patient’s symptoms resolved with concurrent antibiotic and steroid therapy. This finding demonstrates the value of performing stool culture in all patients presenting with exacerbations of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  5. [Lactic acidosis due to metformin accumulation complicating acute gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DŽupová, Olga; Kulichová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acidosis is the most severe adverse effect associated with metformin therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk increases in patients with impaired renal function, most commonly due to diabetic nephropathy, and may be augmented when concurrent medication with a negative impact on renal function is used. The authors present a series of three patients who were admitted to a department of infectious diseases for acute gastroenteritis and within a few hours developed shock syndrome caused by severe lactic acidosis due to accumulation of metformin.

  6. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt......ABC, characterized by PCR, revealed that all but one of the C. jejuni strains had the wild-type sequence. Sequencing of cdtABC from this strain showed two major deletions. From all of the strains, CDT titers were determined, and toxin neutralizing antibodies were documented using an in vitro assay. Three...

  7. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M. J.; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  8. Nanoclay Dispersion and its Effect on Properties of Waterborne Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Honarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes as in coatings and adhesives formulations have attracted considerable attention because they are non-toxic, non-flammable and friendly to environment. Besides environmental management, the flexibility, low temperature property, high tensile strength, good adhesion and improved rheological property are specific properties of waterborne polyurethanes. Also low production cost of water borne polyurethanes over solvent-borne polyurethanes is also a reason for their applications. However, these materials have some defects such as weak water resistance and low adhesion in the moisture environment due to sensitivity of their hydrophilic ionic bonds, ether groups, urethane and ester groups to hydrolysis which need to be improved. Also, low heat resistance of these materials is due to a relatively low crystalline melting point or glass transition temperature of hard segments. One of the ways to solve this problem and improve its properties for different applications is the addition of inorganic fillers especially nano-sized layered silicates within polyurethane matrix. In this way water resistance, heat resistance, mechanical properties and modulus increase simultaneously. In this research, waterborne polyurethane nanocomposites with PTMG polyol, IPDI, DMPA (internal emulsifier, TEA (neutralizer and 1, 3 and 5weight % of Cloisite 30B as reinforcement were synthesized and characterized. Polarity of the samples was investigated by contact angle test and dispersion of nano particles in the samples was characterized by X-Ray and TEM, Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties were measured by TGA and DMTA, respectively. The results showed that incorporation of clay into polyurethanes did reduce water absorption and increased heat resistance, modulus, particle size and contact angle.In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes including coatings and adhesives have attracted considerable attention because they

  9. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An epidemiological perspective on gastroenteritis in child day care centers : Assessment of impact and risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, R.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastroenteritis related to Dutch DCCs is substantial, particularly among the very young attendees. Attending a DCC roughly doubles a child’s probability of experiencing an episode of gastroenteritis that requires a visit to a general practitioner or hospital. A child might experience a

  11. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathan, T.; Lee, WS; Lee, KF; Jit, M; Ng, CW

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A...

  12. Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as food- and waterborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadström, T; Ljungh, A

    1991-04-01

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas have become increasingly recognized as human enteropathogens. Plesiomonas shigelloides has mainly been recovered from various sea foods, whereas Aeromonas sp. have also been cultured from pigs, broilers, eggs, milk and vegetables. Aeromonas sp. also multiply rapidly at +4 degrees C which is a significant risk in food storage. Aeromonas sp. have furthermore been recovered from fresh water sources, and some isolates are resistant to chlorination which makes it a further risk factor. No large food- or waterborne outbreaks have been reported so far with Aeromonas sp. Various virulence factors involved in intestinal infections are described such as enterotoxins, cytotoxins, and adhesins.

  13. Risk of infectious gastroenteritis in young children living in Québec rural areas with intensive animal farming: results of a case-control study (2004-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Gingras, S; Déry, P; Payment, P; Michel, P; Rodriguez, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 eligible controls participated. The parents of cases and controls were asked questions about different gastroenteritis risk factors. The quality of the drinking water used by the participants was investigated for microbial indicators as well as for four zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Yersinia spp) and two enteric parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp). From 134 stool specimen analysed, viruses were detected in 82 cases (61%), while 28 (21%) were found with at least one of the bacteria investigated, and five cases were infected by parasites. Campylobacteriosis was the main bacterial infection (n = 15), followed by Salmonella sp (n = 7) and E. coli O157:H7 (n = 5) among cases with bacterial gastroenteritis. No significant difference was found between cases and controls regarding the quality of water consumed; the frequency of faecal contamination of private wells was also similar between cases and controls. Considering the total cases (including those with a virus), no link was found between severe gastroenteritis and either being in contact with animals or living in a municipality with the highest animal density (4th quartile). However, when considering only cases with a bacterial or parasite infection (n = 32), there was a weak association with pig density that was not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Contact with domestic, zoo or farm animals were the only environmental factor associated with the disease. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kokila Priya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE. Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control. Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT, and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases. Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.

  15. Epidemiological and molecular features of norovirus infections in Italian children affected with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, M C; Tummolo, F; Martella, V; Chezzi, C; Arcangeletti, M C; De Conto, F; Calderaro, A

    2014-11-01

    During a 5-year (2007-2011) surveillance period a total of 435 (15·34%) of 2834 stool specimens from children aged <14 years with acute gastroenteritis tested positive for norovirus and 217 strains were characterized upon partial sequence analysis of the polymerase gene as either genogroup (G)I or GII. Of the noroviruses, 99·2% were GII with the GII.P4 genotype being predominant (80%). GII.P4 variants (Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b, Apeldoorn 2008, New Orleans 2009) emerged sequentially during the study period. Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of 57 noroviruses revealed that 7·8% were recombinant (ORF1/ORF2) viruses including GII.P7_GII.6, GII.P16_GII.3, GII.P16_GII.13, GII.Pe_GII.2, and GII.Pe_GII.4, never identified before in Italy. GII.P1_GII.1, GII.P2_GII.1, GII.P3_GII.3 and GII.P6_GII.6 strains were also detected. Starting in 2011 a novel GII.4 norovirus with 3-4% nucleotide difference in the polymerase and capsid genes from variant GII.4 New Orleans 2009 was monitored in the local population. Since the epidemiology of norovirus changes rapidly, continuous surveillance is necessary to promptly identify the onset of novel types/variants.

  16. Gastroenteritis outbreak associated with faecal shedding of canine norovirus in a Portuguese kennel following introduction of imported dogs from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Nascimento, M S J

    2012-10-01

    We describe an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in dogs in March 2011 in a Portuguese kennel after the introduction of imported Russian dogs. Canine norovirus was detected in faecal samples of all dogs with AGE symptoms. Partial sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products confirmed that all canine norovirus strains were identical. The canine norovirus infection disseminated rapidly in 2 days to all dogs in the kennel demonstrating the highly contagious nature of this virus. The incubation period was <48 h, the diarrhoeal disease was self-limiting and the viral shedding lasted <7 days. Overall, the epidemiological features of this outbreak resembled those of human norovirus infections. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  18. Effects of shrimp density on transmission of penaeid acute viremia in Penaeus japonicus by cannibalism and the waterborne route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J L; Namikoshi, A; Nishizawa, T; Mushiak, K; Teruya, K; Muroga, K

    2001-11-08

    To investigate the effects of shrimp density on mortalities of Penaeus japonicus in experimental penaeid acute viremia (= white spot syndrome), shrimp injected intramuscularly with penaeid rod-shaped DNA virus (PRDV) were reared at different densities. In Expt 1, challenged (10(-6) dilution of a PRDV preparation) shrimp were reared collectively in a tank or individually in separate chamber units. A significant difference in cumulative mortalities was found between collectively (75.6%) and individually (1.2%) reared groups after 30 d. In Expt 2, effects of density on mortality were clearly shown when challenged (10(-5) dilution) shrimp were reared collectively in tanks at high (260 shrimp m(-2)), middle (135 shrimp m(-2)) and low densities (73 shrimp m(-2)). The cumulative mortalities for 14 d in the high, middle and low density groups were 72, 46 and 18%, respectively. In Expt 3, challenged (10(-5) dilution) shrimp were reared collectively in 3 tanks (Groups A, B and C) at the same high density (260 shrimp m(-2)): Group A, dead shrimp were immediately removed to avoid transmission of the pathogen through cannibalism and the waterborne route; Group B, dead shrimp were removed at scheduled times but were separated from living shrimp by a net partition to avoid cannibalism; and Group C, dead shrimp were removed twice a day at scheduled times. Resulting cumulative mortalities for 20 d in Groups A, B and C were 4, 24 and 64 %, respectively. These results show that the higher mortalities occur in P. japonicus reared at the higher densities in experimental PRDV infection, and this phenomenon is caused mainly by a higher opportunity of horizontal transmission of the virus through cannibalism and the waterborne route.

  19. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, K F; Thomas, D Rh; Salmon, R L; Wyn-Jones, A P; Kay, D

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather events. Four medical and meteorological databases (Medline, Embase, GeoRef, PubMed) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched, from 1910 to 2010. Eighty-seven waterborne outbreaks involving extreme water-related weather events were identified and included, alongside 235 ProMED reports. Heavy rainfall and flooding were the most common events preceding outbreaks associated with extreme weather and were reported in 55·2% and 52·9% of accounts, respectively. The most common pathogens reported in these outbreaks were Vibrio spp. (21·6%) and Leptospira spp. (12·7%). Outbreaks following extreme water-related weather events were often the result of contamination of the drinking-water supply (53·7%). Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Extreme water-related weather events represent a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities.

  20. LAS GASTROENTERITIS VÍRICAS: UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD PÚBLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las gastroenteritis agudas (GA constituyen un problema de salud importante, pudiendo estar causadas por bacterias, parásitos y virus enteropatógenos, entre los que se han reconocido hasta la actualidad rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y calicivirus. La frecuencia de rotavirus como causa de casos esporádicos de GA oscila entre el 17,3% y el 37,4%. Aunque se ha sugerido que la exposición común no tiene mucha importancia para la difusión de este virus, resulta difícil relacionar casos aparentemente esporádicos, por lo que probablemente haya brotes que no llegan a detectarse. Los astrovirus causan GA con una frecuencia que oscila entre un 2 y un 26% y se han descrito brotes en escuelas y guarderías, pero también en población adulta y en ancianos. La frecuencia con que se identifican los adenovirus 40 y 41 como causa de GA esporádica en niños no inmunodeprimidos oscila entre 0,7% y 31,5%, aunque probablemente haya subdetección debido a que la sensibilidad de las técnicas convencionales es baja. Los calicivirus se separan filogenéticamente en dos géneros: Norovirus y Sapovirus. Los Norovirus se asocian frecuentemente con brotes de GA transmitidos por agua y alimentos . Se estima que el 40% de los casos de GA por Norovirus están vehiculados por alimentos. En Suecia y en algunas zonas de Estados Unidos es la primera causa de brotes de toxiinfecciones alimentarias. Recientemente se han descrito en Canadà y Japón brotes de transmisión persona a persona y también de transmisión alimentaria causados por Sapovirus, afectando tanto a población infantil como adulta.

  1. Proteome profile of swine testicular cells infected with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Ma

    Full Text Available The interactions occurring between a virus and a host cell during a viral infection are complex. The purpose of this paper was to analyze altered cellular protein levels in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV-infected swine testicular (ST cells in order to determine potential virus-host interactions. A proteomic approach using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification was conducted on the TGEV-infected ST cells. The results showed that the 4-plex iTRAQ-based quantitative approach identified 4,112 proteins, 146 of which showed significant changes in expression 48 h after infection. At 64 h post infection, 219 of these proteins showed significant change, further indicating that a larger number of proteomic changes appear to occur during the later stages of infection. Gene ontology analysis of the altered proteins showed enrichment in multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion, response to stress, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, cell motility, protein complex assembly, growth, developmental maturation, immune system process, extracellular matrix organization, locomotion, cell-cell signaling, neurological system process, and cell junction organization. Changes in the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, caspase-8, and heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α were also verified by western blot analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first time the response profile of ST host cells following TGEV infection has been analyzed using iTRAQ technology, and our description of the late proteomic changes that are occurring after the time of vigorous viral production are novel. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for further investigation, and will likely help us to better understand the mechanisms of TGEV infection and pathogenesis.

  2. Benign afebrile cluster convulsions with gastroenteritis: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narchi Hassib

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The occurrence of afebrile seizures in association with viral gastroenteritis, without dehydration or electrolyte imbalance, is virtually unknown outside Asia. They are reported to have a benign prognosis and not to require specific investigations or therapy. Methods We report the occurrence of such afebrile convulsions in association with viral gastroenteritis without dehydration or electrolyte imbalance, over a 3-year period, in a cohort of 14 British children. Results The children (5 males and 9 females, 10 Caucasians and 4 Asians were aged 9 to 60 months (median 14.5 months. All 14 had a normal neurological examination and normal serum biochemistry. Twelve children had generalised seizures and 2 had, in addition, absence seizures. The number of seizures per child ranged from 1 to 8. Most convulsions were short with 85.7% of children having the longest seizure not longer than 4 minutes. The longest duration for a seizure was 10 minutes and occurred in 2 children. Convulsions did not recur after the first day in 10 children, 3 children had recurrences the second day and one child on the fourth day. No convulsions recurred after 4 days. Cerebrospinal fluid studies, computed tomography and electroencephalogram (EEG were performed on two children who had prolonged seizures and the results were normal. No pathogenic bacteria were grown in any of the stools. Enzyme immunoassay detection of Rotavirus in the stools was positive in 7 of the 10 children where it was tested. All 14 children recovered spontaneously within a few days. On long-term follow of up to 31 months (median 16 months, none had further convulsions and all had normal development milestones. Conclusions Afebrile seizures in association with viral gastroenteritis do also occur outside Asia. Recognition of this entity should lead to reassurance of the parents. As in previously published series, investigations such as lumbar puncture, neuroimaging and EEG are usually

  3. AquaVir- Portable Analyzer for Water Borne Infectious Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozlosnik, Noemi; Kirkegaard, Julie; Olsen, Mark Holm

    2014-01-01

    Viral contamination in waters intended for human consumption or human contact poses a high health riskand can, in worst-case, lead to viral outbreaks. The waterborne virus, norovirus is a major cause of viralgastroenteritis. Conventional detection methods of norovirus rely on microbiological meth...

  4. Aichi virus shedding in high concentrations in patients with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Baumgarte, Sigrid; de Souza Luna, Luciano Kleber; Eschbach-Bludau, Monika; Lukashev, Alexander N; Drosten, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans.

  5. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than

  6. Bacteraemia and candidaemia: a considerable and underestimated complication of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ergin; Tapisiz, Anil; Ozdemir, Halil; Güriz, Haluk; Kendirli, Tanil; Ince, Erdal; Doğru, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis, secondary bacteraemia later in the course of the disease has rarely been reported. To date, the exact incidence of this complication has not been determined. A prospective study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2008 to determine the incidence of bacteraemia by organisms of the normal intestinal flora during severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Rotavirus gastroenteritis was diagnosed by antigen detection in stool. A previously described 20-point numerical score system was used to determine the severity of disease. There were 289 cases (30%) of rotavirus gastroenteritis during the study period, 106 (36.7%) of which were accepted to be severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalized. On admission stool and blood cultures tested negative. In cases of persistent or recurrent fever, additional blood cultures were obtained. Among cases with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, 4 (3.8%) had positive blood cultures (Klebsiella pneumoniae in 1 patient, Escherichia coli in 1 patient, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans in 1 patient, and Candida albicans in 1 patient). All patients were successfully treated with fluid replacement and antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia and candidaemia appear to be a considerable and underestimated complication of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

  7. Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Yersinia pestis in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T; Whitehouse, C A; Yingst, S; Baldwin, C; Kakar, F; Mofleh, J; Hami, A S; Mustafa, L; Omar, F; Ayazi, E; Rossi, C; Noormal, B; Ziar, N; Kakar, R

    2011-05-01

    Plague, which is most often caused by the bite of Yersinia pestis-infected fleas, is a rapidly progressing, serious disease that can be fatal without prompt antibiotic treatment. In late December 2007, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nimroz Province of southern Afghanistan. Of the 83 probable cases of illness, 17 died (case fatality 20·5%). Being a case was associated with consumption or handling of camel meat (adjusted odds ratio 4·4, 95% confidence interval 2·2-8·8, Pcamel using PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed DNA signatures consistent with Yersinia pestis. Confirmatory testing using real-time PCR and immunological seroconversion of one of the patients confirmed that the outbreak was caused by plague, with a rare gastrointestinal presentation. The study highlights the challenges of identifying infectious agents in low-resource settings; it is the first reported occurrence of plague in Afghanistan.

  8. Human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Donia, D; Cenko, F; Xhelilaj, G; Cozza, P; Divizia, M

    2016-05-01

    Human Bocavirus (HBoV) has been recently identified in association with acute viral gastroenteritis (AGE). The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HBoV in children with AGE in Albania. Stool specimens collected from 142 children were analyzed by amplification of partial NP1 and Vp1/Vp2 genes. HBoV was detected in 13 samples (9.1%), 12 HBoV-1 and one HBoV-2. All HBoV-positive patients were co-infected with rotavirus and/or adenovirus, a finding which might indicate that there is no clear causal association of this agent with diarrhea. Further investigation is needed to assess the pathogenic role of HBoV in childhood diarrhea. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Oral versus intravenous rehydration therapy in severe gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, J; Ghavami, F; Nowrouzi, Z; Fouladvand, B; Malek, M; Rezaeian, M; Emami, M

    1985-01-01

    A controlled, randomised trial comparing the results of oral rehydration therapy with those of intravenous fluid treatment in 470 children with severe gastroenteritis was undertaken. The oral rehydration therapy was divided into two phases--a rehydration phase that used high sodium isotonic fluid at 40 ml/kg per hour and a maintenance phase using low sodium isotonic fluid (sodium 40, potassium 30, bicarbonate 25, chloride 45, and dextrose 130 mmol/l). The results indicate that oral rehydration treatment, used according to this protocol, is successful in treating severe diarrhoea and dehydration, and has considerable advantages over intravenous fluid therapy in reducing complications associated with the treatment of hypernatraemia, in promoting rapid correction of hypokalaemia and acidosis, in decreasing the duration of diarrhoea, and in promoting a greater weight gain at hospital discharge. PMID:3901934

  10. [Infectious gastroenteritis in relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. Therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Barenys, M; Saavedra, J; Casanovas, T; Iborra, M; Sesé, E

    1996-06-01

    The incidence and clinical importance of infectious gastroenteritis was studied in 67 consecutive relapses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A stool culture was done in every case before starting treatment. Stool culture was positive in 6 relapses (8.9%): Four were exacerbations of ulcerative colitis and two of Crohn's disease (8.8% in ulcerative colitis vs 9% in Crohn's disease; NS). The microorganisms isolated were Campylobacter jejuni in three cases, Salmonella enteritidis in two and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. There were not clinical differences between patients with positive and negative stool culture. Treated with antibiotics, stool cultures became negative in all of them but only in three the disease was controlled. The other three had to be treated with corticosteroids to achieve remission. We conclude that stool culture should be practised in all relapses of IBD and in case of positivity, antibiotic therapy should be started. With this approach the use of corticosteroids can be avoided in some patients.

  11. Clinical pathway using rapid rehydration for children with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phin, S J; McCaskill, M E; Browne, G J; Lam, L T

    2003-07-01

    To determine in the Emergency Department (ED) the efficacy of a clinical pathway using rapid rehydration for children moderately dehydrated as a result of acute gastroenteritis. This was a prospective study using historical controls, set in the ED of the Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW, Australia. Subjects were aged from 6 months to 16 years presenting with vomiting and diarrhoea for Pharma, Lane Cove, NSW, Australia) via nasogastric tube at the same rate. There were 145 children in the prospective intervention group and 170 in the historical control group. The outcome measures were admission rate, percentage of patients discharged from the ED in 8 h or less, rate of re-presentations within 48 h requiring admission, and rate of procedures with intravenous cannula or nasogastric tube. In the moderately dehydrated children, significant reductions were observed in the admission rate and the number discharged in 8 h or less in the intervention group compared with the control group, with no significant difference in the rate of re-presentation and the rate of procedures. In the moderately dehydrated children in the intervention group, the admission rate was 29 of 52 (55.8%) compared with the controls 26 of 27 (96.3%) (P < 0.001) and the number discharged in 8 h or less was 23 of 52 (44.2%) compared with 1 of 27 (3.7%) in the controls (P < 0.01). The clinical pathway utilizing rapid rehydration in children moderately dehydrated from gastroenteritis is effective in reducing admission rates and lengths of stay in the ED.

  12. A large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by the human norovirus GII.17 strain at a university in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Yong; Su, Jia; Lu, Qian-Chao; Li, Shi-Zheng; Zhao, Jia-Yong; Li, Meng-Lei; Li, Yi; Shen, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Bai-Fan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Mu, Yu-Jiao; Wu, Shu-Yu; Du, Yan-Hua; Liu, Li-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Jun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bian-Li

    2017-02-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and are the main etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks. An increasing number of outbreaks and sporadic cases of norovirus have been reported in China in recent years. There was a large acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a university in Henan Province, China in the past five years. We want to identify the source, transmission routes of the outbreak by epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing in order to provide the effective control measures. The clinical cases were investigated, and analysed by descriptive epidemiological methods according to factors such as time, department, grade and so on. Samples were collected from clinical cases, healthy persons, the environment, water, and food at the university. These samples were tested for potential bacteria and viruses. The samples that tested positive for norovirus were selected for whole genome sequencing and the sequences were then analysed. From 4 March to 3 April 2015, a total of 753 acute diarrhoea cases were reported at the university; the attack rate was 3.29%. The epidemic curve showed two peaks, with the main peak occurring between 10 and 20 March, accounting for 85.26% of reported cases. The rates of norovirus detection in samples from confirmed cases, people without symptoms, and environmental samples were 32.72%, 17.39%, and 9.17%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the norovirus belonged to the genotype GII.17. This is the largest and most severe outbreak caused by genotype GII.17 norovirus in recent years in China. The GII.17 viruses displayed high epidemic activity and have become a dominant strain in China since the winter of 2014, having replaced the previously dominant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain.

  13. Towards Actionable Waterborne and Vector-borne Disease Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that remote sensing (RS) and Earth System Models (ESM) can make important contributions to the analysis, monitoring and prediction of waterborne and vector-borne illnesses. Unsurprisingly, however, the great majority of these studies have been proof-of-concept investigations, and vanishingly few have been translated into operational and utilized disease early warning systems. To some extent this is simply an example of the general challenge of translating research findings into decision-relevant operations. Disease early warning, however, entails specific challenges that distinguish it from many other fields of environmental monitoring and prediction. Some of these challenges stem from predictability and data constraints, while others relate to the difficulty of communicating predictions and the particularly high price of false alarms. This presentation will review progress on the translation of analysis to decision making, identify avenues for enhancing forecast utility, and propose priorities for future RS and ESM investments in disease monitoring and prediction.

  14. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by miniemulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Murillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Four waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization from a hyperbranched alkyd resin (HBR, methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA and acrylic acid (AA, by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO and ammonium persulfate (AP as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (Tg, content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly monomodal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time of the HBRAA were good.

  15. THE USE OF RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN PRAIRIE SURFACE DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns over the microbial safety of drinking water supplies have focused on bacteria and parasites while the occurrence of pathogenic waterborne viruses have been largely ignored. In fact, water supplies are not routinely monitored for human enteric viruses. This is despite t...

  16. Rheological and Mechanical Behavior of Silk Fibroin Reinforced Waterborne Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhen Tao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne polyurethane (WPU is a versatile and environment-friendly material with growing applications in both industry and academia. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive material known for its structural, biological and hemocompatible properties. The SF reinforced waterborne polyurethane (WPU is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineering applications. In this work, we report synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite using SF reinforced WPU. The rheological behaviors of WPU and WPU-SF dispersions with different solid contents were investigated with steady shear and dynamic oscillatory tests to evaluate the formation of the cross-linked gel structure. The average particle size and the zeta potential of WPU-SF dispersions with different SF content were examined at 25 °C to investigate the interaction between SF and WPU. FTIR, SEM, TEM and tensile testing were performed to study the effects of SF content on the structural morphology and mechanical properties of the resultant composite films. Experimental results revealed formation of gel network in the WPU dispersions at solid contents more than 17 wt %. The conjugate reaction between the WPU and SF as well as the hydrogen bond between them helped in dispersing the SF powder into the WPU matrix as small aggregates. Addition of SF to the WPU also improved the Young’s modulus from 0.30 to 3.91 MPa, tensile strength from 0.56 to 8.94 MPa, and elongation at break from 1067% to 2480%, as SF was increased up to 5 wt %. Thus, significant strengthening and toughening can be achieved by introducing SF powder into the WPU formulations.

  17. Clinical Consequences of Rotavirus Acute Gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004-2005: The REVEAL Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlo Giaquinto; Pierre Van Damme; Frédéric Huet; Leif Gothefors; Melanie Maxwell; Peter Todd; Liviana da Dalt

    2007-01-01

    Background. The availability of comprehensive, up-to-date epidemiologic data would improve the understanding of the disease burden and clinical consequences of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Europe. Methods...

  18. FilmArray™ GI panel performance for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis or hemorragic diarrhea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Piralla; Giovanna Lunghi; Gianluigi Ardissino; Alessia Girello; Marta Premoli; Erika Bava; Milena Arghittu; Maria Rosaria Colombo; Alessandra Cognetto; Patrizia Bono; Giulia Campanini; Piero Marone; Fausto Baldanti

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...

  19. Excel file of salivary antibody analysis for Boqueron Beach study, Puerto Rico for six waterborne pathogens.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is the raw Luminex antibody responses to six common waterborne pathogens reported in MFI (Median Fluorescence Intensity) units. This dataset is...

  20. Quantifying the impact of climate change on enteric waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, N.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change, among other factors, will impact waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water worldwide, possibly increasing the risk of diseases caused by these pathogens. So far, the impacts are only determined qualitatively and thorough quantitative estimates of future pathogen

  1. Evaluation and specification of high build and special use waterborne pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High build waterborne traffic paints and highly retro-reflective elements were applied at various locations to evaluate their : practicality for use by NYSDOT Maintenance forces. In addition, highly reflective elements were applied within grooved in ...

  2. Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of streams - the Koekemoerspruit (South Africa) as a case study - part III of III: fluctuations of stream chemistry and their impacts on uranium mobility.

  3. Development of saliva-based exposure assays for detecting exposure to waterborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying which pathogens we are exposed to can be challenging because many types of pathogens can be found in water and many pathogens have similar symptoms. EPA scientists have developed a simple way to measure human exposure to waterborne pathogens.

  4. Fate and Transport of Viruses In Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, M.; Jin, Y.

    Microbiological contaminants (bacteria, protozoa, and viruses) pose one of the great- est risks in water resources. About 70% of the waterborne microbial illness outbreaks in the United States have been associated with groundwater. Although viruses are not the only pathogens known to contaminate groundwater, they are much smaller in size than bacteria or protozoan cysts and are not filter out to the same extent in the porous soil matrix. Nevertheless, viruses can considered to be colloidal particles. In this pre- sentation, we review the current state of knowledge on fate and transport of viruses in porous media, which include (1) mechanisms and modeling of virus sorption; (2) virus survival and factors affecting virus inactivation in the natural environment; and (3) mechanisms of virus transport in porous media and available modeling approaches. Because viruses are surrounded by a protein capsid and are expected to behave simi- larly to proteins, we will draw on results from protein sorption research.

  5. Reducing gastroenteritis occurrences and their consequences in elementary schools with alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazuck, Thierry; Compte-Nguyen, Géraldine; Pelat, Camille; Sunder, Simon; Blanchon, Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Schools are a source of epidemic seasonal dissemination-in particular gastroenteritis among children and the general population. We assessed the impact of an alcohol-based sanitizer on gastroenteritis and its subsequent consequences. A study was conducted in 2 primary schools over a 17-week period, before and throughout the seasonal gastroenteritis period. The intervention, under strict teacher supervision and in a realistic and long lasting manner, consisted of 1 school rubbing an alcohol-based sanitizer into the hands of the school children. The primary outcome was the proportion of children without any occurrence of gastroenteritis during the study period both in the treated group and the control group, which were 2 separate schools. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the hazard ratio. Secondary outcomes were the number of gastroenteritis episodes, doctor appointments, absenteeism, and working days lost by a parent. Four thousand six hundred fifty-four weekly questionnaires were collected. One hundred fifty-five children presented with at least 1 occurrence of gastroenteritis during the study period: 64 of 259 in the treatment group and 91 of 217 in the control group (χ2 = 16.4, P < 0.0001). The instantaneous risk of primary infection, at any time of the study, for children receiving the treatment was multiplied by 0.52 (95% CI: [0.37,0.71]) compared with children not receiving the treatment. The average number of gastroenteritis episodes was 0.31 in the treatment group and 0.53 in the control group (P < 0.001). Systematic and controlled use of alcohol-based sanitizers during the epidemic season could significantly reduce the incidence of gastroenteritis in primary school children.

  6. CLINICAL OUTCOME WITH ADD ON RACECADOTRIL VERSUS STANDARD CARE IN PAEDIATRIC GASTROENTERITIS – OUR EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalakshmi,; Veeresh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools and often self-limiting. The WHO recommends ORS as the treatment of choice for children with mild to moderate gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. Racecadotr...

  7. Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Hospitalization for Infectious Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Bette; Glass, Kathryn; Du, Wei; Banks, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the association between PPI use, type and dose and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults. Prospective study of 38,019 concession card holders followed up over 6 years in the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study. Data from the baseline questionnaire were linked to prescription medication, hospitalization, notifiable disease, cancer registry and death datasets from 2006-2012. Associations between PPI use and gastroenteritis hospitalization were examined using Cox regressions with age as the underlying time variable. Among 38,019 participants, the median age was 69.7 years, and 57.3% were women. Compared to non-users, current PPI users were more likely to be older, and have a higher BMI. During follow-up there were 1,982 incident gastroenteritis hospitalizations (crude rate: 12.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 12.3-13.5). PPI use was significantly associated with infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (aHR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). Among current users, a dose-response relationship was observed between the average daily dose (DDD) dispensed per day and infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization (Ptrendinfectious gastroenteritis hospitalization and greater PPI use among participants with a history of chronic bowel problems (aHR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.5). There was no difference in risk by type of PPI. Recent use of H2 receptors was not associated with gastroenteritis hospitalization. PPI use is associated with an increased risk of infectious gastroenteritis hospitalization. Clinicians should be aware of this risk when considering PPI therapy.

  8. Are soil and waterborne parasitic infections health risk for worker populations in southeast Turkey?

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Ak; Fadime Eroğlu; Ali İhsan Nergiz; Furkan Hıyamlı

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The soil and waterborne parasitic infections rate is high degree in developed and developing countries. Migratory workers have greater exposure to these parasitic infections and a lot of morbidity due to these infections in workers. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the presence of soil and waterborne parasites in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone of southeast Turkey. Methods: A total of 25 environmental samples (18 soil samples and 7 water samples) were...

  9. Leading Transportation Indicators: Forecasting Waterborne Commerce Statistics Using Lock Performance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Mark A; Wilson, Wesley W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a forecasting model for transportation data based on the leading economic indicators literature. The specific application is to forecast river tonnages. Waterborne commerce data reflect tonnages of commodities moved on various rivers and in various directions. They are released after the Lock Performance Monitoring System data which reflect tonnages moving through specific locks. The model presented here forecasts waterborne commerce data from lock performance ...

  10. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Ascitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a heterogeneous disorder affecting both children and adults, and is characterized by the presence of an intense eosinophilic infiltrate on histopathology of one or multiple segments from the esophagus to the rectum. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis which may involve more than one layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features depend on the layer and location to be involved. Involvement of the serosal layer occurs in 10% of cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and is typically presented as ascites. The patient in our report was as likely as those who refer with full thickness involvement and presenting ascite, and was completely improved after steroid treatment.Case ReportThe patient was presented a 14-year-old boy that referred to the physician with progressive abdominal pain and ascites. َAfter recognition of eosinophilia in blood and ascite fluid, he was suspected to have Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Ultimately, following serial examinations and after laparascopic full thickness biopsy Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was closely diagnosed. The patient was treated with prednisolone. The abdominal pain and ascites subsided soon after initiation of steroid treatment. Keywords: Gastroenteritis; Ascites; Prednisolone.

  11. Intravenous rehydration for gastroenteritis: how long does it really take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Brenda J; Ozuah, Philip O

    2004-04-01

    For treatment of mild to moderate dehydration arising from viral gastroenteritis, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends oral rehydration therapy over a 4-hour period. However, oral rehydration therapy remains largely underused by emergency physicians. Studies suggest that a major barrier is a perception that the time requirement for oral rehydration therapy is too long relative to intravenous (IV) hydration. : To test the hypothesis that children who receive IV hydration for gastroenteritis spend significantly less than 4 hours in the emergency department (ED). A prospective case series involving a consecutive sample of 549 children treated with IV hydration for mild to moderate dehydration at an urban pediatric ED. Treatment time was defined as period elapsed between when a physician placed a patient in an ED room and when he/she discharged the patient. We excluded time spent in the waiting room before seeing a physician. Using a standardized procedure, we collected data in September/October 2000 (fall), November 2000 to January 2001 (winter), and April/May 2001 (spring). To provide a measure of average pass-through time at this ED, we also collected data on all patients treated during consecutive 7-day periods in the fall (n = 502), winter (n = 776), and spring (n = 653). We performed univariate analysis of continuous variables using t tests for independent samples. 549 subjects received IV treatment for dehydration; of whom 55% were female, and mean age was 9.7 years. Treatment time for patients undergoing IV hydration exceeded 4 hours (mean = 5.4 +/- 2.4 hours; median = 5.0 hours). Mean time for IV treatment of dehydration was significantly longer than the mean time for treating other patients (5.4 vs. 1.2 hours, P < 0.001). Mean IV treatment times were: fall (5.1 hours), winter (5.5 hours), and spring (4.7 hours). Mean treatment time exceeded 4 hours regardless of time of day, day of the week, or age of child. Contrary to our hypothesis, mean treatment

  12. Characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Pune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borade, Ashwin; Bais, Ajit Singh; Bapat, Vaijayanti; Dhongade, Ram

    2010-05-01

    Diarrheal diseases affect millions of people around the world and have the greatest impact on children, especially those in developing countries. Rotavirus is now known to contribute significantly to the etiology of diarrheal diseases in both developing and developed countries. To study demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of rotavirus infection in cases of acute diarrhea admitted in the hospital who were below the age 5 years. It was a prospective study conducted from June 2009 to June 2011 to determine characteristics, clinical profile, and antigenemia of rotavirus. The study group included patients up to 5 years of age hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. Statistical analysis was done using the chi-square test. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 17.0. From the 246 cases studied in the hospitalized patients of acute gastroenteritis, 88 cases (35.77%) were found to be positive for rotavirus infection. The occurrence of infection was found to be most common in the age group of 11-20 months (38.63%) followed by the age group of 0-10 months (23.86%). There was no association with the sex of the child. In rotavirus-positive patients, associated features were fever in 48.86%, vomiting in 29.54%, and pain in abdomen in 53.4% of cases. Seasonal variation of rotavirus infection was observed in the present study with peak in the winter season. It was found that 5.68% cases which were positive for rotavirus in their stool samples were positive for rotavirus present in their urine sample, suggesting extraintestinal manifestation of rotavirus. It is concluded that in spite of clean hygienic condition and vaccination rotavirus is still an important cause of infantile diarrhea in urban area like Pune. There is association between the occurrence of rotavirus and degree of dehydration, fever, vomiting, and pain in abdomen. Peak incidence was found in the months of December and January. There is

  13. An atypical rotavirus detected in a child with gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles morphologically identical to rotaviruses were found in the faeces of a nine week-old child with gastroenteritis. Analysis of the viral RNA genome by polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis revealed 10 bands (probably 11 segments some of wich differed in migration rate from those of the great majority of rotaviruses infecting man and other animal hosts. The virus was not detected by a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA and therefore probably lacked the crossreactive antigen(s shared by the majority rotaviruses. This was the only strain with such behaviour among 230 rotaviruses of human origin examined in this laboratory since 1979. The implications of the existence of non-crossreactive rotaviruses are discussed.Partículas morfologicamente idênticas a rotavirus foram encontradas nas fezes de uma criança de dois meses com gastroenterite. Análise do genoma viral por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida revelou 10 faixas (provavelmente 11 segmentos de RNA, algumas das quais diferem em velocidade de migração das observadas na grande maioria de rotavirus de hospedeiros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais. O vírus não foi revelado por um ensaio imuno-enzimático de alta sensibilidade, o que sugere a ausência do antígeno de grupo que da reações cruzadas entre a maioria dos rotavirus. O vírus descrito no presente trabalho foi o único com tal comportamento entre 230 amostras analisadas por nós desde 1979. A relevância de existência de rotavirus não relacionados antigenicamente a outros membros do grupo é discutida.

  14. Prevalence and genotype distribution of rotaviruses in children with gastroenteritis in Rize province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Dereci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the distribution of rotavirus genotypes is essential for understanding the epidemiology of this virus responsible for nearly half a million of deaths in patients with gastroenteritis worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to genotype the rotavirus strains isolated from diarrheal stool samples in children under 5 years old. A total of 1297 fecal samples were collected, and rotavirus antigen was detected in 73 of these samples. Antigen-positive samples were transferred to the Public Health Agency of Turkey, Molecular Microbiology Research Laboratory, and were tested for determination of genotypes G and P using semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction method performed with consensus- and genotype-specific primers. Twelve specimens were found to be negative for rotavirus in genotyping method. All the positive-strains were in G1-4, G8-9, P(4, P(8, and P(9 genotypes. The most frequent GP genotype combinations were found to be G9P(8 in 21 strains (34.4%, G2P(4 in 14 strains (23.0%, and G1P(8 in 12 strains (19.7%. We found 10 distinct genotypes amongst a total of 61 strains. Among the strains isolated and genotyped in our study, 90.2% (55/61 and 67.2% (41/61 have already been included in the two existing commercial vaccines. In conclusion, these findings implicate the necessity of development of region-specific vaccines after evaluation of the local genotype distribution. Further studies on the large number of rotavirus strains would contribute to this process. 

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Aichi Viruses from Fecal Specimens Collected in Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Khamrin, Pattara; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kanti, Dey Shuvra; Phan, Tung Gia; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Aichi virus is a new member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Kobuvirus, and is associated with human gastroenteritis. This study detected Aichi virus in 28 of 912 fecal specimens which were negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus and were collected in Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam during 2002 to 2005.

  16. How to Predict Oral Rehydration Failure in Children With Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Dorien; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Moll, Henriëtte; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2017-11-01

    Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral rehydration failure in children with AGE. A prospective, observational study was performed at the Emergency department, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2010-2012, including 802 previously healthy children, ages 1 month to 5 years with AGE. Failure of oral rehydration was defined by secondary rehydration by a nasogastric tube, or hospitalization or revisit for dehydration within 72 hours after initial emergency department visit. We observed 167 (21%) failures of oral rehydration in a population of 802 children with AGE (median 1.03 years old, interquartile range 0.4-2.1; 60% boys). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for failure of oral rehydration were a higher Manchester Triage System urgency level, abnormal capillary refill time, and a higher clinical dehydration scale score. Early recognition of young children with AGE at risk of failure of oral rehydration therapy is important, as emphasized by the 21% therapy failure in our population. Associated with oral rehydration failure are higher Manchester Triage System urgency level, abnormal capillary refill time, and a higher clinical dehydration scale score.

  17. Management guidelines for acute infective diarrhoea / gastroenteritis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Dankwart Friedrich

    2012-01-27

    Acute onset vomiting and diarrhoea is one of the most common illnesses of infancy, and is second only to respiratory illnesses as a cause of childhood deaths worldwide. Existing guidelines for management of diarrhoea are often ignored in public and private practice, possibly because of a perception that the guidelines are too simple, or because of expectations of the need to give 'real' drug therapy to stop diarrhoea. This guideline provides a problem-based approach to the basics of present-day management of acute gastroenteritis, and discusses the evidence for the recommendations. Recommendations. Each episode of diarrhoea must be seen as an opportunity for caregiver education in the prevention of the illness, in the 'what' and 'how' of oral rehydration and re-feeding, and in the recognition of when to seek help. The vast majority of patients recover rapidly, but serious complications do occur, and must be recognised and managed correctly. Validation. The guidelines are endorsed by the Paediatric Management Group (PMG) in South Africa. The aim of management is to help the child to maintain or regain hydration, and to recover from diarrhoea, with careful attention to adequate oral rehydration and judicious re-feeding.

  18. A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis involving two different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, P J; Atkeson, T; Kepner, D E; Melton, M

    1992-09-01

    On the evening of October 10, 1990, many of the 474 inmates of a state prison in Florida began to experience symptoms of gastroenteritis. An investigation included interviews with inmates, evaluation of the kitchen and food-handling practices, cultures of leftover food, stool cultures, and cultures from the nares and skin lesions of food handlers. Of the 331 inmates interviewed, 215 (65%) had diarrhea, vomiting, or both. The median incubation period was 5 hours (range, 1-41 hours). Cases with onset of illness 8 or more hours after the evening meal were more likely than those with earlier onset to have had only diarrhea without vomiting (p food handlers grew S. aureus, but phage typing failed to link these strains to the outbreak. Improper food-handling practices contributed to the development of this outbreak. This report highlights the importance of recognizing multiple-organism outbreaks, since the authors' recommendations for prevention of more cases depended upon knowing the risks associated with the distinct organisms and the possible sources of contamination.

  19. Clinical research of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cases of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE treated in our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 65 cases of convulsions with acute diarrhea, there were 18 cases of BICE, 15 cases of febrile seizures, 13 cases of epilepsy, 6 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 cases of hyponatremia encephalopathy, 3 cases of hypernatremia encephalopathy, 2 cases of toxic encephalopathy, and 2 cases of hypocalcemia convulsion. The convulsion occurred mostly during the first 2 d of the illness and was in a generalized tonic or tonic-clonic form. Positive rotavirus antigens in the BICE patients were detected in 83.33% (15/18. Phenobarbital was administered after the first convulsion (5-10 mg/kg, and diazepam was given intravenously in case of recurrence (0.10-0.30 mg/kg. BICE occurs frequently in infantile and controlling relapse is the main purpose. The prognosis is good. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.019

  20. Outbreak of gastroenteritis at a Peruvian naval base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Franca R; Ortiz, Mario; Soriano, Imelda; Utz, Gregory; Saldarriaga, Emilia; Cumpa, Raquel; Collantes, Violeta; Leandro, Yuliana; Bernal, Manuela Maria; Ucanan, Luis Enrique; Colina, Olga; Lescano, Andres; Batsel, Tanis

    2006-11-01

    In April of 2003, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported in a training command (Centro de Instrucción Técnica y Entrenamiento Naval (CITEN)) at a Peruvian naval base located near Lima, Peru. The Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, in collaboration with the National Peruvian Naval Hospital, conducted an investigation to determine the causative agent and potential source of the outbreak. Between April 3 and 5, 172 (16%) of 1,092 military trainees reported to the CITEN clinic with diarrhea. Of 74 trainees for whom bacterial cultures were performed, Shigella spp. were isolated from 5 (6.8%), Campylobacter spp. from 5 (6.8%), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from 2 (2.7%). Pathogenic parasites were identified in 22 of 64 (34%) trainees for whom microscopic observation for ova and parasites was performed. Stool samples from asymptomatic controls could not be collected, thus we were unable to confirm that the enteropathogens isolated were the etiologic agent(s). Several food items and the hands of food handlers were contaminated with coliform bacteria and drinking water was not adequately chlorinated. Preventative measures have since reduced the number of diarrhea cases at the CITEN.

  1. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of waterborne pathogens and Escherichia coli at offshore drinking water intakes in lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T A; Khan, I U H; Bouchard, R; Guo, J; Hill, S; Locas, A; Moore, L; Neumann, N; Nowak, E; Payment, P; Yang, R; Yerubandi, R; Watson, S

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of waterborne pathogens was investigated at three drinking water intakes located about 2 km offshore in Lake Ontario. Water sampling was conducted over 3 years for Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., cultivable enteric viruses, and water quality parameters. All pathogens were detected in the offshore source water for each water treatment plant (WTP1 to WTP3), although at relatively low frequencies and concentrations. Giardia was the most common pathogen, occurring in 36% of water samples from the influent of WTP1 (n = 46), and with a maximum concentration of 0.70 cysts/liter in this influent. Cryptosporidium occurred as frequently as 15% in the WTP2 influent (n = 35), with a maximum concentration of 0.40 oocysts/liter in the WTP1 influent. The human Bacteroidales HF183 DNA marker was most common in the WTP1 influent (19%), and this was the only WTP where the Cryptosporidium hominis genotype was detected. No water quality parameter was predictive of pathogen occurrence across all three WTP influents. Escherichia coli was often below detection when pathogens were detected, and spikes in E. coli concentrations often did not coincide with pathogen occurrence. After summer rain events, river plumes had E. coli concentrations as high as 222 CFU/100 ml in surface waters 2 km offshore, without impacting drinking water intakes below the thermocline on the lake bottom. At times, prechlorination to control mussels at offshore intake cribs compromised the use of E. coli for "raw" water quality assessment, particularly for chlorine-resistant Cryptosporidium. E. coli measured by standard methods did not reliably predict pathogen occurrence at drinking water intakes in offshore ecosystems.

  3. Water-Borne Diseases, Cost of Illness and Willingness to Pay for Diseases Interventions in Rural Communities of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, A; Yasar, A; Tabinda, AB; Abubakar, M

    2012-01-01

    Background:Almost one third of the global population is living in developing South Asia where disease occurrence is high especially in rural areas and people are unaware of water-borne diseases and cost of illness.Methods:The quantitative approach involved questionnaire based study (n=50 households).The community awareness,the occurrence of water-borne diseases with related cost of illness and community participation for the introduction of health interventions for water-borne diseases were e...

  4. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    immunity to rotavirus are complex (1). It seems likely that serum antibody to the virus is associated with protection from illness, and perhaps, local ...three) subgroups of the virus (1). Immune responses are heteroserotypic and heterosubgroup in nature, and various human and animal rotaviruses are...illness typically produces severe diarrhea that commonly lasts for five to eight days and is usually accompanied by fever and vomiting. Rotavirus , which

  5. Detection, Diversity, and Population Dynamics of Waterborne Phytophthora ramorum Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, C A; Garbelotto, M

    2015-01-01

    Sudden oak death, the tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has significant environmental and economic impacts on natural forests on the U.S. west coast, plantations in the United Kingdom, and in the worldwide nursery trade. Stream baiting is vital for monitoring and early detection of the pathogen in high-risk areas and is performed routinely; however, little is known about the nature of water-borne P. ramorum populations. Two drainages in an infested California forest were monitored intensively using stream-baiting for 2 years between 2009 and 2011. Pathogen presence was determined both by isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from symptomatic bait leaves. Isolates were analyzed using simple sequence repeats to study population dynamics and genetic structure through time. Isolation was successful primarily only during spring conditions, while PCR extended the period of pathogen detection to most of the year. Water populations were extremely diverse, and changed between seasons and years. A few abundant genotypes dominated the water during conditions considered optimal for aerial populations, and matched those dominant in aerial populations. Temporal patterns of genotypic diversification and evenness were identical among aerial, soil, and water populations, indicating that all three substrates are part of the same epidemiological cycle, strongly influenced by rainfall and sporulation on leaves. However, there was structuring between substrates, likely arising due to reduced selection pressure in the water. Additionally, water populations showed wholesale mixing of genotypes without the evident spatial autocorrelation present in leaf and soil populations.

  6. Click Cross-Linking-Improved Waterborne Polymers for Environment-Friendly Coatings and Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqing; Peng, Kaimei; Guo, Jinshan; Shan, Dingying; Kim, Gloria B; Li, Qiyao; Gerhard, Ethan; Zhu, Liang; Tu, Weiping; Lv, Weizhong; Hickner, Michael A; Yang, Jian

    2016-07-13

    Waterborne polymers, including waterborne polyurethanes (WPU), polyester dispersions (PED), and polyacrylate emulsions (PAE), are employed as environmentally friendly water-based coatings and adhesives. An efficient, fast, stable, and safe cross-linking strategy is always desirable to impart waterborne polymers with improved mechanical properties and water/solvent/thermal and abrasion resistance. For the first time, click chemistry was introduced into waterborne polymer systems as a cross-linking strategy. Click cross-linking rendered waterborne polymer films with significantly improved tensile strength, hardness, adhesion strength, and water/solvent resistance compared to traditional waterborne polymer films. For example, click cross-linked WPU (WPU-click) has dramatically improved the mechanical strength (tensile strength increased from 0.43 to 6.47 MPa, and Young's modulus increased from 3 to 40 MPa), hardness (increased from 59 to 73.1 MPa), and water resistance (water absorption percentage dropped from 200% to less than 20%); click cross-linked PED (PED-click) film also possessed more than 3 times higher tensile strength (∼28 MPa) than that of normal PED (∼8 MPa). The adhesion strength of click cross-linked PAE (PAE-click) to polypropylene (PP) was also improved (from 3 to 5.5 MPa). In addition, extra click groups can be preserved after click cross-linking for further functionalization of the waterborne polymeric coatings/adhesives. In this work, we have demonstrated that click modification could serve as a convenient and powerful approach to significantly improve the performance of a variety of traditional coatings and adhesives.

  7. Seroprevalence of Aichi Virus in a Spanish Population from 2007 to 2008▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Juan Manuel; Montava, Rebeca; Téllez-Castillo, Carlos J.; Fernández-Jiménez, Manuel; Buesa, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are among the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis. In recent years, new viruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis have been described. Among these, Aichi virus was identified in Japan in 1989. Aichi virus belongs to the Kobuvirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. This virus has been detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption and in pediatric stool samples, but little is known about its epidemiology or pathogenesis. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Aichi virus in a Spanish population was determined between 2007 and 2008 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As in previous studies, a high seroprevalence of antibodies to Aichi virus (70%) was observed, with levels differing according to age. We observed significant differences in titers of antibody to Aichi virus among different age groups, grouped by decades. We report high ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers, and both titers fitted a sigmoid curve significantly. However, this virus is seldom detected; therefore, further studies are needed to gain a better understanding of its importance as a pathogenic agent. PMID:20164249

  8. Seroprevalence of Aichi virus in a Spanish population from 2007 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Juan Manuel; Montava, Rebeca; Téllez-Castillo, Carlos J; Fernández-Jiménez, Manuel; Buesa, Javier

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are among the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis. In recent years, new viruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis have been described. Among these, Aichi virus was identified in Japan in 1989. Aichi virus belongs to the Kobuvirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. This virus has been detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption and in pediatric stool samples, but little is known about its epidemiology or pathogenesis. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Aichi virus in a Spanish population was determined between 2007 and 2008 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As in previous studies, a high seroprevalence of antibodies to Aichi virus (70%) was observed, with levels differing according to age. We observed significant differences in titers of antibody to Aichi virus among different age groups, grouped by decades. We report high ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers, and both titers fitted a sigmoid curve significantly. However, this virus is seldom detected; therefore, further studies are needed to gain a better understanding of its importance as a pathogenic agent.

  9. First-year Daycare and Incidence of Acute Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullegie, Saskia; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Smit, Henriette A; de Hoog, Marieke L A

    2016-05-01

    Daycare attendance has been associated with increased acute gastroenteritis (AGE) incidence in the first years of life. We investigated the effects of first-year daycare attendance on AGE incidence and primary care contact rate up to age 6 years. Children enrolled in the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn cohort were managed until age 6 years. Data on primary care diagnosed AGE episodes and number of associated contacts per episode were collected from health records. Children were categorized according to first year daycare attendance and age-month at entry when applicable. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess associations between first-year daycare and AGE incidence or primary care contact rate. A total of 1344 out of 2220 children (83%) attended daycare before age 1 year. Overall, the 6-year primary care AGE incidence rate (IR) among first-year daycare attendees and nonattendees was comparable (IR: 12.2/100 vs 13.3/100 child-years). First-year daycare attendees had a higher AGE incidence during the first year (IRR: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.21) and lower during the third to sixth year of age compared with nonattendees (P daycare-associated increase in AGE incidence was most pronounced during the first 12 months after enrollment into daycare and demonstrated clear seasonality. A similar pattern was observed for primary care contact rate per AGE episode. First-year daycare attendance advances the timing of AGE infections, resulting in increased AGE disease burden in the first year and relative protection thereafter. Protection against AGE infection persists at least up to age 6 years. Future studies should address whether this protective effect persists during later childhood. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Review article: the management of acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieścik-Lech, M; Shamir, R; Guarino, A; Szajewska, H

    2013-02-01

    In 2008, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Disease (ESPID) developed evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children in Europe. To summarise data published subsequently to the ESPGHAN/ESPID guidelines. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library were searched in August 2012 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or their meta-analyses published after 2008. Efforts to improve the taste and/or efficacy of oral rehydration solution (ORS) continue, and some interventions are promising. While standard (over 24 h) nasogastric rehydration is still being used, new evidence confirms that rapid (over 4 h) rehydration is also effective. For intravenous rehydration, new evidence is available regarding rapid or ultrarapid and large-volume vs. standard-volume rehydration; as the new evidence is not consistent, until more data are available, the administration of 20 mL/kg seems appropriate. Convincing evidence has accumulated showing that ondansetron reduces the risk for vomiting; however, a clearance on safety in children is needed. New evidence has reconfirmed that in Europe, where zinc deficiency is rare, there is no benefit from the use of zinc. New data, although mainly from outside of Europe, have reconfirmed that either smectite or racecadotril is an effective adjunctive therapy to oral rehydration. There is a clear effect of using certain probiotics, such as Lactobacillus GG or S. boulardii. The update of current ESPGHAN/ESPID recommendations is warranted. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Antigenemia and cytokine expression in rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Han; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Lai, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chang; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Lin, Che-Wei; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Shih-Yen

    2012-08-01

    Antigenemia is commonly found in children with rotavirus infection, although its clinical significance is undetermined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of antigenemia with clinical manifestations and cytokine profiles in children infected by rotavirus. In total, 68 children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis were enrolled. Serum samples were collected for detection of antigenemia and viremia. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were analyzed. Proinflammatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were evaluated by bead-based flow cytometry. Antigenemia and viremia were found in 45.6% (n = 31) and 5.9% (n = 4) of the 68 rotavirus-infected children, respectively. The mean age of the antigenemia group was significantly greater than that of the non-antigenemia group (43.5 vs. 27.3 months; p = 0.034). The antigenemia group had a significantly shorter length of hospitalization (4.8 vs. 5.8 days; p = 0.0354) in comparison with the non-antigenemia group, and antigenemia was inversely associated with the length of hospitalization (β = 0.31, p = 0.021). A significantly higher tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β level was found in the patients with antigenemia than those without (236.7 vs. 29.2 pg/mL, p = 0.026). The severity of disease and the rate of extra-intestinal manifestations did not differ between the groups. Viremia was associated with a higher fever (p = 0.012). Antigenemia was positively correlated with shorter hospital stay in children with rotavirus infection. Enhanced innate and T-cell-mediated immunity evidenced by up-regulation of TNF-β was found in patients with antigenemia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Does dog or cat ownership lead to increased gastroenteritis in young children in South Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, J S; Cutt, H; Glonek, G

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dog and cat ownership and gastroenteritis in young children. A diary study of 965 children aged 4-6 years living in rural or semi-rural South Australia was undertaken. Data were collected on pet ownership, drinking water and other risk factors for gastroenteritis. Overall 89% of households had pets and dog ownership was more common than cat ownership. The multivariable models for gastroenteritis and pet ownership indicated that living in a household with a dog or cat was associated with a reduced risk of gastroenteritis (adj. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92; OR 0.70, % CI 0.51-0.97 respectively). This paper adds to the evidence that pets are not a major source of gastroenteritis in the home and lends support to the health benefits of pet ownership. However, this must be weighed against the potential negative consequences, such as dog bites, particularly for this age group.

  13. A Case Report of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Ascitis

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    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a heterogeneous disorder affecting both children and adults, and is characterized by the presence of an intense eosinophilic infiltrate on histopathology of one or multiple segments from the esophagus to the rectum. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis which may involve more than one layer of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical features depend on the layer and location to be involved. Involvement of the serosal layer occurs in 10% of cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and is typically presented as ascites. The patient in our report was as likely as those who refer with full thickness involvement and presenting ascite, and was completely improved after steroid treatment.

    Case Report

    The patient was presented a 14-year-old boy that referred to the physician with progressive abdominal pain and ascites. َAfter recognition of eosinophilia in blood and ascite fluid, he was suspected to have Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Ultimately, following serial examinations and after laparascopic full thickness biopsy Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was closely diagnosed. The patient was treated with prednisolone. The abdominal pain and ascites subsided soon after initiation of steroid treatment.

  14. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1971, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Data presented summarize 48 outbreaks that occurred during January 2007--December 2008 and 70 previously unreported outbreaks. WBDOSS includes data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, recreational water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent (WUI). Public health agencies in the states, U.S. territories, localities, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating outbreaks and reporting them voluntarily to CDC by a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and WUI are summarized in this report. Outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported separately. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 48 outbreaks that occurred during 2007--2008. Of these 48 outbreaks, 36 were associated with drinking water, eight with WNID, and four with WUI. The 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 32 (88.9%) of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks; 21 (58.3%) outbreaks were associated with bacteria, five (13.9%) with viruses, three (8.3%) with parasites, one (2.8%) with a chemical, one (2.8%) with both bacteria and viruses, and one (2.8%) with both bacteria and parasites. Four outbreaks (11.1%) had unidentified etiologies. Of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks, 22 (61.1%) were outbreaks of

  15. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus) in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Martinez, Ana; Broner, Sonia; Moreno, Antonio; Camps, Neus; Domínguez, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SV) in Catalonia. Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR). A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year); 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%), nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8%) and schools (11.9%). The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191). The total Incidence rate (IR) was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0). The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2)) (p<0.001). A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%). SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children. These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  16. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV and sapovirus (SV in Catalonia.Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR.A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year; 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%, nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8% and schools (11.9%. The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191. The total Incidence rate (IR was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0. The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2 (p<0.001. A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%. SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children.These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  17. Animal Model Reveals Potential Waterborne Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne H. pylori could cause gastric infection. Groups of immunocompetent C57/BL6 Helicobacter-free mice were exposed to static concentrations (1.29 × 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) CFU/L) of H. pylori in their drinking water for 4 weeks. One group of Helicobacter-free mice was exposed to uncontaminated water as a negative control. H. pylori morphology changes in water were examined using microscopy Live/Dead staining. Following exposure, H. pylori infection and inflammation status in the stomach were evaluated using quantitative culture, PCR, the rapid urease test, and histology. None of the mice in the negative control or 10(5) groups were infected. One of 20 cages (one of 40 mice) of the 10(6) group, three of 19 cages (four of 38 mice) of the 10(7) CFU/L group, 19 of 20 cages (33 of 40 mice) of the 10(8) group, and 20 of 20 cages (39 of 40 mice) of the 10(9) CFU/L group were infected. Infected mice had significantly higher gastric inflammation than uninfected mice (27.86% higher inflammation, p pylori in water is infectious in mice, suggesting that humans drinking contaminated water may be at risk of contracting H. pylori infection. Much work needs to be performed to better understand the risk of infection from drinking H. pylori-contaminated water. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Complicated course of eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, L; Galoo, E; Nibaud, A; Barba, T; Pasquet, F; Pavic, M

    2014-10-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an unusual disease characterized by an eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The esophageal location of this disorder is uncommon and is usually revealed by dysphagia. Diagnosis is obtained by histology during endoscopy after exclusion of differential diagnosis. Treatment is based on systemic corticosteroids, which improve dramatically symptoms and endoscopic lesions. We report an 88-year-old man who presented eosinophilic gastroenteritis with esophageal injury complicated by gastrointestinal haemorrhage and fistule. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis may have a potentially unfavourable outcome. The treatment of complicated forms is not codified and often empirical. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon

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    Maria Sandra Costa Amaral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV, adenovirus (AdV and astrovirus (AstV from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591 of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV infection was observed at all ages and was most prevalent in zero-18-month-old children (84.7%; p = 0.002. A higher incidence of NoV was detected from February-April 2010, when it was found in 52.2% of the cases. Co-infections involving these viruses, rotavirus and enteropathogenic bacteria were detected in 44.4% (28/63 of the children with viral diarrhoea. Nosocomial infections were demonstrated in 28.6% (18/63 of the cases in which viruses were detected. The present paper reports, for the first time, the circulation of NoV and AstV among the paediatric population of Porto Velho and it contributes to our understanding of the roles of these pathogens in gastrointestinal infections.

  20. Weathering characteristics and moisture uptake properties of wood coated with water-borne sol-gel thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Tshabalala; C. Starr; N. R. Sutherland

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood specimens were coated with water-borne silsesquioxane oligomers by an in situ sol-gel deposition process. The effect of these water-borne sol-gel thin films on weathering characteristics and moisture-uptake properties of the wood specimens were investigated. The weathering characteristics were investigated by exposure of the specimens to artificial...

  1. Active, population-based surveillance for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C; Staat, Mary Allen; Edwards, Kathryn M; Szilagyi, Peter G; Gentsch, Jon R; Stockman, Lauren J; Curns, Aaron T; Griffin, Marie; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Hall, Caroline B; Fairbrother, Gerry; Alexander, James; Parashar, Umesh D

    2008-12-01

    Routine vaccination of US infants against rotavirus was implemented in 2006, prompting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention New Vaccine Surveillance Network to begin population-based acute gastroenteritis surveillance among US childrenrotavirus disease burden and allows for the prospective monitoring of rotavirus vaccination impact. Eligible children with acute gastroenteritis (>or=3 episodes of diarrhea and/or any vomiting in a 24-hour period) who were hospitalized, were seen in emergency departments, or visited selected outpatient clinics in 3 US counties during the period of January through June 2006 were enrolled. Epidemiological and clinical information was obtained through parental interview and medical chart review, and stool specimens were tested for rotavirus with enzyme immunoassays. Rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Stool specimens were collected from 516 of the 739 enrolled children with acute gastroenteritis (181 inpatient, 201 emergency department, and 134 outpatient) and 44% tested positive for rotavirus (227 of 516 specimens). The most common strain was P[8]G1 (84%), followed by P[4]G2 (5%) and P[6]G12 (4%). None of the 516 children had received rotavirus vaccine. The rotavirus detection rate was 50% for hospitalized acute gastroenteritis cases, 50% for emergency department visits, and 27% for outpatient visits. Rotavirus-related acute gastroenteritis cases were more likely than non-rotavirus-related acute gastroenteritis cases to present with vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and lethargy. Directly calculated, population-based rates for rotavirus hospitalizations and emergency department visits were 22.5 hospitalizations and 301.0 emergency department visits per 10 000 childrenrotavirus surveillance in the final rotavirus season before implementation of the US rotavirus vaccine program indicated a considerable burden of disease on the US health care system.

  2. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 in Nursing College, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatapai, A; Moungthong, B; Thunyaharn, S; Huttayananont, S; Rangsin, R

    2010-08-01

    A cluster of acute gastroenteritis among nursing students was noticed on 13th September 2005. Between 13th and 17th September 2005, a retrospective cohort study was then conducted to identify the most likely cause of gastroenteritis at a nursing college in Bangkok, Thailand. Self-administered questionnaires, interviews, environmental investigations, and rectal swabs from all participants were carried out. In the investigation, 98.9% female nursing students were investigated and had completed the questionnaire, 49.4% of the participants were diagnosed to have acute gastroenteritis. The predominant symptoms were watery diarrhoea (90.8%) and abdominal cramps (71.3%). Of 28.9% of rectal swab isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 (40.4%), Salmonella spp. (19.2%), Vibrio cholerae non O1/non O139/non O141 (11.5%), Aeromonas trota (3.9%), Vibrio alginolyticus (1.9%) and other co-infections (23.1%). The tdh gene was identified from all V. parahaemolyticus using multiplex PCR. The implicated food risk factor for gastroenteritis was boiled egg (adjusted prevalence rate ratio; PR=1.9, 95% CI, 1.04-3.79). However the bitter melon soup was not significantly associated for gastroenteritis (adjusted PR=1.3, 95% CI, 0.98-1.82). The population attributable fraction analysis indicated that boiled eggs item was an implicated food risk for this outbreak (PAF=45.8%). Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 was identified as a major causative agent for gastroenteritis in which the contaminated boiled eggs was a vehicle in this outbreak. Cross-contamination control should be emphasized in food operation plans among institutes.

  3. Use of antiemetics in children with acute gastroenteritis: Are they safe and effective?

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    Manteuffel Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antiemetics is a controversial topic in treatment of pediatric gastroenteritis. Although not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, antiemetics are commonly prescribed by physicians. A review of the literature shows side effects of promethazine, prochlorperazine, and metoclopramide are common and potentially dangerous. Ondansetron has recently been studied as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in treatment of acute gastroenteritis with mild to moderate dehydration. Although studies are limited, early research suggests the medication is safe when used in a single dose and can be effective to prevent vomiting, the need for intravenous fluids, and hospital admission.

  4. Hematemesis as Initial Presentation in a 10-Week-Old Infant with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

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    Varun Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation.

  5. THE ETIOLOGIC SPECTRUM OF PATHOGENS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS IN CHILDREN FROM BAKU

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    N. N. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the study of etiology, the logical structure of viral diarrhea in Baku (Azerbaijan in 2015. It was found that more than half (62.6%, gastroenteritis in children of viral etiology, of which the leading role as an etiological factor, have a company — and adenoviruses, among infants astroviruses. But-roviral gastroenteritis and enterovirus takes only insignificant-tive percentage of cases. There were no significant differences in the proportion of virustion of diarrhea depending on the age of the patients was not revealed.

  6. Fecal contamination of drinking water supplies in and around Chandigarh and correlation with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Taneja; Malkit, Singh; Pooja, Rao; Manisha, Biswal; Shiva, Priya; Ram, Chander; Meera, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Acute gastroenteritis due to Vibrio cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli is a common problem faced in the hot and humid summer months in north India. The study was undertaken to evaluate drinking water supplies for fecal coliforms, V. cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli in urban, semiurban and rural areas in and around Chandigarh and correlate with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis occurring from the same region. Drinking water sample were collected from various sources from April to October 2004 from a defined area. Samples were tested for fecal coliforms and E. coli count. E. coli were screened for heat labile toxin (LT) also. Stool samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis from the same region and time were collected and processed for V. cholerae, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and others like Salmonella, Shigella and Aeromonas spp. A total of 364 water samples were collected, (251 semi urban, 41 rural and 72 from urban areas). 116 (31.8%) samples were contaminated with fecal coliforms (58.5% rural, 33.4% semiurban and 11.1% of samples from urban areas). E. coli were grown from 58 samples. Ninety two isolates of E. coli were tested for enterotoxins of which 8 and 24 were positive for LT and ST respectively. V. cholerae were isolated from 2 samples during the outbreak investigation. Stored water samples showed a significantly higher level of contamination and most of Enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from stored water samples. A total of 780 acute gastroenteritis cases occurred; 445 from semiurban, 265 rural and 70 from urban areas. Out of 189 stool samples submitted, ETEC were the commonest (30%) followed by V. cholerae (19%), Shigellae (8.4%), Salmonellae (2.1%) and Aeromonas (2.6%). ST-ETEC (40/57) were commoner than LT-ETEC (17/57). In the present study, high levels of contamination of drinking water supplies (32.1%) correlated well with cases of acute gastroenteritis. Majority of cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in the semi urban

  7. [Using meglumine acridonacetate for the treatment of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiutenko, E B; Petrova, A G

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at an analysis of the influence of meglumine acridonacetate--the inductor of endogenous interferon synthesis--on the clinical course of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus in children. A group of 100 patients aged from 3 months to 14 years were involved on retrospective comparative randomized study. The obtained data showed the advantages of meglumine acridonacetate administration during early terms of treatment of the gastroenteritis caused by rotaviruses. This treatment leads to fast regression of the main clinical symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and intoxications, which results in reduction of the clinical course duration.

  8. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with asymptomatic food handlers in Kinmen, Taiwan

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    Meng-Yu Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February 2015 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a distillery in Kinmen, Taiwan. At least 450 affected employees developed the symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting after attending a lunch banquet on 6 February. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to identify the agent and source of this outbreak. Methods A case–control study was carried out among lunch attendees from the distillery. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, food and beverage consumption in the lunch banquet was assessed, as well as demographic and clinical data of the exposed people. An outbreak case was defined as a diner who developed at least three following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, chills and/or weakness in the 72 h following the lunch. Controls were defined as lunch attendees who did not have any of the above symptoms. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the symptomatic exposed diners and food handlers as well as food and environmental samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. An environmental assessment, including environmental inspection of the restaurant and a review of work practices of food workers, was undertaken. Results Of 363 respondents with complete data, 169 met the case definition and 111 met the control definition. Consumption of pork liver in cold appetizers (adjusted odd ratio (aOR 3.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.26–8.30 and lamb chops (aOR: 3.98, 95 % CI: 1.74–9.11 were each associated with increased risk of illness. No cases but two asymptomatic food handlers who prepared or cooked the implicated foods tested positive for norovirus genotype I.6. Food and environmental samples were negative for any bacteria. Environmental assessment indicated that hand washing facilities were not properly accessible to food handlers. Inappropriate

  9. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with asymptomatic food handlers in Kinmen, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Yu; Chen, Wan-Chin; Chen, Pei-Chen; Hsu, Shan-Wei; Lo, Yi-Chun

    2016-05-04

    In February 2015 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a distillery in Kinmen, Taiwan. At least 450 affected employees developed the symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting after attending a lunch banquet on 6 February. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to identify the agent and source of this outbreak. A case-control study was carried out among lunch attendees from the distillery. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, food and beverage consumption in the lunch banquet was assessed, as well as demographic and clinical data of the exposed people. An outbreak case was defined as a diner who developed at least three following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, chills and/or weakness in the 72 h following the lunch. Controls were defined as lunch attendees who did not have any of the above symptoms. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the symptomatic exposed diners and food handlers as well as food and environmental samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. An environmental assessment, including environmental inspection of the restaurant and a review of work practices of food workers, was undertaken. Of 363 respondents with complete data, 169 met the case definition and 111 met the control definition. Consumption of pork liver in cold appetizers (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.26-8.30) and lamb chops (aOR: 3.98, 95 % CI: 1.74-9.11) were each associated with increased risk of illness. No cases but two asymptomatic food handlers who prepared or cooked the implicated foods tested positive for norovirus genotype I.6. Food and environmental samples were negative for any bacteria. Environmental assessment indicated that hand washing facilities were not properly accessible to food handlers. Inappropriate hygiene practices in food handlers may have contributed to food

  10. High prevalence of norovirus in children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Manaus, Amazon Region, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Hernández, Juliana das Mercês; Lucena, Maria Silvia Souza de; Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially in children under five years. Studies involving the detection and molecular characterisation of NoV have been performed in Brazil, demonstrating its importance as an etiological agent of AGE. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of human NoV and to genotype the strains isolated from 0-14-year-old patients of AGE in Manaus, Brazil, over a period of two years. A total of 426 faecal samples were collected between January 2010 and December 2011. All samples were tested for the presence of NoV antigens using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. RNA was extracted from all faecal suspensions and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the NoV-polymerase partial region was performed as a trial test. Positive samples were then subjected to PCR with specific primers for partial capsid genes, which were then sequenced. NoV was detected in 150 (35.2%) faecal samples, for at least one of the two techniques used. NoV was detected in children from all age groups, with the highest positivity observed among the group of 1-2 years old. Clinically, fever was verified in 43% of the positive cases and 46.3% of the negative cases, and vomiting was observed in 75.8% and 70.8% cases in these groups, respectively. Monthly distribution showed that the highest positivity was observed in January 2010 (81.2%), followed by February and April 2010 and March 2011, when the positivity rate reached almost 50%. Phylogenetic analyses performed with 65 positive strains demonstrated that 58 (89.2%) cases of NoV belonged to genotype GII.4, five (7.7%) to GII.6, and one (1.5%) each to GII.7 and GII.3. This research revealed a high circulation of NoV GII.4 in Manaus and contributed to the understanding of the importance of this virus in the aetiology of AGE cases, especially in a region with such few studies available.

  11. Molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in Ireland in 2006-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, O

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARYCommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. During surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in Ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of VP7 (G1-G4 and G9) and VP4 (P[4], P[6], P[8] and P[9]) genotypes were detected. Strains G1P[8] were found to be predominant throughout the period 2006-2008, with slight fluctuations seen in the very limited samples available in 2008-2009. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis of selected strains, the G1, G3 and G9 viruses were found to contain E1 (Wa-like) NSP4 and I1 VP6 genotypes, while the analysed G2 strains possessed E2 NSP4 and I2 VP6 genotypes, a genetic make-up which is highly conserved in the major human rotavirus genogroups Wa- and Kun-like, respectively. Upon sequence analysis of the most common VP4 genotype, P[8], at least two distinct lineages were identified, both unrelated to P[8] Irish rotaviruses circulating in previous years, and more closely related to recent European humans rotaviruses. Moreover, sequence analysis of the VP7 of G1 rotaviruses revealed the onset of a G1 variant, previously unseen in the Irish population.

  12. Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby Öhd, Joanna; Alm, Erik; Askling, Helena H; Helgesson, Sofia; Insulander, Mona; Lagerqvist, Nina; Svenungsson, Bo; Tihane, Malin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Follin, Per

    2017-06-01

    A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified. Subsequent electron microscopic examination of stool samples followed by whole genome sequencing revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V. The virus was not detected using standard PCR screening. This paper describes the epidemiological outbreak investigation and findings leading to the discovery. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. A decision support tool to compare waterborne and foodborne infection and/or illness risks associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Bouwknegt, Martijn; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rutjes, Saskia; Sudre, Bertrand; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C

    2013-12-01

    Climate change may impact waterborne and foodborne infectious disease, but to what extent is uncertain. Estimating climate-change-associated relative infection risks from exposure to viruses, bacteria, or parasites in water or food is critical for guiding adaptation measures. We present a computational tool for strategic decision making that describes the behavior of pathogens using location-specific input data under current and projected climate conditions. Pathogen-pathway combinations are available for exposure to norovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and noncholera Vibrio species via drinking water, bathing water, oysters, or chicken fillets. Infection risk outcomes generated by the tool under current climate conditions correspond with those published in the literature. The tool demonstrates that increasing temperatures lead to increasing risks for infection with Campylobacter from consuming raw/undercooked chicken fillet and for Vibrio from water exposure. Increasing frequencies of drought generally lead to an elevated infection risk of exposure to persistent pathogens such as norovirus and Cryptosporidium, but decreasing risk of exposure to rapidly inactivating pathogens, like Campylobacter. The opposite is the case with increasing annual precipitation; an upsurge of heavy rainfall events leads to more peaks in infection risks in all cases. The interdisciplinary tool presented here can be used to guide climate change adaptation strategies focused on infectious diseases. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis. An outbreak associated with a cafeteria at a college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, S; Gunn, R A; Medina, R; Singh, N; May, R D; Janowski, H T; Woodward, W E

    1985-02-01

    An explosive outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among students and employees at a small college in Florida in November 1980. Common symptoms were diarrhea, nausea, weakness, abdominal cramps, chills, vomiting, and low-grade fever. Cases of illness were identified in 40% of 628 students and 15% of 162 employees who responded to a survey. Among students, there was a sevenfold excess risk associated with eating one or more meals at the campus cafeteria November 3-5 (p much less than 0.001). Tossed salad from one meal was strongly associated with illness (p less than 0.0001). Fecal contamination of the salad was documented, although the source of contamination was not identified. Person-to-person spread could not be demonstrated. Seroconversion to Norwalk antigen occurred in significantly more cases (5/6) than noncases (1/6) (p = 0.04).

  15. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in

  16. Performance of a Mobile Phone App-Based Participatory Syndromic Surveillance System for Acute Febrile Illness and Acute Gastroenteritis in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly; Lopez, Maria Renee; Colborn, Kathryn; Paniagua-Avila, Alejandra; Zacarias, Alma; Zambrano-Perilla, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Castro, Sergio Ricardo; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin Jose

    2017-11-09

    With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala. Randomized households were provided with a mobile phone and asked to submit weekly reports using a symptom diary app (Vigilant-e). Participants reporting acute febrile illness or acute gastroenteritis answered additional questions using a decision-tree algorithm and were subsequently visited at home by a study nurse who performed a second interview and collected samples for dengue virus if confirmed acute febrile illness and norovirus if acute gastroenteritis. We analyzed risk factors associated with decreased self-reporting of syndromic data using the Vigilant-e app and evaluated strategies to improve self-reporting. We also assessed agreement between self-report and nurse-collected data obtained during home visits. From April 2015 to June 2016, 469 children in 207 households provided 471 person-years of observation. Mean weekly symptom reporting rate was 78% (range 58%-89%). Households with a poor (number of children (mean 2.8, SD 1.5 vs mean 2.5, SD 1.3; risk ratio [RR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4), were less likely to have used mobile phones for text messaging at study enrollment (61%, 35/57 vs 76.7%, 115/150; RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), and were less likely to access care at the local public clinic (35%, 20/57 vs 67.3%, 101/150; RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6). Parents of female enrolled participants were more likely to have low response rate (57.1%, 84/147 vs 43.8%, 141/322; RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Several external factors (cellular tower collapse, contentious

  17. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005 Brote de gastroenteritis por rotavirus con alta mortalidad, Nicaragua, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Amador

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine. RESULTS: The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine child-hood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó un brote nacional de gastroenteritis grave por rotavirus en niños menores de 5 a

  18. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in domestic pigs in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    García-Hernández, Montserrat Elemi; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Trujillo, María E.; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the coun...

  19. The Comparition of the Efficacy of Two Different Probiotics in Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Erdoğan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of the probiotics—Saccharomyces boulardii and Bifidobacterium lactis—in children who had been diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. Seventy five patients aged between 5 months–5 years diagnosed as rotavirus gastroenteritis were included in the study. The patients diagnosed as rotavirus gastroenteritis by latex agglutination test in stool were divided into 3 groups of twenty-five patients each: First group was given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Saccharomyces boulardii (spp. I-745, second group was given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Bifidobacterium lactis (spp. B94, culture number:∘118529 and third group received only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet. Results. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the group given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Bifidobacterium lactis and Saccharomyces boulardii than the group given only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet. Conclusion. Bifidobacterium lactis has a complemental role in the treatment of rotavirus gatroenteritis and other probiotics may also have a beneficial effect in rotavirus gastroenteritis compared with the therapy included only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet.

  20. [EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION (ORS 200)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchev, B; Markov, D; Baikova, D

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are shown the basic rules of conduct for acute gastroenteritis in infancy. There are presented possibilities of solution HiPP (ORS 200), which in both its forms is appropriate and a good tool for oral rehydration in children of all ages with acute gastroenterokoitis.

  1. Pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department: Practice evaluation in Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Pelc (Isidore); S. Redant (Sébastien); S. Julliand (Sébastien); X. Llor; M. Lorrot (Mathie); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); V. Gajdos (Vincent); F. Angoulvant (François)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous

  2. Investigations of two oral rehydration solutions in treatment of piglets with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukavić Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic disorder in acute gastroenteritis is the disrupted transport of water and electrolytes, to a different degree. The objective of these investigations was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in suckling piglets. Fifty piglets, 20 with acute gastroenteritis and 30 healthy controls aged 10 days were chosen at random upon the incidence of diarrhea, for one of two ORS treatments (ORS-1 and ORS-2. The piglets with diarrhea were administered a probiotic per os on the first day and an antibiotic parenterally, until the diarrhea disappeared. All the piglets were followed clinically from days 1-6 of the investigations. Faeces samples were taken for bacteriological culture on the first day. Clinical signs of hydration were better, as well as the difference in body mass of piglets with diarrhea under the ORS-2 treatment which was significantly higher (p=0.036 in comparison with the difference in piglets under the ORS-1 treatment. All piglets with diarrhea had normally formed faeces on the sixth day. Escherichia coli was isolated from faeces of 48 piglets. Piglets with acute gastroenteritis, treated with ORS with a higher osmolarity and which contained instead of citrate, bicarbonates in higher concentrations, with less potassium, more sodium and more chlorine had a better state of hydration, with a significantly bigger difference in body mass, and the results of their control group were not significantly different against those of piglets treated with ORS of a different composition.

  3. Association between mixed rotavirus vaccination types of infants and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anaam; Immergluck, Lilly; Parker, Trisha Chan; Jain, Shabnam; Leong, Traci; Anderson, Evan J.; Jerris, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus remains the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years worldwide. In the US, Rotarix® (RV1) and RotaTeq® (RV5), have been associated with reductions in and severity of rotavirus disease. Studies have evaluated the impact of RV1 or RV5 but little is known about the impact of incomplete or mixed vaccination upon vaccine effectiveness. Methods Case control study to examine association of combined RV1 and RV5 and rotavirus acute gastroenteritis, factoring severity of diarrheal disease. Children born after March 1, 2009 with acute gastroenteritis from three pediatric hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia were approached for enrollment. Survey was administered, stool specimen was collected, and vaccination records were obtained. Results 891 of 1127 children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool specimens were collected from 708 for rotavirus testing; 215 stool samples tested positively for rotavirus. Children >12 months of age were more likely to have rotavirus. Children categorized with Vesikari score of >11 were almost twice as likely to be rotavirus positive. Prior rotavirus vaccination decreased the mean Vesikari score, p vaccination were protected against rotavirus (OR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.14–0.31, p rotavirus vaccination with a single vaccine type resulted in protection against rotavirus diarrhea and decrease in severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Incomplete rotavirus vaccination either with a single vaccine or mixed vaccination types also provided some protection. PMID:26322843

  4. General practitioner practices in requesting laboratory tests for patients with gastroenteritis in the Netherlands, 2001- 2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof, W.E. van den; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate the (selective) proportion of patients consulting their GP for an episode of gastroenteritis for whom laboratory tests were requested. In addition adherence of GPs to the guidelines for diagnostic test regime was ascertained. METHODS: Data were

  5. Two New Zealand outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis linked to commercially farmed oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Richard; Dymond, Nicky; Bell, Anita; Thornley, Craig; Buik, Hans; Cumming, David; Petersen, Nicole

    2011-12-16

    We report on the investigations of two gastroenteritis outbreaks, which were linked to a common source. Retrospective cohort studies were conducted for two gastroenteritis outbreaks which occurred in Auckland and in Waikato. Faecal samples and samples of oyster meat were analysed. Environmental surveys of implicated areas were conducted. 10 out of 16 people who had eaten at a catered event in Auckland, and 3 out of 15 people who had eaten at a Waikato restaurant, experienced gastroenteritis. The symptoms, duration of illness and incubation periods were consistent with norovirus gastroenteritis in both outbreaks. The consumption of oysters was strongly associated with an increased risk of illness. Faecal samples were positive for norovirus. Oysters from both outbreaks were traced back to the same growing area. Samples of oyster meat from one of the restaurants and from the growing area were positive for norovirus. The growing area was closed for further investigation. A pipe from a waste water treatment plant was later found to be leaking partially treated effluent into a stream discharging near the implicated growing area. Investigation of these two outbreaks led to the discovery of a common source of norovirus at a commercial oyster growing area.

  6. Acute gastroenteritis outbreak associated to norovirus GI.9 in a Portuguese army base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-João, António; Mesquita, João R; de Sousa, Rita; Oleastro, Mónica; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Nascimento, Maria Sao José

    2017-05-01

    Gastroenteritis is considered a major illness within the military settings being caused by foodborne enteric pathogens that are particularly easily spread in the crowded conditions of military camps. Gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus usually affect a great number of soldiers due to the low infectious dose, copious viral shedding, and environmental stability. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in April 2015 in a Portuguese army base, focusing on the study of the epidemiological curve, symptoms experienced by the affected soldiers, and results of food, water, and stool microbiological analysis. From a total of 938 military personnel stationed on the base 46 soldiers developed acute gastroenteritis. Stool analysis of seven cases showed to be positive for norovirus GI.9 that was the probable cause of the outbreak. This report shows that genogroup I norovirus can also cause considerable morbidity in healthy young soldiers, affecting the operational effectiveness on the military forces. J. Med. Virol. 89:922-925, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Results Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; ppoverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). Conclusions While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health inequities in Malaysia. PMID:25941805

  8. Relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome following acute gastroenteritis and associated risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalcyk, B.K.; Smeets, H.M.; Succop, P.A.; Wit, N.J. de; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study using electronic medical records was undertaken to estimate the relative risk (RR) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following acute gastroenteritis (GE) in primary-care patients in The Netherlands and explore risk factors. Patients aged 18–70 years who consulted for GE

  9. Relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome following acute gastroenteritis and associated risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalcyk, B.K.; Smeets, H.M.; Succop, P.A.; de Wit, N.J.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    A prospective cohort study using electronic medical records was undertaken to estimate the relative risk (RR) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following acute gastroenteritis (GE) in primary-care patients in The Netherlands and explore risk factors. Patients aged 18–70 years who consulted for GE

  10. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  11. Incidentie van gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations in Nederland, 1992-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen ESM; Hoogenboom-Verdegaal AMM; Bartelds AIM; Sprenger MJW; Borgdorff MW; CIE, NIVEL

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands gastroenteritis belongs to the ten diseases with the highest incidence rates. A sentinel study on the incidence of gastrointestinal complaints and the occurrence of the investigated pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella) was carried out in about 40 general practices in

  12. Frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Greece (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, Dimitra; Grivea, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Tsioni, Heleni; Trimis, Georgios; Galanakis, Emmanuel; Farmaki, Evagelia; Iosifidis, Elias; Michos, Athanassios; Siamopoulou-Mavridou, Antigoni; Kalmanti, Maria; Papadopoulou, Heleni; Roilides, Emmanuel; Theodoridou, Maria; Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. A prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five Pediatric Hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in Greece. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of group A rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. Rotavirus strains were subjected to G and P genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A total of 393 children (216 boys) of median age 23 months, participated in the study. Rotavirus was the cause of acute gastroenteritis in 166 children, 42.3% (CI 95%, 37.4-47.1%) of non-hospitalized and 47.8% (CI 95%, 41.7-53.9%) of hospitalized patients. Rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred between December and April in 78.6% of the cases. Most children with RVG (77.8%) were between 3 months and 3 years old. The mean value of Clark severity score was 12.9 ± 5.1 for RVG and 10.5 ± 4.9 for non-RVG (P Genotypes were determined in 117 strains and their distribution was as following: G1P[8], 49%; G2P[4], 31%; G4P[8], 10%; G9P[8], 9%; and G8P[14], 1%. In conclusion, rotavirus is a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in Greece. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other European countries. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. First report of gastroenteritis by genotype G12 rotavirus in Dakar, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Dia, M.L.; Diop, A.; Sonko, M.A.; Bâ, M.; Cissé, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The genotype G12 rotavirus was isolated from the stool of children 5 years old or younger with acute gastroenteritis during 1 year in three Dakar hospitals. The G12 genotype was the most common (58.25%). VP4 genotyping revealed mixed genotypes (1.94%).

  14. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea.

  15. Isolation of cytopathic small round virus (Aichi virus) from Pakistani children and Japanese travelers from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Sakae, K; Kobayashi, S; Ishihara, Y; Miyake, T; Mubina, A; Isomura, S

    1995-01-01

    Aichi virus was isolated in Vero cells from 5 (2.3%) of 222 Pakistani children with gastroenteritis but none was found in 91 healthy children. Aichi virus was also isolated from 5 (0.7%) of 722 Japanese travelers returned from tours to Southeast Asian countries and complained of gastrointestinal symptoms at the quarantine station of Nagoya International Airport in Japan. Of 5 Japanese travelers, 3 were returning from Indonesia, and 2 from Thailand or Malaysia. These results indicate that Aichi virus or a similar agent is endemic in Southeast Asian countries and is a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children in these areas or in Japanese travelers who visit there.

  16. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.

    2009-01-01

    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  17. Use of Pathogen-Specific Antibody Biomarkers to Estimate Waterborne Infections in Population-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose of reviewThis review discusses the utility of pathogen-specific antibody biomarkers for improving estimates of the population burden of waterborne infections, assessing the fraction of infections that can be prevented by specific water treatments, and understanding transm...

  18. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  19. Reversible assembly of magnetized particles: Application to water-borne pathogen enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Qasem

    2009-12-01

    Reversible assembly of magnetized particles and cells has been proposed and implemented. The approach is based on magnetized particles or magnetically labeled cell immobilization in an array of individual particle/cell for optical counting. The device has been tested for few types of magnetic particles and one water-borne pathogen: Giardia Lamblia. An individual particle immobilization efficiency of 92% was achieved.

  20. A dynamic artificial clam (Corbicula fluminea) allows parsimony on-line measurement of waterborne metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, L.-J. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Department of Biomechatronic Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan 260 (China); Liao, C.-M. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China)]. E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw

    2006-11-15

    We introduce a novel on-line biomonitoring system based on a valvometric conversion technique for clam Corbicula fluminea, allowing for rapid, continuous, and ecological relevant water quality control. Our model builds upon the basic principles of biological early warning system model in two ways. We first adopted a risk-based methodology to build a dynamic artificial clam for simulating how the bivalve closure rhythm in response to waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). Secondly, we integrated a probabilistic model associated with the time-varying dose-response relationships of valve closing behavior into the mechanisms of a dynamic artificial clam, allowing estimation of the time-varying waterborne Cu/Cd concentrations for on-line providing the outcomes of the toxicity detection technique. Measurements with Cu/Cd were performed and the calculated EC50 values were compared with published data for the valve movement test with C. fluminea. This proposed dynamic artificial clam provides a better quantitative understanding of on-line biomonitoring measurements of waterborne metals and may foster applications in clam farm management strategy and ecotoxicological risk assessment. - A dynamic artificial clam allows on-line biomonitoring waterborne metal toxicity.

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of waterborne epoxy composites containing cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanhong Xu; Natalie Girouard; Gregory Schueneman; Meisha L. Shofner; J. Carson Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are reinforcing fillers of emerging interest for polymers due to their high modulus and potential for sustainable production. In this study, CNC-based composites with a waterborne epoxy resin matrix were prepared and characterized to determine morphology, water content, and thermal and mechanical properties. While some CNC aggregation was...

  2. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and

  3. Water and water-borne diseases in North Masaba District, kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result 1.8 million people mostly in developing countries, and 90% of whom are children under 5, die every year from diarrheal diseases such as including cholera. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating access to safe drinking water and the perceived incidence of water-borne diseases in North ...

  4. Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization in Controlling Biofilm- and Plankton-Associated Waterborne Pathogens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yusen E.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the efficacy of copper-silver ionization against the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii in biofilms and planktonic phases. At concentrations below the EPA limits, ionization has potential to control the three waterborne pathogens, in addition to Legionella, in hospital water systems for nosocomial infection control. PMID:20080997

  5. Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization in Controlling Biofilm- and Plankton-Associated Waterborne Pathogens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yusen E.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the efficacy of copper-silver ionization against the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii in biofilms and planktonic phases. At concentrations below the EPA limits, ionization has potential to control the three waterborne pathogens, in addition to Legionella, in hospital water systems for nosocomial infection control.

  6. Efficacy of copper-silver ionization in controlling biofilm- and plankton-associated waterborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yusen E

    2010-03-01

    The study was to determine the efficacy of copper-silver ionization against the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii in biofilms and planktonic phases. At concentrations below the EPA limits, ionization has potential to control the three waterborne pathogens, in addition to Legionella, in hospital water systems for nosocomial infection control.

  7. Comparing of UV and waterborne lacquers in view of amount of VOCs' emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Meloun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the problematic of indoor air pollution. There were tested low emitting types of lacquers – UV and waterborne lacquers. The work has been splitted in to two parts. In the first part samples of lacquers were applied on the particle board with beech veneer on the surface. Samples of air with VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds from lacquers were taken 3 and 24 hours after application. Tests proved that film layer of UV lacquer emit much smaller volumes of VOCs than acrylic waterborne lacquers or than 2–component epoxide waterborne lacquer. Acrylic waterborne lacquers’ materials emitted especially butoxyethylene, epoxide lacquer emitted a lot of butoxyethanol and methoxypropanol and UV lacquers particularly emitted toluene, benzene and xylene. Se­cond part of testing consists of VOCs’ measuring of chosen lacquers applied on different base materials – inertial material glass and particle board with beech veneer. Tested criterion was the impact of different base material on emitted amount of VOCs. The results showed that lacquer coated on glass emit much more chemicals than lacquer on wood material. All materials were also tested on total amount of organic compounds emitted in to the air – on the TVOC. Measuring showed the same results as the first parts of research.

  8. Facile approach to fabricate waterborne polyaniline nanocomposites with environmental benignity and high physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Wen, Huan; Hu, Bin; Fei, Guiqiang; Shen, Yiding; Sun, Liyu; Yang, Dong

    2017-03-01

    Waterborne polyaniline (PANI) dispersion has got extensive attention due to its environmental friendliness and good processability, whereas the storage stability and mechanical property have been the challenge for the waterborne PANI composites. Here we prepare for waterborne PANI dispersion through the chemical graft polymerisation of PANI into epichlorohydrin modified poly (vinyl alcohol) (EPVA). In comparison with waterborne PANI dispersion prepared through physical blend and in situ polymerisation, the storage stability of PANI-g-EPVA dispersion is greatly improved and the dispersion keeps stable for one year. In addition, the as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA film displays more uniform and smooth morphology, as well as enhanced phase compatibility. PANI is homogeneously distributed in the EPVA matrix on the nanoscale. PANI-g-EPVA displays different morphology at different aniline content. The electrical conductivity corresponds to 7.3 S/cm when only 30% PANI is incorporated into the composites, and then increases up to 20.83 S/cm with further increase in the aniline content. Simultaneously, the tensile strength increases from 35 MPa to 64 MPa. The as-prepared PANI-g-EPVA dispersion can be directly used as the conductive ink or coatings for cellulose fibre paper to prepare flexible conductive paper with high conductivity and mechanical property, which is also suitable for large scalable production.

  9. Global Warming and Trans-Boundary Movement of Waterborne Microbial Pathogens - Book Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtle increases in temperature can have profound impacts on the prevalence of various waterborne microbial pathogens. Such impacts may be seen in three major areas, 1) fecally contaminated drinking water, 2) fresh produce that has been irrigated or processed with contaminated wa...

  10. Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings with Covalently Linked Black Dye Sudan Black B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Colored waterborne polyurethanes have been widely used in paintings, leathers, textiles, and coatings. Here, a series of black waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs with different ratios of black dye, Sudan Black B (SDB, were prepared by step-growth polymerization. WPU emulsions as obtained exhibit low particle sizes and remarkable storage stability at the same time. At different dye loadings, essential structural, statistical and thermal properties are characterized. FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that SDB is covalently linked into waterborne polyurethane chains. All of the WPUs with covalently linked SDB show better color fastness and resistance of thermal migration than those with SDB mixed physically. Besides, WPUs incorporated SDB covalently with different polymeric diols, polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMG, polypropylene glycol (PPG, poly-1, 4-butylene adipate glycol (PBA and polycaprolactone glycol (PCL, were prepared to obtain different properties to cater to a variety of practical demands. By a spraying method, the black WPUs can be directly used as metal coatings without complex dyeing process by simply mixing coating additive and other waterborne resins, which exhibit excellent coating performance.

  11. Rotavirus vaccine and health-care utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tsu City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kazutoyo; Kamiya, Hajime; Suga, Shigeru; Nagao, Mizuho; Ichimi, Ryoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Umemoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ito, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shigeki; Ido, Masaru; Taniguchi, Koki; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in Japan in November 2011. We evaluated the subsequent reduction of the health-care burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years old before and after the vaccine introduction. We surveyed hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2015 and surveyed the number of outpatient visits at a Tsu City clinic from 2010 to 2015. Stool samples were obtained for rotavirus testing and genotype investigation. We assessed rotavirus vaccine coverage for infants living in Tsu City. In the pre-vaccine years (2007-2011), hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old were 5.5, 4.3, 3.1 and 3.9 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. In the post-vaccine years (2011-2015), the rates were 3.0, 3.5, 0.8 and 0.6 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. The hospitalization rate decreased significantly in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons compared to the average of the seasons before vaccine introduction (P vaccine year (2010-2011), the number of outpatient visits due to the rotavirus infection was 66. In the post-vaccine years (2011-2015), the numbers for each season was 23, 23, 7 and 5, respectively. The most dominant rotavirus genotype shifted from G3P[8] to G1P[8] and to G2P[4]. The coverage of one dose of rotavirus vaccine in Tsu City was 56.5% in 2014. After the vaccine introduction, the hospitalization rates and outpatient visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis greatly decreased.

  12. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  13. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharani Loganathan

    Full Text Available While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur and rural (Kuala Terengganu setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained.Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38% were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001. The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33% households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3% households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5% experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%. The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03 than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24.While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  14. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, and Colitis: Estimates From a National Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Martin, Christopher F; Kappelman, Michael D; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is becoming increasingly more common, but the prevalence of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis in the United States. We used the IMS Health LifeLink PharMetrics Plus Claims Database, data representative of a US national commercially insured population containing medical and pharmaceutical claims for > 75 million individuals. We restricted our sample to patients ages 0 to 64 with continuous enrollment between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. We identified patients with eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis as defined by ≥ 1 instance of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 535.70, 558.41, and 558.42, respectively. We calculated the prevalence of the codes in the database and then standardized the estimates to the US population by age and sex. The standardized estimated prevalences of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis were 6.3/100,000, 8.4/100,000, and 3.3/100,000, respectively. The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was the highest among children age gastritis was more prevalent among older age groups. We observed no age differences for eosinophilic colitis. Among affected patients, there was a high proportion of coexisting allergic conditions, 38.5% for eosinophilic gastritis, 45.6% for gastroenteritis, and 41.8% for colitis. Concomitant allergic disease was most commonly identified in pediatric patients. The prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs remains rare in the United States, with < 50,000 total patients affected. There appears to be a female predominance and a high co-occurrence of atopic comorbidities.

  15. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a case report and a review of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Benatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite its uncommon occurrence, eosinophilic gastroenteritis is one of the most important primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. These are defined as disorders that selectively affect the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophil-rich inflammation in the absence of known causes for eosinophilia. The disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis and eosinophilic colitis. Aim of the study: This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders with particular attention to primary eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Clinical case: We report a case of a 32-years-old woman that was admitted to our Hospital complaining of abdominal pain, ascites and diarrhea. Laboratory investigations showed a white cell count of 15.1 thousands/mm3 with eosinophilia; other laboratory studies were within the normal limits. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated peritoneal effusion and cytological analysis revealed a prevalence of eosinophils in the ascites. The multiple endoscopic biopsies were normal. However, the clinical history, and the laboratory, radiological and endoscopic findings gave a firm diagnosis of the serosal form of primary eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Discussion: This is a rare, benign condition, pathologically characterized by an important eosinophilic infiltration of the wall of the digestive tract and presents a constellation of symptoms that are related to the degree and area of the gastrointestinal tract affected. Primary eosinophilic gastroenteritis encompasses multiple disease entities subcategorized into three types on the basis of the level of histologic involvement: mucosal, muscolaris and serosal forms. Every layer of the gastrointestinal tract can be involved, so that endoscopic biopsy can be normal in patients with the muscolaris subtype, serosal subtype, or both.

  16. Rotavirus vaccine and health-care utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tsu City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Hajime; Suga, Shigeru; Nagao, Mizuho; Ichimi, Ryoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Umemoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ito, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shigeki; Ido, Masaru; Taniguchi, Koki; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in Japan in November 2011. We evaluated the subsequent reduction of the health-care burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years old before and after the vaccine introduction. We surveyed hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2015 and surveyed the number of outpatient visits at a Tsu City clinic from 2010 to 2015. Stool samples were obtained for rotavirus testing and genotype investigation. We assessed rotavirus vaccine coverage for infants living in Tsu City. Results In the pre-vaccine years (2007–2011), hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old were 5.5, 4.3, 3.1 and 3.9 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. In the post-vaccine years (2011–2015), the rates were 3.0, 3.5, 0.8 and 0.6 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. The hospitalization rate decreased significantly in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons compared to the average of the seasons before vaccine introduction (P rotavirus infection was 66. In the post-vaccine years (2011–2015), the numbers for each season was 23, 23, 7 and 5, respectively. The most dominant rotavirus genotype shifted from G3P[8] to G1P[8] and to G2P[4]. The coverage of one dose of rotavirus vaccine in Tsu City was 56.5% in 2014. Conclusion After the vaccine introduction, the hospitalization rates and outpatient visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis greatly decreased. PMID:28246579

  17. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  18. INACTIVATION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS AND MS2 BY OZONE AND OZONE-HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN BUFFERED WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection of drinking water by chlorine is a primary means of preventing the transmission of waterborne disease, and its efficacy is well-established. The comparative inactivation of highly purified hepatitis A virus (HAV) and MS2 by 1 mg water/L, 2.0 and 0.4 mg ozone/L plus 0...

  19. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit) for detection of rota virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur M; Bhave G

    1993-01-01

    Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit) for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20%) and 20 (25.3%) were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutinatio...

  20. Molecular characterization of the first Aichi viruses isolated in Europe and in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D-Y; Silva, P A; Hauroeder, B; Diedrich, S; Cardoso, D D P; Schreier, E

    2006-06-01

    The occurrence of Aichi virus, a picornavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis, has so far only been described in Asian countries. This study reports the first finding of Aichi virus in clinical specimens from Germany and Brazil. The nucleotide sequences of both a German and a Brazilian isolate were determined, analyzed, and compared to known Aichi sequences. The German strain turned out to be a member of genogroup A, while the Brazilian belonged to genogroup B. For a primary assessment of the epidemiological importance of Aichi virus in Germany, a panel of 485 German serum samples was screened for antibody to Aichi virus, and a seroprevalence of 76% was found.

  1. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  2. Gastroenteritis Attributable to 16 Enteropathogens in Children Attending Day Care Significant Effects of Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; van den Wijngaard, Cees; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; van Asten, Liselotte; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; Scholts, Rianne; Nagelkerke, Nico; Smit, Henriette A.; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Background: Children attending day care experience substantial gastrointestinal morbidity due to circulating seasonal enteropathogens in the day-care environment. The lack of a distinct clinical presentation of gastroenteritis (GE) in these children, in combination with the high diversity of

  3. Vaccines for rotavirus gastroenteritis universally needed for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H Fred; Offit, Paul A

    2004-08-01

    Rotavirus causes severe and often lifethreatening illness. Universal application of a safe and protective vaccine is justified in both developed and developing nations. Two vaccine candidates, one monovalent (Rotarix) and one multivalent (Rotateq), appear to meet these requirements and are likely to be licensed in the United States in the next 2 or 3 years. Both vaccines exhibited similar safety characteristics. There is little doubt that Rotateq and Rotarix will be shown to be effective for routine protection of infants. Unfortunately, despite numerous clinical trials, the most common serotype (PlaGa) commonly has been encountered as a natural challenge. Therefore, it is not known whether either vaccine possesses advantages in different epidemiological situations. Continuing the analogy with influenza virus, it may be that optimum protection against different serotypes requires a vaccine that is precisely homologous in antigen composition. If so, Rotateq would provide protection against the most common serotype PlaG1 because in includes both Pla and G1 rotavirus reassortants. Further, it would be expected to provide superior protection against G2, G3, and G4 wild-type virus because it contains reassortants of those specificities. In the case of a natural challenge with a serotype that was not G1, G2, G3, or G4, a Rotateq preparation containing a WC3 reassortant expressing the new G serotype could be formulated readily. The monotypic Rotarix may provide ideal protection against the PlaG1 rotavirus because it is composed solely of the PlaG1 strain. It may also provide cross-protection against other rotavirus serotypes adequate to protect against severe and life-threatening disease. In such a case, its monotypic composition may also provide significant economic savings in manufacturing. The resolution of these questions may have to await extensive post-licensure experience with each vaccine. In the future, possible application of rotavirus vaccine for other

  4. Effectiveness of a practice-based, multimodal quality improvement intervention for gastroenteritis within a Medicaid managed care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Randolph, Greg D; Johnson, Julie K; Wegner, Steven; Edwards, Lori; Powell, Carol; Esporas, Megan H

    2007-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis results in 220,000 hospitalizations yearly in the United States. The substantial geographic variation in gastroenteritis care, coupled with the evidence of effective treatment of dehydration in nonhospital settings, suggests that the majority of these hospitalizations are avoidable. We sought to decrease hospitalizations for gastroenteritis by using practice-based, multimodal quality improvement methods that target multiple care processes to make them consistent with evidence-based guidelines. We used a controlled before/after study design to evaluate a quality improvement intervention in a 20-practice Medicaid network. All 20 practices participated in continuing education sessions; received free oral rehydration solution, patient education materials, and performance feedback; and participated in a follow-up conference call. Three practices were chosen to develop and pilot office-process changes. These practices formed interdisciplinary teams to develop and test changes and collaborated with project faculty and each other. They shared their learning with the other 17 practices via a conference call and toolkit. We compared before/after gastroenteritis hospital admissions for children <5 years old covered by Medicaid in the intervention practices with all other Medicaid recipients in North Carolina using claims data from 2000-2002. The 3 high-intensity practices all made numerous changes to care processes. Most of the 17 low-intensity practices reported changes in their gastroenteritis care processes. Gastroenteritis admission rates declined 45% in high-intensity practices and 44% in low-intensity practices during the study compared with 11% in the control practices. A practice-based, multimodal quality improvement intervention that targets multiple care processes on the basis of evidence-based guidelines lowered rates of gastroenteritis hospitalization in a Medicaid network. This approach could lower costs attributable to gastroenteritis for

  5. The addition of ondansetron to a oral rehydration protocol for children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullarkey, C; Crowley, E; Martin, C

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the introduction of Ondansetron to an established waiting room Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) for Emergency Department (ED) children with acute gastroenteritis, and evaluates its impact on intravenous fluid administration and admissions. Children who failed initial ORT while waiting further medical assessment received Ondansetron and ORT reattempted. Data collected over a six week period in 2009 was compared to a similar period in 2008 when children received ORT without an anti-emetic. Outcome measures included intravenous fluid administration, admission. Rates of IVF administration reduced by 19% [88/215 (40.9%) in 2008, 51/234 (21.7%) in 2009, p rehydrated orally. The addition of Ondansetron to our established ORT programme has successfully reduced rates of IVF administration and admissions in children with gastroenteritis.

  6. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

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    Guillermo López-Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports.

  7. A point source outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among school students in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, P S; Thiagesan, Rajeswaran; Ramachandran, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak investigation was initiated following an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among schoolchildren in Kottarakara. Steps included active search for cases at schools, describing the outbreak in terms of person, place, and time, generating hypothesis based on the findings from descriptive study, environmental observations, and testing the hypothesis using a case-control design. The final line list consisted of 871 children from different schools who attended a Republic Day parade. Having consumed the lemon juice near railway station (odds ratio [OR] 29.14; 95% confidence interval CI 9.06-93.67) during Republic day parade was associated with the outbreak. The time frame of the disease occurrence, laboratory results, and the results of the analytical study indicated the point source of acute gastroenteritis outbreak as the contaminated water used for lemon juice distributed during the parade. The findings warrant effective food and water safety surveillance, especially during mass gatherings.

  8. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria

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    Olabode Atanda O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Plateau State. A total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic BIOLINE Rotavirus kit. Demographic data of parents were also recorded. Rotavirus were detected in faeces of 22(13.8% children with acute diarrhea, 90.9% of positive cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were under 2 years of age with highest prevalence in children 7-12 months of age. Males excreted rotavirus at a significant higher rate than females (P

  9. Predominance of rotavirus G8 genotype in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Yasuj, Iran.

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    Kargar, M; Khodadadi, P; Najafi, A; Ansari, H

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of gastroenteritis among children worldwide. In this study, we were evaluated the occurrence of rotavirus infection and genotypes causing gastroenteritis among children under 5 years in Yasuj, Iran. This cross sectional-descriptive study was done on 184 fecal samples collected from children aged G8 (46.16%), N.T.A (40.39%), mixed infections (1.92%). Predominance of rotavirus G8 genotype in the current survey was reported for the first time in Iran. The highest prevalence of rotavirus infection was observed in autumn (48.08%), and the lowest in spring (5.77%). The result of study showed that prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in this region of the country is different from that of other regions. The continuous stability of rotavirus in Iran, regarding to the regional differentiates and prevalence of circulating strains, can be useful indication in order to supply and effective vaccine against the rotavirus infections.

  10. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration Therapy in Children With Acute Gastroenteritis: A Systematic Review.

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    Toaimah, Fatihi Hassan Soliman; Mohammad, Hala Mohammad Fathi

    2016-02-01

    Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of rapid IV rehydration in children with gastroenteritis. A total of 1513 articles were retrieved, and our inclusion criteria were met by 3 studies, with a total of 464 participants. The percentage of children who were successfully rehydrated and tolerated oral fluids at 2 to 4 hours after starting IV fluid therapy ranged from 69% to 100% in both rapid IV rehydration and standard method. Time to discharge ranged from 2 to 6 hours (rapid rehydration) versus 2 to 5 hours (standard rehydration). Emergency department revisits ranged from 3% to 16% (rapid rehydration) versus 5% to 14% (standard). Summarized results suggested that rapid IV rehydration may be associated with longer time-to-discharge and higher readmission rates. The new evidence fails to demonstrate superiority of large-volume (60 mL/kg/h) over standard (20 mL/kg/h) IV rehydration. Standard volume IV rehydration for 1 to 4 hours followed by oral hydration or maintenance IV fluids seems sufficient for most children with gastroenteritis requiring IV fluid administration. However, more evidence is needed to establish an optimal IV rehydration regimen.

  11. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico

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    Ariadna Flores Ortega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.

  12. Human Parechovirus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Acute Gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka▿

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    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Trinh, Quang Duy; Abeysekera, Chandra; Abeygunawardene, Asiri; Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Of 362 fecal specimens collected from infants and children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka from September 2005 to August 2006, 30 (8.3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV). Six different HPeV genotypes, including HPeV1, -3, -4, -5, -10, and -11, were identified, of these, HPeV11 was reported for the first time. PMID:21048003

  13. Association of serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody seropositivity and protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan; Cunliffe, Nigel; Madhi, Shabir A; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Vinals, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix? (RV1) have demonstrated significant reductions in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. However, no correlate of vaccine efficacy (VE) has yet been established. This paper presents 2 analyses which aimed to investigate whether serum anti-RV IgA measured by ELISA 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination can serve as a correlate of efficacy against RVGE: (1) In a large Phase III efficacy trial (Rota-037), the Prentice criteria f...

  14. [Recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GI.3 in a small hotel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Jani; Hemminki, Kaisa; Pirnes, Aija; Roivainen, Merja; Al-Hello, Haider; Maunula, Leena; Kauppinen, Ari; Miettinen, Likka; Smit, Pieter W; Huusko, Sari; Toikkanen, Salla; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cases of gastroenteritis occurred in a small hotel. The causative agent of disease could not be detected. The cause and the source of the disease were established through epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnosis. The causative agent of the disease was norovirus GI.3. Norovirus GI was detected in the water from the well and on surfaces at the hotel. Both epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnostics are needed in resolving epidemics. Continuous development of laboratory methods is important.

  15. Rotavirus antigenemia in children is associated with more severe clinical manifestations of acute gastroenteritis.

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    Hemming, Maria; Huhti, Leena; Räsänen, Sirpa; Salminen, Marjo; Vesikari, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Rotavirus (RV) antigenemia and RNAemia are common findings in rotavirus-infected children. Sporadic associations between RV antigenemia and extraintestinal manifestations of RV infection have been observed. We examined the clinical severity of RV gastroenteritis in patients with and without RV antigenemia or RNAemia. Stool, serum and whole blood samples were collected from children seen with acute gastroenteritis in Tampere University Hospital and studied for RV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only exclusively RV-positive specimens were included into this study. The patients were divided into groups according to RV findings from stool, serum and blood specimens. Clinical manifestations were graded according to 20-point Vesikari scoring system. Of 374 children, 155 (41%) had RV in their stools. Of these 155 children, 105 (67%) were found to have RV RNA in the serum; of those, 94 (90%) had also RV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antigen. Thus antigenemia occurred in 61% (94 cases) of RV-infected children all of whom had concomitant RNAemia. Neither antigenemia nor RNAemia were detected in 85 patients with non-RV gastroenteritis. Patients who had RV RNA and RV antigen in both serum and stools were more likely to have a higher level of fever and more severe vomiting than patients who had RV only in stools. G1 genogroup RV was more often associated with RNAemia and antigenemia than other genogroups combined. Rotavirus antigenemia and viremia are commonly detected in children hospitalized for RV gastroenteritis and may be associated with increased severity of fever and vomiting.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological features of acute infantile gastroenteritis associated with human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhnoo, I; Svensson, L

    1986-01-01

    During a prospective 1-year study rotavirus isolates from 169 children with gastroenteritis were investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of 118 (70%) of the strains analyzed contained sufficient viral nucleic acid to give visible electrophoretic patterns; 36% were identified as strains belonging to subgroup 1 (short patterns), and 64% were identified as strains belonging to subgroup 2 (long patterns). The two subgroups cocirculated at equal frequencies during the first 7 m...

  17. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olabode Atanda O; Umeh Chijioke; Junaid Surajudeen A; Banda Jim M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Plateau State. A total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic BIOLINE Rotavirus kit. Demographic data of parents were also recorded. Rotavirus were detected in faeces of...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Human Adenovirus in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Albania, 2013–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G.; Della Libera, S.; Petricca, S.; Iaconelli, M.; Donia, D.; Saccucci, P.; Cenko, F.; Xhelilaj, G.; Divizia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in paediatric patients with gastroenteritis in Albania and to characterize HAdV strains. Faecal specimens from children admitted with acute gastroenteritis to the Paediatric Hospital in Tirana were screened for HAdV, using broad-range primers targeting the hexon gene, in combination with species-specific primers targeting the fiber gene. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. Adenovirus DNA was detected in 33/142 samples (23.2%); 14 belonged to species F (13 HAdV-41 and 1 HAdV-40), 13 to species C (1 HAdV-1, 8 HAdV-2, and 4 HAdV-5), 5 to species B (HAdV-3), and 1 to species A (HAdV-12). Rotavirus coinfection was present in 9/33 (27.2%) positive samples. In the remaining 24 positive samples (12 enteric—F species; 12 nonenteric—A, B, or C species), HAdVs were detected as unique viral pathogens, suggesting that HAdV may be an important cause of diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalization. This is the first study investigating the presence of human adenoviruses (species A–G) as etiologic agents of viral gastroenteritis in children in Albania. PMID:26339589

  19. Genetic Diversity of Human Adenovirus in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Albania, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Petricca, S; Iaconelli, M; Donia, D; Saccucci, P; Cenko, F; Xhelilaj, G; Divizia, M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in paediatric patients with gastroenteritis in Albania and to characterize HAdV strains. Faecal specimens from children admitted with acute gastroenteritis to the Paediatric Hospital in Tirana were screened for HAdV, using broad-range primers targeting the hexon gene, in combination with species-specific primers targeting the fiber gene. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. Adenovirus DNA was detected in 33/142 samples (23.2%); 14 belonged to species F (13 HAdV-41 and 1 HAdV-40), 13 to species C (1 HAdV-1, 8 HAdV-2, and 4 HAdV-5), 5 to species B (HAdV-3), and 1 to species A (HAdV-12). Rotavirus coinfection was present in 9/33 (27.2%) positive samples. In the remaining 24 positive samples (12 enteric--F species; 12 nonenteric--A, B, or C species), HAdVs were detected as unique viral pathogens, suggesting that HAdV may be an important cause of diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalization. This is the first study investigating the presence of human adenoviruses (species A-G) as etiologic agents of viral gastroenteritis in children in Albania.

  20. Use of racecadotril as outpatient treatment for acute gastroenteritis: a prospective, randomized, parallel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mar; Marañón, Rafael; Miguez, Concepión; Vázquez, Paula; Sánchez, Cesar

    2009-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of therapy with racecadotril plus oral rehydration versus oral rehydration alone in children with gastroenteritis in an outpatient setting care. Prospective, randomized, open and parallel study performed in a Pediatric Emergency Service of a tertiary care hospital. The study included 189 patients, ages 3 to 36 months, with acute gastroenteritis: 94 were administered an oral rehydration solution (OR), 94 received oral rehydration solution plus racecadotril (OR + R). The principal variable studied was the number of bowel movements in 48 hours after initiating treatment. The groups were comparable clinically and epidemiologically at enrollment. No significant differences were found in the number of bowel movements between the 2 groups 48 hours after initiating treatment (4.1 +/- 2.7 bowel movements in the OR group vs 3.8 +/- 2.4 bowel movements in the OR + R group). No differences were found in the average duration of gastroenteritis (4.7 +/- 2.2 days in the OR group, 4.0 +/- 2.1 days in the OR + R group; P = .15). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups (19 patients [20.2%] in the OR group, 18 patients [19.1%] in the OR + R group). In our study group, the use of racecadotril did not improve the symptoms of diarrhea compared with standard rehydration therapy.

  1. The Most Common Microbial Causes of Gastroenteritis in Patients With Clinical Manifestations

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    Kazemian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Gastroenteritis is a remarkable hygiene problem worldwide. Bacteria and parasites can cause gastroenteritis-associated disorders. Objectives The aims of study were to survey the most common cause of gastroenteritis in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ilam, Iran. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was performed during 2012 to 2013. After collecting 2376 stool samples, standard biochemical and microbiological tests were performed. Susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion method agreeing with clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI guidelines. The protozoa were detected by sediment wet-mount method. Results Of 2376 patients, 466 (19.6% were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria or protozoa.The frequency of microorganisms isolated from the patients were 10.3%, 2.5%, 2.5%, 2.1%, 46.4%, 30.9%, 2.5% and 2.5% for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, E. coli and Candida spp., respectively. Sensitivities to ciprofloxacin in E. coli and S. dysenteriae strains were 100% and 91.66%, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that some patients were probably contaminated with nonbacterial and nonparasitic agents. All the parasitic isolates were resistant to most antibiotics. Therefore determination of microbial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility is necessary before treatment procedures.

  2. ENTERIC ADENOVIRUS INFECTION IN INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN TEHRAN

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    F. Jam-Afzon S. Modarres

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are one of the most important etiological agents of serious gastroenteritis among infants and young children. Fecal specimens from patients with an acute gastroenteritis were evaluated for the presence of adenovirus (Ad40, 41 from April 2002 to February 2004. During the study, 1052 samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years in six educational and therapeutic pediatric centers. The specimens were tested for adenovirus (Ad40, 41 by EIA technique in the Virology Department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Adenoviruses (Ad40, 41 were detected from 27(2.6% samples, but were not detected in 150 samples of healthy control group. In this study the highest rate of adenovirus was found in children aged 6 to 12 months (40.7%, but the male to female ratio inpatients was approximately equal. Adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infections peaked in the winter as 48.1% was detected from December to March. There were a statistically significant difference between age and infection (P < 0.001, also between season with adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection (P = 0.005. Breast-feeding had a protective action against adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection. This study revealed that enteric adenovirus (Ad40, 41 is an etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis among children in Tehran.

  3. Xyloglucan for the Treatment of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial

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    Cătălin Pleșea Condratovici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Xyloglucan, a film-forming agent, improves intestinal mucosa resistance to pathologic damage. The efficacy, safety, and time of onset of the antidiarrheal effect of xyloglucan were assessed in children with acute gastroenteritis receiving oral rehydration solution (ORS. Methods. This randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, clinical trial included children (3 months–12 years with acute gastroenteritis of infectious origin. Children were randomized to xyloglucan and ORS, or ORS only, for 5 days. Diarrheal symptoms, including stool number/characteristics, and safety were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 days and by fulfillment of a parent diary card. Results. Thirty-six patients (58.33% girls were included (n=18/group. Patients receiving xyloglucan and ORS had better symptom evolution than ORS-only recipients, with a faster onset of action. At 6 hours, xyloglucan produced a significantly greater decrease in the number of type 7 stools (0.11 versus 0.44; P=0.027. At days 3 and 5, xyloglucan also produced a significantly greater reduction in types 6 and 7 stools compared with ORS alone. Xyloglucan plus ORS was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions. Xyloglucan is an efficacious and safe option for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children, with a rapid onset of action in reducing diarrheal symptoms. This study is registered with ISRCTN number 65893282.

  4. Viral gastroenteritis associated with genogroup II norovirus among U.S. military personnel in Turkey, 2009.

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    Salwa F Ahmed

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37 stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.

  5. Estimating the Burden of Medically Attended Norovirus Gastroenteritis: Modeling Linked Primary Care and Hospitalization Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cattaert, Tom; Harris, John; Lopman, Ben; Tam, Clarence C; Ferreira, Germano

    2017-11-15

    Norovirus is the leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial acute gastroenteritis. Routine testing for norovirus is seldom undertaken, and diagnosis is mainly based on presenting symptoms. This makes understanding the burden of medically attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) and targeting care and prevention strategies challenging. We used linked population-based healthcare datasets (Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database linked with Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) to model the incidence of MA-NGE associated with primary care consultations or hospitalizations according to age groups in England in the period July 2007-June 2013. Mean annual incidence rates of MA-NGE were 4.9/1000 person-years and 0.7/1000 person-years for episodes involving primary care or hospitalizations, respectively. Incidence rates were highest in children aged norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis hospitalization rates were second highest in adults aged >65 years (1.7/1000 person-years). In this particular study, the burden of MA-NGE estimated from healthcare datasets was higher than previously estimated in small cohort studies in England. Routinely collected primary care and hospitalization datasets are useful resources to estimate and monitor the burden of MA-NGE in a population over time.

  6. Molecular epidemiology and clinical characterization of group A rotavirus infections in Tunisian children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Gharbi-Khelifi, Hakima; Hassine, Mouna; Chouchane, Slaheddine; Sakly, Nabil; Neji-Guédiche, Mohamed; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2011-10-01

    Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of samples, among them 79.3% (n = 169) cases were monoinfections. The frequency of rotavirus infections was significantly higher among inpatients (29%) than among outpatients (13%) (P rotavirus diarrhea showed a winter peak, with an unusual peak from June to September. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.5 ± 8.1 days and the mean age was 15.8 ± 22.8 months for rotavirus monoinfections. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were observed in 88, 98, 13, and 80 cases, respectively, in children with rotavirus monoinfections. G3P[8] (45.6%) and G1P[8] (23.9%) were the most common genotypes found in our study. The determination of rotavirus infection prevalence and the characterization of the rotavirus strains circulating will help us to better understand the molecular biology and epidemiology of the disease in our country.

  7. Approaches to immunization of infants and young children against gastroenteritis due to rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikian, A Z; Wyatt, R G; Greenberg, H B; Kalica, A R; Kim, H W; Brandt, C D; Rodriguez, W J; Parrott, R H; Chanock, R M

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in developed countries rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis that requires hospitalization of infants and young children. Although deaths from gastroenteritis are, in general, infrequent in the developed countries, an effective rotavirus vaccine would clearly be of benefit to reduce the heavy toll of morbidity from gastroenteritis due to rotavirus. In the developing countries the impact of diarrheal diseases is staggering. It was recently estimated that in Asia, Africa, and Latin-America during a one-year period there would be 3.5 billion cases of diarrhea and 5-10 million deaths associated with diarrhea; in addition, diarrhea was ranked first in freqency in the categories of disease and mortality. In the developing countries rotaviruses are known to cause diarrhea, but their relative role in this high mortality rate is not yet known. epidemiologic data indicate that development of an effective rotavirus vaccine would reduce morbidity, and they suggest that a vaccine would also reduce a portion of the mortality from diarrheal disease. The prospects and approaches for the development of an effective rotavirus vaccine are presented. The recent successful propagation of rotavirus type 2 in cell culture represents an important step in this regard. In addition, the antigenic relation between human and animal strains offers another possible approach. The need for a live attenuated vaccine is indicated by the prime role played by local intestinal immunity in resistance to rotavirus disease.

  8. Emergence of G9P[8] rotaviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It, Wisoot Chan-; Chanta, Chulapong

    2017-10-27

    Human group A rotavirus is a major contagious virus causing gastroenteritis in children. Molecular epidemiological study of group A rotavirus infections in hospitalized children was performed by multiplex RT-PCR during 2015 to 2016 in Chiang Rai, Thailand. G- and P-genotypes of positive rotavirus samples were further analyzed by one-step and two-step multiplex RT-PCR methods. Among 270 fecal specimens tested, rotavirus was the most prevalent (33.7%), followed by norovirus GII (4.1%), adenovirus (3%) and astrovirus (1.5%). Infection was common in patients aged 12-23 months (45.1%) and occurred mostly in children under 3 years of age (85.7%). The highest peak was in a hot month, March (64.8%). G9P[8] emerged as the most predominant (79.1%), followed by G3P[8] (13.2%), G1P[8] (3.3%) and mixed G-types (4.4%). Interestingly, Chiang Rai G9 strains were clustered within a distinct lineage VII including G9 recently reported since 2010 to 2015. G9-VII also contained 4-5 unique amino acid substitutions in the VP7 proteins compared with those of the G9 candidate vaccine strain RVA/Human-tc/IND/116E/1985/G9P[11] and the prototype RVA/Human-wt/USA/WI61/ 1983/G9P[8], defining the G9-VII as a novel variant. G3 strains were closely related to the "new G3P[8] reassortant variant" with an equine-like VP7 gene that emerged in several countries. This study contributes to the understanding of the genetic diversity, providing scientific support for future vaccine strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Added value of multiplex Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG® GPP) testing in the diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis.

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    Wessels, E; Rusman, L G; van Bussel, M J A W M; Claas, E C J

    2014-03-01

    The Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG(®) GPP) detects in one assay the most common gastroenteritis-causing pathogens and toxins, namely adenovirus 40/41, norovirus genogroup (NG) I/II, rotavirus A, Clostridium difficile toxin A/B, Campylobacter sp., Escherichia coli O157, Enterotoxigenic E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin/heat-stable enterotoxin, Salmonella sp., Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Shiga-like toxin (Stx)1/2, Shigella sp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia sp. In this study, we compared the results that were obtained by testing 393 faecal samples, collected during November and December 2011 at our laboratory, using the xTAG(®) GPP assay with the results of the routine diagnostic procedure. This procedure includes culture for bacteria and real-time PCR for viruses and parasites, but only if the test was requested by the clinician. If the clinician did not request the test for an xTAG(®) GPP-positive target, real-time PCR assays were used to confirm xTAG(®) GPP positivity. Discrepant results were also tested with real-time PCR assays. A total of 83 targets were detected in 76 samples using xTAG(®) GPP. The xTAG(®) GPP assay detected 43 additional positives compared with the routine diagnostic procedure, of which 11 targets could not be confirmed by real-time PCR. The non-confirmed targets were Campylobacter (one sample), Salmonella (four samples), Shigella (one sample) and E. histolytica (five samples). The xTAG(®) GPP was shown to be a convenient and sensitive assay for detection of 15 major gastrointestinal pathogens in a single molecular test, but for detection of E. histolytica and Salmonella, a confirmatory assay is indicated. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Two-Component Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings: Fluorescence, Thermostability and Flame Retardancy

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    Xuan Yin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent and flame-retardant two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings were synthesized using 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene, a halogen-free polyphosphate and a hydrophilic curing agent, and their properties were systematically characterized. The average particle sizes and zeta potential values were below 170 nm and −30 mV. Meanwhile, the multifunctional two-component waterborne polyurethane coatings had strong fluorescence intensities. When comparing with the coatings with 0.5 wt % 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene, the coatings with 1.0 wt % 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene had a stronger microphase separation. Interestingly, the thermostability of the multifunctional coatings was remarkably improved through 1.0 wt % 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene, and besides it belonged to nonflammable materials. Additionally, all of the coating films passed the solvent resistance testing. These samples with different amounts of 1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene are environmental friendly, especially applications that require transparent and fluorescent coatings.

  11. Immunomagnetic separation for MEMS-based biosensor of waterborne pathogens detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianjiang; Zhang, Rongbiao

    2017-07-01

    Rapid isolation and detection of special pathogens present in environmental drinking water is critical for water quality monitoring. Numerical analysis and experimental investigations on immunomagnetic capture and isolation of waterborne pathogens with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in microfluidic channel are performed. A finite-element COMSOL-based model is established to demonstrate the novel method of on-chip capturing pathogens using MNPs together with periodic pulse magnetic field. Simulation results determine the optimum magnetic pole current and switching frequency for magnetic separation. With the magnetic isolation experiment platform built up, as a pathogen example of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the performance of the method is experimentally verified. Both numerical and experimental results are found to agree reasonably well. Results of these investigations show that the capture efficiency of the immunomagnetic separation method is more than 92%, which could be encouraging for the design and optimization of MEMS-based biosensor of waterborne pathogen detection.

  12. Classification and prediction of river network ephemerality and its relevance for waterborne disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Larsen, Joshua; Ceperley, Natalie; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of waterborne diseases hinges on the interactions between hydrology and ecology of hosts, vectors and parasites, with the long-term absence of water constituting a strict lower bound. However, the link between spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological ephemerality and waterborne disease transmission is poorly understood and difficult to account for. The use of limited biophysical and hydroclimate information from otherwise data scarce regions is therefore needed to characterize, classify, and predict river network ephemerality in a spatially explicit framework. Here, we develop a novel large-scale ephemerality classification and prediction methodology based on monthly discharge data, water and energy availability, and remote-sensing measures of vegetation, that is relevant to epidemiology, and maintains a mechanistic link to catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, with reference to the context of Burkina Faso in sub-Saharan Africa, we extract a relevant set of catchment covariates that include the aridity index, annual runoff estimation using the Budyko framework, and hysteretical relations between precipitation and vegetation. Five ephemerality classes, from permanent to strongly ephemeral, are defined from the duration of 0-flow periods that also accounts for the sensitivity of river discharge to the long-lasting drought of the 70's-80's in West Africa. Using such classes, a gradient-boosted tree-based prediction yielded three distinct geographic regions of ephemerality. Importantly, we observe a strong epidemiological association between our predictions of hydrologic ephemerality and the known spatial patterns of schistosomiasis, an endemic parasitic waterborne disease in which infection occurs with human-water contact, and requires aquatic snails as an intermediate host. The general nature of our approach and its relevance for predicting the hydrologic controls on schistosomiasis occurrence provides a pathway for the explicit inclusion of

  13. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  14. The design and implementation of a prototype surf-zone robot for waterborne operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Three dimensional (3D) simulation, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling are used to design and implement a waterborne surf-zone robot prototype. This robot is an autonomous platform meant to be a test-bed for sensors and algorithms for future developments; a key enabler is its modular design. It combines the capabilities of an untethered Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and an Unmanned ...

  15. Failure Mechanisms of the Coating/Metal Interface in Waterborne Coatings: The Effect of Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Wan; Dongdong Song; Xiaogang Li; Dawei Zhang; Jin Gao; Cuiwei Du

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne coating is the most popular type of coating, and improving its performance is a key point of research. Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings. It refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and substrate. Physical and chemical characteristics of coatings have been studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and s...

  16. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  17. Comparison of a Riverine Waterborne Transport and Dispersion Model and Yellowstone River Dye Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and Dispersion Model and Yellowstone River Dye Releases N. Platt, Project Leader J. L. Palguta January 2015...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5330 Comparison of a Riverine Waterborne Transport and Dispersion Model and Yellowstone ...conducted in the Yellowstone River. We selected this study because it provided all the necessary information for setting up ICWater simulations and

  18. Contaminación de los alimentos por virus: un problema de salud pública poco comprendido Viral contamination of food products: a poorly understood public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. B. Ferrari

    1998-06-01

    measures. This study was conducted for the purpose of contributing to the dissemination of information on these diseases and their etiologic agents, epidemiology, and control. The study was based on data from 61 sources, including review articles, reports of outbreaks, and databases. Results reveal considerable underregistration and lack of data on FBD throughout the various countries, with viruses being the second most important cause of FBD in the United States of America. Two agents, Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus, were the fifth and sixth most frequent causes, respectively, although the former was the single most frequent cause of FBD in 1982 and the second most frequent cause of water-borne diseases during the period from 1986 to 1988. Despite the scarcity of information on the problem, rotavirus, poliovirus, hepatitis E virus, astrovirus, and small gastroenteric viruses are also important causes of FBD. We also discuss the importance of viral zoonoses, especially hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by contact with rodent feces and tick-borne viral encephalitides (Lassa fever. There is discussion of the controversial mad cow disease and its potential transmission through food products, as well as of dietary aspects of the management of AIDS and other viral infections. Finally, measures for the prevention and control of FBD are described.

  19. Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Frederick L; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-12-09

    The roles free-living amebae and the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium coli play as agents of waterborne zoonotic diseases are examined. The free-living soil and water amebae Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are recognized etiologic agents of mostly fatal amebic encephalitides in humans and other animals, with immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts among the victims. Acanthamoeba spp. are also agents of amebic keratitis. Infection is through the respiratory tract, breaks in the skin, or by uptake of water into the nostrils, with spread to the central nervous system. E. histolytica and B. coli are parasitic protozoa that cause amebic dysentery and balantidiasis, respectively. Both intestinal infections are spread via a fecal-oral route, with cysts as the infective stage. Although the amebic encephalitides can be acquired by contact with water, they are not, strictly speaking, waterborne diseases and are not transmitted to humans from animals. Non-human primates and swine are reservoirs for E. histolytica and B. coli, and the diseases they cause are acquired from cysts, usually in sewage-contaminated water. Amebic dysentery and balantidiasis are examples of zoonotic waterborne infections, though human-to-human transmission can occur. The epidemiology of the diseases is examined, as are diagnostic procedures, anti-microbial interventions, and the influence of globalization, climate change, and technological advances on their spread.

  20. New hybrid latexes from a soybean oil-based waterborne polyurethane and acrylics via emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2007-10-01

    A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes have been successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion has been synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of 125 +/- 20 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications.

  1. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Li, Wei [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Self-dopedpolyaniline (SPANi) with good conductivity and dispersibility in water was copolymerized by aniline and its derivative. • Environmental friendly SPANi/epoxy composite coating with remarkable anti-corrosion performance was prepared. • The corrosion product of pure epoxy or composite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Abstract: Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  2. River networks as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of water-borne disease (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Suweis, S.; Ceola, S.; Carrara, F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2010-12-01

    Recent works at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology under an integrated framework of analysis will be reviewed with a view to a general theory for reactive transport on networks. A number of related topics will be reviewed, linked by the characters of stochastic transport, and the networked environmental matrix (including biodiversity of freshwater fish in river networks and vegetation along riparian systems, how river networks affected historic spreading of human populations, and how they influence the spreading of water-borne disease). The unique, coherent ecohydrological thread and similar mathematical methods will be exposed. Metacommunity and individual-based models will be described in the contexts of hydrochory, population and species migrations, and the spreading of infections of water-borne disease along the ecological corridors generated by the river basin. A general effect is shown to emerge on the effects of dendritic geometries on the ecological processes and dynamics operating on river basins. Insights provided by such a theory will lend themselves to issues of practical importance such as integration of riparian systems into large-scale resource management, spatial strategies to minimize loss of freshwater biodiversity, and effective prevention/vaccination campaigns against water-borne diseases.

  3. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks.

  4. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shihui; Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun; Li, Wei; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2017-06-01

    Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  5. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. A systematic review of nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Michelle; Guo, Wilson; Li, Trudy; Cronk, Ryan; Abebe, Lydia S; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-11-01

    Water is an important, overlooked, and controllable source of nosocomial infection. Hospitalized neonates and their mothers are particularly vulnerable to nosocomial waterborne infections. Our objectives through this systematic review were to: investigate water sources, reservoirs, and transmission routes that lead to nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers; establish patient risk factors; compile measures for controlling outbreaks and recommended strategies for prevention; and identify information gaps to improve guidelines for reporting future outbreaks. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov. Peer-reviewed studies reporting contaminated water as a route of transmission to neonates and/or their mothers were included. Twenty-five studies were included. The most common contaminated water sources in healthcare facilities associated with infection transmission were tap water, sinks, and faucets. Low birthweights, preterm or premature birth, and underlying disease increased neonatal risk of infection. Effective control measures commonly included replacing or cleaning faucets and increased or alternative methods for hand disinfection, and recommendations for prevention of future infections highlighted the need for additional surveillance. The implementation of control measures and recommended prevention strategies by healthcare workers and managing authorities of healthcare facilities and improved reporting of future outbreaks may contribute to a reduction in the incidence of nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Competence in water-borne heating systems in buildings; Kompetanse innen vannbaarene varmesystemer i bygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarstein, Stig; Palm, Linn Therese; Naess, Bente Haukland; Nossum, Aase; Johnsen, Morten

    2009-01-15

    Trade participants in water-borne heating systems in buildings has experienced mistakes in all phases and of all participants of a project. When water-borne heating system functions, there is almost no follow up. This report is based on a qualitative survey where a several central participants, who on a daily basis are involved in projects with water-borne heating systems, are interviewed or have participated in focus group meetings. Following points illustrate experiences made by the operators in occasions where competence in trade is insufficiencies and mistakes occur: - Property developer lacks ordering competence and has problems in ordering quality. Consultant submit services of minor quality. Performance is of another quality than the supplier. Administration / maintenance lacks competence in how to run the system and without introduction and training in the heating system they take over a system that is over dimensioned and hard to regulate. The trade as a whole knows all the challenges, but the participants gives mainly the impression that the fault is lac of competence for all the other participants - not them self. This report points out measures and Enova can support competence improving measures which on long term will improve the quality from the participants. The trade is recommended to look into project execution, how competence is involved at the right moment, improving of control and documentation routines and at termination / hand over. (AG).14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Aichi virus strains in stool samples from community and hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambert-Balay, K; Lorrot, M; Bon, F; Giraudon, H; Kaplon, J; Wolfer, M; Lebon, P; Gendrel, D; Pothier, P

    2008-04-01

    Aichi virus has been proposed as a causative agent of gastroenteritis. A total of 457 stool specimens from children hospitalized with acute diarrhea and 566 stool specimens from adults and children involved in 110 gastroenteritis outbreaks were screened for the presence of Aichi virus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of the genomic region of the 3C and 3D (3CD) nonstructural proteins. Our results show a low incidence of Aichi virus in pediatric samples and the existence of mixed infections with other microbiological agents in some cases. From the outbreak survey, it appears that the presence of Aichi virus is an indicator of mixed infections causing gastroenteritis outbreaks and that it could be involved in half of the oyster-associated outbreaks. A second RT-PCR was developed to amplify a part of the VP1 gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed a good correlation between the two classifications based on 3CD and VP1 gene sequences and revealed the prevalence of genotype A in France. It also allowed us to partially describe an Aichi virus strain that could represent a new genotype, thus suggesting the existence of a certain diversity.

  9. Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbys Fedorowicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vomiting is a common manifestation of acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents. When untreated, it can be a hindrance to oral rehydration therapy, which is the cornerstone in the management of acute gastroenteritis. Evidence is needed concerning the safety and efficacy of antiemetic use for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis induced vomiting in children and adolescents. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conferences. The search was re-run and is up to date as on 20 July 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing antiemetics with placebo or no treatment, in children and adolescents under the age of 18, for vomiting due to gastroenteritis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials involving 1,020 participants. Mean time to cessation of vomiting in one study was 0.34 days less with dimenhydrinate suppository compared to placebo (P value = 0.036. Pooled data from three studies comparing oral ondansetron with placebo showed: a reduction in the immediate hospital admission rate (RR 0.40, NNT 17, 95% CI 10 to 100 but no difference between the hospitalization rates at 72 hours after discharge from the Emergency Department (ED; a reduction in IV rehydration rates both during the ED stay (RR 0.41, NNT 5, 95% CI 4 to 8, and in follow-up to 72 hours after discharge from the ED stay (worst-best scenario for ondansetron RR 0.57, NNT 6, 95% CI 4 to 13 and an increase in the proportion of patients with cessation of vomiting (RR 1.34, NNT 5, 95% CI 3 to 7. No significant difference was noted in the revisit

  10. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and turbot Scophthalmus maximus to European freshwater and marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, J.A.; Snow, M.; Skall, Helle Frank

    2001-01-01

    pathogenicity to Atlantic salmon. Virus was detected in some mortalities, however, demonstrating viral entry and replication. European marine VHS virus isolates do not appear to pose an imminent threat to the Atlantic salmon culture industry. Turbot were found to be refractive or of low susceptibility to marine...... of turbot culture to the VHS virus isolates that are enzootic to the European marine environment.......A number of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus isolates of European marine origin were shown to be of low pathogenicity or non-pathogenic to Atlantic salmon parr by waterborne infection. A reference freshwater VHS virus isolate known to be highly pathogenic to rainbow trout was also of low...

  11. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  12. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses.

  13. Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiry, D.; Mauroy, A.; Saegerman, C.; Thomas, I.; Wautier, M.; Miry, C.; Czaplicki, G.; Berkvens, D.; Praet, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Cariolet, R.; Brochier, B.; Thiry, E.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence

  14. Identification of Aichi Virus Infection by Measurement of Immunoglobulin Responses in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Ito, Miyabi; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Sakae, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    Using inhibitory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroconversions to Aichi virus were detected in 24 (42.9%) of 56 patients with gastroenteritis in six outbreaks. Virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) was detected in convalescent-phase sera from 7 of 24 patients. Of the other 17 patients, 12 developed a significant increase in both IgA and IgG levels and 5 developed a significant increase in IgG alone. PMID:11682554

  15. Aichi virus infection in elderly people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Nina; Wahlström, Kristin; Svensson, Lennart; Serrander, Lena; Lindberg, A Michael

    2012-07-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae, is associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Previous studies have shown high seroprevalence but low incidence (0.9-4.1%) in clinical samples. We report here the first detection of AiV in Sweden. Two hundred twenty-one specimens from hospitalized patients with diarrhea, who were negative for other enteric viruses, were included in the study. AiV were detected in three specimens, all from elderly patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three Swedish isolates belonged to genotype A and were genetically closest to European and Asian strains of AiV.

  16. Upgrading a piped water supply from intermittent to continuous delivery and association with waterborne illness: a matched cohort study in urban India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ercumen, Ayse; Arnold, Benjamin F; Kumpel, Emily; Burt, Zachary; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, Jr, John M

    2015-01-01

    ... water availability for hygiene. We assessed the association between continuous versus intermittent water supply and waterborne diseases, child mortality, and weight for age in Hubli-Dharwad, India...

  17. Climate change impacts on faecal indicator and waterborne pathogen concentrations and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Nynke; Vermeulen, Lucie C.; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y.

    2013-04-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns may impact on the concentrations of the faecal indicator E. coli and waterborne pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium, in the surface water, and consequently - through drinking water, recreational water or consumption of irrigated vegetables - on the risk of waterborne disease. Although an increased temperature would generally increase the decline of pathogens and therefore decrease the surface water concentrations, increased precipitation and an increased incidence of extreme precipitation may increase surface water concentrations through increased (sub-)surface runoff and an increased risk of sewer overflows. And while the diluting effect of increased precipitation decreases the surface water concentration, decreased precipitation increases the percentage of sewage in the surface water and therefore increases the concentration. Moreover, (extreme) precipitation after drought may also increase the concentration. Changes in behaviour, such as increased recreation and irrigation with higher temperatures may impact on the disease risk. What the balance is between these positive and negative impacts of climate change on faecal indicator and waterborne pathogen concentrations and disease is not well known yet. A lack of available statistical or process-based models and suitable scenarios prevents quantitative analyses. We will present two examples of recent studies that aim to assess the impact of climate change on faecal indicator concentrations and waterborne disease. The first is a study on the relationship between climate variables and E. coli concentrations in the water of river systems in the Netherlands for the period 1985 - 2010. This study shows that each of the variables water temperature (negatively), precipitation and discharge (both positively) are significantly correlated with E. coli concentrations for most measurement locations. We will also present a linear regression model, including all of these

  18. Analytical studies assessing the association between extreme precipitation or temperature and drinking water-related waterborne infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Herrador, Bernardo R; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; MacDonald, Emily; Nichols, Gordon; Sudre, Bertrand; Vold, Line; Semenza, Jan C; Nygård, Karin

    2015-03-27

    Determining the role of weather in waterborne infections is a priority public health research issue as climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme precipitation and temperature events. To document the current knowledge on this topic, we performed a literature review of analytical research studies that have combined epidemiological and meteorological data in order to analyze associations between extreme precipitation or temperature and waterborne disease.A search of the databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science was conducted, using search terms related to waterborne infections and precipitation or temperature. Results were limited to studies published in English between January 2001 and December 2013.Twenty-four articles were included in this review, predominantly from Asia and North-America. Four articles used waterborne outbreaks as study units, while the remaining articles used number of cases of waterborne infections. Results presented in the different articles were heterogeneous. Although most of the studies identified a positive association between increased precipitation or temperature and infection, there were several in which this association was not evidenced. A number of articles also identified an association between decreased precipitation and infections. This highlights the complex relationship between precipitation or temperature driven transmission and waterborne disease. We encourage researchers to conduct studies examining potential effect modifiers, such as the specific type of microorganism, geographical region, season, type of water supply, water source or water treatment, in order to assess how they modulate the relationship between heavy rain events or temperature and waterborne disease. Addressing these gaps is of primary importance in order to identify the areas where action is needed to minimize negative impact of climate change on health in the future.

  19. Relationship between ABO histo-blood group type and an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis among primary and junior high school students: results of questionnaire-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Yoshizumi, Shima; Sato, Chiaki; Okui, Toyo; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Honma, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    .... In January 2003, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis including 661 affected primary and junior high school students occurred through lunch bread contaminated with norovirus in Hokkaido, Japan...

  20. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human rhinovirus in stool samples of individuals with and without acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoonta, Prapaporn; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) most often causes mild upper respiratory tract infection. Although RV is routinely isolated from the respiratory tract, few studies have examined RV in other types of clinical samples. The prevalence of RV was examined in 1,294 stool samples collected mostly from children with acute gastroenteritis residing in Bangkok and Khon Kaen province of Thailand between January 2010 and October 2014. In addition, 591 samples from hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina patients who do not have gastroenteritis served as a comparison group. Samples were initially screened by semi-nested PCR for the RV 5'UTR through the VP2 capsid region. RV genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were performed on the VP4/VP2 regions. Among children with acute gastroenteritis, RV was found in 2.3% (30/1,294) of stool samples, which comprised 47% (14/30) RV-A, 17% (5/30) RV-B, and 37% (11/30) RV-C. In the comparison group, 0.8% (5/591) was RV-positive and RV-C (3/5) was the major species found. Interestingly, RV was recovered more often from children with acute gastroenteritis than from those with HFMD or herpangina. As many as 31 RV types were present in the gastroenteritis stools, which were different than the types found in those with HFMD or herpangina. J. Med. Virol. 89:801-808, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. BEC, a Novel Enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens Found in Human Clinical Isolates from Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonogi, Shinya; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Kawai, Takao; Yoda, Tomoko; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Shota; Kodama, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis for which C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been considered an essential factor. Recently, we experienced two outbreaks of food-borne gastroenteritis in which non-CPE producers of C. perfringens were strongly suspected to be the cause. Here, we report a novel enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens isolates, BEC (binary enterotoxin of C. perfringens). Culture supernatants of the C. perfringens strains showed fluid-accumulating activity in rabbit ileal loop and suckling mouse assays. Purification of the enterotoxic substance in the supernatants and high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA of the strains revealed BEC, composed of BECa and BECb. BECa and BECb displayed limited amino acid sequence similarity to other binary toxin family members, such as the C. perfringens iota toxin. The becAB genes were located on 54.5-kb pCP13-like plasmids. Recombinant BECb (rBECb) alone had fluid-accumulating activity in the suckling mouse assay. Although rBECa alone did not show enterotoxic activity, rBECa enhanced the enterotoxicity of rBECb when simultaneously administered in suckling mice. The entertoxicity of the mutant in which the becB gene was disrupted was dramatically decreased compared to that of the parental strain. rBECa showed an ADP-ribosylating activity on purified actin. Although we have not directly evaluated whether BECb delivers BECa into cells, rounding of Vero cells occurred only when cells were treated with both rBECa and rBECb. These results suggest that BEC is a novel enterotoxin of C. perfringens distinct from CPE, and that BEC-producing C. perfringens strains can be causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, the presence of becAB on nearly identical plasmids in distinct lineages of C. perfringens isolates suggests the involvement of horizontal gene transfer in the acquisition of the toxin genes. PMID:24664508

  3. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Gothefors, Leif; Huelsse, Christel; Huet, Frédéric; Littmann, Martina; Maxwell, Melanie; Talayero, José M P; Todd, Peter; Vila, Miguel T; Cantarutti, Luigi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  4. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  5. Value of point-of-care ketones in assessing dehydration and acidosis in children with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jason A; Waltzman, Mark; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    Children with gastroenteritis often develop dehydration with metabolic acidosis. Serum ketones are frequently elevated in this population. The goal was to determine the relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and both the degree of dehydration and the magnitude of acidosis. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial of crystalloid administration for rapid rehydration. Children 6 months to 6 years of age with gastroenteritis and dehydration were enrolled. A point-of-care serum ketone (beta-hydroxybutyrate) concentration was obtained at the time of study enrollment. The relationship between initial serum ketone concentration and a prospectively assigned and previously validated clinical dehydration score, and serum bicarbonate concentration, was analyzed. A total of 188 patients were enrolled. The median serum ketone concentration was elevated at 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.2 to 4.6 mmol/L), and the median dehydration score was consistent with moderate dehydration. A significant positive relationship was found between serum ketone concentration and the clinical dehydration score (Spearman's rho = 0.22, p = 0.003). Patients with moderate dehydration had a higher median serum ketone concentration than those with mild dehydration (3.6 mmol/L vs. 1.4 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Additionally, the serum ketone concentration was inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate concentration (ρ = -0.26, p dehydration have elevated serum ketone concentrations that correlate with both degree of dehydration and magnitude of metabolic acidosis. Point-of-care serum ketone measurement may be a useful tool to inform management decisions at the point of triage or in the initial evaluation of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Catalonia, Spain, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Bosch, Anna; Sicuri, Elisa; Bayas, José M; Trilla, Antoni; Hayes, Edward B

    2011-10-20

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children in Spain and worldwide. We evaluated hospitalizations due to community and hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and estimated related costs in children under 5 years old in Catalonia, Spain. We analyzed hospital discharge data from the Catalan Health Services regarding hospital admissions coded as infectious gastroenteritis in children under 5 for the period 2003-2008. In order to estimate admission incidence, we used population estimates for each study year published by the Statistic Institut of Catalonia (Idescat). The costs associated with hospital admissions due to rotavirus diarrhea were estimated for the same years. A decision tree model was used to estimate the threshold cost of rotavirus vaccine to achieve cost savings from the healthcare system perspective in Catalonia. From 2003 through 2008, 10655 children under 5 years old were admitted with infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Twenty-two percent of these admissions were coded as RVGE, yielding an estimated average annual incidence of 104 RVGE hospitalizations per 100000 children in Catalonia. Eighty seven percent of admissions for RVGE occurred during December through March. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days, 0.6 days longer than for other IGE. An additional 892 cases of presumed nosocomial RVGE were detected, yielding an incidence of 2.5 cases per 1000 child admissions. Total rotavirus hospitalization costs due to community acquired RVGE for the years 2003 and 2008 were 431,593 and 809,224 €, respectively. According to the estimated incidence and hospitalization costs, immunization would result in health system cost savings if the cost of the vaccine was 1.93 € or less. At a vaccine cost of 187 € the incremental cost per hospitalization prevented is 195,388 € (CI 95% 159,300; 238,400). The burden of hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus appeared to be lower in Catalonia than in other regions of

  7. Hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Catalonia, Spain, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children in Spain and worldwide. We evaluated hospitalizations due to community and hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and estimated related costs in children under 5 years old in Catalonia, Spain. Results We analyzed hospital discharge data from the Catalan Health Services regarding hospital admissions coded as infectious gastroenteritis in children under 5 for the period 2003-2008. In order to estimate admission incidence, we used population estimates for each study year published by the Statistic Institut of Catalonia (Idescat). The costs associated with hospital admissions due to rotavirus diarrhea were estimated for the same years. A decision tree model was used to estimate the threshold cost of rotavirus vaccine to achieve cost savings from the healthcare system perspective in Catalonia. From 2003 through 2008, 10655 children under 5 years old were admitted with infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Twenty-two percent of these admissions were coded as RVGE, yielding an estimated average annual incidence of 104 RVGE hospitalizations per 100000 children in Catalonia. Eighty seven percent of admissions for RVGE occurred during December through March. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days, 0.6 days longer than for other IGE. An additional 892 cases of presumed nosocomial RVGE were detected, yielding an incidence of 2.5 cases per 1000 child admissions. Total rotavirus hospitalization costs due to community acquired RVGE for the years 2003 and 2008 were 431,593 and 809,224 €, respectively. According to the estimated incidence and hospitalization costs, immunization would result in health system cost savings if the cost of the vaccine was 1.93 € or less. At a vaccine cost of 187 € the incremental cost per hospitalization prevented is 195,388 € (CI 95% 159,300; 238,400). Conclusions The burden of hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus appeared to be lower in

  8. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis-related mortality and hospital discharges in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Vicente; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajero, Olga; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo E

    2012-02-01

    Rotavirus vaccination was introduced in Panama in March 2006. This study was carried out in order to describe the trends in gastroenteritis-related (GER) hospitalizations and mortality in children Panama region. Overall, at 2-years post-vaccine introduction, the GER mortality rate in Panama had decreased by 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 46-54). During 2000-2005, the GER mortality rate in children (Panama region registered the highest mortality rate reduction (69%; 95% CI 58-81) for 2008. During 2008, GER hospitalizations among children Panama. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis: A 2 year Analysis to Understand Current Prevalence in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nerurkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established the high prevalence of paediatric Rotavirus gastroenteritis in India. The importance of rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection has also been stressed upon, to initiate prompt rehydration therapy and prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics .We undertook a retrospective analysis of 327 paediatric stool specimens to understand the current prevalence and seasonal distribution of cases in Mumbai and its surrounding areas. Overall Rotavirus positivity rate was 37.9 %, with peak positivity in winter seasons. Infections were more common upto 2 years of age. Incidence of bacterial and parasitic coinfections was low.

  10. Comparative evaluation of coagglutination and latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur M

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagglutination test was compared with commercially available latex agglutination test (Rotalex kit for detection of rota virus in faecal samples from clinically suspected cases of viral gastroenteritis. Out of 80 test samples 16 (20% and 20 (25.3% were positive for rota virus antigen by Rotalex kit and coagglutination test respectively. All the 40 controls were negative for viral antigen by Rotalex kit and only one gave positive result by coagglutination test. Coagglutination test was found to be economical, sensitive and specific for screening and rapid diagnosis of Rota virus diarrhoea.

  11. [Environmental virology and sanitation in Brazil: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Sanitation services play a critical role in controlling transmission of numerous waterborne pathogens, especially viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis. The viral agents with the greatest public health impact are hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and noroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, contaminating many Brazilian aquatic ecosystems. Heavy circulation of viruses in the environment has been related to inadequate local sanitary conditions, including incomplete coverage of services or inefficacy of conventional technologies in eliminating or reducing the viral load in water or sewage. This study reviews the relations between virology, health, and sanitation, emphasizing the epidemiology of waterborne viral infections and their public health impact.

  12. Natural Populations of Shipworm Larvae Are Attracted to Wood by Waterborne Chemical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Gunilla B.; Larsson, Ann I.; Jonsson, Per R.; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  13. Are soil and waterborne parasitic infections health risk for worker populations in southeast Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Ak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The soil and waterborne parasitic infections rate is high degree in developed and developing countries. Migratory workers have greater exposure to these parasitic infections and a lot of morbidity due to these infections in workers. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the presence of soil and waterborne parasites in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone of southeast Turkey. Methods: A total of 25 environmental samples (18 soil samples and 7 water samples were taken from The Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone, in two different seasons (summer and winter. All of the samples were screened for parasites using microscopic examination and culture methods. The parasites were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analysis. Results: The prevalence of soil and water transmitted parasites was found to be positive 52% (13/25 in summer while there is no any parasites in winter. It was found 22.3% (4/18 Acanthamoeba (genotype4, 16.6% (3/18 Ascaris lumbricoides, 11.1% (2/18 Strongoides stercoralis in soil samples and 14.3% (1/7 Acanthamoeba (genotype 4, 42.9% (3/7 Blastocystis (subtype3 in all of water samples. Conclusion: The migratory worker waves have always shaped the ethnic composition and public health problem of the province of Gaziantep. Climate change has the potential to influence prevalence of parasite and our study has shown that increased prevalence of parasite in summer. The global target for the coming years should be to remove the deaths from earth and waterborne parasitic infections in the worker populations. Thus, we prevent the distribution of parasitic infections in our country.

  14. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  15. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla B Toth

    Full Text Available The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next

  16. Threat-Sensitive Behavioral Responses to Concentrations of Water-Borne Cues from Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic organisms often detect predators via water-borne chemical cues, and respond by showing reduced activity. Prey responses may be correlated with the concentration of predation cues, which would result in graded antipredator behavioral responses that adjust potentially costly behavioral changes to levels that are commensurate with the risk of predation. Larvae of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Previous work has established that O. triseriatus reduce movement, foraging, and time below the surface, and increase the frequency of resting at the surface, in the presence of water-borne cues from predation by T. rutilus. We tested whether these responses by O. triseriatus are threat sensitive by recording behavior of fourth instar larvae in two runs of an experiment in which we created a series of concentrations (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01% and 100, 70, 40, 20, and 10%) of water that had held either O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) or a T. rutilus larva feeding on O. triseriatus (predation). We also tested whether associated effects on time spent feeding are threat sensitive by determining whether frequencies of filtering or browsing are also related to concentration of cues. The frequencies of resting and surface declined, whereas frequency of filtering (but not browsing) increased more rapidly with a decrease in concentration of predation cues compared with control cues. Thus, O. triseriatus shows a threat sensitive behavioral response to water-borne cues from this predator, adjusting its degree of behavioral response to the apparent risk of predation. PMID:17440601

  17. Reparation and characterization of water-borne polyurethane based on PCDL or (and) PCL prepolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yenan; Zhao, Can; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-08-01

    A series of waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) were synthesized by a pre-polymer process from isophorone diisocyanate and polycarbonatediol (PCDL), polycaprolactone (PCL). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, dynamic thermomechanical analysis and mechanical measurements were employed to characterize the thermal stability, physical and mechanical properties of the films derived from the emulsions. The results show that there is better mechanical properties of and thermal stability for PCL-based WPU. The thermal stability of PCDL-PCL based WPU, whichin the mass ratio of PCDL to PCL is 1 to 1 is the best. The PCDL-based WPU has the highest glass transition temperature.

  18. Preparation, thermal property and morphology analysis of waterborne polyurethane-acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyu; Jing, Zefeng; Qiu, Fengxian; Dai, Yuting; Xu, Jicheng; Yu, Zongping; Yang, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    A series of waterborne polyurethane-acrylate (WPUA) dispersions were prepared with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), polyether polyol (NJ-210), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), hydroxyethyl methyl acrylate (HEMA), different proportions of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyl acrylate (MMA and EA) and initiating agent by the emulsion co-polymerization. The structures, thermal properties and morphology of WPUA films were characterized with FT-IR, DSC, SEM and AFM. Performances of the dispersions and films were studied by means of apparent viscidity, particle size and polydispersity, surface tension and mechanical properties. The obtained WPUA have great potential application such as coatings, leather finishing, adhesives, sealants, plastic coatings and wood finishes.

  19. Risk perception and water purification practices for water-borne parasitic infections in remote Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalsky, Adrienne N; Lacey, Steven E; Kaphle, Upendra Raj; Vaughn, James M

    2008-10-01

    This study assesses water-borne infection risk perception and water boiling habits in a remote Sankhuwasava region of Nepal using a brief interview-style questionnaire. All subjects were aware of the risks associated with drinking unpurified water, but a majority (65%) reported they did not boil water regularly, and almost 60% of villagers interviewed had history of infection despite their boiling practices. In contrast to reports from other communities in Nepal, risk awareness was sufficient in this region. Water boiling alone did not confer protection. Future efforts should target sanitation, screening, and other sources of contamination.

  20. Water-borne Infections, Weather Variability and Climate Change in Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, A.; Naumova, E. N.; Liss, A.

    2012-12-01

    For this project, a time-series analysis of existing data will be used to assess temporal and spatial associations between long-term, seasonal and short-term weather variability and water-borne infectious diseases in several Siberian municipalities. Building on these associations, we will generate estimates of future changes in infectious disease patterns based upon existing forecasts of climate change and likely increases in extreme weather events in Eastern Russia. Finally, we will contemplate the public health implications of these findings, and offer appropriate policy recommendations.

  1. Epidemiologic Association Between FUT2 Secretor Status and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C.; Currier, Rebecca L.; Staat, Mary A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Halasa, Natasha B.; Englund, Janet A.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Boom, Julie A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Klein, Eileen J.; Chappell, James; Harrison, Christopher J.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Moffatt, Mary D.; McNeal, Monica; Wikswo, Mary; Bowen, Michael D.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test–positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. RESULTS One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test–positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P rotavirus gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic polymorphism that inactivates FUT2 expression on the intestinal epithelium. We observed a strong epidemiologic association among children with rotavirus gastroenteritis compared with healthy control participants. The exact cellular mechanism behind this epidemiologic association remains unclear, but evidence suggests that it may be rotavirus genotype specific. The lower

  2. Interim report of a study on gastroenteritis in sentinel practices in the Netherlands (NIVEL) 1996-1999. Results of the first two years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit MAS; Koopmans MPG; Kortbeek LM; van Leeuwen WJ; Vinje J; van Duynhoven YTHP; CIE

    1999-01-01

    In 1996 is een onderzoek gestart naar gastro-enteritis in de huisartsenpraktijk in samenwerking met het Nederlands Instituut voor onderzoek van de Gezondheidszorg (NIVEL). Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel de incidentie van gastro-enteritis in de huisartsenpraktijk te schatten, de effecten van

  3. Interimrapportage van onderzoek naar gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations (NIVEL 1996-1997). Methoden en resultaten van de eerste vijf maanden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit MAS de; Kortbeek LM; Koopmans MPG; Leeuwen WJ van; Bartelds AIM; Asperen IA van; Borgdorff MW; CIE; LIS; LIO; NIVEL

    1997-01-01

    From January 1996 consultations of gastro-enteritis are being registered in sentinel practices in the Netherlands. In parallel, from May 1996, a case-control study is carried out among patients consulting a general practitioner with gastro-enteritis and age-matched controls consulting the same

  4. The Significance of Serum and Fecal Levels of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 in Hospitalized Children with Acute Rotavirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ming Chen

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: IL-6 and IL-8 are involved in the pathogenesis of acute gastroenteritis in both rotavirus and norovirus. An ANC of less than 9000/mm3, maximum BT of less than 38.2°C, and Vesikari score of less than 14 at the end of the course are potential predictors of norovirus infection in children compared with rotavirus gastroenteritis.

  5. Detection and characterisation of rotaviruses from children less than 5 years hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis in Nagercoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Babji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Group A rotavirus continues to be the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children in developing countries. In this study, we report the prevalence and genotype of rotaviruses identified from children <5 years of age hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis from Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu from 2007-2010. From the 139 children included in the study, 71 samples (51% were positive by ELISA and 65 samples were positive by PCR-based methods. G1P[8] (44.6% was the most commonly identified genotype. In addition, we report detection of rotavirus in two of three CSF samples from children with seizures.

  6. The effect of a rapid rehydration guideline on Emergency Department management of gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Danielle; McGrath, Ian; Maude, Phil

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the use and effect of a rapid rehydration guideline for the management of gastroenteritis in children 6months to 4years of age in an Emergency Department (ED). The guideline aims to facilitate rehydration within 4h of arrival to the ED, using oral or nasogastric fluids. Primary outcome measures were ED Length of Stay (LOS) and hospital admission rates. Documentation of physiological recovery and consistency of re-hydration regimes used were examined as secondary outcomes. A quasi-experimental design using the medical records of 235 children pre and post intervention was used. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, medians, interquartile ranges) were used to summarize the data. The pre and post-test groups were compared using Chi Square and the Mann Whitney U Test. There was an increase in the ED LOS and in hospital admission rates post implementation of the rapid rehydration guideline in the ED. However, the time frame for initiation of rehydration therapy using oral or nasogastric routes improved post guideline implementation. The need for improvements in the ED management of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis has been highlighted providing potential benefits to patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  8. Nontyphoidal salmonella infection in children with acute gastroenteritis: prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei

    2014-03-01

    Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.

  9. SAPOVIRUSES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS FROM MANAUS , AMAZON REGION, BRAZIL, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Hernandez, Juliana das Merces; Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Sousa, Maísa Silva de; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Bandeira, Renato da Silva; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana Darc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2016-11-03

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are responsible for acute gastroenteritis in humans, especially children and the elderly. In Brazil, data on SaVs infections are very limited, especially in Northern Brazil. Here, we investigated the occurrence of SaVs in samples from hospitalized children under ten years old that presented acute gastroenteritis. Positive samples were genotyped and phylogenetic analysis was performed using prototype strains sequences obtained from GenBank database. In total, 156 fecal samples were screened by RT-PCR for SaVs. A positivity rate of 3.8% (6/156) was found in children under three years of age. Four genotypes were detected: GI.I, GI.2 and GII.2?-GII.4?/GII.4, suggesting a possible inter-genotypes recombination. Most infections (83.3%) occurred between August and September. The positivity was similar to that found in other countries and genotyping demonstrated the presence of distinct genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the circulation of SaVs in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Amazon region, Brazil.

  10. A large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in a hotel in Singapore, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, P; Tay, J; Ang, L W; Tien, W S; Thu, M; Lee, P; Pang, Q Y; Tang, Y L; Lee, K Y; Maurer-Stroh, S; Gunalan, V; Cutter, J; Goh, K T

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.

  11. Norovirus genotype diversity associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in aged-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, L D; Dunbar, N L; Marshall, J A

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis. Vaccine strategies against norovirus are currently under consideration but depend on a detailed knowledge of the capsid genotypes. This study examined the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in residential aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia over one year (2013) and documented the (capsid) norovirus genotypes associated with these outbreaks. It was found that 65·0% of 206 outbreaks tested were associated with norovirus infection, thereby showing norovirus to be the major cause of viral gastroenteritis in residential aged-care facilities. Fifteen capsid (open reading frame 2) genotypes were identified as follows: GI.2 (0·9%), GI.3 (1·8%), GI.4 (3·7%), GI.6 (0·9%), GI.7 (0·9%), GI.8 (0·9%), GII.1 (0·9%), GII.2 (0·9%), GII.3 (1·8%), GII.4 (2009-like) (0·9%), GII.4 (2012) (48·6%), GII.4 (2012-like) (16·5%), GII.4 (unknown) (9·2%), GII.5 (2·8%), GII.6 (0·9%), GII.7 (0·9%), GII.13 (6·4%) and an as yet unclassified GII genotype (0·9%). Although GII.4 was the most common norovirus capsid genotype detected, the great diversity of norovirus genotypes in the elderly indicates vaccination strategies for this demographic are not straightforward.

  12. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contamination of drinking water in a factory, the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altzibar, J M; Zigorraga, C; Rodriguez, R; Leturia, N; Garmendia, A; Rodriguez, A; Alkorta, M; Arriola, L

    2015-03-01

    On 18 September 2013, the Gipuzkoa Epidemiology Unit was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among employees at a domestic appliance factory. The first signs of the outbreak had emerged at the end of June and at the time of the notification 30 workers were on sick leave for gastroenteritis. Some employees had had more than one episode and the main symptoms were diarrhoea and vomiting. An investigation began to identify the causative agent, assess exposure and determine the route of transmission. Data collected by a questionnaire identified 302 episodes of AGE among 238 people affected between June and September 2013. The source of water consumed was found to be a risk factor associated with the appearance of symptoms both in the crude and the adjusted analysis: odds ratio 1.8 (0.8-4.2) and 6.4 (4.2-9.8), respectively. Microbiological analysis of stool samples and of water confirmed the presence of norovirus and rotavirus. The environmental study detected a connection between an industrial use water system and drinking water at the factory. It was concluded that the outbreak was caused by mixed viral infections, due to contamination of drinking water.

  13. Nationwide variation in the effects of temperature on infectious gastroenteritis incidence in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of temperature on the incidence of infectious gastrointestinal disease in a single city or region, few have investigated variations in this association using nationwide data. We obtained weekly data, gathered between 2000 and 2012, pertaining to infectious gastroenteritis cases and weather variability in all 47 Japanese prefectures. A two-stage analysis was used to assess the nonlinear and delayed relationship between temperature and morbidity. In the first stage, a Poisson regression allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of temperature on morbidity. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was applied to pool estimates at the national level. The pooled overall relative risk (RR) was highest in the 59.9th percentile of temperature (RR, 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.15). Meta-analysis results also indicated that the estimated pooled RR at lower temperatures (25th percentile) began immediately but did not persist, whereas an identical estimate at a higher temperature (75th percentile) was delayed but persisted for several weeks. Our results suggest that public health strategies aimed at controlling temperature-related infectious gastroenteritis may be more effective when tailored according to region-specific weather conditions.

  14. Acceptability and efficacy of a gel hypotonic oral rehydration solution in children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; Nocerino, Rita; Terrin, Gianluca; Cecere, Gaetano; De Marco, Giulio; Micillo, Maria; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Malamisura, Monica; Maddalena, Ylenia; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2015-05-01

    Oral rehydration solution remains the mainstay of acute gastroenteritis therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptability of a new zinc-containing hypotonic super-oral rehydration solution (ORS) in a gel formulation and its efficacy in reducing the duration and severity of diarrhea in children. This was a randomized-controlled trial of children (5-36 months of age) observed for diarrhea lasting less than 24 h. Children were randomized to receive standard hypotonic ORS (group 1) or a gel hypotonic super-ORS containing zinc (group 2). The main study outcome was ORS intake in the first 24 h. ORS intake at 4 h, rate of diarrhea resolution at 72 h of treatment, total duration and severity of diarrhea, hospitalization, and adverse effects were also evaluated. Eighty-three children were enrolled (group 1: 40; group 2: 43). The amount of ORS consumed at 24 h was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. A similar result was observed at 4 h. The number of children who refused ORS (hypotonic super-ORS containing zinc in a gel formulation had a positive effect on the severity of diarrhea. No patient required hospitalization. No adverse events were observed in either of the two study groups. The new zinc-containing hypotonic super-ORS in a gel formulation is effective in the management of childhood acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Multicenter prospective study analysing the role of rotavirus on acute gastroenteritis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Sanchez, F; Delgado-Rubio, A; Martinon-Torres, F; Bernaola-Iturbe, E

    2010-05-01

    Paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children up to 5 years of age worldwide. To analyse the clinical characteristics of AGE caused by rotavirus comparing to AGE caused by other agents. The study was conducted in 30 health-care centers in Spain (25 hospitals and five primary centers) between January and March 2006. Children with AGE up to 2 years of age were included. Stool samples were analysed using immunochromatographic test to identify rotavirus infection. Clinical and epidemiological data were analysed. A total of 1192 children were enrolled (mean age: 11.2 months). Fever, Vomiting, weakness and dehydration were more frequent in rotavirus-positive AGE cases. Severity score was higher and hospitalization was likely in AGE caused by rotavirus. Family AGE illness was more frequent in children with rotavirus-positive AGE. Breastfeeding was found as a protective factor against Rotavirus AGE. Rotavirus is the primary causal agent of AGE in children under 2 years of age in Spain, causing more severe symptoms and more hospital admissions than other causal agents. Our data support the interest of the introduction of the available rotavirus vaccines in the Spanish immunization schedule.

  16. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Umeh, Chijioke; Olabode, Atanda O; Banda, Jim M

    2011-05-16

    This study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Plateau State. A total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic BIOLINE Rotavirus kit. Demographic data of parents were also recorded. Rotavirus were detected in faeces of 22(13.8%) children with acute diarrhea, 90.9% of positive cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were under 2 years of age with highest prevalence in children 7-12 months of age. Males excreted rotavirus at a significant higher rate than females (PRotavirus excretion was highest when all three symptoms (diarrhea, fever and vomiting) occurred in the same child (7.5%) and lower when 2 symptoms occurred together (diarrhea and vomiting) with 3.8%, diarrhea and fever with 1.3% and lowest when diarrhea occurred alone with 1.3%. Playing with toys, attending day care, distance of source of water from toilet, eating of food not requiring cooking and playing with other children may serve as predisposing factors of rotavirus disease in these children.

  17. Postinfection Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Links Between Gastroenteritis, Inflammation, the Microbiome, and Functional Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Ian A; Aroniadis, Olga C; Kelly, Libusha; Brandt, Lawrence J

    Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. More specifically, classes such as Bacteroides and Clostridia are differentially abundant in many PI-IBS patients. Altered microbiota may perpetuate a cycle of enteric and systemic inflammation, potently activating neural afferent signaling in the enteric nervous system and causing pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS patients. Altered production of microbial metabolites, for example short chain fatty acids, may have enteric and systemic effects on the host. Longitudinal sampling to characterize changes in the microbiota's genetic, metabolic, and transcriptional activities over time from IGE to PI-IBS may enable improved diagnosis and classification of PI-IBS cases into subtypes, allowing for targeted antibiotic, probiotic, and prebiotic treatments. PI-IBS is a heterogenous and largely organic disease marked by specific alterations in functions of the microbiota and is an important model for studying microbial influences on intestinal, neurological, and psychological host functions.

  18. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  19. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  20. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration to Correct Dehydration and Resolve Vomiting in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush AZARFAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rapid intravenous rehydration to resolve vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency department in a tertiary care center in Tabriz, North-West of Iran. The study participants' were 150 children with acute gastroenteritis and vomiting who were moderately dehydrated, had not responded to oral rehydration therapy and without any electrolyte abnormalities. 20–30 cc/kg of a crystalloid solution was given intravenously over 2 hours and the control group was admitted in the emergency department (ED for a standard 24 hour hydration. Effectiveness of rapid intravenous rehydration in the resolution of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis was evaluated. Results: In 63 children of the intervention group (out of 75 vomiting was resolved after rapid IV rehydration and they were discharged. Among them, 12 that did not tolerate oral fluids were admitted. In the control group, 62 patients' vomiting was resolved in the first 4 hours after admission, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding resolution of vomiting. Conclusions: Rapid intravenous rehydration in children with moderate dehydration and vomiting due to gastroenteritis is effective in reducing admission rates in the ED. ÖZET: Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, akut gastroenteritli çocuklarda, hızlı intravenöz rehidratasyon tedavisinin kusma üzerine etkisini değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu randomize kontrollü çalışma İran'ın Kuzeybatısındaki Tebriz ilinde üçüncü basamak çocuk acil servisinde gerçekleştirildi. Çalışmaya orta derecede dehidrate, elektrolit anormalliği olmayan ve oral rehidrasyon tedavisine yanıt vermemiş akut gastroenteritli 150 çocuk katıldı. İki saat içinde intravenöz yolla 20–30 cc/kg kristaloid çözelti verildi ve kontrol grubu standart

  1. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wash their hands properly Food prepared using unclean cooking utensils, cutting boards, or other tools Dairy products ... R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Viral gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. Dupont HL. Acute infectious diarrhea in immunocompetent adults. N Engl J Med . 2014; ...

  3. The Membrane M Protein Carboxy Terminus Binds to Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Core and Contributes to Core Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escors, David; Ortego, Javier; Laude, Hubert; Enjuanes, Luis

    2001-01-01

    The architecture of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus includes three different structural levels, the envelope, an internal core, and the nucleocapsid that is released when the core is disrupted. Starting from purified virions, core structures have been reproducibly isolated as independent entities. The cores were stabilized at basic pH and by the presence of divalent cations, with Mg2+ ions more effectively contributing to core stability. Core structures showed high resistance to different concentrations of detergents, reducing agents, and urea and low concentrations of monovalent ions (<200 mM). Cores were composed of the nucleoprotein, RNA, and the C domain of the membrane (M) protein. At high salt concentrations (200 to 300 mM), the M protein was no longer associated with the nucleocapsid, which resulted in destruction of the core structure. A specific ionic interaction between the M protein carboxy terminus and the nucleocapsid was demonstrated using three complementary approaches: (i) a binding assay performed between a collection of M protein amino acid substitution or deletion mutants and purified nucleocapsids that led to the identification of a 16-amino-acid (aa) domain (aa 237 to 252) as being responsible for binding the M protein to the nucleocapsid; (ii) the specific inhibition of this binding by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) binding to a carboxy-terminal M protein domain close to the indicated peptide but not by MAbs specific for the M protein amino terminus; and (iii) a 26-residue peptide, including the predicted sequence (aa 237 to 252), which specifically inhibited the binding. Direct binding of the M protein to the nucleoprotein was predicted, since degradation of the exposed RNA by RNase treatment did not affect the binding. It is proposed that the M protein is embedded within the virus membrane and that the C region, exposed to the interior face of the virion in a population of these molecules, interacts with the nucleocapsid to which it

  4. Genetic characterization of a novel G3P[14] rotavirus strain causing gastroenteritis in 12 year old Australian child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Celeste M; Manuelpillai, Nicholas M; Cowley, Daniel; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Buttery, Jim P; Crawford, Nigel W; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    A genotype G3P[14] rotavirus strain was identified in a 12year old child presenting to the Emergency Department of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, with gastroenteritis. G3P[14] strains have been previously identified in rabbits in Japan, China, the USA and Italy and a single lapine-like strain from a child in Belgium. Full genome sequence analysis of RVA/Human-wt/AUS/RCH272/2012/G3P[14] (RCH272) revealed that the strain contained the novel genome constellation G3-P[14]-I2-R3-C3-M3-A9-N2-T6-E2-H3. The genome was genetically divergent to previously characterized lapine viruses and the genes were distantly related to a range of human bovine-like strains and animal strains of bovine, bat and canine/feline characteristics. The VP4, VP6, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 genes of RCH272 clustered within bovine lineages in the phylogenetic analysis and shared moderate genetic similarity with an Australian bovine-like human strain RVA/Human-tc/AUS/MG6/1993/G6P[14]. Bayesian coalescent analysis suggested these genes of RCH272 and RVA/Human-tc/AUS/MG6/1993/G6P[14] were derived from a population of relatively homogenous bovine-like ancestral strains circulating between 1943 and 1989. The VP7, VP1, VP2 and NSP1 genes shared moderate genetic similarity with the Chinese strain RVA/Bat-tc/CHN/MSLH14/2011/G3P[3] and the VP3 gene clustered within a lineage comprised of canine and feline strains. This strain may represent the direct transmission from an unknown host species or be derived via multiple reassortment events between strains originating from various species. The patient lived in a household containing domesticated cats and dogs and in close proximity to a colony of Gray-headed Flying-foxes. However, without screening numerous animal populations it is not possible to determine the origins of this strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR results for norovirus in oysters and self-reported gastroenteric illness in restaurant customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Avant, Justin M; Gizynski, Krzysztof; Rangdale, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2010-02-01

    Norovirus is the principal agent of bivalve shellfish-associated gastroenteric illness worldwide. Numerous studies using PCR have demonstrated norovirus contamination in a significant proportion of both oyster and other bivalve shellfish production areas and ready-to-eat products. By comparison, the number of epidemiologically confirmed shellfish-associated outbreaks is relatively low. This study attempts to compare norovirus RNA detection in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and human health risk. Self-reported customer complaints of illness in a restaurant setting (screened for credible norovirus symptoms) were compared with presence and levels of norovirus as determined by real-time RT-PCR for the batch of oysters consumed. No illness was reported for batches consistently negative for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. However, norovirus was detected in some batches for which no illness was reported. Overall presence or absence of norovirus showed a significant association with illness complaints. In addition, the batch with the highest norovirus RNA levels also resulted in the highest rate of reported illness, suggesting a linkage between virus RNA levels and health risks. This study suggests that detection of high levels of norovirus RNA in oysters is indicative of a significantly elevated health risk. However, illness may not necessarily be reported after detection of norovirus RNA at low levels.

  6. Detection of Aichi virus in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Sang Hun; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Reuter, Gabor; Chung, Ju-Young

    2014-07-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is considered to be a possible etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis (GE). We analyzed 1,568 stool samples collected by the Seoul Metropolitan Health Research Center from patients with GE during outbreaks in Seoul, together with 378 archived common-enteric-virus-negative stool samples from children with GE hospitalized at a tertiary hospital in Seoul. AiV was detected in 1.7 % (27/1,568) of the first group but not found in the second group (0 %, 0/378). Genotypes A and B of AiV were both detected in this study. This is the first study confirming the circulation of AiV in Korea.

  7. A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Joo; Yang, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Sook; Kim, Se-Chul; Cha, So-Yang; Kim, Sung-Tek; Lee, Man-Ho; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Young-Sang

    2013-08-01

    From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.

  8. Protection of waterborne pathogens by higher organisms in drinking water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichai, Françoise; Payment, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit

    2008-07-01

    Higher organisms are ubiquitous in surface waters, and some species can proliferate in granular filters of water treatment plants and colonize distribution systems. Meanwhile, some waterborne pathogens are known to maintain viability inside amoebae or nematodes. The well-documented case of Legionella replication within amoebae is only one example of a bacterial pathogen that can be amplified inside the vacuoles of protozoa and then benefit from the protection of a resistant structure that favours its transport and persistence through water systems. Yet the role of most zooplankton organisms (rotifers, copepods, cladocerans) in pathogen transmission through drinking water remains poorly understood, since their capacity to digest waterborne pathogens has not been well characterized to date. This review aims at (i) evaluating the scientific observations of diverse associations between superior organisms and pathogenic microorganisms in a drinking water perspective and (ii) identifying the missing data that impede the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships that would permit a better appreciation of the sanitary risk arising from such associations. Additional studies are needed to (i) document the occurrence of invertebrate-associated pathogens in relevant field conditions, such as distribution systems; (ii) assess the fate of microorganisms ingested by higher organisms in terms of viability and (or) infectivity; and (iii) study the impact of internalization by zooplankton on pathogen resistance to water disinfection processes, including advanced treatments such as UV disinfection.

  9. Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization: applications in pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Aitziber; Degrandi-Contraires, Elise; Canetta, Elisabetta; Creton, Costantino; Keddie, Joseph L; Asua, José M

    2011-04-05

    Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles for application as pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were prepared by one-step miniemulsion polymerization. The addition of polyurethane to a standard waterborne acrylic formulation results in a large increase in the cohesive strength and hence a much higher shear holding time (greater than seven weeks at room temperature), which is a very desirable characteristic for PSAs. However, with the increase in cohesion, there is a decrease in the relative viscous component, and hence there is a decrease in the tack energy. The presence of a small concentration of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the acrylic copolymer led to phase separation within the particles and created a hemispherical morphology. The tack energy was particularly low in the hybrid containing MMA because of the effects of lower energy dissipation and greater cross-linking. These results highlight the great sensitivity of the viscoelastic and adhesive properties to the details of the polymer network architecture and hence to the precise composition and synthesis conditions.

  10. Urbanization and human health in urban India: institutional analysis of water-borne diseases in Ahmedabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Ayessa Idenal, Marissa; Saiyed, Shahin; Saxena, Deepak; Gerke, Solvay

    2016-10-01

    Diseases are rapidly urbanizing. Ageing infrastructures, high levels of inequality, poor urban governance, rapidly growing economies and highly dense and mobile populations all create environments rife for water-borne diseases. This article analyzes the role of institutions as crosscutting entities among a myriad of factors that breed water-borne diseases in the city of Ahmedabad, India. It applies 'path dependency' and a 'rational choice' perspective to understand the factors facilitating the breeding of diseases. This study is based on household surveys of approximately 327 households in two case study wards and intermittent interviews with key informants over a period of 2 years. Principle component analysis is applied to reduce the data and convert a set of observations, which potentially correlate with each other, into components. Institutional analyses behind these components reveal the role of social actors in exploiting the deeply rooted inefficiencies affecting urban health. This has led to a vicious cycle; breaking this cycle requires understanding the political dynamics that underlie the exposure and prevalence of diseases to improve urban health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A novel hydroxyl epoxy phosphate monomer enhancing the anticorrosive performance of waterborne Graphene/Epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiheng; Rahman, Obaid ur; Peng, Wanjun; Dou, Huimin; Yu, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel hydroxyl epoxy phosphate monomer (PGHEP) as an efficient dispersant for graphene to enhance the compatibility of the graphene in epoxy resin. Raman spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were confirmed the π-π interactions between PGHEP and graphene. Well-dispersed states of PGHEP functionalized graphene (G) sheets in water were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, microstructure of prepared G/waterborne epoxy coatings containing 0.5-1.0 wt.% of PGHEP functionalized G sheets were also observed with the help of SEM and TEM. The PGHEP functionalized G sheets dispersed composite coatings displayed enhanced corrosion resistance compared with pure epoxy resin, these coatings have higher contact angle, lower water absorption as evident from the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The superior corrosion protection performances of G/epoxy coatings were mainly attributed to the formed passive film from uniformly dispersed PGHEP functionalized G sheets which act as physical barrier on the steel surface. Therefore, this work provides a novel bio-based efficient dispersant for G sheets and an important method for preparing G/waterborne epoxy coatings with superior corrosion resistance properties.

  12. Antipredator and alarm reaction responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen juveniles exposed to waterborne ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Weber

    Full Text Available Ammonia has relatively toxic effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. This study examined whether juvenile silver catfish exposed to alarm substances released by conspecifics and predators in water with different ammonia levels modify their behaviour in response to the perceived risk of predation. We used juvenile catfish that were naive to predators. The fish were raised from the larval stage in the laboratory and kept in 40-L aquaria at waterborne NH3 concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg L-1 for 10 days. The alarm substances used were predator odour and skin extract from conspecifics. The juveniles were transferred to 2-L aquaria for the antipredator and alarm reaction behavioural tests, which were performed on days 1, 5 and 10 after initial exposure to ammonia. The test aquaria contained a shelter at one end of the tank. The trials consisted of a 10-min prestimulus and a 10-min poststimulus observation period. The results of the study suggest that naive juvenile catfish are able to identify predators and skin extract from conspecifics by odour. In addition, waterborne NH3 levels modify the antipredator response of this species.

  13. Toxicokinetics of tilapia following high exposure to waterborne and dietary copper and implications for coping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Ju, Yun-Ru; Huang, Ying-Hsuan; Deng, Yue-Sun; Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Chin-Ching; Liao, Chung-Min

    2013-06-01

    One of the major challenges in assessing the potential metal stress to aquatic organisms is explicitly predicting the internal dose in target organs. We aimed to understand the main sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the fish alter the process of Cu uptake, depuration, and accumulation (toxicokinetics (TK)) under prolonged conditions. We measured the temporal Cu profiles in selected organs after single and combined exposure to waterborne and dietary Cu for 14 days. Quantitative relations between different sources and levels of Cu, duration of treatment, and organ-specific Cu concentrations were established using TK modeling approaches. We show that water was the main source of Cu in the gills (>94 %), liver (>89 %), and alimentary canal (>86 %); the major source of Cu in the muscle (>51 %) was food. Cu uptake and depuration in tilapia organs were mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. In general, the uptake rate, depuration rate, and net bioaccumulation ability in all selected organs decreased with increasing waterborne Cu levels and duration of exposure. Muscle played a key role in accounting for the rapid Cu accumulation in the first period after exposure. Conversely, the liver acted as a terminal Cu storage site when exposure was extended. The TK processes of Cu in tilapia were highly changed under higher exposure conditions. The commonly used bioaccumulation model might lead to overestimations of the internal metal concentration with the basic assumption of constant TK processes.

  14. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  15. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  16. Synthesis and Optical Performances of a Waterborne Polyurethane-Based Polymeric Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhai Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A waterborne polyurethane-based polymeric dye (WPU-CFBB was synthesized by anchoring 1, 4-bis(methylaminoanthraquinone (CFBB to waterborne polyurethane chains. The number molecular weight, glass transition temperature, and average emulsion particle size for the polymeric dye were determined, respectively. This polymeric dye exhibited intriguing optical behaviors. The polymeric dye engendered two new absorption bands centered at about 520 nm and 760 nm if compared with CFBB in UV-vis spectra. The 760 nm peak showed hypsochromic shift with the decrease of average particle sizes. The polymeric dye dramatically demonstrated both hypsochromic and bathochromic effects with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity of the polymeric dye was much higher than that of CFBB. It was found that the fluorescence intensities would be enhanced from 20°C to 40°C and then decline from 40°C to 90°C. The fluorescence of the polymeric dye emulsion was very stable and was not sensitive to quenchers.

  17. Concentration of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and other water-borne pathogens by continuous separation channel centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of continuous separation channel centrifugation for concentrating water-borne pathogens of various taxa and sizes. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores and Escherichia coli were seeded into different water matrices at densities ranging from 5 to 10 000 organisms l(-1) and recovered using continuous separation channel centrifugation. All pathogens were enumerated on membrane filters using microscopy. Recovery efficiencies were usually > 90%. Oocyst recovery did not vary with source water turbidity or with centrifuge flow rate up to 250 ml min(-1). Based on excystation, this concentration method did not alter oocyst viability. Continuous separation channel centrifugation is an effective means of concentrating water-borne pathogens. Methods are needed for detecting pathogens in drinking water to ensure public health. The first step for any pathogen detection procedure is concentration. However, this step has been problematic because recovery efficiencies of conventional methods, like filtration, are often low and variable, which may lead to false negatives. Continuous separation channel centrifugation can simultaneously concentrate multiple pathogens as small as 1 microm with high and reproducible efficiency in a variety of water matrices.

  18. Online detection of waterborne bioavailable copper by valve daily rhythms in freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, L J; Chen, W Y; Liao, C M

    2009-08-01

    Freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea, a surrogate species in metal toxicity testing, is a promising bioindicator of impairment in aquatic ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the relationship between clam valve daily rhythmic response and metal bioavailability related to a metal biological early warning system (BEWS) design. The purpose of this study was to link biotic ligand model (BLM)-based bioavailability and valve daily rhythm in C. fluminea to design a biomonitoring system for online in situ detection of waterborne copper (Cu). We integrated the Hill-based dose-time-response function and the fitted daily rhythm function of valve closure into a constructed programmatic mechanism. The functional presentation of the present dynamic system was completely demonstrated by employing a LabVIEW graphic control program in a personal computer. We used site-specific effect concentration causing 10% of total valve closure response (EC10) as the detection threshold to implement the proposed C. fluminea-based Cu BEWS. Here our results show that the proposed C. fluminea-based BEWS could be deliberately synthesized to online in situ transmit rapidly the information on waterborne bioavailable Cu levels under various aquatic environmental conditions through monitoring the valve daily rhythmic changes. We suggested that the developed C. fluminea-based dynamic biomonitoring system could assist in developing technically defensible site-specific water quality criteria to promote more efficient uses in water resources for protection of species health in aquatic environments.

  19. Comparative evaluation of different thermally modified wood samples finishing with UV-curable and waterborne coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, René; Muszyńska, Monika; Krystofiak, Tomasz; Labidi, Jalel

    2015-12-01

    Thermally modified wood has been developed as an industrial method to improve durability and dimensional stability of wood and thus extends the range of uses and service life of wood-based products. Despite the improvements gained by treatment, surface finishing using coatings prevents esthetical changes such as color degradation or occasional growth of mold adding protection in outdoor use and extending the service life of products. The wood finishing process was carried out with commercially available waterborne and UV-curable coatings on industrially modified at 192, 200, 212 °C and unmodified European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood, using an industrial rollers system and a laboratory brushing system. Changes caused by thermal treatment which could affect the surface finish were measured and compared with control samples, such as water uptake, wettability and acidity. Following the wood finishing, surface properties and esthetic changes were evaluated; as well as the coatings performance. Thermally modified wood presented improved adherence compared with unmodified wood with a significant improvement in samples modified at 212 °C, which also present the highest hardness when UV-cured. Finishes with UV-curing maintain the hydrophobic effect of thermally modified wood, whereas waterborne finishes increase the surface wettability. Thermal modification did not negatively influence on the elastic properties of the coated substrate and thus allows this material to be finished with different coating systems in the same conditions as unmodified wood.

  20. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  1. Association of water-borne conidial fungi with epiphytic tree fern (Drynaria quercifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore S. Karamchand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The live and dead tissues, and trapped leaf litter by the epiphytic tree fern Drynaria quercifolia associated with riparian tree species of Konaje (west coast and Sampaje (Western Ghat streams of India during dry (summer and wet (monsoon seasons yielded 37 species of water-borne conidial fungi on bubble chamber incubation. Dead bracket leaves of fern possess the highest species as well as conidia in Konaje, while the trapped leaf litter in Sampaje. During summer, the diversity was highest in bracket leaves in both locations, while in monsoon season it was highest in rhizomes of Konaje and in trapped leaf litter in Sampaje. Even though the conidial output from tissues of Drynaria and trapped leaf litter were not equivalent to stream submerged leaf litter, the species richness ranged between 40% and 75% in Konaje and Sampaje streams. As stable epiphyte, Drynaria exposed to wet and dry regimes in tree canopies of west coast and Western Ghats likely to serve as host for perfect states of water-borne hyphomycetes.

  2. Sticky superhydrophobic filter paper developed by dip-coating of fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangxuan; Wen, Xiufang; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2012-09-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating for oil filter paper was synthesized based on waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy emulsion. The benzoic acid (BA) and maleic anhydride (MA) were used as modification agents to give the epoxy resin hydrophilic groups (carboxyl) and Cdbnd C double bonds. And the fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion was prepared by free radical solution polymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) monomer. The covalent bound low free energy fluorinated chains in the monomer reduce the surface energy of solidification polymers sufficiently to give rise to superhydrophobic behavior while conserving superoleophilicity. Surfaces prepared show a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 152° for a 5 μL droplet that does not slid off even when the sample is held upside down. This synthetic emulsion is simple and convenient as impregnating agent for filter paper, which can be considered as a suitable candidate for various substrates such as cotton textiles, E-glass and artificial fiber, and so on.

  3. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease by using a recombinant myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, J; Morales, M; Vázquez, B; Boga, J A; Parra, F; Lucientes, J; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Blasco, R; Torres, J M

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals.

  4. Norwalk-like virus outbreaks at two summer camps--Wisconsin, June 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-03

    On June 27 and 28, 2001, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health was notified by two local health departments of outbreaks of gastroenteritis at two summer recreational camps (camps A and B) in northern Wisconsin. This report summarizes the investigation of these outbreaks, which documents person-to-person transmission of "Norwalk-like virus" (NLV) and underscores the importance of cleaning environmental surfaces and the availability and use of hand-washing facilities at recreational camps.

  5. Efficiency of Traditional Water Treatment Plant and Compact Units in Removing Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia A. Osman; Waled M. El-Senousy; Adel A. El-Morsi; Mohammed K. Rashed

    2015-01-01

    The fecal bacteria have been taken as the gold standard for water industry. However, the spread of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water have given a momentum to a recent push by microbiologists to consider viruses as important pollution indicator as fecal bacteria. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate the efficiency of two types of water purification systems: the traditional water treatment plant and two types compact units. Both systems produced drinking waters free of bacteria,...

  6. Invasive Listeria monocytogenes Gastroenteritis Leading to Stupor, Bacteremia, Fever, and Diarrhea: A Rare Life-Threatening Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Hassan; Marwat, Asghar Dil Jan Khan; Khan, Noman Ahmed Jang

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, invasive gastroenteritis, and endocarditis. Every year 1600 people in the United States are affected, with significant mortality of 260 people annually. Listeria gastroenteritis has the third highest mortality rate among all the food-borne infection. Invasive listeriosis most commonly affect pregnant women, those in extremes of ages, people with comorbid diseases, and people with weakened immune response. In this article, we present a rare case of invasive Listeria gastroenteritis in an 83-year-old female with multiple comorbid conditions and past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and multiple risk factors who was brought to the hospital with altered mental status. She had history of fever, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea up to 14 episodes in 24 hours for the last 7 days. Her stool culture grew Listeria monocytogenes sensitive to penicillin. She was started on penicillin for 2 weeks. She had subsequently complete resolution of fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. High index of suspicion is the key to ensure timely initiation of appropriate empirical treatment in the setting of invasive gastroenteritis, especially in people who have high risk factors for listeriosis. We recommend raising awareness in the health care profession about invasive listeriosis in the need of time. Intravenous ampicillin or penicillin G is the treatment of choice, with meropenem as an alternative.

  7. Invasive Listeria monocytogenes Gastroenteritis Leading to Stupor, Bacteremia, Fever, and Diarrhea: A Rare Life-Threatening Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mehmood MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, invasive gastroenteritis, and endocarditis. Every year 1600 people in the United States are affected, with significant mortality of 260 people annually. Listeria gastroenteritis has the third highest mortality rate among all the food-borne infection. Invasive listeriosis most commonly affect pregnant women, those in extremes of ages, people with comorbid diseases, and people with weakened immune response. In this article, we present a rare case of invasive Listeria gastroenteritis in an 83-year-old female with multiple comorbid conditions and past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and multiple risk factors who was brought to the hospital with altered mental status. She had history of fever, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea up to 14 episodes in 24 hours for the last 7 days. Her stool culture grew Listeria monocytogenes sensitive to penicillin. She was started on penicillin for 2 weeks. She had subsequently complete resolution of fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. High index of suspicion is the key to ensure timely initiation of appropriate empirical treatment in the setting of invasive gastroenteritis, especially in people who have high risk factors for listeriosis. We recommend raising awareness in the health care profession about invasive listeriosis in the need of time. Intravenous ampicillin or penicillin G is the treatment of choice, with meropenem as an alternative.

  8. Implementation of clinical decision support in young children with acute gastroenteritis: a randomized controlled trial at the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.F. Geurts (Dorien); E. De Vos-Kerkhof (Evelien); S. Polinder (Suzanne); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J. van der Lei; H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAcute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on

  9. Effect of Intravenous Pyridoxine on Control of Vomiting Due to Gastroenteritis in Children Aged between 6 Months and 12 Years

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    Parsa Yousefi Chaijan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: Antiemetic drugs can be used in complicated cases of vomiting secondary to gastroenteritis. There is no previous study dealing with the use of pyridoxine in treatment of vomiting in pediatrics. This Studyintendsto review the effects of intravenous pyridoxine on control of gastroenteritis related vomiting.   Methods: This study is a single blind randomized clinical trial with placebo. A total number of 147 children diagnosed with gastroenteritis induced vomiting and admitted in Amirkabir hospital from August to December 2011 were studied and divided to two case andcontrol groups. In the control group intravenous fluid with distilled water (placebo was used and the pyridoxine was given along with intravenous fluid therapy in case group. Since admission for three days, numbers of vomiting and other symptoms were collected in data form. Results were analyzed using SPSS-16 by means of descriptive analysis for basic information.   Results: Most children were male, aged between 6 months and 2 years and having urban life. There was no significant difference between two groups in the mean of vomiting frequency during the period of hospitalization ( p>0.05 . T here was also no significant difference between two groups in duration of hospitalization ( p=0.19.   Conclusion: Based on this study pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 was not effective in treatment of vomiting due to gastroenteritis in children, and did not reduce the duration of hospitalization.

  10. Potential causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in households with preschool children : prevalence, risk factors, clinical relevance and household transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.; Mughini-Gras, L.; Pijnacker, R.; Vennema, H.; Scholts, R.; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, K. W.; Kortbeek, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Pelt, W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and

  11. Interim-rapportage van onderzoek naar gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations (NIVEL) 1996-1999. Resultaten van het eerste jaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit MAS; Kortbeek LM; van Leeuwen WJ; Koopmans MPG; Vinje J; Bartelds AIM; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 is een onderzoek gestart naar gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpraktijken. Het onderzoek zal doorgaan tot in 1999. In dit rapport zijn de resultaten van het eerste jaar beschreven. Bij 33 van de 43 peilstations werd een patient-controleonderzoek uitgevoerd. De incidentie van

  12. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in north-west Germany in 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C; Baumgarte, S; Friedrich, A W; von Eiff, C; Becker, K; Wosniok, W; Ammon, A; Bockemühl, J; Karch, H; Huppertz, H-I

    In developed countries, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major source of morbidity. However, only a few studies have estimated its incidence and the associated medical burden. This population-based study determined the incidence of community-acquired AGE patients seeking medical care and the

  13. General practitioner practices in requesting laboratory tests for patients with gastroenteritis in the Netherlands, 2001–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. van den Brandhof; A.I.M. Bartelds (Aad); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); I.T.H.P. van Duynhoven

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The objective of this study was to estimate the (selective) proportion of patients consulting their GP for an episode of gastroenteritis for whom laboratory tests were requested. In addition adherence of GPs to the guidelines for diagnostic test regime was ascertained.

  14. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

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    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Gastroenteritis Therapies in Developed Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Stephen B Freedman

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis remains a leading cause of childhood morbidity.Because prior reviews have focused on isolated symptoms and studies conducted in developing countries, this study focused on interventions commonly considered for use in developed countries. Intervention specific, patient-centered outcomes were selected.MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, trial registries, grey literature, and scientific meetings.Randomized controlled trials, conducted in developed countries, of children aged <18 years, with gastroenteritis, performed in emergency department or outpatient settings which evaluated oral rehydration therapy (ORT, antiemetics, probiotics or intravenous fluid administration rate.The study was conducted in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA guidelines. Data were independently extracted by multiple investigators. Analyses employed random effects models.31 trials (4,444 patients were included. ORT: Compared with intravenous rehydration, hospitalization (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.24, 2.71 and emergency department return visits (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.39, 1.89 were similar. Antiemetics: Fewer children administered an antiemetic required intravenous rehydration (RR 0.40, 95%CI 0.26, 0.60 While the data could not be meta-analyzed, three studies reported that ondansetron administration does increase the frequency of diarrhea. Probiotics: No studies reported on the primary outcome, three studies evaluated hospitalization within 7 days (RR 0.87, 95%CI 0.25, 2.98. Rehydration: No difference in length of stay was identified for rapid vs. standard intravenous or nasogastric rehydration. A single study found that 5% dextrose in normal saline reduced hospitalizations compared with normal saline alone (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53, 0.92.There is a paucity of patient-centered outcome evidence to support many interventions. Since ORT is a low-cost, non-invasive intervention, it should continue to

  16. Oral ondansetron administration in emergency departments to children with gastroenteritis: an economic analysis.

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    Stephen B Freedman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of antiemetics for children with vomiting is one of the most controversial decisions in the treatment of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Ondansetron, a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, has been found to be effective in improving the success of oral rehydration therapy. However, North American and European clinical practice guidelines continue to recommend against its use, stating that evidence of cost savings would be required to support ondansetron administration. Thus, an economic analysis of the emergency department administration of ondansetron was conducted. The primary objective was to conduct a cost analysis of the routine administration of ondansetron in both the United States and Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost analysis evaluated oral ondansetron administration to children presenting to emergency departments with vomiting and dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis from a societal and health care payer's perspective in both the US and Canada. A decision tree was developed that incorporated the frequency of vomiting, intravenous insertion, hospitalization, and emergency department revisits. Estimates of the monetary costs associated with ondansetron use, intravenous rehydration, and hospitalization were derived from administrative databases or emergency department use. The economic burden in children administered ondansetron plus oral rehydration therapy was compared to those not administered ondansetron employing deterministic and probabilistic simulations. We estimated the costs or savings to society and health care payers associated with the routine administration of ondansetron. Sensitivity analyses considered variations in costs, treatment effects, and exchange rates. In the US the administration of ondansetron to eligible children would prevent approximately 29,246 intravenous insertions and 7,220 hospitalizations annually. At the current average wholesale price, its routine administration

  17. CLINICAL OUTCOME WITH ADD ON RACECADOTRIL VERSUS STANDARD CARE IN PAEDIATRIC GASTROENTERITIS – OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Vijayalakshmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute gastroenteritis (AGE is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools and often self-limiting. The WHO recommends ORS as the treatment of choice for children with mild to moderate gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. Racecadotril has sufficient proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. We evaluated the clinical outcome with add on Racecadotril versus standard care in paediatric gastroenteritis. METHODS This open-label randomized study was undertaken at department of Pediatrics, Medical College, for a period of two years. A total 42 children, age group between 3- 10 years of age having watery non-bloody diarrhea with mild to moderate dehydration were enrolled in the study. Patients with severe dehydration, bloody diarrhea or hypersensitivity to Racecadotril were excluded from the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous rehydration therapy + Racecadotril (1.5mg/Kg three times a day or intravenous rehydration therapy alone. The bedside nurse or care giver was instructed to administer the medication. All patients received standardized follow - up care for 7 days. The primary outcomes recorded were percentage of patients having diarrhea, median Stool frequency and percentage of patients switched to complete oral re-rehydration on day 3 and day-7. RESULTS Out of 42 children in each group whose data were analyzed, 27 patients received intravenous rehydration therapy + Racecadotril (1.5mg/Kg three times a day and remaining 15 received intravenous rehydration therapy alone. All patients were age and gender matched, however percentage of patients who were moderately dehydrated were marginally higher in Racecadotril add on group. More than 50% reduction in

  18. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

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    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  19. Removal of two waterborne pathogenic bacterial strains by activated carbon particles prior to and after charge modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Engels, Eefje; Langworthy, Don E.; Collias, Dimitris I.; Bjorkquist, David W.; Mitchell, Michael D.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2006-01-01

    Waterborne diseases constitute a threat to public health despite costly treatment measures aimed at removing pathogenic microorganisms from potable water supplies. This paper compared the removal of Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by negatively and positively charged

  20. Mobilizing community-based health insurance to enhance awareness & prevention of airborne, vector-borne & waterborne diseases in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Panda (Pradeep); A. Chakraborty (Arpita); D.M. Dror (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground & objectives: Despite remarkable progress in airborne, vector-borne and waterborne diseases in India, the morbidity associated with these diseases is still high. Many of these diseases are controllable through awareness and preventive practice. This study was an attempt to