WorldWideScience

Sample records for water-washed cut iceberg

  1. Quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate radiation tolerance of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach. Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the sam...

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation, modified atmosphere packaging and delay of irradiation on quality of fresh-cut iceberg letuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and delay of irradiation application on the quality of cut Iceberg lettuce. Overall visual quality and tissue browning of cut lettuce were evaluated using a scale of 9-1 while texture was analyzed instrumentally...

  3. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Guan, Wenqiang; Sokorai, Kimberly J. B.

    2012-08-01

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22-40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality.

  4. Effect of storage temperature and duration on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on packaged fresh-cut salad containing Romaine and Iceberg lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the impact of storage temperature and time on the survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on commercially packaged lettuce salads, and the changes in product quality. Fresh-cut Romaine and Iceberg lettuce salads of different commercial brands were obtained from both r...

  5. Iceberg Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Almost an iceberg 'nursery,' icebergs continue to break away from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. This image from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra spacecraft, shows the level of activity along the shelf near Ross Island on September 21, 2000. The B-15 fragments are remnants of the huge iceberg (nearly 4,250 sqare miles) which broke away from the Antarctic shelf in late March 2000. Slightly visible is the line where iceberg B-20 broke away from the shelf in the last week of September. Cracks in the Antarctic ice shelf are closely observed by satellite and are of interest to scientists studying the potential effects of global warming. This true-color image was produced using MODIS bands 1, 3, and 4. Image by Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC; data courtesy MODIS Science Team

  6. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de

  7. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  8. Modelling Greenland icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is well known for carrying heat from low to high latitudes, moderating local temperatures. Numerical studies have examined the AMOC's variability under the influence of freshwater input to subduction and deep convections sites. However, an important source of freshwater has often been overlooked or misrepresented: icebergs. While liquid runoff decreases the ocean salinity near the coast, icebergs are a gradual and remote source of freshwater - a difference that affects sea ice cover, temperature, and salinity distribution in ocean models. Icebergs originated from the Greenland ice sheet, in particular, can affect the subduction process in Labrador Sea by decreasing surface water density. Our study aims to evaluate the distribution of icebergs originated from Greenland and their contribution to freshwater input in the North Atlantic. To do that, we use an interactive iceberg module coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO v3.4), which will calve icebergs from Greenland according to rates established by Bamber et al. (2012). Details on the distribution and trajectory of icebergs within the model may also be of use for understanding potential navigation threats, as shipping increases in northern waters.

  9. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  10. Organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc sp.) contribute to sensorial quality loss in modified-atmosphere-packed fresh-cut iceberg lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paillart, M.J.M.; Vossen, van der J.M.B.M.; Lommen, E.; Levin, E.; Otma, E.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce packed in a modified atmosphere (MA) is determined by its "overall visual quality" (OVQ), being a measure of its general appearance based on colour and shape criteria. In addition to the OVQ, the development of off-flavour and acid off-smell reduces consumer

  11. Organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc sp.) contribute to sensorial quality loss in modified-atmosphere-packed fresh-cut iceberg lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paillart, M.J.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Lommen, E.; Levin, E.; Otma, E.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce packed in a modified atmosphere (MA) is determined by its "overall visual quality" (OVQ), being a measure of its general appearance based on colour and shape criteria. In addition to the OVQ, the development of off-flavour and acid off-smell reduces consumer

  12. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…

  13. Investigation of water washes suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Sally Flowers; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N

    2010-05-01

    Water washing with a handheld hose was performed on beef surfaces to ascertain the most effective combination of methods needed to remove potentially harmful microorganisms. For these experiments, beef brisket surfaces were experimentally inoculated with a fecal slurry containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. In a pilot study, surfaces were washed with cold water (15 degrees C) at various water pressures, spray distances, application times, and drip times, and remaining bacterial populations were determined following the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and naturally occurring hygiene indicators (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli). The most efficacious combinations of these washing conditions were applied subsequently to artificially contaminated beef brisket surfaces in conjunction with hot (77 degrees C), warm (54 degrees C), and additional cold (15 degrees C) water washes. In the cold water washing pilot study, combinations of physical washing conditions significantly reduced all bacterial populations (P water washing; E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 3.8 and 4.1 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Overall, higher water temperature, longer application times, and shorter spray distances more effectively removed pathogens from inoculated beef surfaces. These findings will be used to formulate water washing recommendations for very small meat processing establishments.

  14. Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yunchun; Gao, Xingbao

    2011-02-01

    The present research explored the role played by water-wash on geopolymerization for the immobilization and solidification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The water-wash pretreatment substantially promoted the early strength of geopolymer and resulted in a higher ultimate strength compared to the counterpart without water-wash. XRD pattern of water-washed fly ash (WFA) revealed that NaCl and KCl were nearly eliminated in the WFA. Aside from geopolymer, ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SO(4))(3)(OH)(12)·26H(2)O) was formed in MSWI fly ash-based geopolymer (Geo-FA). Meanwhile, calcium aluminate hydrate (Ca(2)Al(OH)(7)·3H(2)O), not ettringite, appeared in geopolymer that was synthesized with water-washed fly ash (Geo-WFA). Leached Geo-WFA (Geo-WFA-L) did not exhibit any signs of deterioration, while there was visual cracking on the surface of leached Geo-FA (Geo-FA-L). The crack may be caused by the migration of K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) ions outside Geo-FA and the negative effect from crystallization of expansive compounds can not be excluded. Furthermore, transformation of calcium aluminate hydrate in Geo-WFA to ettringite in Geo-WFA-L allowed the reduction of the pore size of the specimen. IR spectrums suggested that Geo-WFA can supply more stable chemical encapsulation for heavy metals. Static monolithic leaching tests were conducted for geopolymers to estimate the immobilization efficiency. Heavy metal leaching was elucidated using the first-order reaction/diffusion model. Combined with the results from compressive strength and microstructure of samples, the effects of water-wash on immobilization were inferred in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on poplar, douglas fir, walnut, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength and w...

  16. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  17. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  18. From Glaciers to Icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy

    I will describe works from a collaboration between physics and glaciology that grew out of interactions at the Computations in Science seminar Leo Kadanoff organized at the University of Chicago. The first project considers the interaction between ocean waves and Antarctic ice shelves, large floating portions of ice formed by glacial outflows. Back-of-envelop calculation and seismic sensor data suggest that crevasses may be distributed within an ice shelf to shield it from wave energy. We also examine numerical scenarios in which changes in environmental forcing causes the ice shelf to fail catastrophically. The second project investigates the aftermath of iceberg calving off glacier terminus in Greenland using data recorded via time-lapse camera and terrestrial radar. Our observations indicate that the mélange of icebergs within the fjord experiences widespread jamming during a calving event and therefore is always close to being in a jammed state during periods of terminus quiescence. Joint work with Jason Amundson, Ivo R. Peters, Julian Freed Brown, Nicholas Guttenberg, Justin C Burton, L. Mac Cathles, Ryan Cassotto, Mark Fahnestock, Kristopher Darnell, Martin Truffer, Dorian S. Abbot and Douglas MacAyeal. Kadanoff Session DCMP.

  19. Torres e icebergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez de Velasco, Emilio F.

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a personal is offered of the designer of the TVE tower in Madrid, reviewing all the aspects which have influenced the final aesthetic result, and the role of the architect within the team of tecnicians of different specialities, which in the words of the writer is like the point of an iceberg of great dimensions, but it is not for this that his invention is less important, since the design is in this case a determined problem, by the conditioning of the outline and above all technological, it is necessary to surmount this barrier so that the elements making up the complex, shaft, platform, decks arid mast form a satisfactory plastic unit.Se ofrece en este artículo una visión personal del proyectista de la torre de TVE, en Madrid, pasando revista a todos los aspectos que han incidido en el resultado estético final, y el papel del arquitecto dentro del equipo pluridisciplinar de técnicos de diferentes especialidades, que aparece en palabras del autor como la punta de un iceberg de grandes dimensiones, pero no por esto su intervención es menos importante, ya que si bien el diseño es en este caso un problema sobredeterminado; por los condicionantes del entorno y sobre todo tecnológicos, es preciso superar esta barrera para conseguir que los elementos que componen el conjunto, fuste, plataformas, cubiertas y mástil formen una unidad plástica satisfactoria.

  20. An Analytical Model of Iceberg Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Dell, Rebecca W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Iceberg drift and decay and the associated freshwater release are increasingly seen as important processes in Earth's climate system, yet a detailed understanding of their dynamics has remained elusive. Here, an idealized model of iceberg drift is presented. The model is designed to include the most salient physical processes that determine iceberg motion while remaining sufficiently simple to facilitate physical insight into iceberg drift dynamics. We derive an analytical solution of the model, which helps build understanding and also enables the rapid computation of large numbers of iceberg trajectories. The long-standing empirical rule of thumb that icebergs drift at 2% of the wind velocity, relative to the ocean current, is derived here from physical first principles, and it is shown that this relation only holds in the limit of strong winds or small icebergs, which approximately applies for typical icebergs in the Arctic. It is demonstrated that the opposite limit of weak winds or large icebergs approximately applies for typical Antarctic tabular icebergs, and that in this case the icebergs simply move with the ocean surface current. It is furthermore found that when winds are strong, wind drag drives icebergs in the direction the wind blows, whereas weak winds drive icebergs at a 90 degree angle to the wind direction.

  1. Modeling tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A. A.; Adcroft, A.; Sergienko, O.; Marques, G.

    2017-08-01

    Large tabular icebergs calved from Antarctic ice shelves have long lifetimes (due to their large size), during which they drift across large distances, altering ambient ocean circulation, bottom-water formation, sea-ice formation, and biological primary productivity in the icebergs' vicinity. However, despite their importance, the current generation of ocean circulation models usually do not represent large tabular icebergs. In this study, we develop a novel framework to model large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean. In this framework, tabular icebergs are represented by pressure-exerting Lagrangian elements that drift in the ocean. The elements are held together and interact with each other via bonds. A breaking of these bonds allows the model to emulate calving events (i.e., detachment of a tabular iceberg from an ice shelf) and tabular icebergs breaking up into smaller pieces. Idealized simulations of a calving tabular iceberg, its drift, and its breakup demonstrate capabilities of the developed framework.

  2. Iceberg Capsize Kinematics and Energetics, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set represents a typical single iceberg capsize experiment. Included in this data set are all the parameters of the plastic iceberg's density and...

  3. An Implementation of Icebergs in CICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comeau, Darin S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    There is an estimated global iceberg calving flux of {approx} 2300 Gt yr{sup -1}, about 90% of which occurs in the Antarctic. Icebergs provide an important vehicle for freshwater injection into the polar oceans, an estimated 60-80% of net freshwater flux from land ice to oceans in the Antarctic. Icebergs interact dynamically with surrounding sea ice, potentially affecting marine eco systems. Icebergs lose mass primarily through three mechanisms, described by empirical relations: (1) Basal melting - turbulence due to differences in oceanic and iceberg motion (also function of difference in temperature between ocean and iceberg); (2) Lateral melting - buoyant convection along sidewalls of iceberg (function of ocean temperature); and (3) Erosion due to waves (function of sea state and ocean temperature). We have incorporated an iceberg parameterization into the CICE model where sea ice responds to the icebergs, rather than being a static forcing term. Icebergs produce highly localized anomalies in sea ice concentration, thickness, and strength. Summer sea ice meltback limits these effects. Icebergs shed freshwater as they move, transporting freshwater away from the coast.

  4. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-09-08

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Iceberg drift modelling in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenkova, Irina; Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    Iceberg drift model is developed in the N.N.Zubov State Oceanographic Institute (SOI) of the Roshydromet. The model is forced by atmospheric reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and by ocean and sea ice data from the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM). The iceberg drift model is validated using observations of iceberg drift trajectory obtained during the annual expedition of RV Lance in the beginning of May 2009 in the Barents Sea. Field data collected in this expedition are also used for the modelling of iceberg drift. Verification tests with hindcast data from selected atmospheric and oceanic models and data from field studies were carried out to compare model predictions with field observations. Two different approaches are used to simulate iceberg drift. The first approach is a variation of wind and water drag coefficients in order to simulate the observed iceberg drift trajectory. High uncertainties in environmental driving forces and in iceberg shape and mass resulted in using ensemble forecast technique, which is the second approach to simulate the iceberg trajectory. The presented iceberg drift model shows a good capability of reproducing the observed iceberg drift.

  6. Quality of Iceberg and Romaine lettuce treated by combinations of sanitizer, surfactant, and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report an investigation of the individual and combined effects of sonication, two sanitizers (chlorine and Tsunami 100®) and a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the quality of fresh-cut Iceberg and Romaine lettuce. Lettuce samples were treated for 1 minute with and without ultrasound in...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde and sporan against enteric pathogens on iceberg lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamaldehyde and sporan alone or in combination with acetic acid (20%) were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on lettuce. Iceberg lettuce leaves were cut into pieces (2 x 3 cm) and inoculated with 50 µL (5 droplets of 10µl) cocktail of five strains o...

  8. A social iceberg at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association

    2007-01-01

    One hundred days into 2007 and with the new executive committee in place, we would like to present you with a report of the work carried out so far. First, the visible part: the subjects and actions regularly covered in Echo. Then, like an iceberg, we will review the hidden part, which is the most important in terms of effort and often the most fearsome because it is invisible, thus unpredictable.

  9. The effects of biodegradation and water washing on sulfur compound speciation in crude oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.; Jeon, Y.

    1991-08-01

    A series of crude oils from a partially and heavily biodegraded reservoir were analyzed fro sulfur compound speciation by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The most reasonable explanation of the data is that they represent a maturity sequence. There is no strong evidence that biodegradation or water washing produce any major changes in sulfur compound speciation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of drying methods on the physicochemical properties and adhesion performance of water-washed cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) showed the potential for being used as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, the influence of WCSM preparation process on its adhesion performance is currently limited. This work studied the effect of different drying methods on the several key physicochem...

  12. Preventing microbial growth on pall-rings when upgrading biogas using absorption with water wash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Anna

    2006-07-15

    For produced biogas to be usable as vehicle fuel it has to be upgraded to a higher energy content. This is accomplished by elevation of the methane concentration through removal of carbon dioxide. Absorption with water wash is the most common upgrading method used in Sweden today. The upgrading technique is based on the fact that carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than methane. Upgrading plants that utilises this method have problems with microbial growth in the system. This growth eventually leads to a stop in operation due to the gradually drop in upgrading capacity. The aim of this thesis were to evaluate the possibility to through some kind of water treatment maintain an acceptable level of growth or altogether prevent it in order to maintain an acceptable process capacity and thereby avoid the need to clean. Through collection of literature the implementation possibilities were evaluated with regard to efficiency, economic sustainability and if there would be a release of any harmful substances. In order to prevent the microbial growth in the columns the treatment should either focus on removing microorganisms or limit the accessible nutrients. For the single pass system it is concluded that the treatment should reduce the biofilm formation and be employed in an intermittent way. Among the evaluated treatments focusing on the reduction of microorganisms the addition of peracetic acid seems to be the most promising one. For the regenerating system the treatment method could focus on either one. As for the single pass system peracetic acid could be added to reduce the amount of microorganism. To reduce the amount of organic matter an advanced oxidation process could be deployed with the advantage that it also could remove the microorganisms.

  13. International Ice Patrol (IIP) Iceberg Sightings Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) has been collecting information on iceberg activity in the North Atlantic since 1911. This database contains the data from these...

  14. Iceberg Firn Temperatures, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since November of 2005, 12 thermistors were planted in the upper 2.5 meters of the firn on iceberg C16, Antarctica. Temperature data are collected every 20 minutes...

  15. International Ice Patrol Iceberg Drift Tracks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) tracks, plots and predicts iceberg positions in the North Atlantic Ocean. The IIP area of responsibility is 40 to 52 degrees...

  16. Iceberg Tiltmeter Measurements, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time series of tiltmeter observations (tilt about two horizontal axes in microradians) for a 34 day period on iceberg C16 while it was aground near Ross Island in...

  17. The tip of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2010-01-01

      Abstract: The tip of the iceberg: Ice as a nonhuman actor of the climate change debate   The global climate change debate has the Arctic as a core region of concern and ice has become a central aspect of discourses. This article discusses ice representations from six different contexts linked...... to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen. The author argues that even though the discussions often seem to be centred on ice alone, the latter gets inscribed in narratives and metaphors which have wider implications for how the Arctic and its Indigenous peoples...... are represented. Ice becomes a nonhuman actor, framing the discussions, acting in specific ways, and linking hybrid networks. Indeed it is used in diverse platforms by scientists, politicians, governments, NGOs, as well as Inuit hunters and fishermen...

  18. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting icebergs for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J. L.; Ostrander, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation explores the applicability of ERTS to: (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery sampling in the western Antarctic between the Peninsula and the Ross Sea is used in the analysis. It is found that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea-ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means for harmonizing entitlements to iceberg resources.

  19. Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

  20. Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, P.; Wagner, T. M.; Bates, R.

    2012-12-01

    Summer Decay Processes in a Large Tabular Iceberg Peter Wadhams (1), Till J W Wagner(1) and Richard Bates(2) (1) Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK (2) Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland KY16 9AL We present observational results from an experiment carried out during July-August 2012 on a giant grounded tabular iceberg off Baffin Island. The iceberg studied was part of the Petermann Ice Island B1 (PIIB1) which calved off the Petermann Glacier in NW Greenland in 2010. Since 2011 it has been aground in 100 m of water on the Baffin Island shelf at 69 deg 06'N, 66 deg 06'W. As part of the project a set of high resolution GPS sensors and tiltmeters was placed on the ice island to record rigid body motion as well as flexural responses to wind, waves, current and tidal forces, while a Waverider buoy monitored incident waves and swell. On July 31, 2012 a major breakup event was recorded, with a piece of 25,000 sq m surface area calving off the iceberg. At the time of breakup, GPS sensors were collecting data both on the main berg as well as on the newly calved piece, while two of us (PW and TJWW) were standing on the broken-out portion which rose by 0.6 m to achieve a new isostatic equilibrium. Crucially, there was no significant swell at the time of breakup, which suggests a melt-driven decay process rather than wave-driven flexural break-up. The GPS sensors recorded two disturbances during the hour preceding the breakup, indicative of crack growth and propagation. Qualitative observation during the two weeks in which our research ship was moored to, or was close to, the ice island edge indicates that an important mechanism for summer ablation is successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wave cut, which creates a submerged ram fringing the berg. A model of buoyancy stresses induced by

  1. Iceberg Harmonic Tremor, Seismometer Data, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seismometers were placed on a 25 km by 50 km iceberg called C16 in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to identify the Iceberg harmonic Tremor (IHT) source mechanism and to...

  2. Nonlinear response of iceberg side melting to ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, A.; Cenedese, C.; Straneo, F.

    2017-06-01

    Icebergs calving into Greenlandic Fjords frequently experience strongly sheared flows over their draft, but the impact of this flow past the iceberg is not fully captured by existing parameterizations. We present a series of novel laboratory experiments to determine the dependence of submarine melting along iceberg sides on a background flow. We show, for the first time, that two distinct regimes of melting exist depending on the flow magnitude and consequent behavior of melt plumes (side-attached or side-detached), with correspondingly different meltwater spreading characteristics. When this velocity dependence is included in melt parameterizations, melt rates estimated for observed icebergs in the attached regime increase, consistent with observed iceberg submarine melt rates. We show that both attached and detached plume regimes are relevant to icebergs observed in a Greenland fjord. Further, depending on the regime, iceberg meltwater may either be confined to a surface layer or distributed over the iceberg draft.

  3. Ozonated water extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, David; Selma, María V; Marín, Alicia; Gil, María I

    2005-07-13

    The use of ozonated water as a sanitizer to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce and the effect on the antioxidant constituents (polyphenols and vitamin C) were investigated. Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was washed at 4 degrees C using three different ozonated water dips [10, 20, and 10 activated by ultraviolet C (UV-C) light mg L(-1) min total ozone dose], and the dips were compared with water and chlorine rinses. Treated lettuce was packaged in air or active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (4 kPa of O2 + 12 kPa of CO2 balanced with N2) and stored for 13 days at 4 degrees C. Despite its strong oxidizing activity, ozonated water did not stimulate the respiratory activity of fresh-cut lettuce. Moreover, ozonated water maintained the initial visual appearance of fresh-cut lettuce and controlled browning during storage in air. Initially, ozonated water and chlorine reduced the total mesophilic population by 1.6 and 2.1 log, respectively, when compared with water. Active MAP was effective in controlling total microbial growth, achieving 2.0 log reduction in relation to samples stored in air at the end of storage. On the other hand, active MAP caused a 2.0-3.5 reduction of coliforms on sanitized samples compared with water-washed samples. The most efficient treatments were ozone 20 and ozone 10 activated by UV-C, which were as effective as chlorine. Changes in individual phenolic compounds were independent of the washing treatments. In air, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acid contents increased noticeably after 13 days while monocaffeoyltartaric and dicaffeoyltartaric acids remained unchanged. MAP effectively suppressed accumulation of caffeoylquinic derivatives, whereas caffeoyltartaric derivatives decreased during MAP storage to reach similar levels. The content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) decreased during storage, particularly under MAP. Ozonated water could be an alternative sanitizer to chlorine for fresh-cut

  4. Sensitivity Analysis for Iceberg Geometry Shape in Ship-Iceberg Collision in View of Different Material Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation and impact force are investigated and compared. It is shown that the collision process and energy dissipation are more sensitive to iceberg local shape than other factors when the elastic-plastic iceberg material model is applied. The blunt iceberg models act rigidly while the sharp ones crush easily during the simulation process. With respect to the crushable foam iceberg material model, the iceberg geometry has relatively small influence on the collision process. The spherical iceberg model shows the most rigidity for both iceberg material models and should be paid the most attention for ice-resist design for ships.

  5. Sea ice and iceberg dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Comeau, Darin

    2011-05-01

    A model of iceberg motion has been implemented in the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE). Individual bergs are tracked under the influence of winds, currents, sea surface tilt, Coriolis, and sea ice forcing. In turn, sea ice is affected by the presence of icebergs, primarily as obstacles that cause the sea ice to ridge on the upstream side or create open water on the downstream side of the bergs. Open water formed near icebergs due to sea ice ridging and blocking of sea ice advection increases level and ridged ice downstream of the bergs through increased frazil ice formation. Resulting anomalies in sea ice area and thickness (compared with a simulation without icebergs) are transported with the sea ice flow, expanding over time. Although local changes in the sea ice distribution may be important for smaller-scale studies, these anomalies are small compared with the total volume of sea ice and their effect on climate-scale variables appears to be insignificant.

  6. Don't Ignore the Iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hovorka, Dirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Design theory is often an outcome of Design Science Research (DSR) and kernel theories provide explanatory justification of design principles. But like an iceberg, many of the design principles lie hidden under the surface or inadequately specified. Ascertaining the completeness of the design...... guidelines for making design justification more explicit in both the design and the evaluation phases....

  7. Efficacy of chlorine and a peroxyacetic acid sanitizer in killing Listeria monocytogenes on iceberg and Romaine lettuce using simulated commercial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Adler, Barbara B; Lang, Megan M

    2004-06-01

    The efficacy of chlorine (100 microg/ml) and a peroxyacetic acid sanitizer (80 microg/ml; Tsunami 100) in killing Listeria monocytogenes inoculated at populations of 1 to 2, 2 to 3, and 4 to 5 log CFU/g of iceberg lettuce pieces, shredded iceberg lettuce, and Romaine lettuce pieces was determined by treatment conditions simulating those used by a commercial fresh-cut lettuce processor. The lettuce/treatment solution ratio was 1:100 (wt/vol), treatment temperature was 4 degrees C, and total treatment time was 30 s. Compared with washing in water, treatment of iceberg lettuce pieces containing all levels of inoculum and shredded iceberg lettuce containing 2 to 3 or 4 to 5 log CFU/g with chlorine or Tsunami resulted in significant reductions (P monocytogenes recovered from lettuce treated with chlorine or Tsunami significantly different. The rate of decrease in free chlorine concentration in treatment solution as affected by the weight/volume ratio (1:100, 1:10, 2:10, and 4:10) of lettuce and solution was determined. The rate of reduction increased as the ratio decreased. The overall order of magnitude of reduction was shredded iceberg lettuce > iceberg pieces > Romaine pieces. The highest reductions in free chlorine concentration in solutions used to treat shredded lettuce are attributed to the release of tissue juices, which increases the concentration of soluble organic materials available for reaction with chlorine.

  8. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  10. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  11. Adhesive strength of pilot-scale-produced water-washed cottonseed meal in comparison with a synthetic glue for non-structural interior application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown the potential to be used as renewable and environment-friendly adhesives in wood products industry. Recently, WCSM was produced from defatted meal in a pilot scale. In this study, we initially compare the adhesive strength of the pilot-produced WCSM...

  12. Electrodialytic extraction of Cr from water-washed MSWI fly ash by changing pH and redox conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2018-01-01

    municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by changing pH and redox conditions was investigated in the present work. The experiments were designed into single, two and three steps, based on the number of setups (by changing EDS cells) or effective setups (by shifting working electrode pairs) used. Prior...... to EDS the ash studied went through pretreatments such as water-washing and dry-sieving with a 50 µm sieve. The results showed that Cr was strongly bound in the ash, and the major fraction remained bound after the different treatments. Two/three-step treatment, which obtained the maximum Cr extraction...... the treated ashes with acidic pH was lower than from those with alkaline pH; after the three-step treatment, Cr leaching was much lower from the coarse fraction (> 50 µm), as compared to the fine (≤ 50 µm) or the unsieved ash. As for the coarse fraction, two/three-step treatment reduced the leaching of Cr...

  13. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  14. CARSON-ICEBERG ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, William J.; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    Areas of probable mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium were identified in the Carson-Iceberg Roadless Areas, California. During the mineral-resource study existing geologic mapping was modified and supplemented with new mapping; geophysical studies were conducted in the form of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys; stream-sediment and rock samples were collected in all of the drainage basins and chemically analyzed; and studies of mines, prospects, and known mineralized areas were conducted. No evidence of fossil fuel resource potential was found in the study.

  15. Hurdle enhancement of slightly acidic electrolyzed water antimicrobial efficacy on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach using ultrasonication and water wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is well known as a good sanitizer against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, microbial reductions from SAEW treatment are not enough to ensure produce safety. Therefore, it is necessary to improve its antimicrobial efficiency by combining it with other appropriate approaches. This study examined the microbicidal activity of SAEW (pH 5.2-5.5, oxidation reduction potential 500-600 mV, available chlorine concentration 21-22 mg/l) on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach, four common fresh vegetables in Korea under same laboratory conditions. Subsequently, effects of ultrasonication and water wash to enhance the sanitizing efficacy of SAEW were studied, separately. Finally, an optimized simple and easy approach consisting of simultaneous SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (3 min) followed by water wash (150 rpm, 1 min) was developed (SAEW + US-WW). This newly developed hurdle treatment significantly enhanced the microbial reductions compared to SAEW treatment alone, SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (SAEW + US) and SAEW treatment followed by water wash (SAEW-WW) at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C). Microbial reductions of yeasts and molds, total bacteria count and inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were in the range of 1.76-2.8 log cfu/g on different samples using the new hurdle approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Icebergs: a Problem in Geophysics and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L., Jr.

    The curious phenomenon of green icebergs has intrigued polar travelers for centuries. Although some researchers have speculated that this ice contains colorants, an investigator who has actually examined a green iceberg sample found very little intrinsically green material. This supports our idea that at least some green icebergs are due to the combined effects of reddened sunlight illuminating intrinsically blue-green ice. In this case, "intrinsic" refers to the blue-green absorption minimum of pure ice. Naturally occurring ice containing a few inclusions that scatter light with little or no spectral selectivity also exhibits this same absorption minimum. Artists' and travelers' accounts of colored ice tell us that, while remarkable, it is not uncommon. The few 20th-century scientific reports on green icebergs agree with the earlier accounts on the unusual denseness and translucence of highly colored ice. We see the same correlation between ice colors and ice denseness in accounts of glacier ice. When we examine the optical properties of dense, relatively bubble-free ice, we find that we can nearly match its reflectance spectra with either of two multiple -scattering models for ice optics. If we pair these models' reflectance spectra with estimates of polar daylight spectra, we can duplicate the observed colors of green icebergs. Our psychophysical model of human color perception is the 1931 CIE chromaticity space. Although this form of colorimetry has some perceptual faults, we may nonetheless use it as a means of comparing the observed and theoretical colors of green icebergs. In the absence of in situ spectral reflectance measurements, we use video digitizing and spectrodensitometry to extract colorimetric information from color photographs of green icebergs. However, before using these remote sensing techniques, first we must solve the intricate problem of calibrating them against known color standards. After doing this, we find that our analyses of green

  17. Applicability of ERTS for surveying Antarctic iceberg resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Recognition and interpretation of icebergs proves to be easy when they are locked in sea or fast ice. They stand out in relief, particularly well in band 7. Recongition of isolated icebergs is much more difficult. Size, shape, interaction with sea ice, and change over time must then be used to help in positive identification. There seems to be much less current and relative motion between icebergs and sea in much of the test sector than had been believed from avialable exploration information. However, most of this type of assessment must await the accumulation and analysis of the full season data.

  18. The sizes, frequencies, and freeboards of East Greenland icebergs observed using ship radar and sextant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Whittington, Robert J.; Hodgkins, Richard

    1992-03-01

    The Scoresby Sund fjord system, East Greenland, contains the most productive fast-flowing outlet glaciers draining east from the Greenland Ice Sheet, calving 18 km3 a-1 of icebergs. The sizes, frequencies, and freeboards of 1900 icebergs were measured from F.S. Polarstern, using ship X-band radar and sextant. Radar beam spreading exaggerates iceberg width by 60 m per nautical mile of range beyond the first mile. Data sets on iceberg size (e.g., that collated for Antarctic icebergs) collected using ship radars which do not take this effect into account will overestimate iceberg dimensions significantly. The location and concentration of icebergs within the fjord complex can be explained by (1) the locations of the principal source glaciers and (2) fjord topography and bathymetry. Iceberg concentration (maximum 0.6 icebergs km-2) declines with distance from the major iceberg sources. We found that 69% of icebergs within the fjord system are 1 km in length. The largest is 2.7 km long. Icebergs become spread more evenly over the range of size classes in the outer fjord and shelf. Modal iceberg keel depth, calculated from freeboard measurements, is 4-500 m in the inner fjords, shifting to lower values in the outer fjords, reflecting shallower bathymetry. Radar measurements of iceberg width cannot be used to infer keel depths accurately, because width and keel depth are only weakly correlated. Comparison between freeboards and keel depths for icebergs from East Greenland and the Barents Sea indicates that the iceberg source (i.e., floating or grounded) exerts a fundamental control on iceberg dimensions. The drift pattern of icebergs is from the head to the mouth of the fjord system, although fjord bifurcations, bathymetry, and currents provide additional complications. The trends in observed iceberg size and frequency, and in inferred keel depth, in the Scoresby Sund region are likely to be applicable to other fjords and shelves around Greenland.

  19. International Ice Patrol Iceberg Drift Tracks, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) tracks, plots, and predicts iceberg positions in the North Atlantic Ocean. The IIP area of responsibility is 40 to 52 degrees...

  20. International Ice Patrol (IIP) Iceberg Sightings Database, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) has been collecting information on iceberg activity in the North Atlantic since 1913. This database contains the data from these...

  1. What About the Two-Thirds of the Iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard W.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that juvenile delinquency is merely the tip of the iceberg of fundamentally disaffected youth, and suggests developing year-round residential programs, modeled after the Outward Bound program, for disaffected young people. (JG)

  2. Estimation of potential fresh water reserves in icebergs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Krass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the forecast of the global shortage of fresh water it is expected that the global demand for drink‑ ing water will be increased up to 400 km3 per a year. As the main potential resources of drinking water it is proposed to use table Antarctic icebergs. Mathematical and phenomenological models of heat exchange between the icebergs and the environment, and a process of melting of ices floes in the warm sea water are discussed. The ablation processes on the daily and lower surfaces of icebergs at different modes of towing them to points of utilization is analyzed. The most optimal technology is to fill tankers with water taken from the freshwater layer under icebergs, and then subsequent delivery of the water to points of utilization. Using of the phenomenon of fresh-salt stratified Lake Vanda is considered as one of promising technologies of the industrial water production.

  3. How climate model biases skew the distribution of iceberg meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The discharge of icebergs into the polar oceans is expected to increase over the coming century, which raises the importance of accurate representations of icebergs in global climate models (GCMs) used for future projections. Here we analyze the prospects for interactive icebergs in GCMs by forcing an iceberg drift and decay model with circulation and temperature fields from (i) state-of-the-art GCM output and (ii) an observational state estimate. The spread of meltwater is found to be smaller for the GCM than for the observational state estimate, despite a substantial high wind bias in the GCM—a bias that is similar to most current GCMs. We argue that this large-scale reduction in the spread of meltwater occurs primarily due to localized differences in ocean currents, which may be related to the coarseness of the horizontal resolution in the GCM. The high wind bias in the GCM is shown to have relatively little impact on the meltwater distribution, despite Arctic iceberg drift typically being dominated by the wind forcing. We find that this is due to compensating effects between faster drift under stronger winds and larger wind-driven wave erosion. These results may have implications for future changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation simulated with iceberg-enabled GCMs.

  4. Reduction of listeria monocytogenes on green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide and water washing and its growth at 7 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Linton, R H; Nielsen, S S; Nelson, P E

    2001-11-01

    Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A on uninjured and injured surfaces of green peppers after 0.3- and 3-mg/ liter gaseous and aqueous ClO2 treatment and water washing for 10 min at 20 degrees C was studied. Growth of the L. monocytogenes untreated or treated with 0.6 mg/liter ClO2 gas for 30 min at 20 degrees C on green peppers also was investigated. A membrane-surface-plating method was used for resuscitation and enumeration of L monocytogenes treated with ClO2. The bacterial viability on pepper surfaces was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Live and dead cells of L. monocytogenes were labeled with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody and propidium iodide, respectively. More than 6 log CFU/5 g L. monocytogenes on uninjured surfaces and about 3.5 log CFU/5 g on injured surfaces were inactivated by both 3-mg/liter and 0.6-mg/liter ClO2 gas treatments. The 3-mg/liter aqueous ClO2 treatment achieved 3.7- and 0.4-log reductions on uninjured and injured surfaces, respectively; whereas, water washing alone showed 1.4- and 0.4-log reductions, respectively. ClO2 gas treatment was the most effective in reducing L. monocytogenes on both uninjured and injured green pepper surfaces, when compared with aqueous ClO2 treatment and water washing. The significant difference (P bacteria from sanitation treatments than did uninjured surfaces. Not only could L. monocytogenes grow on green pepper surfaces at 7 degrees C, bacteria that survived the 0.6-mg/liter ClO2 gas treatment also could grow.

  5. A simulation of small to giant Antarctic iceberg evolution: Differential impact on climatology estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Thomas; Wesche, Christine; Timmermann, Ralph; Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Juricke, Stephan; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We present a simulation of Antarctic iceberg drift and melting that includes small, medium-sized, and giant tabular icebergs with a realistic size distribution. For the first time, an iceberg model is initialized with a set of nearly 7000 observed iceberg positions and sizes around Antarctica. The study highlights the necessity to account for larger and giant icebergs in order to obtain accurate melt climatologies. We simulate drift and lateral melt using iceberg-draft averaged ocean currents, temperature, and salinity. A new basal melting scheme, originally applied in ice shelf melting studies, uses in situ temperature, salinity, and relative velocities at an iceberg's bottom. Climatology estimates of Antarctic iceberg melting based on simulations of small (≤2.2 km), "small-to-medium-sized" (≤10 km), and small-to-giant icebergs (including icebergs >10 km) exhibit differential characteristics: successive inclusion of larger icebergs leads to a reduced seasonality of the iceberg meltwater flux and a shift of the mass input to the area north of 58°S, while less meltwater is released into the coastal areas. This suggests that estimates of meltwater input solely based on the simulation of small icebergs introduce a systematic meridional bias; they underestimate the northward mass transport and are, thus, closer to the rather crude treatment of iceberg melting as coastal runoff in models without an interactive iceberg model. Future ocean simulations will benefit from the improved meridional distribution of iceberg melt, especially in climate change scenarios where the impact of iceberg melt is likely to increase due to increased calving from the Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. Representing Icebergs In A Fully Coupled Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bügelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the global climate during past and current times strongly impact the Polar Regions, which in turn affect the global climate due to several mechanisms, such as albedo, topography, ablation and ice discharge. Icebergs are an important part of the climate system as they interact with the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Several approaches have been taken to incorporate iceberg calving into numerical models under different climate forcings. The studies done so far have in common that the icebergs were moved by reconstructed or modelled forcing fields and that the initial size distribution of the icebergs was prescribed according to present day observations. Hence, uncertainties in the forcing fields and in the parameterization of the iceberg size may alter the results. To investigate the impact of the background forcing (atmosphere, ocean) and the pre-defined size distribution on the icebergs and consequently on the Northern hemisphere climate and the Greenland ice sheet, we have coupled an earth system model of intermediate complexity (iLOVECLIM, Roche et al., 2013) to an ice sheet/ice shelf model (GRISLI, Ritz et al., 2001) and an iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2009; Bügelmayer et al., 2014). Using this set-up, we performed 15 sensitivity experiments that differ in the applied forcing (atmosphere, ocean), the applied boundary conditions (pre-industrial, 4xCO2, 1/4 x CO2) and the initial size distribution of the icebergs. In the presented study only the Greenland ice sheet is considered. We find that, under pre-industrial conditions, the atmospheric forcing pushes the icebergs further away from their calving sites and further into the North Atlantic, whereas the ocean currents transport the bergs along the Greenland coast and southward along the Canadian coast. Although the purely atmospheric-forced bergs cause warmer oceanic conditions than the oceanic-driven bergs, the overall effect on climate and the resulting ice sheet due to variations in the

  7. A role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.P.; Jongma, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the potential role of icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event, using a coupled climate model equipped with an iceberg component. First, we evaluate the effect of a large iceberg discharge originating from the decaying Laurentide ice sheet on ocean circulation, compared to a release of an

  8. Spatial distirbution of Antarctic mass flux due to iceberg transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Darin; Hunke, Elizabeth; Turner, Adrian

    Under a changing climate that sees amplified warming in the polar regions, the stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet and its impact on sea level rise is of great importance. Icebergs are at the interface of the land-ice, ocean, and sea ice systems, and represent approximately half of the mass flux from the Antarctic ice sheet to the ocean. Calved icebergs transport freshwater away from the coast and exchange heat with the ocean, thereby affecting stratification and circulation, with subsequent indirect thermodynamic effects to the sea ice system. Icebergs also dynamically interact with surrounding sea ice pack, as well as serving as nutrient sources for biogeochemical activity. The spatial pattern of these fluxes transported from the continent to the ocean is generally poorly represented in current global climate models. We are implementing an iceberg model into the new Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) within the MPAS-Seaice model, which uses a variable resolution, unstructured grid framework. This capability will allow for full coupling with the land ice model to inform calving fluxes, and the ocean model for freshwater and heat exchange, giving a complete representation of the iceberg lifecycle and increasing the fidelity of ACME southern cryosphere simulations.

  9. The "footloose" mechanism: Iceberg decay from hydrostatic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Wadhams, Peter; Bates, Richard; Elosegui, Pedro; Stern, Alon; Vella, Dominic; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Crawford, Anna; Nicholls, Keith W.

    2014-08-01

    We study a mechanism of iceberg breakup that may act together with the recognized melt and wave-induced decay processes. Our proposal is based on observations from a recent field experiment on a large ice island in Baffin Bay, East Canada. We observed that successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wavecut at the iceberg waterline created a submerged foot fringing the berg. The buoyancy stresses induced by such a foot may be sufficient to cause moderate-sized bergs to break off from the main berg. A mathematical model is developed to test the feasibility of this mechanism. The results suggest that once the foot reaches a critical length, the induced stresses are sufficient to cause calving. The theoretically predicted maximum stable foot length compares well to the data collected in situ. Further, the model provides analytical expressions for the previously observed "rampart-moat" iceberg surface profiles.

  10. Does Sea Level Change when a Floating Iceberg Melts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2010-01-01

    On the answer page to a recent "Figuring Physics" question, the cute mouse asks another question: "Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?" The conventional answer is "no." However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong…

  11. The Tip of the Iceberg: Teacher Distrust of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Stanley W.

    1980-01-01

    The ambivalent attitudes of prospective administrators is the tip of the iceberg, hiding resentments which have been aggravated by teachers' militancy and administrators' obtuseness. To get teachers to understand and cope with these feelings, as they study educational administration, is an important challenge for professional schools of education.…

  12. The 'footloose' mechanism: Iceberg decay from hydrostatic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Wadhams, P.; Bates, C. R.; Elosegui, P.; Stern, A. A.; Vella, D.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Crawford, A. J.; Nicholls, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    We study a mechanism of iceberg breakup that may act together with the recognized melt and wave-induced decay processes. Our proposal is based on observations from a recent field experiment on a large ice island in Baffin Bay, East Canada. We observed that successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wavecut at the iceberg waterline created a submerged foot fringing the berg. The buoyancy stresses induced by such a foot may be sufficient to cause moderate-sized bergs to break off from the main berg. A mathematical model is developed to test the feasibility of this mechanism. The results suggest that once the foot reaches a critical length, the induced stresses are sufficient to cause calving. The theoretically predicted maximum stable foot length compares well to the data collected in situ. Further, the model provides analytical expressions for the previously observed 'rampart-moat' iceberg surface profiles. Finally, we comment on the implications for the calving of icebergs from shelf fronts, where similar underwater 'feet' have been observed.

  13. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting sea ice for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation explorers the applicability of ERTS to (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery has shown that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means of harmonizing entitlements of iceberg resources. The valuable ERTS services will be more cost effective than other means will be easily justified and borne by the iceberg harvesting operations.

  14. Ocean-driven thinning enhances iceberg calving and retreat of Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Moore, John C.; Cheng, Xiao; Gladstone, Rupert M.; Bassis, Jeremy N.; Liu, Hongxing; Wen, Jiahong; Hui, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    Iceberg calving from all Antarctic ice shelves has never been directly measured, despite playing a crucial role in ice sheet mass balance. Rapid changes to iceberg calving naturally arise from the sporadic detachment of large tabular bergs but can also be triggered by climate forcing. Here we provide a direct empirical estimate of mass loss due to iceberg calving and melting from Antarctic ice shelves. We find that between 2005 and 2011, the total mass loss due to iceberg calving of 755 ± 24 gigatonnes per year (Gt/y) is only half the total loss due to basal melt of 1516 ± 106 Gt/y. However, we observe widespread retreat of ice shelves that are currently thinning. Net mass loss due to iceberg calving for these ice shelves (302 ± 27 Gt/y) is comparable in magnitude to net mass loss due to basal melt (312 ± 14 Gt/y). Moreover, we find that iceberg calving from these decaying ice shelves is dominated by frequent calving events, which are distinct from the less frequent detachment of isolated tabular icebergs associated with ice shelves in neutral or positive mass balance regimes. Our results suggest that thinning associated with ocean-driven increased basal melt can trigger increased iceberg calving, implying that iceberg calving may play an overlooked role in the demise of shrinking ice shelves, and is more sensitive to ocean forcing than expected from steady state calving estimates. PMID:25733856

  15. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil on iceberg lettuce with different attachment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the antimicrobial activity of oregano oil was investigated under different attachment conditions of Salmonella spp. to iceberg lettuce. Inoculated lettuce was either not dried or dried for 30 min, 60 min or 120 min, under either static air or moving air. Washing iceberg lettuce with 5...

  16. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy: Whole Blood Thrombelastography Measures the Tip of the Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy: Whole blood thrombelastography measures the tip of the iceberg James Eric Campbell, PhD, James Keith Aden, PhD, and...measures the tip of the iceberg 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Campbell, J. E. Aden, J. K. Cap, A. P. 5d

  17. Impacts on phytoplankton dynamics by free-drifting icebergs in the NW Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, M.; Sines, K.; Chakos, D.; Cefarelli, A. O.; Ekern, L.

    2011-06-01

    Glacier ice released to the oceans through iceberg formation has a complex effect on the surrounding ocean waters. We hypothesized that phytoplankton communities would differ in abundance, composition and production around or close to an iceberg. This paper tests the influence of individual icebergs on scales of meters to kilometers, observed through shipboard oceanographic sampling on March-April 2009. Surface waters (integrated 0-100 m depth, within the euphotic zone) sampled close to the iceberg C-18a (salps Salpa thompsonii, are expected to exert heavy grazing pressure on phytoplankton, the krill on large cells >10 μm and the salps on smaller cells, 3-10 μm. The iceberg's main influence in the austral fall is measured not so much by phytoplankton accumulation but by reactivation of the classic Antarctic food chain, facilitating diatom growth and sustaining high Antarctic krill populations.

  18. Impact of Icebergs on Net Primary Productivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang-Ye; Hou, Shugui

    2017-04-01

    Productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO) is iron-limited, and supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine environment. However, recent studies show that icebergs could provide comparable amount of bioavailable iron to the SO as aeolian dust. In addition, small scale areal studies suggest increased concentrations of chlorophyll, krill, and seabirds surrounding icebergs. Based on previous research, this study aims to examine whether iceberg occurrence has a significant impact on marine productivity at the scale of the SO, using remote sensing data of iceberg occurrences and ocean net primary productivity (NPP) covering the period 2002-2014. The impacts of both large and small icebergs are examined in four major ecological zones of the SO: the continental shelf zone (CSZ), the seasonal ice zone (SIZ), the permanent open ocean zone (POOZ) and the polar front zone (PFZ). We found that both large and small icebergs have an observable positive impact on NPP, but their impacts vary in different zones. Small icebergs on average increase NPP in most iron deficient zones: by 21% for the SIZ, 16% for the POOZ, and 12% for the PFZ, but have relatively small effect in the CSZ where iron is supplied from melt water and sediment input from the continent. Large icebergs on average increase the NPP by about 10%. Their impacts are stronger at higher latitudes, where they are more concentrated. From 1992-2014, there is a significant increasing trend for both small and large icebergs. The increase was most rapid in the early 2000s, and has levelled off since then. As the climate continues to warm, the Antarctic Ice Sheet is expected to experience increased mass loss as a whole, which could lead to more icebergs in the region. Based on our study, this could result in higher level of NPP in the SO as a whole, providing a negative feedback for global warming.

  19. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  20. Characterising iceberg scour in diamicton, Scoresby Sund fjord system, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Lorna D.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.

    2014-05-01

    Icebergs are major components in shaping polar and sub-polar continental margins, fjords and lakes. When the keel of an iceberg exceeds water depth it ploughs through soft sea/lake sediments gouging out kilometre long scours, 100s of metres wide and tens of metres deep. Because the influence of iceberg scours on sediment is a critical factor when offshore structures (e.g. oil/gas pipelines, power cables) are installed, the surface morphology of iceberg scours on sea/lake beds is relatively well-documented. Less however, is known about sub-scour (i.e. below the sea/lake bed surface) deformation, which is critical to inform i) installation of offshore structures where iceberg scour presents a geohazard, and ii) palaeoenvironmental reconstruction e.g. past ice sheet dynamics, glacial margins, climate etc. Despite advances in numerical modelling and physical testing of sub-scour deformation, such methods are largely still in their infancy, and they are rarely validated using direct empirical evidence of sub-scour deformation. The aim of this research therefore is to macroscopically and microscopically (thin sections) identify the style and intensity of deformation by the ploughing action of iceberg keels in diamictic cores collected from sediments in the heavily iceberg scoured Scoresby Sund fjord system, offshore of East Greenland.

  1. Respiration rate and ethylene production of fresh cut lettuce as affected by cutting grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For designing optimal polymeric films for modified atmosphere packaging of whole heads as well as for minimally fresh processed (fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce ‘Coolguard’, the effect of several cutting grades on respiration rate (RR and ethylene production at 5ºC was studied. According to common industrial practices cutting grades less than 0.5 cm, between 0.5 and 1 cm, and 2 cm length were selected. Results from four experiments were compared to those obtained for whole heads in which a homogenous range of 6 to 8 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 in RR was found. Compared to whole heads, in fresh-cut lettuce the RR was 2-fold higher. The lowest cutting grade showed the highest respiration rate, and no significant differences in RR among lettuce pieces of intermediate and the highest grades were found. No ethylene production was detected in whole heads, while in minimally processed lettuce pieces only traces were found. For avoiding risks of anaerobic respiration and excessive CO2 levels within packages containing fresh-cut lettuce pieces lower than 0.5 cm length, films with relatively high O2 permeability like standard polypropylene or low-density polyethylene must be selected.;

  2. Climate Process Team "Representing calving and iceberg dynamics in global climate models"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.; Adcroft, A.; Amundson, J. M.; Bassis, J. N.; Hallberg, R.; Pollard, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Stern, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Iceberg calving accounts for approximately 50% of the ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. By changing a glacier's geometry, calving can also significantly perturb the glacier's stress-regime far upstream of the grounding line. This process can enhance discharge of ice across the grounding line. Once calved, icebergs drift into the open ocean where they melt, injecting freshwater to the ocean and affecting the large-scale ocean circulation. The spatial redistribution of the freshwater flux have strong impact on sea-ice formation and its spatial variability. A Climate Process Team "Representing calving and iceberg dynamics in global climate models" was established in the fall 2014. The major objectives of the CPT are: (1) develop parameterizations of calving processes that are suitable for continental-scale ice-sheet models that simulate the evolution of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets; (2) compile the data sets of the glaciological and oceanographic observations that are necessary to test, validate and constrain the developed parameterizations and models; (3) develop a physically based iceberg component for inclusion in the large-scale ocean circulation model. Several calving parameterizations based suitable for various glaciological settings have been developed and implemented in a continental-scale ice sheet model. Simulations of the present-day Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets show that the ice-sheet geometric configurations (thickness and extent) are sensitive to the calving process. In order to guide the development as well as to test calving parameterizations, available observations (of various kinds) have been compiled and organized into a database. Monthly estimates of iceberg distribution around the coast of Greenland have been produced with a goal of constructing iceberg size distribution and probability functions for iceberg occurrence in particular regions. A physically based iceberg model component was used in a GFDL

  3. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    The foundation for this book is an ethnographic study of masculinity in a Bugkalot village in northern Philippines. While offering new research on the Bugkalot, widely known as the Ilongot, more than 30 years after the last important works were written on this famous hill-people, Cutting Cosmos...... into egalitarian relations. Cutting Cosmos shows how these seemingly opposed characteristics of male life - the egalitarianism and the assertive ideals - are interwoven. Acts of dominance are presented as acts of transgression that are persistently ritualized, contained and isolated as spectacular events within...

  4. Giant Icebergs of the Ross Sea, in situ Drift and Weather Measurements, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2001-2006, 6 giant icebergs (B15A, B15J, B15K, C16 and C25) adrift in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, were instrumented with global positioning system...

  5. Iceberg drifting and distribution in the Vilkitsky Strait studied by detailed satellite radar and optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheiko, A. A.; Ivanov, A. Yu.; Davydov, A. A.; Antonyuk, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the detection and identification of icebergs in the Russian Arctic Seas from the use of high- and medium-resolution radar and optical images from EROS-B, Radarsat-1, Radarsat-2, SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 Earth observation satellites. In July-September of 2011-2013, the SCANEX Research and Development Center, the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Atomflot, and other partner organizations provided operational satellite monitoring of icebergs in the Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea. More than 130 highly detailed optical and radar images were received and processed. The Vilkitsky Strait—one of the narrowest and most dangerous places within the Northern Sea Route—was chosen as an experimental polygon. As a result, iceberg location in the strait during the 2011-2013 navigation periods was analyzed, as were the iceberg size, area, drift direction, and height.

  6. O JORNALISMO CULTURAL E A LÓGICA DO ICEBERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda uma lacuna do Jornalismo Cultural brasileiro, que é a marginalização da cobertura sobre os processos culturais - particularmente a economia da cultura e a política cultural. Tal lacuna se deve ao enfoque excessivo nas pautas factuais e de agenda – centradas, sobretudo, nas obras em lançamento e nos próprios artistas. Os autores argumentam que tal opção editorial revela uma lógica do iceberg, ou seja, o olhar direcionado quase exclusivamente para aquilo que está em evidência na área das artes e do entretenimento. Para sugerir uma alternativa, o artigo se aprofunda na economia da cultura, revelando sua complexidade e sugerindo formas de como o jornalismo cultural poderia pautar esse campo.

  7. A role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Ane P.; Jongma, Jochem I.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the potential role of icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event, using a coupled climate model equipped with an iceberg component. First, we evaluate the effect of a large iceberg discharge originating from the decaying Laurentide ice sheet on ocean circulation, compared to a release of an identical volume of freshwater alone. Our results show that, on top of the freshwater effect, a large iceberg discharge facilitates sea-ice growth as a result of lower sea-surface temperatures induced by latent heat of melting. This causes an 8% increased sea-ice cover, 5% stronger reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water production and 1°C lower temperature in Greenland. Second, we use the model to investigate the effect of a hypothetical two-stage lake drainage, which is suggested by several investigators to have triggered the 8.2 ka climate event. To account for the final collapse of the ice-dam holding the Laurentide Lakes we accompany the secondary freshwater pulse in one scenario with a fast 5-year iceberg discharge and in a second scenario with a slow 100-year iceberg discharge. Our experiments show that a two-stage lake drainage accompanied by the collapsing ice-dam could explain the anomalies observed around the 8.2 ka climate event in various climate records. In addition, they advocate a potential role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event and illustrate the importance of latent heat of melting in the simulation of climate events that involve icebergs. Our two-stage lake drainage experiments provide a framework in the discussion of two-stage lake drainage and ice sheet collapse.

  8. A role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Ane P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deltares, Department of Morphology and Sedimentary Systems, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jongma, Jochem I. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the potential role of icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event, using a coupled climate model equipped with an iceberg component. First, we evaluate the effect of a large iceberg discharge originating from the decaying Laurentide ice sheet on ocean circulation, compared to a release of an identical volume of freshwater alone. Our results show that, on top of the freshwater effect, a large iceberg discharge facilitates sea-ice growth as a result of lower sea-surface temperatures induced by latent heat of melting. This causes an 8% increased sea-ice cover, 5% stronger reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water production and 1 C lower temperature in Greenland. Second, we use the model to investigate the effect of a hypothetical two-stage lake drainage, which is suggested by several investigators to have triggered the 8.2 ka climate event. To account for the final collapse of the ice-dam holding the Laurentide Lakes we accompany the secondary freshwater pulse in one scenario with a fast 5-year iceberg discharge and in a second scenario with a slow 100-year iceberg discharge. Our experiments show that a two-stage lake drainage accompanied by the collapsing ice-dam could explain the anomalies observed around the 8.2 ka climate event in various climate records. In addition, they advocate a potential role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event and illustrate the importance of latent heat of melting in the simulation of climate events that involve icebergs. Our two-stage lake drainage experiments provide a framework in the discussion of two-stage lake drainage and ice sheet collapse. (orig.)

  9. Is There a Relation between the Microscopic Leaf Morphology and the Association of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 with Iceberg Lettuce Leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN der Linden, Inge; Eriksson, Markus; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-10-01

    To prevent contamination of fresh produce with enteric pathogens, more insight into mechanisms that may influence the association of these pathogens with fresh produce is needed. In this study, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were chosen as model pathogens, and fresh cut iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model fresh produce type. The morphological structure of iceberg lettuce leaves (stomatal density and length of cell margins per leaf area) was quantified by means of leaf peels and light microscopy of leaves at different stages of development (outer, middle, and inner leaves of the crop) on both leaf sides (abaxial and adxial) and in three leaf regions (top, center, and bottom). The morphology of the top region of the leaves was distinctly different from that of the center and base, with a significantly higher stomatal density (up to five times more stomata), different cell shape, and longer cell margins (two to three times longer). Morphological differences between the same regions of the leaves at different stages of development were smaller or nonsignificant. An attachment assay with two attenuated E. coli O157:H7 strains (84-24h11-GFP and BRMSID 188 GFP) and two Salmonella strains (serovars Thompson and Typhimurium) was performed on different regions of the middle leaves. Our results confirmed earlier reports that these pathogens have a higher affinity for the base of the lettuce leaf than the top. Differences of up to 2.12 log CFU/g were seen ( E. coli O157:H7 86-24h11-GFP). Intermediate attachment occurred in the central region. The higher incidence of preferential bacterial attachment sites such as stomata and cell margins or grooves could not explain the differences observed in the association of the tested pathogens with different regions of iceberg lettuce leaves.

  10. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Health Topics Female genital cutting Female genital cutting > A-Z Health Topics Female genital cutting fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Female genital cutting Female genital cutting (FGC), sometimes called female circumcision ...

  11. Minimal processing of iceberg lettuce has no substantial influence on the survival, attachment and internalization of E. coli O157 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Inge; Avalos Llano, Karina R; Eriksson, Markus; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-12-05

    The influence of a selection of minimal processing techniques (sanitizing wash prior to packaging, modified atmosphere, storage conditions under light or in the dark) was investigated in relation to the survival of, attachment to and internalization of enteric pathogens in fresh produce. Cut Iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model for fresh produce, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) and Salmonella enterica were chosen as pathogen models. Care was taken to simulate industrial post-harvest processing. A total of 50±0.1g of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce was packed in bags under near ambient atmospheric air with approximately 21% O2 (NAA) conditions or equilibrium modified atmosphere with 3% O2 (EMAP). Two lettuce pieces inoculated with E. coli O157 BRMSID 188 or Salmonella Typhimurium labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to each package. The bags with cut lettuce were stored under either dark or light conditions for 2days at 7°C. The pathogens' capacity to attach to the lettuce surface and cut edge was evaluated 2days after inoculation using conventional plating technique and the internalization of the bacteria was investigated and quantified using confocal microscopy. The effect of a sanitizing wash step (40mg/L NaClO or 40mg/L peracetic acid+1143mg/L lactic acid) of the cut lettuce prior to packaging was evaluated as well. Our results indicate that both pathogens behaved similarly under the investigated conditions. Pathogen growth was not observed, nor was there any substantial influence of the investigated atmospheric conditions or light/dark storage conditions on their attachment/internalization. The pathogens attached to and internalized via cut edges and wounds, from which they were able to penetrate into the parenchyma. Internalization through the stomata into the parenchyma was not observed, although some bacteria were found in the substomatal cavity. Washing the cut edges with sanitizing agents to reduce enteric pathogen numbers was not

  12. An elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects and its application to numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Yu

    2016-12-01

    To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the `Tsai-Wu' yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of iceberg. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.

  13. Climate, Drift, and Image Data from Antarctic Icebergs A22A and UK211, 2006-2007, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes a variety of station data from two Antarctic icebergs. In 2006, researchers installed specialized weather stations called Automated...

  14. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  15. Probing ice mélange rheology with observations of fast motion during iceberg calving events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, J. M.; Peters, I.; Cassotto, R.; Darnell, K.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that ice mélange, a dense pack of icebergs and brash ice found in many fjords, can inhibit iceberg calving by transmitting stresses from fjord walls to glacier termini. However, the rheology of ice mélange is completely unknown, severely limiting our ability to estimate resistive forces from ice mélange and their impact on glacier stability. To improve our understanding of ice mélange rheology, we operated a terrestrial radar and high-rate time-lapse camera at Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, in August 2012. Our observations indicate that during calving events (1) the kinetic energy of the mélange motion is about an order of magnitude smaller than the total energy released by the calving iceberg(s), thus supporting previous studies that suggested that most of the energy released during calving is rapidly dissipated into the water, (2) there is a compaction front that propagates down fjord and through the mélange at a rate that is an order of magnitude faster than the icebergs in the fjord, (3) the mélange typically experiences a fractional decrease in area of a few percentage, and (4) once activity at the terminus ceases, motion of the mélange decays exponentially before finally coming to an abrupt halt. These observations can be partially explained with a model adapted from previous work on granular mechanics.

  16. A Model of Icebergs and Sea Ice in a Joint Continuum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    VaÅková, Irena; Holland, David M.

    2017-11-01

    The ice mélange, a mixture of sea ice and icebergs, often present in front of outlet glaciers in Greenland or ice shelves in Antarctica, can have a profound effect on the dynamics of the ice-ocean system. The current inability to numerically model the ice mélange motivates a new modeling approach proposed here. A continuum sea-ice model is taken as a starting point and icebergs are represented as thick and compact pieces of sea ice held together by large tensile and shear strength, selectively introduced into the sea-ice rheology. In order to modify the rheology correctly, an iceberg tracking procedure is implemented within a semi-Lagrangian time-stepping scheme, designed to exactly preserve iceberg shape through time. With the proposed treatment, sea ice and icebergs are considered a single fluid with spatially varying rheological properties. Mutual interactions are thus automatically included without the need for further parametrization. An important advantage of the presented framework for an ice mélange model is its potential to be easily included within sea-ice components of existing climate models.

  17. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAyeal, Douglas [University of Chicago

    2013-05-01

    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  18. Pleistocene iceberg dynamics on the west Svalbard margin: Evidence from bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Minshull, Timothy A.; Crocker, Anya J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Wu, Shiguo; Soryal, Simon M.

    2017-04-01

    Large icebergs leave evidence of their drift via ploughing of the seabed, thereby providing a geological record of episodes of calving from thick ice sheets. We interpret large-scale curvilinear depressions on the western Svalbard margin as ploughmarks produced by the keels of icebergs that grounded on the seafloor as they drifted through this area. Iceberg ploughmarks were identified at modern water depths between 300 m and 1000 m and in two distinct stratigraphic units. Combining data from sediment cores with seismic stratigraphy from sub-bottom profiler data suggests that the ploughmarks developed in two phases: (1) during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6; and (2) during MIS 2, indicating the presence of large drifting icebergs on the western Svalbard margin during both the Late Saalian and Late Weichselian glaciations. Sediment-core data along the western Svalbard margin indicate a sharp increase in mass-transported sediments dated at 23.7 ± 0.2 ka, consistent with the MIS 2 age of the younger iceberg-ploughed surface. The ploughmarks are oriented in two main directions: SW-NE and S-N. S-N oriented ploughmarks, which shallow to the north, indicate iceberg drift from the south with a SW-NE component marking the zone of splitting of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) into the Yermak Slope Current (YSC) and North Spitsbergen Current (NSC). Large MIS 6 and MIS 2 icebergs most likely had an Arctic Ocean source. We suggest that these icebergs probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait and circulated within the Norwegian-Greenland Sea before being transported northwards along the Svalbard margin by the WSC. An additional likely source of icebergs to the western Svalbard margin during MIS 2 was the ice-sheet terminating in the western Barents Sea, from which icebergs drifted northward.

  19. Tabular Iceberg Evolution and Break-up at Low Latitude: Imitating Ice Shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, T.; Sergienko, O.; Sargent, A.; Macayeal, D.; Fastook, J.; Long, D.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past five years, a series of large icebergs have calved from the Ronne Ice Shelf front and drifted northward, first along the Antarctic Peninsula east coast, and later across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia Island. The bergs broke up or disintegrated within a year of reaching the island. Observations of the icebergs using MODIS, ICESat, and QuikScat have revealed details of their evolution and break-up patterns. ICESat elevation profiles of tabular iceberg margins and the Ronne Ice Shelf edge reveal shapes indicative of two types of bending forces. Icebergs and shelf fronts in sea-ice-covered areas have broad (~1000m wide), rounded, ~0.6m high `berms' and outer edges that slope down several meters toward the water. Bergs in warmer water have 2 to 5m `ramparts' with ~1500m wide edge-parallel `moats' inboard of the edge. This latter pattern was first revealed in images from International Space Station (ISS) showing edge-parallel melt ponds on one iceberg just prior to its disintegration. Model results indicate the patterns are caused by hydrostatic and lithostatic forces acting on the ice face. "Berm' profiles arise from differences between ice and water pressure along the face. `Rampart-moat' profiles result from waterline erosion, creating a submerged bench of ice that lifts the ice edge. In cold (sea-ice covered) water, icebergs evolve slowly, with infrequent calving of large blocks, usually along pre-existing fractures. In warmer water north of the ice edge, bergs show more frequent edge-parallel calvings ('edge-wasting') in which berg shape is little changed, but berg area gradually decreases. Scatterometry observations of the icebergs indicate the berg firn undergoes significant evolution during northward drift, due to melt and melt percolation. The pattern of winter backscatter change for icebergs (over time) is similar to the variations of ice shelf backscatter with melt frequency (over space, i.e. latitude). This supports the hypothesis that

  20. Grounding Pleistocene icebergs shape recent deep-water coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiwald, André; Wilson, John B.; Henrich, Rüdiger

    1999-04-01

    The widespread view that scleractinian corals in cold and deep waters of high latitudes are slow growing organisms that do not form reefs is challenged by the discovery of a huge coral reef over 13 km in length, 10 to 35 m in height and up to 300 m in width formed by the coral Lophelia pertusa in water depths of 270 to 310 m at 64°N on the Sula Ridge, Mid-Norwegian Shelf. Cruises in 1994, 1995 and manned submersible operations in May 1997 provide data and observations from which the structure and development of the Sula Ridge coral reef have been determined. The Fennoscandian icesheet retreated from the Mid-Norwegian shelf prior to 12,000 years before present and modern oceanographic conditions were established at 8000 years before present. Coral growth since that time has resulted in a large deep-water shelf reef for which recent stable isotopic studies have demonstrated high growth rates for these azooxanthellate cold-water corals. Information on the geometry of deep-water coral reefs and their environmental controls is still fragmentary, controversial and raises issues of conservation in this area of active fishing and oil exploration. This paper reports on the discovery of what is probably one of the largest deep-water coral reefs existing in the northeast Atlantic and indicates that its siting is due to post-glacial structures (iceberg plough marks), events (the second Storegga Slide) and local conditions on the seafloor. Surprisingly, reef accumulation rates on the Sula Ridge are comparable with those measured on tropical coral reefs.

  1. Green icebergs formed by freezing of organic-rich seawater to the base of Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.; Roesler, Collin S.; Morgan, Vincent I.; Brandt, Richard E.; Goodwin, Ian D.; Allison, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Although most icebergs are blue, green icebergs are seen occasionally in the Antarctic ocean. Chemical and isotopic analysis of samples from green icebergs indicate that the ice consists of desalinated frozen seawater, as does the basal ice from the Amery Ice Shelf. Spectral reflectance of a green iceberg measured near 67°S, 62°E, confirms that the color is inherent to the ice, not an artifact of the illumination. Pure ice appears blue owing to its absorption of red photons. Addition of a constituent that absorbs blue photons can shift the peak reflectance from blue to green. Such a constituent was identified by spectrophotometric analysis of core samples from this iceberg and from the Amery basal ice, and of seawater samples from Prydz Bay off the Amery Ice Shelf. Analysis of the samples by fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the blue absorption, and hence the inherent green color, is due to the presence of marine-derived organic matter in the green iceberg, basal ice, and seawater. Thick accumulations of green ice, in icebergs and at the base of ice shelves, indicate that high concentrations of organic matter exist in seawater for centuries at the depth of basal freezing.

  2. Quality of gamma ray-irradiated iceberg lettuce and treatments to minimize irradiation-induced disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation of Iceberg lettuce was recently approved by the FDA to enhance microbial safety and to extend shelf-life at doses up to 4 kGy. However, the radiation tolerance of whole head lettuce is unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of irradiation on the quality of he...

  3. No Child Left Behind Is Just the Tip of the Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have been documenting the unfortunate status of social studies in the elementary classroom since the 1980s (J. Stark 1987), and although a lack of teacher interest, poor instructional methods, and the No Child Left Behind Act may be the current contributing factors, these factors should be viewed as just the tip of the iceberg. The…

  4. Modelling the Dynamics of Iceberg-Soil Interaction during Seabed Gouging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.S.; Marquart, R.; Pisano, F.

    2017-01-01

    Not only in the Arctic, but also well outside the Arctic, icebergs can be a danger to buried offshore pipelines due to seabed gouging. As it is not economically feasible to bury these pipelines at depths where soil deformations are small, these pipelines are buried at sub-gouge depths where the soil

  5. Ship-Iceberg Discrimination in Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery by Supervised Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Peder; Heiselberg, Henning

    2017-01-01

    . It discriminates between objects like ships, islands, wakes, and icebergs, ice floes, and clouds with accuracy better than 90%. Pan-sharpening the infrared bands leads to classification and discrimination of ice floes and clouds better than 95%. For complex images with abundant ice floes or clouds, however...

  6. Notice of release of iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce breeding lines with improved disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-Il, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  7. Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Representations to Support Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David C.; Boswinkel, Nina; Dekker, Truus

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the "iceberg model," developed by the Freudenthal Institute, has been used to support teacher identification of informal and preformal representations that build students' understanding of formal mathematics. This article offers suggestions on how this model can be used to support professional development,…

  8. The role of cooperative iceberg capsize during ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, W. G.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    The physical processes responsible for the sudden, rapid collapse of Antarctic ice-shelves (Larsen B, in 2002; Wilkins, in 2008) are poorly understood. Observations are limited to a handful of satellite images. Thus we have undertaken a series of laboratory-scale experiments using a water-filled tank and "ice" made from buoyant plastic blocks to investigate these processes. Previous experiments have quantified how gravitational potential energy of single-iceberg capsize is converted to other forms of energy [described in Burton et al., submitted], including hydrodynamic forms that may feed back on the ice shelf to cause additional calving. The new experiments reported here examine the energetics of hydrodynamically coupled icebergs that exhibit collective behaviors qualitatively similar to features observed in satellite imagery. Our results suggest that there is a critical proximity at which icebergs will capsize in the same direction an overwhelming majority of the time (cooperative capsize), and a significant part of the gravitational potential energy is converted into translational kinetic energy. We speculate that the residual translational energy observed in our experiments may explain the significant expansion rate (~1 meter/second) of collapsing Antarctic ice-shelves. Burton, J. C., J. M. Amundson, D. S. Abbot, A. Boghosian, L. M. Cathles, S. Correa-Legisos, K. N. Darnell, N. Guttenberg, D. M. Holland, and D. R. MacAyeal. submitted. Laboratory investigations of iceberg-capsize dynamics, energy dissipation and tsunamigenesis. J. Geophys. Res.

  9. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce.

  10. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain NRRL B-41902 and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, gram-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. Subsequent to sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, it was found that strain NRRL B-41902 was...

  11. An Iceberg Model for Improving Mathematical Understanding and Mindset or Disposition: An Individualized Summer Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westensko, Arla; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Child, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study describes 3 years of mathematics intervention research examining the effectiveness of a summer individualized tutoring program for rising fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students with low mathematics achievement. Based on an iceberg model of learning, an instructional framework was developed that identified and targeted students'…

  12. Bioavailable iron in the Southern Ocean: the significance of the iceberg conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Tranter, Martyn; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2008-05-30

    Productivity in the Southern Oceans is iron-limited, and the supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine reservoir. Glacial sediment sources of iron have rarely been considered, as the iron has been assumed to be inert and non-bioavailable. This study demonstrates the presence of potentially bioavailable Fe as ferrihydrite and goethite in nanoparticulate clusters, in sediments collected from icebergs in the Southern Ocean and glaciers on the Antarctic landmass. Nanoparticles in ice can be transported by icebergs away from coastal regions in the Southern Ocean, enabling melting to release bioavailable Fe to the open ocean. The abundance of nanoparticulate iron has been measured by an ascorbate extraction. This data indicates that the fluxes of bioavailable iron supplied to the Southern Ocean from aeolian dust (0.01-0.13 Tg yr(-1)) and icebergs (0.06-0.12 Tg yr(-1)) are comparable. Increases in iceberg production thus have the capacity to increase productivity and this newly identified negative feedback may help to mitigate fossil fuel emissions.

  13. Diverging Histories of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake Blueschist Bodies, south central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. M.; Pavlis, T. L.; Amato, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    New studies of the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschist bodies of south central Alaska indicate that despite structural similarities, these blueschist bodies are derived from a different protolith and were metamorphosed to blueschist facies at distinctly different times. Both blueschists are located just south of the Border Ranges Fault (BRF) within outcrop belts of the McHugh Complex, a low-grade mélange assemblage that is now known from detrital zircon studies to consist of two distinct assemblages: a Jurassic to Earliest Cretaceous assemblage and a Late Cretaceous assemblage. The BRF is a megathrust system that represents the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic initiation of southern Alaskan subduction. Large scale (1:24,000) mapping revealed similar fabric overprint histories, epitomized by a previously undescribed youngest vertical N-S trending crenulation cleavage in both blueschist bodies which implies a structural correlation despite their separation of ~100 kilometers along strike. Despite structural similarities detrital zircon studies show that the Liberty Creek and Iceberg Lake blueschists do not have a similar maximum age of deposition. Thirteen samples from the Iceberg Lake blueschist were processed, none of which produced detrital zircons. Samples from the McHugh Complex greenschists that surround the Iceberg Lake blueschist produced numerous zircons indicating a Late Jurassic (~160 Ma) maximum age of deposition. Three out of sixteen samples from the Liberty creek blueschist produced detrital zircons indicating maximum depositional ages ranging from Late Jurassic (~160.1 Ma, n=64 grains; ~152.25 Ma, n=68 grains) to Early Cretaceous (~137.1 Ma, n=95 grains). The Late Jurassic dates are consistent with maximum depositional ages determined by Amato and Pavlis (2010) for McHugh Complex rocks along Turnagain Arm near Anchorage, AK. Sisson and Onstott (1986) reported a metamorphic cooling age of 185 Ma for the Iceberg Lake blueschist, thus, although no

  14. Quantification and Analysis of Icebergs in a Tidewater Glacier Fjord Using an Object-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Robert W; Womble, Jamie N; Prakash, Anupma; Gens, Rudiger; Haselwimmer, Christian E

    2016-01-01

    Tidewater glaciers are glaciers that terminate in, and calve icebergs into, the ocean. In addition to the influence that tidewater glaciers have on physical and chemical oceanography, floating icebergs serve as habitat for marine animals such as harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). The availability and spatial distribution of glacier ice in the fjords is likely a key environmental variable that influences the abundance and distribution of selected marine mammals; however, the amount of ice and the fine-scale characteristics of ice in fjords have not been systematically quantified. Given the predicted changes in glacier habitat, there is a need for the development of methods that could be broadly applied to quantify changes in available ice habitat in tidewater glacier fjords. We present a case study to describe a novel method that uses object-based image analysis (OBIA) to classify floating glacier ice in a tidewater glacier fjord from high-resolution aerial digital imagery. Our objectives were to (i) develop workflows and rule sets to classify high spatial resolution airborne imagery of floating glacier ice; (ii) quantify the amount and fine-scale characteristics of floating glacier ice; (iii) and develop processes for automating the object-based analysis of floating glacier ice for large number of images from a representative survey day during June 2007 in Johns Hopkins Inlet (JHI), a tidewater glacier fjord in Glacier Bay National Park, southeastern Alaska. On 18 June 2007, JHI was comprised of brash ice ([Formula: see text] = 45.2%, SD = 41.5%), water ([Formula: see text] = 52.7%, SD = 42.3%), and icebergs ([Formula: see text] = 2.1%, SD = 1.4%). Average iceberg size per scene was 5.7 m2 (SD = 2.6 m2). We estimate the total area (± uncertainty) of iceberg habitat in the fjord to be 455,400 ± 123,000 m2. The method works well for classifying icebergs across scenes (classification accuracy of 75.6%); the largest classification errors occur in areas with

  15. Quantification and Analysis of Icebergs in a Tidewater Glacier Fjord Using an Object-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W McNabb

    Full Text Available Tidewater glaciers are glaciers that terminate in, and calve icebergs into, the ocean. In addition to the influence that tidewater glaciers have on physical and chemical oceanography, floating icebergs serve as habitat for marine animals such as harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii. The availability and spatial distribution of glacier ice in the fjords is likely a key environmental variable that influences the abundance and distribution of selected marine mammals; however, the amount of ice and the fine-scale characteristics of ice in fjords have not been systematically quantified. Given the predicted changes in glacier habitat, there is a need for the development of methods that could be broadly applied to quantify changes in available ice habitat in tidewater glacier fjords. We present a case study to describe a novel method that uses object-based image analysis (OBIA to classify floating glacier ice in a tidewater glacier fjord from high-resolution aerial digital imagery. Our objectives were to (i develop workflows and rule sets to classify high spatial resolution airborne imagery of floating glacier ice; (ii quantify the amount and fine-scale characteristics of floating glacier ice; (iii and develop processes for automating the object-based analysis of floating glacier ice for large number of images from a representative survey day during June 2007 in Johns Hopkins Inlet (JHI, a tidewater glacier fjord in Glacier Bay National Park, southeastern Alaska. On 18 June 2007, JHI was comprised of brash ice ([Formula: see text] = 45.2%, SD = 41.5%, water ([Formula: see text] = 52.7%, SD = 42.3%, and icebergs ([Formula: see text] = 2.1%, SD = 1.4%. Average iceberg size per scene was 5.7 m2 (SD = 2.6 m2. We estimate the total area (± uncertainty of iceberg habitat in the fjord to be 455,400 ± 123,000 m2. The method works well for classifying icebergs across scenes (classification accuracy of 75.6%; the largest classification errors occur in areas

  16. Characterization of icebergs and floating sea ice in the Yung Sund fjord in Greenland from satellite radar and optical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaso, Stephane; Gay, Michel; Gervaise, Cedric

    2017-04-01

    At the Zackenberg site, sea ice starts to move between June and September resulting in icebergs flowing freely on the sea. Splitting into smaller parts, they reduce in size. Icebergs represent a risk for maritime transport and needs to be studied. In order to determine iceberg density per surface unit, size distribution, and movement of icebergs, we need to observe, detect, range and track them. The use of SAR images is particularly well adapted in regions where cloud cover is very present. We focused our study on the Yung Sund fjord in Greenland, where lots of icebergs and sea ice are generated during the summer. In the beginning of July, sea ice breaks up first, followed by icebergs created by the different glaciers based in the ocean. During our investigation, we noticed that the iceberg and sea ice were drifting very fast and thus, we needed to adapt our methodology. To achieve our goal, we collected all remote sensing data available in the region, principally Sentinel 1/2 and LandSAT 8 during one ice free season (from July 1st 2016 to September 30th, 2016). We developed an original approach in order to detect, characterize and track icebergs and sea ice independently from data. The iceberg detection was made using a watershed technique. The advantage of this technique is that it can be applied to both optical and radar images. For the latter, calibrated intensity is transformed into an image using a scaling function, in order to make ice brighter. Land data is masked using a topographic map. When data is segmented, a statistical test derived from the CFAR approach is performed to isolate an iceberg and floating sea ice from the ocean. Finally, a method, such SIFT or BRISK is used to identify and track the different segmented object. These approaches give a representation of the object and make the tracking easier and independent of the scale and rotation, which can occur because icebergs are dependent on ocean currents and wind. Finally, to fill in the gap

  17. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination.

  18. Composition and structure of macrozooplankton and micronekton communities in the vicinity of free-drifting Antarctic icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ronald S.; Robison, Bruce H.; Sherlock, Rob E.; Reisenbichler, Kim R.; Osborn, Karen J.

    2011-06-01

    Recent warming in the Antarctic has led to increased production of icebergs; however, the ecological effects of icebergs on pelagic communities within the Southern Ocean have not been well-studied. We used a 10 m 2 MOCNESS to collect macrozooplankton and micronekton in the upper 300 m of the water column near free-drifting icebergs in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during three seasons: December 2005 (late spring), June 2008 (late fall) and March-April 2009 (late summer). Communities were dominated in all three seasons by Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and salps ( Salpa thompsoni), which collectively comprised 60-95% of the community wet biomass in most cases. During our spring and summer cruises, mean biomass was elevated by 3.1-4.3x at a distance of 0.37 km from large icebergs vs. 9.26 km away. These differences were not statistically significant, and no trend in biomass with distance was apparent in samples from fall 2008, when total biomass was an order of magnitude lower. Biomass levels near icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009 were comparable to values reported from marginal ice zones, suggesting that waters around icebergs support macrozooplankton and micronekton communities comparable in magnitude to those in some of the most productive areas of the Southern Ocean. Sample variance also was significantly higher within 1.85 km of icebergs during Dec 2005 and Mar-Apr 2009, reflecting increased patchiness on scales sampled by the MOCNESS (20-40×10 3 m 3 filtered per sample). This pattern was not significant during Jun 2008. Large predatory medusae were observed within 1.85 km of icebergs and in Iceberg Alley, an area through which icebergs pass frequently, but were virtually absent in areas remote from icebergs. Small euphausiids showed an inverse distribution, with low densities in areas populated by large medusae. A shift in community composition from a near-iceberg assemblage dominated by herbivores to a carnivore-dominated community

  19. Self Harm - Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Self Harm — Cutting Self Harm — Cutting Share Print It’s difficult to watch your child ... their pain, such as in the case of cutting. Cutting (sometimes called self harm) is the act ...

  20. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  1. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  2. Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.

  3. Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

    2013-10-08

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age.

  4. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  5. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  6. Iceberg mélange, traffic jams and the stability of tidewater glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.; O'Leary, M.

    2012-12-01

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of ocean terminating glaciers is tightly coupled to the presence of pro-glacial mélange, a freely floating mixture of icebergs, sea ice and snow that clogs fjords. Mechanical considerations, in contrast, suggest that mélange should lack the structural integrity necessary to disrupt the calving cycle. In this study, we address this discrepancy using an idealized model in which mélange is represented as discrete blocks of ice that interact through elastic and frictional forces. Intact glacier ice is simulated as a matrix of boulders of ice that are glued together with breakable bonds. This modeling framework realizes the discrete granular nature of mélange and enables the mélange to mechanically interact with a (continuous) glacier. Using characteristic thickness and geometry of a Helheim-like glacier we find that if the fjord is mélange free, through penetrating fractures develop near the terminus leading to the detachment of sub-ice-thickness scale bergs that rotate and capsize. However, when mélange is present, inelastic collisions between the detaching berg and mélange inhibit movement of the berg away from the calving front. This effect is magnified when protrusions from the bed (e.g., a very thick sill) or walls cause iceberg "traffic jams". These traffic jams limit the rate at which icebergs can be exported away from the terminus and create compressive chains that provide a compressive backstress to the terminus. Although the compressive stress is small compared to the tensile deviatoric stress within the ice, it is sufficient to prevent or at least delay further calving events. This suggests that tidewater glacier retreat may be limited by the export of icebergs away from the terminus and this, like most traffic jams, is strongly controlled by the presence of obstacles that force traffic to converge or take inefficient detours.

  7. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Lactones from Iceberg Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-01-13

    Lactuca sativa var. capitate (iceberg lettuce) is a delicious vegetable and popular for its mild taste. Nevertheless, iceberg lettuce is a source of bitter substances, such as the sesquiterpene lactones. Chemical investigations on the n-butanol extract led to the isolation of three novel sesquiterpene lactones. All compounds were isolated by multilayer countercurrent chromatography followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures were verified by means of spectroscopic methods, including NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. For the first time 11ß,13-dihydrolactucin-8-O-sulfate (jaquinelin-8-O-sulfate) was structurally elucidated and identified in plants. In addition, the sesquiterpene lactones cichorioside B and 8-deacetylmatricarin-8-O-sulfate were identified as novel ingredients of iceberg lettuce. Further flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae were examined for the above three compounds. At least one of the compounds was identified in nine plants. The comparison between the lettuce butt end and the leaves of five types of the Cichorieae tribe showed an accumulation of the compounds in the butt end. Further experiments addressed the impact of sesquiterpene lactones on color formation and bitter taste.

  8. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  9. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one.

  10. Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinasquet, Julie; Richert, Inga; Logares, Ramiro; Yager, Patricia; Bertilsson, Stefan; Riemann, Lasse

    2017-06-01

    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, N-acetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  12. Iceberg and ice-keel ploughmarks on the Gdansk-Gotland Sill (south-eastern Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, D. V.; Dorokhova, E. V.; Sivkov, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    New interpretation of the undulating moraine relief of the Gdansk-Gotland Sill, Baltic Sea is proposed. Relict iceberg and ice-keel ploughmarks were observed based on the integration of recently acquired side-scan sonar, multi-beam, single-beam and lithological data. The most likely time of their formation is the period of fast Scandinavian sheet retreat occurring from approximately 13.2 to 11.7 ka. Weak erosional-accumulative processes on the sill from 11.7 ka until the present favoured preservation of the iceberg ploughmarks. The predominant directions of the ploughmarks (north-south and northwest-southeast) coincide with the major iceberg (ice) drift direction from the Scandinavian ice sheet. Furrow width varies from 1 to 300 m with a main width of 20-60 m in a depth range of 1 to 10 m (mostly 2-4 m depth). The ploughmarks are flanked by side ridges 0.5-2 m high, and there is a push mound at the end of some furrows. Three types of cross-sectional furrow profiles have been distinguished: V-shaped cross-section profiles would have been formed by a peaked iceberg keel, U-shaped profiles by a flat keel, and W-shaped profiles by double-keel icebergs (ice ridges). The wide local depressions at the end of ploughmarks could have been formed during periods of fast falling of the Baltic Ice Lake water level, when the ice ridges (stamukhi) or icebergs could ground into the seafloor.

  13. Ocean eddy structure by satellite radar altimetry required for iceberg towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.J.; Cheney, R.E.; Marsh, J.G.; Mognard, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Models for the towing of large tabular icebergs give towing speeds of 0.5 knots to 1.0 knots relative to the ambient near surface current. Recent oceanographic research indicates that the world oceans are not principally composed of large steady-state current systems, like the Gulf Stream, but that most of the ocean momentum is probably involved in intense rings, formed by meanders of the large streams, and in mid-ocean eddies. These rings and eddies have typical dimensions on the order of 200 km with dynamic height anomalies across them of tens-of-centimeters to a meter. They migrate at speeds on the order of a few cm/sec. Current velocities as great as 3 knots have been observed in rings, and currents of 1 knot are common. Thus, the successful towing of icebergs is dependent on the ability to locate, measure, and track ocean rings and eddies. To accomplish this systematically on synoptic scales appears to be possible only by using satelliteborne radar altimeters. Ocean current and eddy structures as observed by the radar altimeters on the GEOS-3 and Seasat-1 satellites are presented and compared. Several satellite programs presently being planned call for flying radar altimeters in polar or near-polar orbits in the mid-1980 time frame. Thus, by the time tows of large icebergs will probably be attempted, it is possible synoptic observations of ocean rings and eddies which can be used to ascertain their location, size, intensity, and translation velocity will be a reality. ?? 1980.

  14. Evidence of marine ice-cliff instability in Pine Island Bay from iceberg-keel plough marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Matthew G.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Jakobsson, Martin; Larter, Robert D.

    2017-10-01

    Marine ice-cliff instability (MICI) processes could accelerate future retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet if ice shelves that buttress grounding lines more than 800 metres below sea level are lost. The present-day grounding zones of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica need to retreat only short distances before they reach extensive retrograde slopes. When grounding zones of glaciers retreat onto such slopes, theoretical considerations and modelling results indicate that the retreat becomes unstable (marine ice-sheet instability) and thus accelerates. It is thought that MICI is triggered when this retreat produces ice cliffs above the water line with heights approaching about 90 metres. However, observational evidence confirming the action of MICI has not previously been reported. Here we present observational evidence that rapid deglacial ice-sheet retreat into Pine Island Bay proceeded in a similar manner to that simulated in a recent modelling study, driven by MICI. Iceberg-keel plough marks on the sea-floor provide geological evidence of past and present iceberg morphology, keel depth and drift direction. From the planform shape and cross-sectional morphologies of iceberg-keel plough marks, we find that iceberg calving during the most recent deglaciation was not characterized by small numbers of large, tabular icebergs as is observed today, which would produce wide, flat-based plough marks or toothcomb-like multi-keeled plough marks. Instead, it was characterized by large numbers of smaller icebergs with V-shaped keels. Geological evidence of the form and water-depth distribution of the plough marks indicates calving-margin thicknesses equivalent to the threshold that is predicted to trigger ice-cliff structural collapse as a result of MICI. We infer rapid and sustained ice-sheet retreat driven by MICI, commencing around 12,300 years ago and terminating before about 11,200 years ago, which produced large numbers of icebergs smaller than the

  15. Antarctic icebergs: A significant natural ocean sound source in the Southern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Haru; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Tournadre, Jean; Robert P. Dziak; Joseph H Haxel; Lau, T. -k. A.; Fowler, Matt; Salo, Sigrid A.

    2014-01-01

    In late 2007, two massive icebergs, C19a and B15a, drifted into open water and slowly disintegrated in the southernmost Pacific Ocean. Archived acoustic records show that the high-intensity underwater sounds accompanying this breakup increased ocean noise levels at mid-to-equatorial latitudes over a period of ∼1.5 years. More typically, seasonal variations in ocean noise, which are characterized by austral summer-highs and winter-lows, appear to be modulated by the annual cycle of Antarctic i...

  16. Iceberg calving during transition from grounded to floating ice: Columbia Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; O'Neel, Shad; McNamara, Daniel; Pfeffer, W.T.; Bassis, Jeremy N.; Fricker, Helen Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The terminus of Columbia Glacier, Alaska, unexpectedly became ungrounded in 2007 during its prolonged retreat. Visual observations showed that calving changed from a steady release of low-volume bergs, to episodic flow-perpendicular rifting, propagation, and release of very large icebergs - a style reminiscent of calving from ice shelves. Here, we compare passive seismic and photographic observations through this transition to examine changes in calving. Mechanical changes accompany the visible changes in calving style post flotation: generation of seismic energy during calving is substantially reduced. We propose this is partly due to changes in source processes.

  17. El impacto de la fusión de los icebergs en el nivel del mar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Villarroel Villamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente a la creencia, muy extendida, de que la fusion de las grandes masas de hielo a la deriva en el oceano no repercute en un aumento del nivel del mar, lo cierto es que el deshielo de icebergs, barreras de hielo e incluso de la banquisa tiene, en el actual contexto de calentamiento global, un impacto nada despreciable en el nivel de los oceanos. Se presenta a continuacion una revision de este fenomeno y se propone un experimento ilustrativo que puede resultar util para ofrecer una experiencia directa relativa al impacto que sobre el nivel del mar tiene la fusion del hielo flotante en el oceano.

  18. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  19. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  20. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  1. Being as an iceberg: hypertensive treatment adherence experiences in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dehghan Nayeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment adherence is often an important issue in the management of hypertension. Deep understanding of adherence behavior as well as its influential factors can expand knowledge about treatment adherence among hypertensives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore patients, their families, and healthcare providers’ experiences about hypertension treatment adherence in southeast of Iran. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of patients, family members, and healthcare providers (n=18 by using a conventional content analysis. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through semi-structured and deep interviews. Results: Data analysis showed that hypertensive treatment adherence in an Iranian context is like an iceberg with two subthemes. The first subtheme relates to the upper and clear part of this iceberg and it consists of two categories, including 1 healthy and 2 unhealthy regimens. The second subtheme associates with under-water and unanticipated part and it consists of four categories, including 1 the nature of disease and treatment, 2 the individual resources, 3 the healthcare organization, and 4 the socio-cultural environment. Conclusions: The treatment adherence features emerged in this study can be useful in designing and developing context-based hypertension interventions. Further qualitative and quantitative studies with a closer collaboration between the social, natural, and medical sciences in other Iranian populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  2. Mapping the elder mistreatment iceberg: U.S. hospitalizations with elder abuse and neglect diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovi, Sue; Chen, Ping-Hsin; Vega, Marielos; Johnson, Mark S; Mouton, Charles P

    2009-10-01

    This study describes U.S. hospitalizations with diagnostic codes indicating elder mistreatment (EM). Using the 2003 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Costs and Utilization Project (HCUP), inpatient stays coded with diagnoses of adult abuse and/or neglect are compared with stays of other hospitalized adults age 60 and older. Few hospitalizations (nursing home rather than "routinely" discharged (i.e., to home or self-care) (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 2.92-4.59). Elder mistreatment-coded hospitalizations compared to all other hospitalizations had on average lower total charges ($21,479 vs. $25,127, p neglect cases having the highest charges in 2003 ($29,389). Knowledge about EM is often likened to the "tip of the iceberg." Our study contributes to "mapping the EM iceberg"; however, findings based on diagnostic codes are limited and should not be used to minimize the problem of EM. With the so-called graying of America, training is needed in recognizing EM along with research to improve our nation's response to the mistreatment of our elderly population.

  3. Thinning sea ice weakens buttressing force of iceberg mélange and promotes calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    At many marine-terminating glaciers, the breakup of mélange, a floating aggregation of sea ice and icebergs, has been accompanied by an increase in iceberg calving and ice mass loss. Previous studies have argued that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. In this study, I adapt a discrete element model to explicitly simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. Simulations show that mélange laden with thick landfast sea ice produces enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice within mélange thins, the buttressing force on the terminus is reduced and calving is more likely to occur. When a calving event does occur, it initiates a propagating jamming wave within mélange, which causes local compression and then slow mélange expansion. The jamming wave can also initiate widespread fracture of sea ice and further increase the likelihood of subsequent calving events.

  4. Microclimatic modifications and productive responses of the Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa in protected environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Fernandes Otto

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in Ponta Grossa - PR, Brazil, in the winter and spring/summer periods with iceberg lettuces cultivars Lucy Brown and Raider Plus. The objectives were to assess the lettuce productive responses and the intensity of the microclimate modifications in five cropping systems as under shade nets Aluminet 40-O® (AL and ChromatiNet Vermelha® 40 (CR, a low tunnel covered with transparent polyethylene (TU, direct cover white nonwoven (NW and natural conditions (NT. A complete randomized design was used for both the experiments with five treatments placed in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (cropping systems x cultivars and four replications. The photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature were monitored by installing probes in a datalogger system. In the winter both cultivars under NW and TU produced 21 days earlier compared to the other environments but they presented fresh commercial head similar to NT at the end of the cycle and superior to CR and AL. In the spring/summer there was no difference in the lettuce cycle regardless of the cultivar and the cropping systems. The Lucy Brown cultivar presented smaller sized heads for the winter cropping but did not differ from Raider Plus during the spring/summer. The mean air temperature of the air under NW was higher than in the other environments in both experiments. The use of the different covering materials reduced the photosynthetically active radiation available to the plant but did not prevent commercial head production of Iceberg lettuce.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil on iceberg lettuce with different attachment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Gülten Tiryaki; Niemira, Brendan A; Gönül, Sahika Aktuğ; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activity of oregano oil was investigated under different attachment conditions of Salmonella spp. to iceberg lettuce. Inoculated lettuce was either not dried or dried for 30 min, 60 min, or 120 min, under either static air or moving air. Washing iceberg lettuce with 500 ppm oregano oil for 1, 5, and 10 min reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by (respectively) 1.3, 1.65, and 2.28 log cfu/g following the most challenging inoculation conditions, an inoculum drying period of 2 h under moving air. Across all inoculation conditions, increasing the treatment time significantly increased the reductions in the populations of Salmonella spp. (P oregano oil. For each treatment time, attachment times and drying under static compared with moving air did not significantly affect the antimicrobial efficacy of the various oregano oil treatments (P > 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest that oregano oil can effectively reduce populations of Salmonella attached to lettuce leaf surfaces. The use of essential oils as an antimicrobial treatment can help to ensure the safety of leafy green products. As used in this study, oregano oil effectively reduced Salmonella spp., even after the pathogen had dried onto the lettuce leaves. Treatments that incorporate oregano oil therefore hold promise as a biocide treatment for process and packaged lettuce. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Iceberg lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and the University of California, Davis, announce the release of two breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lines RH08-0472 and RH08-0475 are F9 iceberg type lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wil...

  7. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  8. Capsizing Icebergs: An Exercise in the Application of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy with a Very Surprising Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Many icebergs are vulnerable to capsizing. In doing so the gravitational potential energy of the ice is increased, while that of the displaced sea water is decreased. Applying the principle of the conservation of energy shows that by capsizing, there is also a net transfer of energy to the surrounding sea water. This will be a maximum for a…

  9. Assessment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transference from soil to Iceberg Lettuce via a contaminated harvesting knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for coring knives to cross-contaminate lettuce heads with pathogens was evaluated for both ring and blade ends. Rings and blades artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), were used to core three successive heads of iceberg lettuce. The coring rings and blades were...

  10. Cutting hospital costs without cutting staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, John P

    2011-10-01

    A hospital that is seeking ways to cut costs without compromising care should resist the temptation to lay off staff and instead make it a priority to improve efficiencies. This approach requires a formal program to identify and analyze all of the hospital's processes. The focus of the analysis should be to determine which activities are being performed efficiently, which are being performed inefficiently, and which are unnecessary. This effort will achieve the greatest success if it is customer-centric.

  11. Iceberg-hosted nanoparticulate Fe in the Southern Ocean: Mineralogy, origin, dissolution kinetics and source of bioavailable Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Sediments from icebergs and glaciers contain nanopartculate Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (including ferrihydrite) which form in aqueous, oxic (micro)environments where Fe(II)-bearing rock minerals oxidise and high degrees of supersaturation are promoted by freezing and thawing. An ascorbic acid extraction dissolves only labile Fe present in fresh (loosely aggregated) ferrihydrite that is directly or indirectly bioavailable. Glacial and iceberg sediments contain ferrihydrite aggregates that provide 0.04 to 0.17% Fe soluble in ascorbic acid, rather larger than the concentrations in a limited suite of atmospheric dusts. The dissolution behaviour of labile Fe from glacial and iceberg sediments by ascorbic acid is controlled by the access of reactant, or removal of solute, through micropores to or from active sites in the interior of ferrihydrite aggregates. A first-order kinetic model is presented to examine the rates at which bioavailable Fe can be supplied by melting icebergs in the Weddell Sea. The model utilizes rate constants from the literature for the processes which solubilise Fe from nanoparticulate ferrihydrite (dissolution, photochemical reduction and grazing) and the processes that remove Fe nanoparticulates (sinking, scavenging and incorporation in faecal material), and render them less reactive (transformation, aging). Model results demonstrate that icebergs can supply bioavailable Fe to the Weddell Sea by the dissolution of nanoparticulate ferrihydrite (despite loss/removal of nanoparticles by sinking, aging, transformation, scavenging and incorporation into faecal pellets) at rates that are comparable to atmospheric dust. Dissolution enhanced by photochemical reduction and grazing provides the most rapid rates of bioavailable Fe production.

  12. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  13. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain cuts or bites could lead to a tetanus infection if your tetanus shots are not up to ... and Wounds Cellulitis Osteomyelitis Wound Healing and Care Tetanus Staph Infections Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  14. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  15. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches First Aid: Falls First ... What's a Scab? Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Staph Infections Dealing With Cuts and Wounds View more ...

  16. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  17. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  18. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  19. Iceberg killing fields limit huge potential for benthic blue carbon in Antarctic shallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2017-07-01

    Climate-forced ice losses are increasing potential for iceberg-seabed collisions, termed ice scour. At Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) sea ice, oceanography, phytoplankton and encrusting zoobenthos have been monitored since 1998. In 2003, grids of seabed markers, covering 225 m 2 , were established, surveyed and replaced annually to measure ice scour frequency. Disturbance history has been recorded for each m 2 of seabed monitored at 5-25 m for ~13 years. Encrusting fauna, collected from impacted and nonimpacted metres each year, show coincident benthos responses in growth, mortality and mass of benthic immobilized carbon. Encrusting benthic growth was mainly determined by microalgal bloom duration; each day, nanophytoplankton exceeded 200 μg L -1 produced ~0.05 mm radial growth of bryozoans, and sea temperature >0 °C added 0.002 mm day -1 . Mortality and persistence of growth, as benthic carbon immobilization, were mainly influenced by ice scour. Nearly 30% of monitored seabed was hit each year, and just 7% of shallows were not hit. Hits in deeper water were more deadly, but less frequent, so mortality decreased with depth. Five-year recovery time doubled benthic carbon stocks. Scour-driven mortality varied annually, with two-thirds of all monitored fauna killed in a single year (2009). Reduced fast ice after 2006 ramped iceberg scouring, killing half the encrusting benthos each year in following years. Ice scour coupled with low phytoplankton biomass drove a phase shift to high mortality and depressed zoobenthic immobilized carbon stocks, which has persevered for 10 years since. Stocks of immobilized benthic carbon averaged nearly 15 g m -2 . WAP ice scouring may be recycling 80 000 tonnes of carbon yr -1 . Without scouring, such carbon would remain immobilized and the 2.3% of shelf which are shallows could be as productive as all the remaining continental shelf. The region's future, when glaciers reach grounding lines and iceberg

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  2. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  3. Multiple outbreaks of Salmonella braenderup associated with consumption of iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajraj, Roger; Pooransingh, Shalini; Hawker, Jeremy I; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the findings from an outbreak investigation following several apparently unrelated community outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological, environmental, laboratory and traceback investigations were used to identify the source of the outbreak. We enrolled 23 (of 29) laboratory confirmed cases and 24 neighbourhood case-nominated controls in a case-control study which revealed that illness was associated with consumption of iceberg lettuce (matched odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 1.1-355) contaminated with Salmonella braenderup. Several eating establishments were affected and the lettuce was traced back to a single producer in Spain. This is the first UK report implicating S. braenderup in an outbreak due to lettuce. The results highlight the need to increase attention to the various stages in the farm-to-fork process to reduce produce-associated outbreaks related to the global food trade.

  4. Ship-Iceberg Discrimination in Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery by Supervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder Heiselberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellites provide multispectral images with pixel sizes down to 10 m. This high resolution allows for fast and frequent detection, classification and discrimination of various objects in the sea, which is relevant in general and specifically for the vast Arctic environment. We analyze several sets of multispectral image data from Denmark and Greenland fall and winter, and describe a supervised search and classification algorithm based on physical parameters that successfully finds and classifies all objects in the sea with reflectance above a threshold. It discriminates between objects like ships, islands, wakes, and icebergs, ice floes, and clouds with accuracy better than 90%. Pan-sharpening the infrared bands leads to classification and discrimination of ice floes and clouds better than 95%. For complex images with abundant ice floes or clouds, however, the false alarm rate dominates for small non-sailing boats.

  5. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  6. Investigation in the iceberg capsizing force responsible for glacial earthquakes and ice-volume discharge estimation from seismic records and a numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Mangeney, Anne; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Stuzmann, Eléonore

    2017-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of kilometer-scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves which last between 2 and 10 min, with dominant energy between 10-100 s of period. The source responsible for generation of such seismic waves is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. We develop a 2D finite element model which takes into account the effect of water on solid structures. Using realistic rheological laws that describe ice behavior, we model iceberg capsize and investigate the forces applied on the solid Earth during this phenomenon, and generated seismic waves. We investigate the force variations with iceberg dimensions, initial buoyant conditions and direction of capsize rotation. We find that top-out iceberg capsize exerts a force on the glacier terminus which largely differs from the bottom-out capsize force in terms of amplitude and force waveforms but only in the seismic frequency band. For realistic iceberg dimensions, we compute a catalog of capsize forces whose magnitudes are consistent with seismic observations. Finally, by exploring the geometric parameters which control the capsize dynamics (height and width of the iceberg, and its initial buoyant condition), we are able to accurately reproduce the observed seismic wavefield and estimate the calved iceberg volume.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  8. Heat fluxes from an Arctic fjord with glaciers and ice-bergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikvin; Sundfjord, A.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers on the Northern Hemisphere and on Svalbard in particular, are decreasing in volume. In Hornsund, SW Spitsbergen, the reduction of the multiple tide water glaciers has been observed for more than a century. Melt water from the glaciers represent a contribution of relatively cold fresh water to the water masses in the west, by the West -Spitsbergen current. We have used a numerical hydrodynamical model to simulate the fluxes of heat and fresh water between the Hornsund fjord and the water masses outside the fjord, with ice bergs and glacier melting included. Glacier melting and ice-berg melting are in general poorly described in hydrodynamical models of the Arctic. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model was set up for the Hornsund area with high resolution (160m), and fluxes through the fjord were calculated for the year 2011. The ocean current model was evaluated against current meter measurements and hydrographic data from strategic locations in the inner parts of Hornsund. An estimate of the heat flux and its seasonal signal between Hornsund and the outer water masses has been found. It is concluded that the there is a significant potential of oceanic heat contributing to facial melting of the tide water glacier fronts. Correspondingly, the glaciers contribute with a fresh water volume that mixes with the coastal northward current west of Svalbard and subsequently with the West Spitsbergen current. This flux is considered to be substantial, and indicates that glacier melting and ice-berg melting should be included in regional Arctic hydrodynamical ocean models.

  9. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  10. Effects of X-ray radiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Barakat S M

    2010-02-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to study the efficacy of X-ray doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy) on inoculated Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri on shredded iceberg lettuce. The second goal was to study the effect of X-ray on the inherent microflora counts and visual color of shredded iceberg lettuce during storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days. Treatment with 1.0 kGy X-ray significantly reduced the population of E. coli O157: H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and S. flexneri on shredded iceberg lettuce by 4.4, 4.1, 4.8 and 4.4-log CFU 5 cm(-2), respectively. Furthermore, more than a 5 log CFU reduction of E. coli O157: H7, L. monocytogenes, S. enterica and S. flexneri was achieved with 2.0 kGy X-ray. Treatment with X-ray reduced the initial microflora on iceberg lettuce and kept them significantly (p 0.05) change the green color of iceberg lettuce leaves. Treatment with X-ray significantly reduced selected pathogens and inherent microorganisms on shredded iceberg lettuce leaves, which could be a good alternative to other technologies for produce (lettuce) industry.

  11. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  12. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  14. Chlorine stabilizer T-128 enhances efficacy of chlorine against cross-contamination by E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fresh-cut lettuce processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yaguang; Hollar, LaVonda; Yang, Yang; Feng, Hao; Millner, Patricia; Shelton, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    During fresh-cut produce processing, organic materials released from cut tissues can rapidly react with free chlorine in the wash solution, leading to the potential survival of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and cross-contamination when the free chlorine is depleted. A reported chlorine stabilizer, T-128, has been developed to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the ability of T-128 to stabilize free chlorine in wash solutions in the presence of high organic loads generated by the addition of lettuce extract or soil. Under conditions used in this study, T-128 significantly (Plettuce extract in wash solution. Application of T-128 significantly reduced the survival of bacterial pathogens in wash solutions with high organic loads and significantly reduced the potential of cross-contamination, when contaminated and uncontaminated produce were washed together. However, T-128 did not enhance the efficacy of chlorinated wash solutions for microbial reduction on contaminated iceberg lettuce. Evaluation of several produce quality parameters, including overall visual appearance, package headspace O2 and CO2 composition, and lettuce electrolyte leakage, during 15 d of storage indicated that iceberg lettuce quality and shelf life were not negatively impacted by washing fresh-cut lettuce in chlorine solutions containing 0.1% T-128.   Reported chlorine stabilizer is shown to enhance chlorine efficacy against potential bacterial cross-contamination in the presence of high organic loads without compromising product quality and shelf life.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  17. After the Ribbon Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...

  18. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  19. Kids Who Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  20. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86% demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17% out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5 were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV- and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the blaSHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to blaSHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health.

  1. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  3. High Resolution Model Development to Quantify the Impact of Icebergs on the Stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-10-18

    In the present-day North Atlantic Ocean, relatively warm and salty water moves northwards from the tropics to the high latitudes, sinks, and returns southward towards the equator as North Atlantic Deep Water, forming the so called Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been found that the stability of the AMOC is non-linearly related to the freshwater budget of the North Atlantic. In this way, additional fresh water can be added to the ocean with little impact, until a tipping point is reached that causes the AMOC to suddenly weaken and the Northern Hemisphere to abruptly cool. A great deal of uncertainty still remains over the sensitivity of the AMOC to changes in freshwater discharge as a result of the unrealistic manner in which freshwater has historically been added to climate models. Frequently, freshwater is discharged in ocean models entirely as liquid water, but in reality a large fraction of freshwater entering the ocean is ice calving from marine glaciers (half for Antarctica and two-thirds for Greenland). To more accurately quantify AMOC sensitivity to past and future changes in freshwater input, this project developed a comprehensive iceberg model to more realistically simulate the interaction between the cryosphere and the oceans at high-latitudes. The iceberg model created is written in Fortran90 and designed to scale efficiently on High Performance Computing (HPC) clusters so that tens-of-thousands of icebergs can be simulated at any time. Experiments performed with our model showed that in the Pleistocene there would have been enormous floods of freshwater released into the North Atlantic that would have transported icebergs and meltwater along the entire east coast of the United States, as far south as Florida Keys. In addition, high-resolution, modern-day, model simulations showed that if the Greenland Ice Sheet continues to melt at its current rate then there will be a 6-fold increase in the number of icebergs drifting in the

  4. A Stochastic Cutting Stock Procedure: Cutting Rolls of Insulating Tape

    OpenAIRE

    Sculli, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper develops a one-dimensional cutting stock procedure which will minimize material wastage when a batch of small pieces are cut from several long pieces. The problem differs from the classical one-dimensional cutting stock problem in that the dimensions of the material to be cut are random variables due to fringe defects caused by the production process. Examples of such processes include the production of flat glass, laminated board, corrugated board, adhesive tape, carpeting, and in...

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  6. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  7. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  10. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  11. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  12. Evalution of the “Iceberg Phenomenon” in Johne's Disease through Mathematical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombedze, Gesgam; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Lanzas, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, enteric disease in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Disease progression follows four distinct stages: silent, subclinical, clinical and advanced. Available diagnostic tests have poor sensitivity and cannot detect early stages of the infection; as a result, only animals in the clinical and advanced stages, which represent the tip of the ‘iceberg’, are identified through testing. The Iceberg Phenomenon is then applied to provide estimates for JD prevalence. For one animal in the advanced stage, it is assumed that there are one to two in the clinical stage, four to eight in the subclinical stage, and ten to fourteen in the silent stage. These ratios, however, are based on little evidence. To evaluate the ratios, we developed a deterministic ordinary differential equation model of JD transmission and disease progression dynamics. When duration periods associated with the natural course of the disease progression are used, the above ratios do not hold. The ratios used to estimate JD prevalence need to be further investigated. PMID:24167547

  13. Iceberg scour and shell damage in the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elizabeth M; Clark, Melody S; Hoffman, Joseph I; Philipp, Eva E R; Peck, Lloyd S; Morley, Simon A

    2012-01-01

    We document differences in shell damage and shell thickness in a bivalve mollusc (Laternula elliptica) from seven sites around Antarctica with differing exposures to ice movement. These range from 60% of the sea bed impacted by ice per year (Hangar Cove, Antarctic Peninsula) to those protected by virtually permanent sea ice cover (McMurdo Sound). Patterns of shell damage consistent with blunt force trauma were observed in populations where ice scour frequently occurs; damage repair frequencies and the thickness of shells correlated positively with the frequency of iceberg scour at the different sites with the highest repair rates and thicker shells at Hangar Cove (74.2% of animals damaged) compared to the other less impacted sites (less than 10% at McMurdo Sound). Genetic analysis of population structure using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) revealed no genetic differences between the two sites showing the greatest difference in shell morphology and repair rates. Taken together, our results suggest that L. elliptica exhibits considerable phenotypic plasticity in response to geographic variation in physical disturbance.

  14. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from MV NEPTUNE in Baffin Bay from 2012-07-25 to 2012-08-03 around Iceberg PII-B (NCEI Accession 0131206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean temperature, salinities and pressures where collected around a large tabular iceberg PII-B from 2012-07-25 to 2012-08-03. The distance from the iceberg of each...

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  16. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  17. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  18. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  19. Can You Cut It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...

  20. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  1. Maximal cuts in arbitrary dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Jorrit; Sogaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    We develop a systematic procedure for computing maximal unitarity cuts of multiloop Feynman integrals in arbitrary dimension. Our approach is based on the Baikov representation in which the structure of the cuts is particularly simple. We examine several planar and nonplanar integral topologies and demonstrate that the maximal cut inherits IBPs and dimension shift identities satisfied by the uncut integral. Furthermore, for the examples we calculated, we find that the maximal cut functions from different allowed regions, form the Wronskian matrix of the differential equations on the maximal cut.

  2. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  3. Ice-front change and iceberg behaviour along Oates and George V Coasts, Antarctica, 1912-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzotti, M.; Cimbelli, A.; Ferrigno, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Ice-front change may well be a sensitive indicator of regional climate change. We have studied the western Oates Coast from Cape Kinsey (158??50'E, 69??19'S) to Cape Hudson (153??45'E, 68??20'S) and the entire George V Coast, from Cape Hudson to Point Alden (142??02'E, 66??48'S). The glaciers here drain part of the Dome Charlie and Talos Dome areas (640 000 km2). A comparison between various documents, dated several years apart, has allowed an estimate of the surficial ice discharge, the ice-front fluctuation and the iceberg-calving flux during the last 50 years. The ice-front discharge of the studied coast has been estimated at about 90??12 km3 a-1 in 1989-91, 8.5 km3 a-1 for western Oates Coast and 82 km3 a-1 for George V Coast. From 1962-63 to 1973-74 the floating glaciers underwent a net reduction that continued from 1973-74 to 1989-91. On the other hand, from 1989-91 to 1996 the area of floating glaciers increased. Ninnis Glacier Tongue and the western part of Cook Ice Shelf underwent a significant retreat after 1980 and 1947, respectively. Satellite-image analysis of large icebergs has provided information about ice-ocean interaction and the existence of an 'iceberg trap' along George V Coast. A first estimate of the mass balance of the drainage basin of Mertz and Ninnis Glaciers shows a value close to zero or slightly negative.

  4. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  6. Making the cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive characteristics are traced back to a corpus of literature produced in the 1960s and 1970s in North American psychiatric inpatient institutions; analysis shows how pre-1960 works were substantially different. Finally, these gendered and behavioural assertions are shown to be the result of historically specific processes of exclusion and emphasis. PMID:23741086

  7. Pemesinan Nonkonvensional Plasma Arc Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad, Al Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Dalam proses pemesinan dikenal 2 jenis proses pemesian, yaitu pemesinan konvensional dan pemesinan nonkonvensional. Salah satu jenis pemesinan nonkonvensional ini adalah Plasma Arc Cutting. Plasma Arc Cutting sangat banyak digunakan dalam berbagai industri yang mengunakan bahan baku logam. Jenis torch pada Plasma Arc Cutting ini ada banyak. Setiap jenis torch mempunyai karakteristik tertentu dan fungsi tertentu. In machining process known 2 kind machining process, conventional machining and n...

  8. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  9. Differential killing activity of cetylpyridinium chloride with or without bacto neutralizing buffer quench against firmly adhered Salmonella gaminara and Shigella sonnei on cut lettuce stored at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Moeznimanwaty; Janes, Marlene E; Story, Robert; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Johnson, Michael G

    2006-06-01

    Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) activity was quenched with Bacto neutralizing buffer on inoculated cut iceberg lettuce. This protocol permitted comparison of the numbers of Salmonella Gaminara- or Shigella sonnei-inoculated cells on lettuce that survived 1 min of CPC treatment. Cut lettuce was inoculated with about 6 log of Salmonella or 9 log of Shigella and stored in Whirl-Pak bags at 4 degrees C for up to 4 days. Loosely adhered pathogen cells were washed off before CPC treatment. Firmly adhered cells of Salmonella Gaminara or S. sonnei on cut iceberg lettuce survived treatment with CPC even at the 0.4% CPC level if the CPC activity was quenched after 1 min by adding Bacto neutralizing buffer. The results confirm that there is extended killing activity of residual CPC against Salmonella Gaminara or S. sonnei if the residual CPC remaining in contact with the lettuce after the initial 1-min wash is not quenched. The CPC treatment was useful in reducing the numbers of these target pathogens on lettuce.

  10. Rimbaud Cut-Up Burroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vasconcelos

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é o de explorar a relação entre a poesia de Rimbaud e as experiências de William Burroughs com os cut-ups. A influência de Rimbaud sobre o trabalho de Burroughs se estende, contudo, para além dos cut-ups, envolvendo sua escrita ficcional.

  11. Dominus for cut flower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  12. The diffuse chemosensory system: exploring the iceberg toward the definition of functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Bramanti, Placido; Benati, Donatella; Merigo, Flavia

    2010-05-01

    The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) is an anatomical structure composed of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs, also called solitary chemoreceptor cells), which have analogies with taste cells but are not aggregated in buds. The concept of DCS has been advanced, after the discovery that cells similar to gustatory elements are present in several organs. The elements forming the DCS share common morphological and biochemical characteristics with the taste cells located in taste buds of the oro-pharyngeal cavity but they are localized in internal organs. In particular, they may express molecules of the chemoreceptorial cascade (e.g. trans-membrane taste receptors, the G-protein alpha-gustducin, PLCbeta2, TRPM5). This article will focus on the mammalian DCS in apparatuses of endodermic origin (i.e. digestive and respiratory systems), which is composed of an enormous number of sensory elements and presents a multiplicity of morphological aspects. Recent research has provided an adequate description of these elements, but the functional role for the DCS in these apparatuses is unknown. The initial findings led to the definition of a DCS structured like an iceberg, with a mysterious "submerged" portion localized in the distal part of endodermic apparatuses. Recent work has focussed on the discovery of this submerged portion, which now appears less puzzling. However, the functional roles of the different cytotypes belonging to the DCS are not well known. Recent studies linked chemosensation of the intraluminal content to local control of absorptive and secretory (exocrine and endocrine) processes. Control of the microbial population and detection of irritants seem to be other possible functions of the DCS. In the light of these new findings, the DCS might be thought to be involved in a wide range of diseases of both the respiratory (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis) and digestive apparatuses (absorptive or secretive diseases, dysmicrobism

  13. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  14. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  15. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SELECTED GEARS CUTTING METHODS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław PŁONKA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a somewhat extended approach to the cutting tools classification. After that authors present results of the research concerning the form – grinding of spur gears with helical teeth. The modern gear – grinding machine Rapid 900 of HOEFLER is described and results of the accuracy and surface roughness researches are given. Then an example is given, based on references, of the bevel spherical involute, gears cutting, illustrating the development from the cutting of very large straight bevel gears based on the double tracing method suitable for old template – type bevel gear planers to the modern approach using CNC milling machine (3 or 4axis controlled, the principle of Free Form Surfaces cutting.

  17. Observation of Drifting Icebergs and Sea Ice from Space by TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Sun

    2017-04-01

    Detection and monitoring drifting icebergs and sea ice is of interest across wide range of Arctic and Antarctic coastal studies such as security of navigation, climatic impact, geological impact, etc. It is not easy to discriminate drifting ices from stationary ones, and to measure their drifting speeds. There is a potential to use space-borne SAR for this purpose, but it is difficult to precisely measure because the drift velocity is usually very slow. In this study, we investigate two approaches for discriminating drifting ices on the sea from surrounding static ones and for measuring their range velocity. The first method is to utilize the quad-pol TerraSAR-X which adopts dual receive antenna (DRA), and the second one is to examine the potential use of TanDEM-X bistatic along-track interferometry (ATI). To utilize DRA mode quad-pol SAR as ATI, it is necessary to remove the phase difference of scattering centers between transmitted H- and V-pol signals. By assume that the individual scattering center of returned signal does not change for a few inter-pulse periods, it is possible to measure the Doppler frequency induced by motion through measuring slow-time (or azimuth time) Doppler phase derivative of co-pol or cross-pol pairs. Results applied to TerraSAR-X quad-pol data over the Cape Columbia in the Arctic Ocean are to be presented and discussed. It was successful to detect and measure drift sea ice that was flowing away from the antenna with a velocity of about 0.37 m/s (or 1.4 km/h) to 0.67 m/s (or 2.4 km/h) while neighboring ones were static. A more sophisticated approach would be a bistatic ATI which exploits a long along-track baseline for observation of slowly moving ground objects. TanDEM-X bistatic ATI pairs are examined, which were acquired at an Antarctic coast. The ATI interferograms show an innovative capability of TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X constellation. An along-track baseline of a few hundred meters is superior to a few meter baseline of DRA mode ATI

  18. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  19. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in...

  20. Economic technology of laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.

    2000-02-01

    The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.

  1. Twice cutting method reduces tibial cutting error in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  3. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  4. Application of water jetfor cutting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stoić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of polymeric materials, during thermal cutting processes it leads to their melting, and therefore appear errors in the final product. This paper presents a “cold” process of cutting polyamide 6 ie. SIPAS 60, where there are given the characteristics of materials and guidelines for satisfactory quality of process. The authors made the cut experiment 32 were they changed the cutting parameters (cutting pressure, cutting feed and abrasive mass flow; the surface roughness was measured by the depth of material, because the roughness changes with the thickness of the material to be cut.

  5. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on stored iceberg lettuce by aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jiyong; Park, Jonghyun; Chung, Myongsoo; Kwon, Kisung; Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2008-11-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in iceberg lettuce by aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment was evaluated. Iceberg lettuce samples were inoculated with approximately 7 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes. Iceberg lettuce samples were then treated with 0, 5, 10, or 50 ppm ClO(2) solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aqueous ClO(2) treatment significantly decreased the populations of pathogenic bacteria on shredded lettuce (P lettuce were 11, 26, and 42 ppm, respectively. The effect of aqueous ClO(2) treatment on the growth of pathogenic bacteria during storage was evaluated, and a decrease in the population size of these pathogenic bacteria was observed. Additionally, aqueous ClO(2) treatment did not affect the color of lettuce during storage. These results suggest that aqueous ClO(2) treatment can be used to improve the microbial safety of shredded lettuce during storage.

  7. Research on the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Chip Formation and Cutting Force in Elliptical Vibration Cutting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Feng, Da

    2017-12-01

    Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) has been widely concerned since it was proposed, and its unique characteristics such as friction reversal and intermittent cutting can effectively extend the tool life, improve the machined surface roughness and so on. The objective of this paper was to predict the behavior of cutting force. A method of predicting the behavior of cutting force based on the chip thickness under various cutting conditions is proposed. Based on the established tool motion model, the chip model was founded. By numerical simulation, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting force under various cutting conditions were studied. The results show that the chip thickness can be used to predict the behavior of cutting force.

  8. Why I like power cuts...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied.   But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...

  9. Clustering by Minimum Cut Hyperplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, David P

    2017-08-01

    Minimum normalised graph cuts are highly effective ways of partitioning unlabeled data, having been made popular by the success of spectral clustering. This work presents a novel method for learning hyperplane separators which minimise this graph cut objective, when data are embedded in Euclidean space. The optimisation problem associated with the proposed method can be formulated as a sequence of univariate subproblems, in which the optimal hyperplane orthogonal to a given vector is determined. These subproblems can be solved in log-linear time, by exploiting the trivial factorisation of the exponential function. Experimentation suggests that the empirical runtime of the overall algorithm is also log-linear in the number of data. Asymptotic properties of the minimum cut hyperplane, both for a finite sample, and for an increasing sample assumed to arise from an underlying probability distribution are discussed. In the finite sample case the minimum cut hyperplane converges to the maximum margin hyperplane as the scaling parameter is reduced to zero. Applying the proposed methodology, both for fixed scaling, and the large margin asymptotes, is shown to produce high quality clustering models in comparison with state-of-the-art clustering algorithms in experiments using a large collection of benchmark datasets.

  10. The Cutting-Edge Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Joani

    2005-01-01

    In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…

  11. Cutting and Preserving Whole Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    1995-01-01

    There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.

  12. Geometry of Cuts and Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Deza; M. Laurent (Monique)

    1997-01-01

    htmlabstractCuts and metrics are well-known objects that arise - independently, but with many deep and fascinating connections - in diverse fields: in graph theory, combinatorial optimization, geometry of numbers, combinatorial matrix theory, statistical physics, VLSI design etc. This book offers a

  13. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.

  14. Internal ice - Sheet variability as source for the multi-century and millennial-scale iceberg events during the Holocene? A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bügelmayer-Blaschek, Marianne; Roche, Didier M.; Renssen, Hans; Andrews, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The climate of the Holocene, the current interglacial covering the past 11,700 years, has been relatively stable compared to previous periods. Nevertheless, repeating occurrence of rapid natural climate changes that challenged human society are seen in proxy reconstructions. Ocean sediment cores for example display prominent peaks of enhanced ice rafted debris (IRD) during the Holocene with a multi-decadal to millennial scale periodicity. Different mechanisms were proposed that caused these enhanced IRD events, for example variations in the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), volcanic eruptions and the combination of internal climate variability and external forcings. We investigate the probable mechanisms causing the occurrence of IRD-events over the past 6000 years using a fully coupled climate - ice-sheet - iceberg model (iLOVECLIM). We performed 19 experiments that differ in the applied forcings (TSI, volcanic) and the initial atmospheric conditions. To explore internal ice sheet variability one further experiment was done with fixed climate conditions. All the model runs displayed prominent peaks of enhanced iceberg melt flux (IMF), independent of the chosen experimental set-up. The spectral analysis of the experiments with the ice-sheet - climate model coupled displays significant peaks at 2000, 1000 years in all the experiments and at 500 years in most runs. The experiment with fixed climate conditions displays one significant peak of about 1500 years related to internal ice sheet variability. This frequency is modulated to 2000 and 1000 years in all the experiments with a coupled climate - ice sheet due to interactions between the climate components. We further investigate the impact of minimum TSI events on the timing and occurrence of enhanced IMF. In the experimental set-up that was forced with idealized sinusoidal TSI variations (±4 Wm-2), we find a significant occurrence of an increased iceberg melt flux about 60 years after the minimum TSI value

  15. Retention of quality and nutritional value of 13 fresh-cut vegetables treated with low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Sokorai, K J B

    2008-09-01

    Improving the microbial safety while maintaining quality of fresh fruits and vegetables will increase consumer confidence in fresh produce. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of irradiation at 1 kGy, a dose that potentially inactivates E. coli O157:H7 by 5 logs, on the quality of 13 common fresh-cut vegetables: iceberg, romaine, green and red leaf lettuce, spinach, tomato, cilantro, parsley, green onion, carrot, broccoli, red cabbage, and celery. The results showed that the appearance of irradiated samples was similar to the nonirradiated ones except that irradiated carrots, celery, cilantro, and green onions had higher appearance scores than corresponding nonirradiated vegetables. There was no difference in the instrumental texture between irradiated samples and nonirradiated ones. The aroma of several irradiated vegetables was significantly better than controls after 14-d storage, because these control samples decayed or senesced. The 1 kGy irradiation did not affect vitamin C content of most vegetables; however, irradiated green and red leaf lettuce had 24% to 53% lower vitamin C contents than the controls. Our results suggest that most fresh-cut fruits and vegetables tested can tolerate up to 1 kGy irradiation without significant losses in any of the quality attributes.

  16. Atomistic and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Depth of Cut on Diamond Cutting of Cerium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-precision diamond cutting process exhibits strong size effects due to the ultra-small depth of cut that is comparable with the cutting edge radius. In the present work, we elucidate the underlying machining mechanisms of single crystal cerium under diamond cutting by means of molecular dynamics simulations, with an emphasis on the evaluation of the effect of depth of cut on the cutting process by using different depths of cut. Diamond cutting experiments of cerium with different depths of cut are also conducted. In particular for the smallest depth of cut of 0.2 nm, shallow cutting simulations varying the sharpness of the cutting edge demonstrate that an atomically sharp cutting edge leads to a smaller machining force and better machined surface quality than a blunt one. Simulation results indicate that dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mechanism of cerium under diamond cutting with each depth of cut. Furthermore, the analysis of the defect zone based on atomic radial distribution functions demonstrates that there are trivial phase transformations from γ-Ce to δ-Ce occurred in both the machined surface and the formed chip. It is found that there is a transition of material removal mode from plowing to cutting with the increase of the depth of cut, which is also consistent with the diamond cutting experiments of cerium with different depths of cut.

  17. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional‐scale glacier‐generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  18. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-11

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.

  19. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  20. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  1. Minimal cut sets in biochemical reaction networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klamt, Steffen; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2004-01-01

    .... We introduce the concept of minimal cut sets for biochemical networks. A minimal cut set (MCS) is a minimal (irreducible) set of reactions in the network whose inactivation will definitely lead to a failure in certain network functions...

  2. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  3. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  4. Air in xylem vessels of cut flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.; Meeteren, van U.; Keijzer, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Until now all studies on the role of air emboli in the water uptake of cut flowers describe indirect methods to demonstrate the presencFe of air in the plant tissues. Using cut chrysanthemum flowers, this report is the first one that directly visualises both air and water in xylem ducts of cut

  5. Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David S.; Mcferrin, David C.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Coby, John B., Jr.; Dawson, Sidney G.

    1995-01-01

    Cutting tool proposed for use in shaving weld beads flush with adjacent surfaces of weldments. Modified version of commercial pneumatically driven rotary cutting tool, cutting wheel of which turns at speeds sufficient for machining nickel alloys, titanium, and stainless steels. Equipped with forward-mounted handle and rear-mounted skid plate to maximize control and reduce dependence on skill of technician.

  6. Improving rooting uniformity in rose cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, van H.J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2007-01-01

    Studies to improve rooting uniformity of single node stem cuttings for rose are reported. We found that the variation in shoot growth in a young rose crop depended on the variation in root number of the cuttings, which, in turn, was related to the auxin concentration applied to the cutting before

  7. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  8. Laser cutting: A new tool for shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr, D. R.

    Cutting steel plate from 3 to 10mm thick by the oxygen-propane process leads to severe thermal distortion in profile-cut components. This distortion makes ship prefabrication and welding very difficult and expensive. Laser cutting, however, is characterized by its ability to produce a clean edge with very low heat input, at high speeds. The way in which a laser cutting system was designed, evaluated, and subsequently built for large steel plate profile cutting in a small warship-building facility, to improve quality and to reduce production costs is reviewed.

  9. Rooting of stem cuttings of ixora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline De Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.

  10. Research of cutting power with cutting chipboards with different properties by circular saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Damjan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper elaborates the process of measuring cutting power which occurred during cutting six types of particle board. Chipboards with different physical and mechanical properties were cut in order to find some correlation with the cutting power ie to be able to determine the effect of moisture, density and bending strength of the plate to the cutting power. Measuring power cut was made in the workshop of the Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, measuring the moisture and density in the laboratory for testing particle board, and the bending strength was performed in the laboratory for testing the properties of wood. During the cutting speed are changed auxiliary movements to determine the influence of the machining parameters on cutting power. Overall, it was concluded that with increasing moisture content of the work-piece cutting power decreases with increasing velocity displacement, density and bending strength of the board, required cutting power increases.

  11. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    . The shuttle layout problem is frequently solved in two phases: first, a floorplan of the shuttle is generated. Then, a cutting plan is found which minimizes the overall number of wafers needed to satisfy the demand of each die type. Since some die types require special production technologies, only compatible...... dies can be cut from a given wafer, and each cutting plan must respect various constraints on where the cuts may be placed. We present an exact algorithm for solving the minimum cutting plan problem, given a floorplan of the dies. The algorithm is based on delayed column generation, where the pricing...... problem becomes a maximum vertex-weighted clique problem in which each clique consists of cutting compatible dies. The resulting branch-and-price algorithm is able to solve realistic cutting problems to optimality in a couple of seconds....

  12. Iceberg calving of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: full-Stokes modeling combined with linear elastic fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongju; Rignot, Eric; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene

    2017-05-01

    Thwaites Glacier (TG), West Antarctica, has been losing mass and retreating rapidly in the past few decades. Here, we present a study of its calving dynamics combining a two-dimensional flow-band full-Stokes (FS) model of its viscous flow with linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory to model crevasse propagation and ice fracturing. We compare the results with those obtained with the higher-order (HO) and the shallow-shelf approximation (SSA) models coupled with LEFM. We find that FS/LEFM produces surface and bottom crevasses that are consistent with the distribution of depth and width of surface and bottom crevasses observed by NASA's Operation IceBridge radar depth sounder and laser altimeter, whereas HO/LEFM and SSA/LEFM do not generate crevasses that are consistent with observations. We attribute the difference to the nonhydrostatic condition of ice near the grounding line, which facilitates crevasse formation and is accounted for by the FS model but not by the HO or SSA models. We find that calving is enhanced when pre-existing surface crevasses are present, when the ice shelf is shortened or when the ice shelf front is undercut. The role of undercutting depends on the timescale of calving events. It is more prominent for glaciers with rapid calving rates than for glaciers with slow calving rates. Glaciers extending into a shorter ice shelf are more vulnerable to calving than glaciers developing a long ice shelf, especially as the ice front retreats close to the grounding line region, which leads to a positive feedback to calving events. We conclude that the FS/LEFM combination yields substantial improvements in capturing the stress field near the grounding line of a glacier for constraining crevasse formation and iceberg calving.

  13. The whole iceberg: estimating the incidence of yellow fever virus infection from the number of severe cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Michael A; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Staples, J Erin

    2014-08-01

    Like many infectious agents, yellow fever (YF) virus only causes disease in a proportion of individuals it infects and severe illness only represents the tip of the iceberg relative to the total number of infections, the more critical factor for virus transmission. We compiled data on asymptomatic infections, mild disease, severe disease (fever with jaundice or hemorrhagic symptoms) and fatalities from 11 studies in Africa and South America between 1969 and 2011. We used a Bayesian model to estimate the probability of each infection outcome. For YF virus infections, the probability of being asymptomatic was 0.55 (95% credible interval [CI] 0.37-0.74), mild disease 0.33 (95% CI 0.13-0.52) and severe disease 0.12 (95% CI 0.05-0.26). The probability of death for people experiencing severe disease was 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.62). In outbreak situations where only severe cases may initially be detected, we estimated that there may be between one and seventy infections that are either asymptomatic or cause mild disease for every severe case identified. As it is generally only the most severe cases that are recognized and reported, these estimates will help improve the understanding of the burden of disease and the estimation of the potential risk of spread during YF outbreaks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Production of iceberg lettuce using mulches Produção de alface tipo americana sob coberturas de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulches bring several benefits to lettuce cultivation. This work evaluated the effect of mulches on the cultivation of iceberg lettuce, cv. Lucy Brown. The treatment plots were: 1- no mulch and no weed control (control; 2- no mulch and weed control every 15 days; 3- sugarcane bagasse mulch of 2 cm thickness; 4- black plastic mulch; 5- double-faced plastic mulch (silver/black. Data were collected in regard to plant cycle when in the field, amount of chlorophyll in the leaves, productivity (individual weight per head and amount of nutrients absorbed by the leaves. Double-faced plastic mulch provides the highest productivity and the highest values for the amount of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, boron and iron accumulation in the leaves.A utilização da cobertura do solo pode trazer inúmeros benefícios ao cultivo de alface. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de tipos de coberturas de solo no cultivo de alface tipo americana cv. Lucy Brown. Os tratamentos foram: 1- canteiro sem cobertura e sem capina (testemunha, 2- canteiro sem cobertura, com capina quinzenal, 3- canteiro com cobertura de bagaço de cana de 2 cm de espessura, 4- canteiro com cobertura de plástico preto, 5- canteiro com cobertura de plástico dupla face (prateado/preto. Foram avaliados o ciclo das plantas no campo, a quantidade de clorofila nas folhas, a produção em peso individual de cabeça e a quantidade de nutrientes absorvidos nas folhas. A utilização de cobertura plástica do tipo dupla face proporcionou os maiores valores médios de produção. Foi também o tratamento em que foram obtidos os maiores valores para quantidade de clorofila, nitrogênio, fósforo, enxofre, boro e ferro acumulado nas folhas.

  15. Heat pump cuts energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, J.; Morris, C.P.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown how energy use can be cut by nearly half by using a heat pump installation in operation of a butane splitter. The technique has been used successfully for separation of other close boiling materials, i.e. ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, and also for deisohexanizers. Compared to a conventional fractionator, the heat pump increases inside battery limit capital cost for which increase the payout time is less than one year. In this paper the effects of using a heat pump is evaluated as applied to a 35,000 bpsd butane splitter based on three alternative schemes: a conventional fractionation; overhead vapor recompression fractionation; and bottoms flash recompression fractionation. 2 refs.

  16. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  17. A survey of iceberg lettuce for the presence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2011-09-01

    No information has been available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce in Japan. In the present study, information was collected on the occurrence of contamination by Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in iceberg lettuce in a Japanese retail store. A total of 419 samples of lettuce that had been harvested in different districts and/or by different producers from July 2008 to March 2009 were examined. A multiplex PCR method was used to simultaneously identify the three bacterial pathogens. No pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes, were detected from any of the samples with this highly sensitive and validated procedure. The aerobic bacteria plate counts and coliform bacteria counts in lettuce throughout the examination period did not show any seasonal trends, and the numbers were comparable to those reported by others from around the world. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that none of the three major pathogens were present in this limited survey of iceberg lettuce sold by a retailer in Japan.

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of hydrographic reorganizations and iceberg discharges at the junction between the Northeast Atlantic and Norwegian Sea basins surrounding Heinrich event 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wary, Mélanie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Kissel, Catherine; Londeix, Laurent; Rossignol, Linda; Lapuyade, Joanna; Castéra, Marie-Hélène; Billy, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events constitute ones of the most enigmatic features of the last glacial period. Many studies have focused on their characteristic millennial climatic variability, testing atmospheric/cryospheric/oceanic couplings, but major uncertainties and discrepancies still remain. A new scenario, robustly supported by an approach coupling paleoreconstructions and freshwater hosing experiments simulating Heinrich-type perturbations, has recently emerged. Reconciling most of the up to now hypothesized theories, it suggests the occurrence of a regional seesaw between a cooled-down North Atlantic Ocean and warmed-up Nordic Seas during cold atmospheric phases, in relation to enhanced subsurface advection of warm Atlantic waters re-emerging in the Norwegian Sea. The associated ocean warming, thus reaching Nordic basins at a critical location beyond the Faeroe-Shetland sill, is proposed to be involved in the concomitant release of European icebergs. Here we further investigate this promising scenario over the 35-41 ka BP interval by (i) outlining its precise spatial pattern in a crucial area, i.e. the junction between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea close to European ice-sheets, (ii) resolving its very fine temporal and regional evolution during critical transitions associated with the onset of warm advection, i.e. Greenland Interstadial to Greenland Stadial and Greenland Interstadial to Heinrich Stadial, and (iii) assessing its impact on the spatio-temporal dynamic of iceberg discharges from the European and Laurentide ice-sheets during cold stadial episodes especially including Heinrich event 4.

  19. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  20. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2012-11-22

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change.

  1. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  2. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  3. A cutting force model for micromilling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....

  4. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  5. Nurse staffing issues are just the tip of the iceberg: a qualitative study about nurses' perceptions of nurse staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Mathijssen, Elke; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-08-01

    To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurses in the Netherlands regarding current nurse staffing levels and use of nurse-to-patient-ratios (NPR) and patient classification systems (PCS). In response to rising health care demands due to ageing of the patient population and increasing complexity of healthcare, hospital boards have been implementing NPRs and PCSs. However, many nurses at the unit level believe that staffing levels have become critically low, endangering the quality and safety of their patient care. This descriptive phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital among 24 wards of four specialties (surgery, internal medicine, neurology, gynaecology & obstetrics and paediatric care). Data were collected from September until December 2012. To collect data four focus groups (n=44 nurses) were organized. Additionally, a total of 27 interviews (20 head nurses, 4 nurse directors and 3 quality advisors) were conducted using purposive sampling. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nurse staffing issues appear to be merely the 'tip of the iceberg'. Below the surface three underlying main themes became clear - nursing behaviour, authority, and autonomy - which are linked by one overall theme: nurses' position. In general, nurses' behaviour, way of thinking, decision-making and communication of thoughts or information differs from other healthcare disciplines, e.g. physicians and quality advisors. This results in a perceived and actual lack of authority and autonomy. This in turn hinders them to plead for adequate nurse staffing in order to achieve the common goal of safe and high-quality patient care. Nurses desired a valid nursing care intensity system as an interdisciplinary and objective communication tool that makes nursing care visible and creates possibilities for better positioning of nurses in hospitals and further professionalization in

  6. Selection of Near Optimal Laser Cutting Parameters in CO2 Laser Cutting by the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš MADIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of laser cutting conditions that are insensitive to parameter variations and noise is of great importance. This paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method for optimization of surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel. The laser cutting experiment was planned and conducted according to the Taguchi’s experimental design using the L27 orthogonal array. Four laser cutting parameters such as laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, and focus position were considered in the experiment. Using the analysis of means and analysis of variance, the significant laser cutting parameters were identified, and subsequently the optimal combination of laser cutting parameter levels was determined. The results showed that the cutting speed is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness whereas the influence of the assist gas pressure can be neglected. It was observed, however, that interaction effects have predominant influence over the main effects on the surface roughness.

  7. Efficacy of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and UV-Ozonated Water Combination for Inactivating Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on Romaine and Iceberg Lettuce during Spray Washing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu-Hsin; Hung, Yen-Con

    2016-07-01

    Spray washing is a common sanitizing method for the fresh produce industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of spraying slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and a combination of ozonated water with ultraviolet (UV) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on romaine and iceberg lettuces. Both romaine and iceberg lettuces were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 3 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 to achieve an inoculum of 6 log CFU/g on lettuce. A strong antimicrobial effect was observed for the UV-ozonated water combination, which reduced the population of E. coli by 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 on both lettuces. SAEW achieved about 5 log CFU/g reductions in the bacterial counts on romaine lettuce. However, less than 2.5 log CFU/g in the population of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced on iceberg lettuce. The difference may be due to bacteria aggregation near and within stomata for iceberg lettuce but not for romaine lettuce. The UV light treatment may stimulate the opening of the stomata for the UV-ozonated water treatment and hence achieve better bacterial inactivation than the SAEW treatment for iceberg lettuce. Our results demonstrated that the combined treatment of SAEW and UV-ozonated water in the spray washing process could more effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce, which in turn may help reduce incidences of E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Cristea Alexandru; Fetecău Cătălin; Stanciu Nicoleta Violeta

    2017-01-01

    The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  9. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  10. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  11. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on ...

  12. Automated harvesting of flowers and cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosier, J.C.; Snel, R.; Goedvolk, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The harvesting of flowers and cuttings can be considered as a skilled task. It takes weeks of training for the pickers to harvest quality cutting at the required production rate of one per second. The skill of the pickers is the ability to execute a number of functions within a short time. The

  13. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  14. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpuschewski, B.

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is

  15. [Cutting and incision tools: the scalpel: handles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana Esteban, Emilio

    2006-10-01

    In its current version, a scalpel is the best known cutting tool. It comes with a versatile metallic handle, available in a variety of models having differentiated characteristics. With a few simple movements, all models enable you to articulate and extract multiple cutting blades.

  16. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  17. Bun splitting: a practical cutting stock problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Glass (Catherine); J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a new hierarchical 2D-guillotine Cutting Stock Problem. In contrast to the classic cutting stock problem, waste is not an issue. The problem relates to the removal of a defective part and assembly of the remaining parts into homogeneous size blocks. The context is the packing

  18. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  19. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  20. Performance Enhancement of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is

  1. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  2. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Postharvest vase life, Alstroemeria, Senescence. Introduction. In Kenya, commercial cut flower production is done by a few large scale growers and nu- merous medium and small scale growers. Cut flowers exported from Kenya, in order of im-. portanFe (acreage and quantity exported) ...

  3. Cutting the L3 torque tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Workers cut the torque tube, with a plasma-cutting device on the L3 experiment, which closed with the LEP accelerator in 2000. L3 was housed in a huge red solenoid, which will be taken over by the ALICE detector when the new LHC is completed.

  4. Influence of Cutting Environment on Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranská, Eva; Gerulová, Kristína; Buranský, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    The issues of cutting environment and a suitable choice of cutting conditions by drilling are the main subjects of the article. Attention is paid to the application of the drilling process into the carbon steel. Analysed were the phenomena that adversely affect the tool life. The article demonstrated solutions how to remove these adverse effects. The multicriteria optimisation of input factors (cutting fluid concentration, cutting speed) for a defined target function (tool life) was applied. The measured values were subjected to mathematical-statistical analysis (ANOVA). Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on the implemented experiment and study of this issue, we also determined the combinations of input factors, which achieved minimal values of target functions. Based on this allegation, the most appropriate combination of the following input factors was proved: concentration 6.3 % and cutting speed 100 m/min.

  5. Cutting as a continuous business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Gradišar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of state-of-the-art methods for cutting stock problem optimisation shows that the current methods lead to near-optimum results for the instantaneous optimisation of trim loss. Further optimisation of this activity would not bring a considerable improvement. Therefore, the paper treats cutting stock as a continuous business process and not as an isolated activity. An exact method for a general one-dimensional cutting stock problem is presented and tested. The method is mainly suitable for smaller orders. It is then applied to continuous cutting and used to develop a method for assessing cutting costs in consecutive time periods. The modified method finds a good solution over the whole time-span, rather than just local optima.

  6. Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Mehmet Alper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.

  7. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  8. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  9. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  10. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Kan, Yudi

    2017-12-01

    In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It's difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  11. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It’s difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  12. Rejuvenated sycamore cuttings for energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, S.B. Jr.; Elam, W.W. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Khan, Mohammad [Pakistan Forest Inst., Peshawar (Pakistan). Forestry Research Div.

    1995-12-31

    Rejuvination of mature, progeny tested American sycamore trees is needed to increase rooting success of cuttings for energy plantations. Studies conducted in Mississippi (U.S.A.) indicated that hedging of stock plants and spraying the stock plants with benzyl adenine may rejuvinate the cuttings. Percentages of cuttings with early bud break in one study and with sprouts and roots after nine months in another study were increased. The rooted cuttings grew rapidly like juvenile material and showed no plagiotrophic effects during the first year after transplanting. At the end of that year the dry weight was 2.13 Mg ha{sup -1} (1.2 m x 3.6 m spacing) and was distributed in stems (31%), branches (14%), leaves (24%) and roots (31%). An IBA rooting powder decreased rooting success. Planting cuttings directly in the nursery, rather than first in the greenhouse, increased success when frost was absent. Use of cuttings of greater than 14 m diameter with a node within 2 cm of the base increased success. Clonal differences in frost susceptibility of sprouting cuttings were observed. (author)

  13. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an enormous increase in the use of tailored blanks, especially in the automotive industry. Often the sheets for tailored blanks are shear cut, but results have been reported that the allowable sheet gap distance should not exceed 0.1 mm in order to obtain...... sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  14. Reachability cuts for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts...

  15. Deferment cutting in Appalachian hardwoods: the what, whys, and hows

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...

  16. Determining the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodology (RSM) was implemented to investigate the effect of the cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness. In this study, the surface roughness is measured during turning operation at different cutting parameters such as speed, feed, and depth of cut on Alumunium ...

  17. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  18. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  19. The economics of a temporary VAT cut

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, Thomas; Low, Hamish; Wakefield, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    1. The rate of VAT has been cut temporarily to 15%, with a return to 17.5% in place for the end of 2009. The government has predicted that this will increase consumer spending by about 0.5%. Much of the analysis of this tax cut has been critical of the policy and concluded that the government's estimates of the impact on spending are over-optimistic. The source of this criticism is a misunderstanding of the mechanism through which the tax cut will have an impact. In fact, we believe the gover...

  20. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding th...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....

  1. Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -2 9 Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu re s La bo ra to ry...by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/GSL TR-15-29 August 2015 Concrete Cutting Refinement...conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS, to evaluate saw- cutting equipment for use by crater repair

  2. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  3. Overview of Curved Cutting Edge Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now that there is a need to increase a processing capacity, curved cutting edge mills find ever-growing use. Also known as “rough end”, “full-side”, and “heavy-duty” mills, they provide the increased depth and width values of milling owing to the width-sized chip separation. The analysis of produced mills allowed us both to reveal their basic design components (type of a shaft or basic opening, diameter and length of the cutting part, mill length, quantity of teeth, a tilt angle of a screw flute and to make their classification. The paper presents a classification of the profile types of cutting edges, which can be divided by form (flat, round, size (small, large, super-large, and symmetry (symmetrical and asymmetrical. The profile of the cutting edge is characterized by the following parameters: profile height, pitch of crests spherical radius of crest.A review of the curved cutting edge profile types allows us to build the geometrical constructions to define a form and the sizes of the chip load made by the cutting edge from a billet. It is shown that parameters of the cutting edge profile influence the form and the sizes (thickness and width of the chip load.The chip load thickness provided by the curved cutting edge mills exceeds that of observed when using the “smooth” cutting edge mills. A thickening degree of the chip load is changed with changing form and sizes of the cutting edge mill profile. Larger thickening is observed if the chip load is limited from below and from above by the marks of a single tooth (the first or second etc., and a length of the other teeth marks is minimum. The most achievable chip load thickness is equal to feed per revolution.Studying the references allowed us to formulate some rules to choose a cutting edge profile depending on a type of the processed material and a desirable roughness of the processed surface. It is important to note the following.When choosing a profile of the cutting edge

  4. Tip of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deriabyn, M. V.; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2009-01-01

    model the evolution of equilibrium positions for a general homogeneous body afloat in an ideal fluid, as this homogeneous body is subjected to 'melting', i.e. a slow removal of material from the submerged part. If this process is the dominating melting mechanism, can the likelihood of a toppling...

  5. The Television Iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P.L.

    This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…

  6. Size of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Okura, Hisako

    2012-01-01

    of detectable infections among all infected is often referred to as ‘the tip of the iceberg’. For MAP infections, infected cattle may be divided into those with cell-mediated immune reactions (CMI) during latent infection, and those with humoral immune reactions (HI) characterized by IgG1 antibodies...

  7. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  8. Do Capital Income Tax Cuts Trickle Down?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu-Chun Susan Yang

    2007-01-01

    .... This result, however, depends on how government manages debt to maintain budget solvency. This paper analyzes the distributional effects of capital tax cuts, where endogenous adjustments in other tax rates are precluded...

  9. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  10. [Cutting and incision tools: the scalpel: blades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana Esteban, Emilio

    2006-11-01

    The blades of a scalpel form an extensive set of stainless steel cutting sheets which have a fenestration where they link to a scalpel's handle comfortably; these handles can be small, number 3 or large, number 4.

  11. Checking Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and be sure that you have had a tetanus shot recently. Sometimes, a cut, scratch, or abrasion starts out as no big deal, but then gets infected. An infection (say: in-FEK-shun) happens when there are ...

  12. Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167720.html Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs Virus a common ... the sustained impact and effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine program," study author Dr. Eyal Leshem said in ...

  13. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  14. Spending and cutting are two different worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending. The research questions are where do politicians prefer to cut, where do they prefer to spend and how is this influenced by political ideology? These questions are investigated in a large-scale survey experiment fielded...... to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived as less...

  15. 8 ways to cut health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000870.htm Eight ways to cut your health care costs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cost of health care continues to rise. That is why it helps ...

  16. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  17. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  18. Cutting Mechanics and Surface Finish for Turning with Differently Shaped CBN Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krzysztof Żak

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the basic cutting characteristics such as cutting forces, cutting power and its distribution, specific cutting energies were determined taking into account variable tool corner radius...

  19. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  20. Cutting force and tool failure in turning cutting HSTRs by ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanan; Chen, Si'an; Sun, Zhaoqun

    2017-10-01

    This paper researched experiment results and analysis of ceramic insert turning nickel-based HSTR Inconel 718. According to the curves and pictures, discuss the relationship of cutting parameters and cutting force and the factors. This paper also researched tool failure by insert picture and sought the reasons for it.

  1. Plasma Cutting and Carbon-Arc Cutting. Welding Module 8. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching the two units of a module in operating plasma cutting and carbon-arc cutting equipment. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The materials included in the module have been…

  2. Effect of Cutting Velocity / Stem Size on the Efficiency of NRCRI Cassave Stem Cutting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikejiofor, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The developed NRCRI (National Root Crops Research Institute) cassava stem cutting machine was evaluated. The cassava stems from the variety TME 419 were used. The sizes of the stem used were 1.8, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.6cm. Also, different cutting velocities of 1.20, 1.23 and 1.32m/s were used. The stakes produced has length of 2.5cm. Analysis of variance in RCBD was used to evaluate the effect of the cutting velocity and the stem size on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The result of the analysis showed that the cutting velocity had very highly significant effect, while the stem size had no significant effect at 5% level on the efficiency of the cutting machine. The data obtained also showed that the highest and least cutting efficiencies of 99.42 and 94.71% were obtained with the machine cutting velocities of 1.2 and 1.32m/s respectively.

  3. Effects of cutting and maturity on antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5 °C. Intact fruits were stored in the same conditions as a control. The antioxidant activity was

  4. Robust Design Based Optimisation of Waterjet Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important input quantities of waterjet cutting are the jet pressure, feed speed, stand-off distance, abrasive graining, mass flow, etc. Other quantities contributing to machining efficiency are the type of utilized abrasive or the tilt of the jet. Each of these quantities can be assigned different set points. The roughness of the machined surfaces and the thickness of the cut part are output quantities of the system, their values depending on the input parameters and the influence of various disturbing factors (noises. The paper discusses surface roughness obtained consequently to abrasive jet cutting. Optimisation of the machining system was achieved by intervening on five selected input quantities (factors, with two set points considered for each. Upon applying Taguchi methods, eventually the combination of factor set points was determined that ensures robust behaviour of the system.

  5. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  6. Genetic engineering for cut-flower improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuker, A; Tzfira, T; Vainstein, A

    1998-01-01

    The application of modern biotechnological approaches to cut flowers has clearly become instrumental and rewarding for the floriculture industry. In recent years, several gene-transfer procedures have been developed for some of the major commercial cut flowers. Using Agrobactrium or microprojectile bombardment, several basic protocols are now available. However, despite the great progress and interest in gene transfer to these crops, their transformation is routine in only a limited number of laboratories, and its application is still considered to be an "art form". This review summarizes the reported gene-transfer procedures for the main cut-flower crops, with an emphasis on the unique factors of each method and the recent progress in introducing new traits of horticultural interest into these species.

  7. Laser Cutting of Materials of Various Thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grepl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thise paper deals with the application of laser technology and optimizing the parameters for cutting nickel alloy. The theoretical part of the paper describes various types of lasers, their principles and usage. The experimental part focuses on optimizing the section parameteres of Haynes 718 alloy using a CO2 gas laser. This alloy is employed in the production of components for the aircraft industry. The experiment was performed on the Wibro Delta laser system designed for sizable parts. The actual section is measured with respect to its quality and any accompanying side effects that occur during the process. In this case, laser output and cutting speed were the parameters with most influence on the final cut. The summary explains the results achieved in a metallographic laboratory.

  8. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  9. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  11. Incidence of suicide, hospital-presenting non-fatal self-harm, and community-occurring non-fatal self-harm in adolescents in England (the iceberg model of self-harm): a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geulayov, Galit; Casey, Deborah; McDonald, Keltie C; Foster, Pauline; Pritchard, Kirsty; Wells, Claudia; Clements, Caroline; Kapur, Navneet; Ness, Jennifer; Waters, Keith; Hawton, Keith

    2017-12-12

    Little is known about the relative incidence of fatal and non-fatal self-harm in young people. We estimated the incidence of suicide, hospital-presenting non-fatal self-harm, and community-occurring non-fatal self-harm in adolescents in England. We used national mortality statistics (Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2013), hospital monitoring data for five hospitals derived from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England (Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2013), and data from a schools survey (2015) to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal self-harm per 100 000 person-years in adolescents aged 12-17 years in England. We described these incidences in terms of an iceberg model of self-harm. During 2011-13, 171 adolescents aged 12-17 years died by suicide in England (119 [70%] male and 133 [78%] aged 15-17 years) and 1320 adolescents presented to the study hospitals following non-fatal self-harm (1028 [78%] female and 977 [74%] aged 15-17 years). In 2015, 322 (6%) of 5506 adolescents surveyed reported self-harm in the past year in the community (250 [78%] female and 164 [51%] aged 15-17 years). In 12-14 year olds, for every boy who died by suicide, 109 attended hospital following self-harm and 3067 reported self-harm in the community, whereas for every girl who died by suicide, 1255 attended hospital for self-harm and 21 995 reported self-harm in the community. In 15-17 year olds, for every male suicide, 120 males presented to hospital with self-harm and 838 self-harmed in the community; whereas for every female suicide, 919 females presented to hospital for self-harm and 6406 self-harmed in the community. Hanging or asphyxiation was the most common method of suicide (125 [73%] of 171), self-poisoning was the main reason for presenting to hospital after self-harm (849 [71%] of 1195), and self-cutting was the main method of self-harm used in the community (286 [89%] of 322). Ratios of fatal to non-fatal rates of self-harm differed between males and females and between

  12. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  13. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  14. Carcass and primal cuts yield evaluation of African antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight of chilled half carcass and primal cut as well as the proportions of primal cuts relative to chilled half carcass weight percentage cook yield, cooking loss, lean meat, bone as well as meat to bone ratio were determined. The results showed that leg cut had highest percentage weight of 40.11, followed by shoulder cut ...

  15. Stability analysis of multipoint tool equipped with metal cutting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksarov, V. V.; Khalimonenko, A. D.; Matrenichev, K. G.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of determining the stability of the cutting process by a multipoint cutting tool equipped with cutting ceramics. There were some recommendations offered on the choice of parameters of replaceable cutting ceramic plates for milling based of the conducted researches. Ceramic plates for milling are proposed to be selected on the basis of value of their electrical volume resistivity.

  16. Material testing of copper by extrusion-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4275 - Dowel cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...

  18. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms shall be provided for the cleaning and preparation of the bulk cheese and for the cutting and wrapping...

  19. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEHEMIE

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... increase both in treated and control cutting during the initiation stage of the experiment and decreased after root emergence only in treated cuttings. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA)-oxidase activity of auxin treated cuttings decreased as compared to the control. The peroxidase activity in IBA-treated cuttings.

  20. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.254 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1910.254 Section 1910.254 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.254 Arc welding and cutting. (a... following limits shall not be exceeded: (i) Alternating-current machines (A) Manual arc welding and cutting...

  2. Evaluation of Cutting Fluids in Multiple Reaming of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; Zeng, Z.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of different cutting fluids in reaming is presented. The performance of three water based cutting fluids and one cutting oil was compared to that of a reference water based commercial product by measurement of cutting forces, surface roughness and part accuracy. Thr...

  3. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  4. A framework for cut-over management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Nageldinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a governance structure for IT-related projects in order to assure a safeguarded and timely transition to a productive environment. This transitioning, which rarely exceeds a weekend, is colloquially called ‘cut-over’, ‘rollout’ or ‘deployment’. The governance structure is defined in accordance with a set of project-specific deliverables for a cascade-type procedural project-management model, which is integrated within an Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL-orientated service organization. This integration is illustrated by the use of a semi-agile release model. Due to the release model selected, which is particularly characterized by its bundling of projects for a release-specific rollout (as it is referred to in the project documentation, a new definition and interpretation of deployment from a generic ITIL perspective is required. The facilitated release model requires a distinction between a project-specific cut-over and a release-specific rollout. This separation gives rise to two types of go-live scenarios: one for each participating project and one for each release. Additionally, an interplay between cut-over planning for a project and rollout planning for a release becomes apparent. Projects should already incorporate cut-over related deliverables in the initial planning phase. Even though consulting methodologies such as ASAP (Accelerated SAP, recommend scattered, project-specific deliverables useful for cut-over planning, this publication offers an integrated approach on how to prepare systematically for a project-specific cut-over with all required deliverables. The framework provided maps out ITIL’s release and deployment process by means of IT projects; furthermore it allows IT projects to interface easily with the ITIL change-management process.

  5. Rooting of cuttings of vanilla plant (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Gomes de Araujo; José Maria Moreira Dias; Flávio Pereira Silva; Moacir Pasqual; Maria das Dôres David Silva

    2009-01-01

    The vanilla plant (Vanilla planifolia) could have a higher commercial production but there are problems in the efficiency of propagation. The present work was conducted with the aim of studying the effect of different substrates, in the adventitious rooting of cuttings taken at five heights in the plant stem. The cuttings were 20cm long and had two buds and one leaf and were planted in: 1) Liquid medium formed by Clark’s nutrient added of 2.5mg L-1 of IBA placed in plastic foam box with a cap...

  6. On Non-Abelian Symplectic Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We discuss symplectic cutting for Hamiltonian actions of non-Abelian compact groups. By using a degeneration based on the Vinberg monoid we give, in good cases, a global quotient description of a surgery construction introduced by Woodward and Meinrenken, and show it can be interpreted in algebro......-geometric terms. A key ingredient is the `universal cut' of the cotangent bundle of the group itself, which is identified with a moduli space of framed bundles on chains of projective lines recently introduced by the authors....

  7. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  8. On the Cutting Performance of Segmented Diamond Blades when Dry-Cutting Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Egea, A J; Martynenko, V; Martínez Krahmer, D; López de Lacalle, L N; Benítez, A; Genovese, G

    2018-02-09

    The objective of the present study is to analyze and compare the cutting performance of segmented diamond blades when dry-cutting concrete. A cutting criteria is proposed to characterize the wear of the blades by measuring the variation of the external diameter and the weight loss of the blade. The results exhibit the cutting blade SB-A, which has twice the density of diamonds and large contact area, exhibits less wear even though the material removal rate is higher compared with the other two cutting blades. Additionally, the surface topography of the different blades is evaluated to examine the impact of wear depending on the surface profile and the distribution of the diamonds in the blade's matrix. Large number of diamonds pull-out are found in blades type SB-C, which additionally shows the worst wear resistant capability. As a conclusion, the cutting efficiency of the blade is found to be related to the density of embedded diamonds and the type of the surface profile of the cutting blade after reaching the stop criteria.

  9. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  10. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    . The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...

  11. Dental abrasion as a cutting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter W; Wagner, Mark; Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Almusallam, Abdulwahab S; Michael, Shaji; Thai, Lidia A; Strait, David S; Swain, Michael V; van Casteren, Adam; Renno, Waleed M; Shekeban, Ali; Philip, Swapna M; Saji, Sreeja; Atkins, Anthony G

    2016-06-06

    A mammalian tooth is abraded when a sliding contact between a particle and the tooth surface leads to an immediate loss of tooth tissue. Over time, these contacts can lead to wear serious enough to impair the oral processing of food. Both anatomical and physiological mechanisms have evolved in mammals to try to prevent wear, indicating its evolutionary importance, but it is still an established survival threat. Here we consider that many wear marks result from a cutting action whereby the contacting tip(s) of such wear particles acts akin to a tool tip. Recent theoretical developments show that it is possible to estimate the toughness of abraded materials via cutting tests. Here, we report experiments intended to establish the wear resistance of enamel in terms of its toughness and how friction varies. Imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the damage involved. Damage ranged from pure plastic deformation to fracture with and without lateral microcracks. Grooves cut with a Berkovich diamond were the most consistent, suggesting that the toughness of enamel in cutting is 244 J m(-2), which is very high. Friction was higher in the presence of a polyphenolic compound, indicating that this could increase wear potential.

  12. What Happens when Media Positions Are Cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2011-01-01

    Cuts abound despite an infusion of technology, restructured media programs, and research connecting media specialists to improved student achievement. Verbal and written support about the value of a library or media specialist has not translated into monetary support at a time of universal funding problems. All grade levels and district sizes are…

  13. SNAP Cuts Put Youth at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In a typical month in 2011, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program) served 4.3 million low-income young adults ages 18-24, helping them buy needed groceries. This brief report demonstrates the detrimental impact the cuts proposed to SNAP in the House-passed Farm bill (H.R. 3102)--which is now…

  14. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete...

  15. The cutting of metals via plastic buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Anirudh; Viswanathan, Koushik; Ho, Yeung; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2017-06-01

    The cutting of metals has long been described as occurring by laminar plastic flow. Here we show that for metals with large strain-hardening capacity, laminar flow mode is unstable and cutting instead occurs by plastic buckling of a thin surface layer. High speed in situ imaging confirms that the buckling results in a small bump on the surface which then evolves into a fold of large amplitude by rotation and stretching. The repeated occurrence of buckling and folding manifests itself at the mesoscopic scale as a new flow mode with significant vortex-like components-sinuous flow. The buckling model is validated by phenomenological observations of flow at the continuum level and microstructural characteristics of grain deformation and measurements of the folding. In addition to predicting the conditions for surface buckling, the model suggests various geometric flow control strategies that can be effectively implemented to promote laminar flow, and suppress sinuous flow in cutting, with implications for industrial manufacturing processes. The observations impinge on the foundations of metal cutting by pointing to the key role of stability of laminar flow in determining the mechanism of material removal, and the need to re-examine long-held notions of large strain deformation at surfaces.

  16. Science Funding cuts threaten scientific research

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Page 1 of 3 Researchers are in uproar after a recently established quango unveiled a series of cuts and abandoned some projects altogether because of an estimated 80m funding shortfall. Martin Rees, the Astronomer Royal, argues that Britain will pay a far higher price if it scraps vital projects now

  17. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  18. Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    The problem in optimising the laser cutting process is outlined. Basic optimisation criteria and principles for adapting an optimisation method, the simplex method, are presented. The results of implementing a response function in the optimisation are discussed with respect to the quality as well...

  19. The size effect in metal cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The size effect in metal cutting. MILTON C SHAW. Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ,. 85287-6106, USA. Abstract. When metal is removed by machining there is substantial increase in the specific energy required with decrease in chip size. It is generally believed this is due to the fact ...

  20. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  1. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  2. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  3. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.I. Serour

    Abstract. Globally 100–140 million women and girls have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting. (FGM/C) which is a harmful practice, associated with immediate and long term complications, has no benefit what so ever, is unethical and has no religious basis. Inspite of global efforts to eradicate FGM/C.

  4. in the practice of Female Genital Cutting?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in developing theoretical models for understanding behaviour change with respect to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC). Drawing on extensive qualitative data collected in Senegal and The Gambia, the research reported here explores whether and how theoretical ...

  5. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rough turning, heat treatment, and then grinding process. Hard turning eliminates the series of .... slide-lathing grade X38CrMoV5-1 steel treated at 50 HRC by a CBN 7020 tool to reveal the influences of cutting ... Turning experiments were performed in dry conditions using lathe type SN 40C with 6.6 KW spindle power.

  6. Electroencephalographic responses to neck cut and exsanguination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-12-09

    Dec 9, 2016 ... The RMS value for alpha, beta, delta and theta waves among HS animals increased significantly (P <0.05) by almost twofold within 90 seconds of the initial throat cut, although the RMS value for both groups (HS and AS) did not show statistical significance in brain activity within 90 seconds post slaughter ...

  7. Staff Cuts Remake the Custodial Closet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that new cleaning and finishing materials and new equipment can help school facility departments cope with staff cuts, focusing on: chemicals and dispensers, safety training and information for custodial staff, cleaning tools and power equipment, and cleaner and more efficient schools. (SM)

  8. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.; Meir, S.; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R.; Rosenberger, I.; Halevy, A.H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Balk, P.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity

  9. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF CUTTING TOOL BREAKAGE ON DRIVE LIFE TIME OF CUTTING UNIT OF HEADING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Е. SHABAEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a necessity to develop means of technical diagnostics of cutter's performance without stopping heading machine was grounded. There was theoretically demonstrated the possibility of essential decrease in life time of transmission elements of cutting unit during prolonged work of heading machine with broken cutting tool. It was defined that influence of cutting tool breakage on life time of transmission elements depends on cutting tool position on cutting head according to the assembly drawing.

  11. Volatile compound in cut and un-cut flowers of tetraploid Freesia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Man; Liu, Baofeng; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The flower volatile compounds (FVCs) of two tetraploid Freesia hybrida (pink-yellow and yellow) cultivars and their cut flowers were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twelve FVCs were identified in the pink-yellow cultivar, with linalool as the major compound; 30 FVCs were identified in the yellow cultivar, with linalool and terpineol as the two major compounds. The FVCs (>1%) of the two cut flower cultivars were very similar to that of the un-cut flowers, and no significant difference was observed.

  12. Iceberg lettuce as suggested source of a nationwide outbreak caused by two Salmonella serotypes, Newport and Reading, in Finland in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Taru; Niskanen, Taina; Guedes, Sandra; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2011-06-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotypes Newport and Reading occurred between 17 October and 28 November 2008 in Finland. A total of 77 culture-confirmed Salmonella Newport and 30 Salmonella Reading cases, including one case with a double infection, were reported. All strains isolated from the patients were subtyped using serotyping, microbial resistance profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Here, the PFGE patterns of the studied Salmonella Newport strains were identical, whereas four different PFGE profiles were found among the Salmonella Reading strains. Two elderly patients died within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. Three geographical clusters of cases with an epidemiological link were identified. The traceback investigation suggested that the factor connecting the cases was ready-chopped iceberg lettuce available for mass catering use. However, none of the tested food, environmental samples, or the samples taken from the staff of the processing plant contained Salmonella bacteria. Tracing back to outbreak sources with a short shelf life can be complex.

  13. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  14. KM_GrabCut: a fast interactive image segmentation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Yao, Yiping; Tang, Wenjie

    2015-03-01

    Image segmentation is critical for image processing. Among several algorithms, GrabCut is well known by its little user interaction and desirable segmentation result. However, it needs to take a lot of time to adjust the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and to cut the weighted graph with Max-Flow/Min-Cut Algorithm iteratively. To solve this problem, we first build a common algorithmic framework which can be shared by the class of GrabCut-like segmentation algorithms, and then propose KM_GrabCut algorithm based on this framework. The KM_GrabCut first uses K-means clustering algorithm to cluster pixels in foreground and background respectively, and then constructs a GMM based on each clustering result and cuts the corresponding weighted graph only once. Experimental results demonstrate that KM_GrabCut outperforms GrabCut with higher performance, comparable segmentation result and user interaction.

  15. Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Somayeh; Francis, Kirby E; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.

  16. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  17. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

  18. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCES ON CNC LATHES EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Koç

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study is to make use easy programming of CNC lathes and to achieve the optimization of part program prepared considering the limiting parameters of the machine. In the present study, a BOXFORD 250 B CNC lathe has been used for experiment and optimization process. The measurement of cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool of CNC lathe has been performed. The cutting forces occurring during the turning operation have been determined for different depth of" cut, feed rate and cutting speed as well as different cutting tools and related data base has been obtained.

  19. Modelling growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to commercial process conditions: chlorine washing and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Selma, María V; Gil, María I; Zurera, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 was submitted to chlorine washing (150 mg/mL) and modified atmosphere packaging on laboratory scale. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 were assessed in fresh-cut lettuce stored at 4, 8, 13 and 16 °C using 6-8 replicates in each analysis point in order to capture experimental variability. The pathogen was able to grow at temperatures ≥8 °C, although at low temperatures, growth data presented a high variability between replicates. Indeed, at 8 °C after 15 days, some replicates did not show growth while other replicates did present an increase. A growth primary model was fitted to the raw growth data to estimate lag time and maximum growth rate. The prediction and confidence bands for the fitted growth models were estimated based on Monte-Carlo method. The estimated maximum growth rates (log cfu/day) corresponded to 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06-0.31), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.17-1.20) and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.82-2.15) for 8, 13 and 16 °C, respectively. A square-root secondary model was satisfactorily derived from the estimated growth rates (R(2) > 0.80; Bf = 0.97; Af = 1.46). Predictive models and data obtained in this study are intended to improve quantitative risk assessment studies for E. coli O157:H7 in leafy green products. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. REGION MERGING VIA GRAPH-CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stawiaski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the use of graph-cuts to merge the regions of the watershed transform optimally. Watershed is a simple, intuitive and efficient way of segmenting an image. Unfortunately it presents a few limitations such as over-segmentation and poor detection of low boundaries. Our segmentation process merges regions of the watershed over-segmentation by minimizing a specific criterion using graph-cuts optimization. Two methods will be introduced in this paper. The first is based on regions histogram and dissimilarity measures between adjacent regions. The second method deals with efficient approximation of minimal surfaces and geodesics. Experimental results show that these techniques can efficiently be used for large images segmentation when a pre-computed low level segmentation is available. We will present these methods in the context of interactive medical image segmentation.

  1. Researches regarding cutting tool condition monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inţă Marinela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper main purpose is monitoring of tool wear in metal cutting using neural networks due to their ability of learning and adapting their self, based on experiments. Monitoring the cutting process is difficult to perform on-line because of the complexity of tool wear process, which is the most important parameter that defines the tool state at a certain moment. Most of the researches appraise the tool wear by indirect factors such as forces, consumed power, vibrations or the surface quality. In this case, it is important to combine many factors for increasing the accuracy of tool wear prediction and establish the admissible size of wear. For this, paper both the theoretical data obtained from FEM analyze and experimental ones are used and compared in order to appreciate the reliability of the results.

  2. INTARSIA – CUTTING-EDGE PROCESSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting an ornament used to decorate the art furniture, whose classic realization requires a lot of manual labor, patience and artistic talent. General elements about the way of obtaining the inlaid veneer named intarsia are presented, continuing with the styles of art furniture where it was used for decoration purpose, the classical method and artistic techniques used by the manufacturers. In contrast to the classic method, the modern one is presented, namely the process of veneer cutting by laser beam, together with the benefits of applying this method to obtain a high quality intarsia work. The up-to-date method of laser cutting of veneers in order to obtain intarsia decoration has to be an impulse for the manufacturers in order to reinvigorate the art furniture export, furniture so much appreciated abroad in the past, but whose price included an extremely high workmanship.

  3. Hot Blade Cuttings for the Building Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    variability in the (economically allowed) designs - i.e., to allow them to think out of the box. To address this challenge The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation (now InnovationsFonden) is currently supporting the BladeRunner project that involves several Danish companies and public institutions....... The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...... are mainly concerned with the rationalization of the architects’ CAD drawings into surfaces that can be created via this particular sweeping and cutting technology....

  4. Robotic Tool For Tightening And Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Earl T.

    1989-01-01

    Robot end effector designed for tightening tube couplers and for cutting tubes. Tool operable by simple movements and thus manipulated by technician wearing heavy protective clothing. Operates on principle of worm and pinion gear. Intended for use in building structures in space, end effector also used as hand tool for assembling truss structures for terrestrial buildings, tents, and oil rigs. Also used in place of pipe wrench in plumbing work.

  5. Quality assessment of forest cutting with chainsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of forest harvest using chainsaw, in farms in the south of Espirito Santo state, Brazil, considering aspects of quality and loss of wood left in the strains. A total of 250 m² plots were launched to collect data of forest cut with chainsaw, for evaluating the quality of the cut related mto: presence of skewers; crack damage; strains burst range nonstandard; strains without the notch directional, and the remaining height of the strain, in order to measure the loss of wood held in the strains. The main results were: the spike was present in 21.9% of the strains, the cracks in 17.2% of the strains, non-standard strains in 44.6% of them and unnotched directional strains in 34.5% of the evaluations. To check the influence of the realization of the directional notch on the height of the strains t-test, at 5% probability, has shown that there is an increased contribution to height of the strains, where the cut was made without the directional notch. The amount of wood held in the strains above the recommended maximum was, on average, 2.43 m³.ha-1, representing a loss of R$ 172.53 ha-1. It was verified that the loss of timber remaining in eucalyptus strains was higher in places where, for the logging, there was not done the directional notch. The items evaluated showed uneven quality, indicating the need to improve cutting with chainsaw.

  6. Evaluating optical hazards from plasma arc cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Burr, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated a steel building materials manufacturer. The employer requested the evaluation because of concerns about optical radiation hazards from a plasma arc cutting system and the need to clarify eye protection requirements for plasma operators, other employees, and visitors. The strength of the ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation (light), and infrared radiation generated by the plasma arc cutter was measured at various distances from the source and at different operating amperages. Investigators also observed employees performing the plasma arc cutting. Optical radiation above safe levels for the unprotected eyes in the ultraviolet-C, ultraviolet-B, and visible light ranges were found during plasma arc cutting. In contrast, infrared and ultraviolet-A radiation levels during plasma arc cutting were similar to background levels. The highest non-ionizing radiation exposures occurred when no welding curtains were used. A plasma arc welding curtain in place did not eliminate optical radiation hazards to the plasma arc operator or to nearby employees. In most instances, the measured intensities for visible light, UV-C, and UV-B resulted in welding shade lens numbers that were lower than those stipulated in the OSHA Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy table in 29 CFR 1910.133(a)(5). [1] Investigators recommended using a welding curtain that enclosed the plasma arc, posting optical radiation warning signs in the plasma arc cutter area, installing audible or visual warning cues when the plasma arc cutter was operating, and using welding shades that covered the plasma arc cutter operator's face to protect skin from ultraviolet radiation hazards.

  7. Modeling and optimization of laser cutting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadallah Mohamed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam cutting is one important nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of laser beam cutting parameters of stainless steel (316L considering the effect of input parameters such as power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments is carried in three different levels and process responses such as average kerf taper (Ta, surface roughness (Ra and heat affected zones are measured accordingly. A response surface model is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27OA are employed to search for an optimal combination to achieve desired process yield. Response Surface Models (RSMs are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective optimization problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and optimized using Matlab developed environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results. As such, practicing engineers have means to model, analyze and optimize nontraditional machining processes. Validation experiments are carried to verify the developed models with success.

  8. Sinuous Flow in Cutting of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ho; Viswanathan, Koushik; Udupa, Anirudh; Mahato, Anirban; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2017-11-01

    Using in situ high-speed imaging, we unveil details of a highly unsteady plastic flow mode in the cutting of annealed and highly strain-hardening metals. This mesoscopic flow mode, termed sinuous flow, is characterized by repeated material folding, large rotation, and energy dissipation. Sinuous flow effects a very large shape transformation, with local strains of ten or more, and results in a characteristic mushroomlike surface morphology that is quite distinct from the well-known morphologies of metal-cutting chips. Importantly, the attributes of this unsteady flow are also fundamentally different from other well-established unsteady plastic flows in large-strain deformation, like adiabatic shear bands. The nucleation and development of sinuous flow, its dependence on material properties, and its manifestation across material systems are demonstrated. Plastic buckling and grain-scale heterogeneity are found to play key roles in triggering this flow at surfaces. Implications for modeling and understanding flow stability in large-strain plastic deformation, surface quality, and preparation of near-strain-free surfaces by cutting are discussed. The results point to the inadequacy of the widely used shear-zone models, even for ductile metals.

  9. Multiplication of Patio roses by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysko Iryna Leonidivna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment involved plants of 10 Patio rose cultivars of the National Dendrological Park "Sofiyivka" collection. The methods of propagation by cuttings worked out by Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy were assumed as a basis. Callogenesis and regenerative capacity were estimated in accordance with Z.J. Ivanova scale (1982. The fact is ascertained that the success of rooting substantially depends on particularities of certain Patio rose cultivar. It is advisable to use cuttings from basal and medial parts of stems, with remaining leaves, taken within the last ten-day period of May – the first ten-day period of June. The pretreatment with rhizogenic medium "Kornevin" (reactant — indolebutyric acid is the most effective for rooting cuttings. The optimal for rooting is the two-layered substrate: the lower layer is a multicomponent soil compound of peat, perlite, sod soil and humus in ratio 1:1:1:1; the upper layer consists of sand. Seedlings of Patio roses cultivated in open ground during vegetation period form stems 1.8 times more vigorously than ones grown on the same place where they were rooted. The optimal period to transfer into bed is May. It is reasonable to use top removal in order to form vigorous stem system.

  10. More About Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.; Davis, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes modification and testing of proposed tool discussed in "Cutting Tool For Shaving Weld Beads" (MFS-30056). Modified version of commercial pneumatically driven rotary cutting tool removes such hard metals as nickel alloys, titanium, and stainless steels.

  11. Cutting force simulation in milling with multi-edges cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shoichi; Matsumura, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    In the aircraft parts, the portion of titanium alloy, one of the light-weight and high mechanical strength materials, has been increased in terms of the fuel efficiency. Therefore, the effective technologies in cutting of titanium alloy should be established to promote the material removal rate with high production quality. Multi-edges milling cutters, on which many inserts are helically aligned, have been commercially available for millings of deep sinking in large axial depth of cuts. The paper presents an analytical prediction model to control the cutting force with alignment and geometry of the insert. In the model, three dimensional chip flow on each insert is interpreted as a piling up of the orthogonal cuttings in the planes containing the cutting velocities and the chip flow velocities, where the chip flow direction is determined to minimize the cutting energy. Then, the cutting force is predicted in the determined chip flow model. The cutting tests were conducted to validate the force model.

  12. Low-cost orbiting grinder for cutting ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Low-cost, portable machine cuts ducts made from heat-treated alloys. An abrasive wheel, powered by a high-speed air motor mounted on an expandible plug against the inner wall of the duct, gives precise cutting.

  13. Comparison of CO2 Laser Cutting with Different Laser Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketting, Hans-Ole; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains CO2 laser cutting results in mild and stainless steel with different laser sources. The main factors which affect the cutting speed and quality are the power, the cutting gas and focal point conditions. Keeping the power and cutting gas constant, the focal point conditions have...... size,for the maximum cutting speed. One of the 7 laser sources with different focal length and thus different minimum spot size, was then used to investigate more in details the importance of the focal spot size cutting stainless steel with high pressure nitrogen. It looks as if there is a strong...... been varied with respect to size and power density.In the introduction a theoretical model is presented, showing that the cutting speed is inverse proportional to the width of the cut kerf in a given material, and the definition of the Beam Quality Factor is introduced.In the next chapter this theory...

  14. Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T

    2017-05-24

    In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.

  15. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  16. Spreadsheet solutions of the one-dimensional cutting stock problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewski Robert

    2017-01-01

    The cutting stock problem encompasses cutting parts available in stock, which are called objects, to produce in specified quantities smaller pieces which are called items and optimizing an objective function. The cutting stock problem is common for many industrial processes – steel, paper tube and construction industries. One of the most important phases in solution of the one-dimensional cutting stock problem is a pattern generating procedure which can be performed in a spreadsheet.

  17. Spreadsheet solutions of the one-dimensional cutting stock problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting stock problem encompasses cutting parts available in stock, which are called objects, to produce in specified quantities smaller pieces which are called items and optimizing an objective function. The cutting stock problem is common for many industrial processes – steel, paper tube and construction industries. One of the most important phases in solution of the one-dimensional cutting stock problem is a pattern generating procedure which can be performed in a spreadsheet.

  18. Oxy-Hydrogen Flame for Cutting of Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek, J.; Šraj, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with oxy-hydrogen cutting of steel plates. The first part deals with calculation of the combustion efficiency of an oxy-hydrogen flame. A device for supply of a hydrogen-oxygen mixture is described. The main part of the paper is focused on oxy-hydrogen cutting and its advantages. The main conclusions show that the cut surface is flat and very smooth, the heat-affected zone is very narrow, and the cutting speed is relatively high.

  19. Removal of chromium and lead from drill cuttings using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-07-14

    Jul 14, 2009 ... the application of agricultural wastes for heavy metal removal from drill cuttings. Key words: Drill cuttings, heavy metals removal, palm kernel shell, adsorption. INTRODUCTION. The drill cuttings produced by an oil based drilling fluid are rather heavily contaminated by the oil base and addi- tives used for ...

  20. Biochemical aspects of single-node cuttings of Ricinodendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the ability of rooting in relation with biochemical changes, basal single-node leafy cuttings were treated with different concentrations of ... activity started to increase both in treated and control cutting during the initiation stage of the experiment and decreased after root emergence only in treated cuttings. Indole-3 ...

  1. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  2. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy was...

  3. Pipe cutting tool is useful in limited space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, C. A.; Jones, D. D.

    1966-01-01

    Portable pipe cutting tool is used in areas of limited space. The pipe is clamped in the tool and then cut by a rotating cutter assembly that is internally connected to a drive shaft engaged in the chuck of a portable electric drill. The tool is held in a fixed position during the cutting operation.

  4. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from

  5. Cavity cutting efficiency of a Bioglass TM and alumina powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirty human enamel blocks and microscope glass slides of 0.5mm thickness were randomly divided into these three groups. The time taken to cut a hole through the glass slide and for the cutting of human enamel blocks was recorded, the cutting time was fixed at 15 s. The depths of the cavities were measured using a ...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  7. Validation of the standardized and simplified cutting bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; D. Earl Kline; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble

    2008-01-01

    This research validated the framework for the standardized and simplified cutting bill presented in an earlier paper. The cutting bill validation was carried out in two ways. First, all 20 of the cutting bill's part groups were examined to determine if significant yield influences resulted from changing specific part sizes within the boundaries of a given part...

  8. Laser cutting, State of the art and technological trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given. The technoloty which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting of 3...

  9. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.55 - Gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas welding and cutting. 1915.55 Section 1915.55 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.55 Gas welding and cutting. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by the...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.351 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1926.351 Section 1926.351 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.351 Arc welding and cutting. (a) Manual electrode holders. (1) Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed...

  14. Short Communication Effect of species, cutting position and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the cutting position, terminal and subterminal, and rooting substance on the rooting of cuttings of two Cyclopia species (Cyclopia genistoides and C. intermedia) taken in winter, spring or summer was studied under controlled glasshouse conditions. Cuttings taken in summer, irrespective of the species, rooted better ...

  15. 7 CFR 58.726 - Cutting and grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and grinding. 58.726 Section 58.726 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.726 Cutting and grinding. The trimmed and cleaned cheese should be cut into sections of...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.56 - Arc welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arc welding and cutting. 1915.56 Section 1915.56 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.56 Arc welding and cutting. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing...

  17. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use...

  18. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce using flume water containing peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizers and various organic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski-Davidson, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2017-05-02

    In order to minimize cross-contamination during leafy green processing, chemical sanitizers are routinely added to the wash water. This study assessed the efficacy of peroxyacetic acid and mixed peracid against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4kg) inoculated to contain 10(6)CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of non-toxigenic, GFP-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, was shredded using a commercial shredder, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90s using water alone or two different sanitizing treatments (50ppm peroxyacetic acid or mixed peracid) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% (w/v) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Thereafter, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were identically processed. Various product (25g) and water (50ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table and centrifugal dryer were then assessed for numbers of E. coli O157:H7. Organic load rarely impacted (P>0.05) the efficacy of either peroxyacetic acid or mixed peracid, with typical reductions of >5logCFU/ml in wash water throughout processing for all organic loads. Increases in organic load in the wash water corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, maximum filterable volume, and oxidation/reduction potential. After 90s of exposure to flume water, E. coli O157:H7 reductions on inoculated lettuce ranged from 0.97 to 1.74logCFU/g using peroxyacetic acid, with an average reduction of 1.35logCFU/g for mixed peracid. E. coli O157:H7 persisted on all previously uninoculated lettuce following the inoculated batch, emphasizing the need for improved intervention strategies that can better ensure end-product safety. Copyright

  19. Materials Comparison of Cutting Tools Functional Parts for Cutting of Electrical Engineering Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ZLÁMALÍK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper concerns the comparison of functional materials parts of cutting tools used for the production of stator and rotor sheets in the electrical industry from point of view of their life. Alternatives and the properties of metal used for the production of stator and rotor components in electrical rotating machines are analysed. The main factors affecting the life of cutting tools of functional parts are analysed, one of the most important is the cutting tool functional parts material itself. Comparison of three variants of the cuttong tool funkcional parts material – 19 436 tool steel (chrome steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9436, 19 830 high speed steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9830 and a special powder metallurgy product – ledeburite tool steel Vanadis 10. Useful lifes of the functional components of individual cutting tools performances can be calculated from the theoretical lifes by their multiplying the coefficients of the tool design and the cutting edges shape complexity.

  20. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each other, totaling nine plants per plot, being evaluated only the three most vigorous plants. For evaluation, three plants were pruned 20 cm height above soil, after 12 months of cultivation, it was evaluated the yield of cuttings with four knots and two pairs of leaves; plants height (m, torso diameter the 20 cm height of the soil (cm; branches length (m; and total green mass accumulated (kg. In most features evaluated, the best results were observed in the ‘Ascolano 315’. The successive cuts may be extended over a three year period. The parameter estimates indicate that plants of both cultivars y responded satisfactorily to regrowth.

  1. Minimizing waste (off-cuts using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemileke A. Ogunranti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP Model constrained by numerous feasible patterns. A LP solver was integrated with the pattern generation algorithm program to develop a one - dimensional cutting stock model application named GB Cutting Stock Program. Findings and Originality/value: Applying the model to a real life optimization problem significantly reduces material waste (off-cuts and minimizes the total stock used. The result yielded about 30.7% cost savings for company-I when the total stock materials used is compared with the former cutting plan. Also, to evaluate the efficiency of the application, Case I problem was solved using two top commercial 1D-cutting stock software.  The results show that the GB program performs better when related results were compared. Research limitations/implications: This study round up the linear programming solution for the number of pattern to cut. Practical implications: From Managerial perspective, implementing optimized cutting plans increases productivity by eliminating calculating errors and drastically reducing operator mistakes. Also, financial benefits that can annually amount to millions in cost savings can be achieved through significant material waste reduction. Originality/value: This paper developed a linear programming one dimensional cutting stock model based on a pattern generation algorithm to minimize waste in the wood working industry. To implement the model, the algorithm was coded using VisualBasic.net and linear programming solver called lpsolvedll (dynamic

  2. Minimizing waste (off-cuts) using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunranti, Gbemileke A.; Oluleye, Ayodeji E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP) Model constrained by num...

  3. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  4. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module 3.0: Identifying and Cutting Meat and By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on identifying and cutting of meat and by-products is the third of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  5. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    -fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... social defense, a Pseudonocardia bacteria that helps to control pathogens in the ants' fungus garden, showed a significant colony of origin by rearing environment interaction, whereby ants that acquired the bacteria of a foster colony obtained a less abundant cover of bacteria: one explanation...

  6. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  7. Modern laser technologies used for cutting textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarie, Claudiu; Dragan, Anca; Isarie, Laura; Nastase, Dan

    2006-02-01

    With modern laser technologies we can cut multiple layers at once, yielding high production levels and short setup times between cutting runs. One example could be the operation of cutting the material named Nylon 66, used to manufacture automobile airbags. With laser, up to seven layers of Nylon 66 can be cut in one pass, that means high production rates on a single machine. Airbags must be precisely crafted piece of critical safety equipment that is built to very high levels of precision in a mass production environment. Of course, synthetic material, used for airbags, can be cut also by a conventional fixed blade system, but for a high production rates and a long term low-maintenance, laser cutting is most suitable. Most systems, are equipped with two material handling systems, which can cut on one half of he table while the finished product is being removed from the other half and the new stock material laid out. The laser system is reliable and adaptable to any flatbed-cutting task. Computer controlled industrial cutting and plotting machines are the latest offerings from a well established and experienced industrial engineering company that is dedicated to reduce cutting costs and boosting productivity in today's competitive industrial machine tool market. In this way, just one machine can carry out a multitude of production tasks. Authors have studied the cutting parameters for different textile materials, to reach the maximum output of the process.

  8. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  9. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming...... and tapping, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel, and cutting fluids from two main groups, water miscible and straight oils, were...... investigated. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists, within the same group of cutting fluids, in the case of stainless steel as workpiece material. Under the tested conditions, the average correlation coefficients between efficiency parameters with different...

  10. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  11. Cuts from residues: the one-loop case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Samuel; Britto, Ruth; Duhr, Claude; Gardi, Einan

    2017-06-01

    Using the multivariate residue calculus of Leray, we give a precise definition of the notion of a cut Feynman integral in dimensional regularization, as a residue evaluated on the variety where some of the propagators are put on shell. These are naturally associated to Landau singularities of the first type. Focusing on the one-loop case, we give an explicit parametrization to compute such cut integrals, with which we study some of their properties and list explicit results for maximal and next-to-maximal cuts. By analyzing homology groups, we show that cut integrals associated to Landau singularities of the second type are specific combinations of the usual cut integrals, and we obtain linear relations among different cuts of the same integral. We also show that all one-loop Feynman integrals and their cuts belong to the same class of functions, which can be written as parametric integrals.

  12. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  13. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  14. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  15. INVESTIGATION SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CUTTING FRONT SIDE GEOMETRY IN THE CUTTING OF AISI 1030 MATERIAL WITH ABRASIVE WATER JET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan AKKURT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive water jet (AWJ is used as a new and alternative cutting technique in industry to form the materials that are hard to cut. In this study, AISI 1030 steel samples in different thickness were cut with AWJ process. The samples were cut with different cutting speeds. The effect of cutting speed on the surface characteristics was investigated. The results of the study show that AWJ can be used as an effective cutting process to form sharp corners and edges.

  16. Implementing artificial intelligence search methods to solve constrained two-dimensional guillotine-cut cutting stock problems / by Jan Adriaan Oberholzer

    OpenAIRE

    Oberholzer, Jan Adriaan

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis will be on the constrained two dimensional guillotine-cut cuffing stock (C2DGC) problem. Stock cutting involves the process of cutting certain small demand items from a larger object. During this process, waste material is generated, which is called trim loss. The cutting stock problem presents itself in many industrial processes where the cutting of material is concerned, for instance the cutting of wood in the furniture industry, the cutting o...

  17. Influence of vegetable based cutting fluids on cutting force and vibration signature during milling of aluminium metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental and health issues, there is an enormous requirement for developing the novel cutting fluids (CFs. The vegetable based cutting fluid (VBCFs doesn’t affect the environment, diminish the harmful effects to the operator and also enhance the machining performances such as surface roughness, tool life, minimum vibration and cutting forces. In this work, the performances of four different VBCFs like palm, coconut, sunflower, soya bean oils, and a commercial type of CFs were considered to analyze the influence of cutting fluids while measuring the cutting force and vibration signatures during milling of 7075–T6 hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite with carbide insert tool. The experiments were conducted in CNC L-MILL 55 vertical machining center, with milling tool dynamometer to measure the cutting force and a tri-axial accelerometer to measure the vibration signals. The flow rate of the VBCFs were maintained at a constant rate and the results were compared with a commercial cutting fluid. The obtained result shows that palm oil suits better than the other vegetable based cutting fluids in terms of minimum cutting force requirement and minimum vibration. Also, the experimental result shows that the cutting fluid was one of the important parameter needs to be considered which influences the cutting force and vibration signals.

  18. JF-cut: a parallel graph cut approach for large-scale image and video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi; Chen, Li; Ou-Yang, Fang-Xin; Chen, Wei; Yong, Jun-Hai

    2015-02-01

    Graph cut has proven to be an effective scheme to solve a wide variety of segmentation problems in vision and graphics community. The main limitation of conventional graph-cut implementations is that they can hardly handle large images or videos because of high computational complexity. Even though there are some parallelization solutions, they commonly suffer from the problems of low parallelism (on CPU) or low convergence speed (on GPU). In this paper, we present a novel graph-cut algorithm that leverages a parallelized jump flooding technique and an heuristic push-relabel scheme to enhance the graph-cut process, namely, back-and-forth relabel, convergence detection, and block-wise push-relabel. The entire process is parallelizable on GPU, and outperforms the existing GPU-based implementations in terms of global convergence, information propagation, and performance. We design an intuitive user interface for specifying interested regions in cases of occlusions when handling video sequences. Experiments on a variety of data sets, including images (up to 15 K × 10 K), videos (up to 2.5 K × 1.5 K × 50), and volumetric data, achieve high-quality results and a maximum 40-fold (139-fold) speedup over conventional GPU (CPU-)-based approaches.

  19. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  20. Physical Models And Technological Aspects Of Laser Gas Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, I.; Ruge, J.; Atzert, U.

    1984-03-01

    High power CO2-laser systems with radiation output from 0.5 to 10 kW are ready now to be incorporated in a production line. They offer new possibilities of material processing like deep-penetration welding, transformation hardening of thin surface layers, hard facing, surface glazing, etc. At the present time, besides applications in microtechniques like spot welding, drilling and laser trimming, primarily laser cutting is used in industry. In order to achieve a universal cutting tool of high productivity, research should not only concentrate on the processing machine consisting of gas assistant components, CNC systems, beam guidance, and the laser itself, but should also take the material properties and the physical mechanism of the cutting process into consideration. On the other hand, it is important to find new ways of engineering design and manufacturing processes adapted to the specific requirements and advantages of laser cutting. As a thermal cutting method used mainly for thin sheets up to 6 mm thickness, laser gas cutting competes with the mechanical cutting methods. It is characterized by a high cutting speed, a small kerf width, a narrow heat affected zone, and a high quality cutting edge. Thus, no distortion of the workpiece occurs, and, in most cases, no finishing operations are required. In connection with a CNC table, complex two or three dimensional cuts of high accuracy can be done. Moreover, laser gas cutting can be automated easily. At the Institute of Welding and Materials Technology, we are interested in the behaviour of the material during the cutting process, in a determination of the cutting quality attainable by present laser systems, and in the mechanical properties of laser-cut elements. We are also concerned with the comparison of the various cutting methods and the classification of their fields of application. With regard to these problems, besides others, a physical understanding of the interaction between high density laser

  1. Performance based diagnostics of a twin shaft aeroderivative gas turbine: water wash scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Baudin Lastra, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Aeroderivative gas turbines are used all over the world for different applications as Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Oil and Gas, ship propulsion and others. They combine flexibility with high efficiencies, low weight and small footprint, making them attractive where power density is paramount as off shore Oil and Gas or ship propulsion. In Western Europe they are widely used in CHP small and medium applications thanks to their maintainability and efficiency. Reliability, Av...

  2. Comparison of the adhesive performances of soy meal, water washed meal fractions, and protein isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. In this work, we obtained five soy meal products through commercial sources or in-house preparations. The protein content was 49...

  3. Prostate biopsy outcome using 29 mm cutting length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K G; Hutarew, G; Pytel, A; Schmeller, N T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the prostate biopsy outcome by using either standard or extended cutting length of the needles. A total of 74 consecutive prostates from radical prostatectomy were used. Two sextant biopsies were performed ex vivo. We developed a precise simulation of a transrectal biopsy procedure using ultrasound for guiding the needle. In the first set of biopsies an 18-gauge tru cut needle with 19 mm cutting length, powered by a automatic biopsy gun was used. In the second set a single use gun with an 18-gauge end-cutting needle and 29 mm cutting length was used. In the set of sextant biopsies using 19 mm cutting length 49 (66%) carcinomas were found. In the set of sextant biopsies using 29 mm cutting length 58 (78%) of the tumors were detected. 24 (32%) prostates showed tumor in the transition zones, but there was no transition-zone-only cancer in this study. Nevertheless taking longer cores led to an improvement in prostate cancer detection of 18%. In this ex vivo setting the use of 29 mm cutting length for prostate biopsy led to an significant improvement in cancer detection. As we found the end-cutting needle not suitable for use in the patient, these results support the idea to develop a longer tru cut needle and corresponding gun for further clinical investigations. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  5. A Study on Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Cutting of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a kind of nickel-based alloys that are widely used in the aerospace and nuclear industry owing to their high temperature mechanical properties. Cutting of Inconel 718 in conventional cutting (CC is a big challenge in modern industry. Few researches have been studied on cutting of Inconel 718 using single point diamond tool applying the UEVC method. This paper shows an experimental study on UEVC of Inconel 718 by using polycrystalline diamond (PCD coated tools. Firstly, cutting tests have been carried out to study the effect of machining parameters in the UEVC in terms of surface finish and flank wear during machining of Inconel 718. The tests have clearly shown that the PCD coated tools in cutting of Inconel 718 by the UEVC have better performance at 0.1 mm depth of cut as compared to the lower 0.05 mm depth of cut and the higher 0.12 or 0.15 mm depth of cut. Secondly, like CC method, the cutting performance in UEVC increases with the decrease of the feed rate and cutting speed. The CC tests have also been carried out to compare performance of CC with UEVC method.

  6. Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.

  7. Double-Copy Constructions and Unitarity Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Nohle, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in $D$ dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. ...

  8. Fotoenvelhecimento cutâneo: processo, produtos

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Bruna Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A pele é o órgão que cobre todo o corpo humano. Pela sua natureza de interface entre o organismo e o meio ambiente, desempenha funções de proteção, sensoriais e de homeostasia. A exposição constante da pele a agentes oxidantes endógenos e ambientais que conduzem à ocorrência de stress oxidativo é indicado como o principal mecanismo de envelhecimento cutâneo. Alguns fatores indutores do envelhe...

  9. Textile sensors for stab and cut detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graßmann, C.; Obermann, M.; Lempa, E.; Bache, T.; Siegel, P. K.; Freyer, T.; Paschko, S.; Beyer, T.; Kirsche, M.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Manufacturers are aiming for more flexible and lightweight protective clothing to increase wearing comfort. A cardigan with a knitted stab-resistant inlay and an alarm system is presented. The stab-resistant inlay is based on a multilayer ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMW-PE) fabric. Stab resistance was evaluated according to the standard of the Association of Test Laboratories for Bullet, Stab or Pike Resistant Materials and Construction Standard (VPAM 2011). Furthermore sensors for the detection of cuts and pressure were integrated. Both sensors can trigger alarms if the wearer is attacked. Normal pressure occurring through leaning on a wall or sitting is filtered out and does not trigger an alarm.

  10. Open cut mining and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonifuzi, T.; Inoue, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    In addition to general rehabilitation technologies for open-cut mines, it seems possible that carbon dioxide absorption might be increased by developing technology for restoring or reinforcing the microbial colonies in the soil and for the rapid growth of highly productive (ie high carbon-fixing) plants. CSIRO and Idemitsu is carrying out research in this with encouraging results. Idemitsu has shown that the fungus VA mycorrhizae (endo-mycorrhizae) may be effective in afforestation with eucalyptus. CSIRO is studying the symbiotic associations formed between ectomycorrhizae and the surface of plant roots, as opposed to the penetration of the plant root as is the case with endomycorrhizae. Such CO{sub 2} fixing technology could make a contribution towards the mitigation of global warming. 21 plates.

  11. From enzymes and viruses to clouds, snow, sea-glaciers, and green icebergs: How a protein crystallographer got into glaciology and atmospheric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Through a series of lucky breaks beginning five years after my Ph.D., I was able to change careers from molecular biology to earth science, via a postdoc at NCAR in 1978, leading to a job at the University of Washington (UW) in 1982. Steve Schneider, Warren Wiscombe, Julius London, Gary Thomas, and Ed LaChapelle helped me make the transition. At UW, a collaboration with Tom Grenfell got me started in Antarctic fieldwork. Long-term dedicated coworkers Carole Hahn (cloud climatology) and Rich Brandt (radiative and thermal properties of snow and sea ice) kept our funded projects going. Conversations with UW colleagues Bob Charlson on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and Qiang Fu on the microwave sounding unit (MSU) enticed me into unfunded projects (biological influence on cloud albedo; satellite-derived tropospheric temperatures). Several other key collaborators I first met when they were students at UW: Tony Clarke and Sarah Doherty (black carbon in snow), Bonnie Light (laboratory experiments for Snowball Earth), and Von Walden (longwave radiation spectra). Ian Allison of the Australian Antarctic Division sponsored my first sabbatical, to learn about sea ice. Most of our work, of course, is on projects that are proposed, then funded, then completed (or not completed). But at least as much fun are projects that were completed but not proposed. Some of these were inspired by listening to seminars (particularly by Charlson), or were developed from student term-papers in my snow-and-ice class (Jon Rhodes's report on suncups, and Steve Hudson's on Antarctic bacteria). There is not much cross-cultural connection between my former life and my current life, but there is some, now institutionalized in UW's Astrobiology Program. My enthusiasm for the CLAW project was partly motivated by my background in biology and the knowledge that DMS originates from the amino acid methionine. I was happy to accept oceanic biota as the explanation for the color of green icebergs. And my motivation

  12. Vegetative rescue and ex vitro system production of Tibouchina sellowiana clonal plants by cutting and mini-cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the rooting potential of Tibouchina sellowiana through the experiments: I - Cuttings from current-year shoots and epicormic shoots were submitted to IBA concentrations: 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000mg L-1, in a factorial arrangement 2 x 5 (two types of cuttings x five IBA concentrations, with four replicates and 20 cuttings each; II - mini-stumps of Tibouchina sellowiana were submitted to successive shoots collecting during the four seasons, in a split-plot design, with five replications of ten mini-stumps per experimental unit. From the shoots of mini-stumps, mini-cuttings were produced, which were initially kept in greenhouse and later transferred to full sun, in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement (four seasons x five collections per season, with four replicates of 12 mini-cuttings. Superiority of epicormic shoots cuttings was reported when compared to the current-year shoots, which showed the highest rooting and leaves maintenance (42.50% and 55.00%, respectively, eliminating the use of IBA. High survival of mini-stumps (over 80% and the mini-cuttings production (170mini-cuttings m-2 month-1 in clonal mini-garden and the mini-cuttings survival (above 80% in the greenhouse demonstrated the technical feasibility, with summer as the most appropriate time to collect mini-cuttings.

  13. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Formulated oil - E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Steffanato, Simone

    Tool life is a parameter closely connected to the lubricating effect of a cutting fluid. Long tool life in turning corresponds to good lubrication and a process with good lubrication is preferred, since it normally results in lower tool wear and better surface quality. Cutting forces are mainly i...... important for understanding the mechanism of the cutting process itself and to perform in this way data about the influence of the cutting fluids.......Tool life is a parameter closely connected to the lubricating effect of a cutting fluid. Long tool life in turning corresponds to good lubrication and a process with good lubrication is preferred, since it normally results in lower tool wear and better surface quality. Cutting forces are mainly...

  14. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  15. Optimum cutting wire assembly in dimension stone quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherpour R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production process in dimension stone quarries has a close relationship with the diamond beads efficiency and their number in unit length (density parameter. This study intends to find out the governing relationship between these parameters and cutting efficiency according to empirical findings in Targh travertine quarry. In addition, it's been tried to figure out the optimum operating condition in order to maximize the efficiency. To do so, along with the number of beads in unit length, other parameters such as cutting length and time have been recorded through the whole lifetime of cutting wire. The collected data have been compiled statistically in order to obtain the optimum cutting dimensions, cutting capacity and efficiency and the optimum number of beads in unit length. The results showed that the optimum mode of cutting wire assembly occurs using 31 diamond beads per meter. Besides, diamond beads have the highest efficiency at the middle third of their lifetime.

  16. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  17. Abrasive slurry jet cutting model based on fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, C. H.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The cutting process of pre-mixed abrasive slurry or suspension jet (ASJ) is a complex process affected by many factors, and there is a highly nonlinear relationship between the cutting parameters and cutting quality. In this paper, guided by fuzzy theory, the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ was developed. In the modeling of surface roughness, the upper surface roughness prediction model and the lower surface roughness prediction model were established respectively. The adaptive fuzzy inference system combines the learning mechanism of neural networks and the linguistic reasoning ability of the fuzzy system, membership functions, and fuzzy rules are obtained by adaptive adjustment. Therefore, the modeling process is fast and effective. In this paper, the ANFIS module of MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox was used to establish the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ, which is found to be quite instrumental to ASJ cutting applications.

  18. Water Control in Cut Stems of Rose and Carnation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stasio, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This PhD Thesis address, on cut flowers vase life, physiological mechanisms aimed at maintaining and regulating tissues hydration, cellular turgor, water use and senescence phenomena. Specifically we considered the effect of compatible solutes (osmoregulation) on water status, hydration state and vase life of cut stems of rose and carnation (chapter 1). In the second chapter we evaluated the application of anti-transpirant compounds that may act indirectly or directly on rose cut stems trans...

  19. Sound insulation properties of structure designed from apparel cutting waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Trajković, Dušan; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Zafirova, Koleta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an insulation structure from apparel cutting waste was designed and its sound insulation properties were investigated. Shredded polyester apparel cuttings were used as the raw material for an insulation structure. The obtained results show that the insulation structure made from apparel cutting waste has good sound absorption compared to standard sound and thermal insulators. The average sound absorption of the samples was from 54.7% to 74.7%, for a frequency range of 250-2000Hz...

  20. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Reddy, P.; A.A. Sriramakrishna

    2002-01-01

    A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs) (aluminium-30% silicon carbide) was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical) properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. ...

  1. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 0.5 - 0°C, rooted chrysanthemum cuttings stored for 3 - 6 weeks at - 0.5 - 1.6°C, and rooted poinsettia cuttings stored for 1 week at 5°C can all be successfully used after storage. Laurie et al. (1969) do not recommend storage of rooted cuttings for more than 8 weeks because of a decreased survival rate ...

  2. Generalized interactions using virtual tools within the spring framework: cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kevin; Bruyns, Cynthia D.

    2002-01-01

    We present schemes for real-time generalized mesh cutting. Starting with the a basic example, we describe the details of implementing cutting on single and multiple surface objects as well as hybrid and volumetric meshes using virtual tools with single and multiple cutting surfaces. These methods have been implemented in a robust surgical simulation environment allowing us to model procedures ranging from animal dissection to cleft lip correction.

  3. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  4. Effect of cutting height and frequency on Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast-growing tree that can provide both high quality forage and firewood. The objective of this trial was to determine the optimum height and frequency of cutting for both wood and forage production. Cutting heights at 0.3m, 0.6m and 1.0 m were superimposed on 3-month and 6-month cutting ...

  5. Which Types of Firms React More to a Tax Cut?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    The agency model of Chetty and Saez (2010) predicts that firms with stronger corporate governance are more responsive to a dividend tax cut in their dividend and investment policies. We test these predictions by exploiting the sudden and significant dividend tax cut following the Jobs and Growth...... Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 and the pre-tax cut variation in corporate governance standards across firms. We find that firms with stronger corporate governance raise dividends and reduce investment in response to the tax cut significantly more than firms with weaker corporate governance...

  6. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...... will get the same performance ranking for different metalworking fluids no matter what machining test is used, when the fluids are of the same type. Results show that this is mostly true for the water-based fluids on austenitic stainless steel while ranking did change depending on the test with straight...

  7. Indolbutyric acid on rooting of cuttings of mini rose bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kelli Pirola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The roses are considered as the main cut flowers exported from Brazil and also the most popular in the domestic market. Usually, roses can be propagated by grafting or cutting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cuttings’ size and IBA concentration on mini-cutting rooting of roses variety Mary Rose. Cuttings were obtained from mother plants grown in gardens, with sizes of 3, 5 and 7 cm of length, 1.0 cm in diameter, and treated with IBA, in the concentrations of 0; 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The experimental design was installed in randomized blocks, in a factorial 3 x 3 (mini-cutting sizes x IBA concentration, with 4 repetitions and 10 mini-cuttings per plot. After 60 days rooted cuttings (%, cuttings with callus (%, primary sprouting, leaves and roots numbers, length of the three major roots (cm and mortality (% were evaluated. It is recommended to propagate roses by the use of mini-cuttings with 7 cm treated with 500 mg L-1 of IBA.

  8. Effects of cutting parameters during turning 100C6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibane H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effects of cutting parameters in terms of cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the influence of the surface roughness, consumed power, cutting time and tool vibrations during turning process. The material chosen in this case was 100C6 steel in dry conditions. The effects of the selected process parameters have been investigated using full factorial design of experiments (33 and the multiple linear regression (MLR. Thus, first-order empirical models were established. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to check the validity of the developed models within the limits of the factors that were being investigated and to test the significance of the above parameters. Results indicate that the feed rate is the only significant factor affecting the surface roughness. The cutting speed and feed rate are the most influential factors on cutting time. Estimated tool vibrations are functions of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut in decreasing order. Finally, the models obtained can be used for determination of optimal settings of cuttings parameters and this methodology should help us to obtain the best process parameters for dry turning of 100C6 steel.

  9. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  10. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  11. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  12. Investigations in high speed blanking: cutting forces and microscopic observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larue A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new hopefull technique, called high speed blanking, has been investigated since few years. To understand the cutting process and how the tools have to be designed, this study is interrested in the cutting force measurement. A new cutting force measurement device has to be designed consider the industrial interest of such a study. The designed test bench induces a calibration process in order to stucy the cutting forces evolution. The paper is discussing the result that the peack load seems to decrease when the punch speed increases. Finally microscopic observations are made in order to find Adiabatic Shear Bands.

  13. Oxy-Hydrogen Flame for Cutting of Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with oxy-hydrogen cutting of steel plates. The first part deals with calculation of the combustion efficiency of an oxy-hydrogen flame. A device for supply of a hydrogen-oxygen mixture is described. The main part of the paper is focused on oxy-hydrogen cutting and its advantages. The main conclusions show that the cut surface is flat and very smooth, the heat-affected zone is very narrow, and the cutting speed is relatively high.

  14. On the Rank of Cutting-Plane Proof Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schulz, Andreas S.

    We introduce a natural abstraction of propositional proof systems that are based on cutting planes. This new class of proof systems includes well-known operators such as Gomory-Chvátal cuts, lift-and-project cuts, Sherali-Adams cuts (for a fixed hierarchy level d), and split cuts. The rank of such a proof system corresponds to the number of rounds needed to show the nonexistence of integral solutions. We exhibit a family of polytopes without integral points contained in the n-dimensional 0/1-cube that has rank Ω(n/logn) for any proof system in our class. In fact, we show that whenever a specific cutting-plane based proof system has (maximal) rank n on a particular family of instances, then any cutting-plane proof system in our class has rank Ω(n/logn) for this family. This shows that the rank complexity of worst-case instances is intrinsic to the problem, and does not depend on specific cutting-plane proof systems, except for log factors. We also construct a new cutting-plane proof system that has worst-case rank O(n/logn) for any polytope without integral points, implying that the universal lower bound is essentially tight.

  15. Calculating Cutting Thermal Physics Parameters of Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Grubyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal physics parameters and a cutting temperature belong to the output performances to characterise a process and allow a rational selection of machining modes and conditions. In machining hard-to-cut materials the utmost cutting temperature is a technological restriction and defines tool wear rate and intensity. The cutting temperature also has impact on the heat extension of tool and the finished machining.The subject is to study thermal physics parameters and cutting temperature when machining the plastic materials by a hard-alloy tool. The objective is to develop a technique to calculate these parameters. A calculation method for the analysis of process parameters is used.Calculation results for the cutting temperature were compared with experimental ones published in the literature sources. A novelty of the technique is that there is no need in conducting the experimental studies to calculate the thermal physics parameters. Calculation is based on using known mechanical and thermal physics characteristics of machined and tool materials. The calculation results are parameters, namely heat flow intensities in the conditional shear plane, on the contact surfaces of tool, temperatures of theses surfaces, averaged cutting temperature - depending on the cutting speed, thickness of cutting layer, tool wear value.A sequence of calculations is implemented in the developed software in the programming algorithmic language with results in graphic and tabular representations. The calculation technique is designed for conducting research activities and engineering designs in the field of machining.

  16. Laser cutting speeds for ceramic tile: a theoretical empirical comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, I.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of theoretically-predicted optimum cutting speeds for decorative ceramic tile with experimentally-derived data. Four well-established theoretical analyses are considered and applied to the laser cutting of ceramic tile, i.e. Rosenthal's moving point heat-source model and the heat balance approaches of Powell, Steen and Chryssolouris. The theoretical results are subsequently compared and contrasted with actual cutting data taken from an existing laser machining database. Empirical models developed by the author are described which have been successfully used to predict cutting speeds for various thicknesses of ceramic tile.

  17. The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the persistence and expression of virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on shredded iceberg lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut leafy greens contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with multiple foodborne outbreaks. Modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) conditions, coupled with abusive storage temperatures of contaminated lettuce which may affect the persistence and expression of E. coli O1...

  18. Energy consumption during impact cutting of canola stalk as a function of moisture content and cutting height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azadbakht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study surveys the needed energy for cutting canola stems in different levels of cutting height and moisture content. The canola was harvested from the experimental farm in Gorgan, Iran. Test device fabricated and then calibrated. The device works on the principle of conservation of energy. The tests were repeated 15 times for any level of moisture content and cutting height and they were analyzed using split plot design. The results showed the effect of height and moisture content on cutting energy is significant (P < 1%, but their interaction is not significant. The highest cutting energy was 1.1 kJ in 25.5 (w.b.% moisture content and 10 cm cutting height. Also the minimum cutting energy was 0.76 kJ in 11.6 (w.b.% moisture content and 30 cm cutting height. Blade velocity was 2.64 m/s in cutting moment.

  19. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  20. Efficacy of chlorine, acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous chlorine dioxide solutions to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, Lindsey A; Burke, Angela; Annous, Bassam A

    2009-06-30

    This study compared the efficacy of chlorine (20-200 ppm), acidic electrolyzed water (50 ppm chlorine, pH 2.6), acidified sodium chlorite (20-200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, Sanova), and aqueous chlorine dioxide (20-200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, TriNova) washes in reducing populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on artificially inoculated lettuce. Fresh-cut leaves of Romaine or Iceberg lettuce were inoculated by immersion in water containing E. coli O157:H7 (8 log CFU/ml) for 5 min and dried in a salad spinner. Leaves (25 g) were then washed for 2 min, immediately or following 24 h of storage at 4 degrees C. The washing treatments containing chlorite ion concentrations of 100 and 200 ppm were the most effective against E. coli O157:H7 populations on Iceberg lettuce, with log reductions as high as 1.25 log CFU/g and 1.05 log CFU/g for TriNova and Sanova wash treatments, respectively. All other wash treatments resulted in population reductions of less than 1 log CFU/g. Chlorine (200 ppm), TriNova, Sanova, and acidic electrolyzed water were all equally effective against E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine, with log reductions of approximately 1 log CFU/g. The 20 ppm chlorine wash was as effective as the deionized water wash in reducing populations of E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine and Iceberg lettuce. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that E. coli O157:H7 that was incorporated into biofilms or located in damage lettuce tissue remained on the lettuce leaf, while individual cells on undamaged leaf surfaces were more likely to be washed away.

  1. Liver support strategies: cutting-edge technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struecker, Benjamin; Raschzok, Nathanael; Sauer, Igor M

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure remains a clinically relevant issue. Although orthotopic liver transplantation is a well-established procedure, whole-organ transplantation is invasive and increasingly limited by the unavailability of suitable donor organs. Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems have been developed to provide an alternative to whole organ transplantation, but despite three decades of scientific efforts, the results are still not convincing with respect to clinical outcome. In this Review, conceptual limitations of clinically available liver support therapy systems are discussed. Furthermore, alternative concepts, such as hepatocyte transplantation, and cutting-edge developments in the field of liver support strategies, including the repopulation of decellularized organs and the biofabrication of entirely new organs by printing techniques or induced organogenesis are analysed with respect to clinical relevance. Whereas hepatocyte transplantation shows promising clinical results, at least for the temporary treatment of inborn metabolic diseases, so far data regarding implantation of engineered hepatic tissue have only emerged from preclinical experiments. However, the evolving techniques presented here raise hope for bioengineered liver support therapies in the future.

  2. Information Theoretic cutting of a cake

    CERN Document Server

    Delgosha, Payam

    2012-01-01

    Cutting a cake is a metaphor for the problem of dividing a resource (cake) among several agents. The problem becomes non-trivial when the agents have different valuations for different parts of the cake (i.e. one agent may like chocolate while the other may like cream). A fair division of the cake is one that takes into account the individual valuations of agents and partitions the cake based on some fairness criterion. Fair division may be accomplished in a distributed or centralized way. Due to its natural and practical appeal, it has been a subject of study in economics under the topic of "Fair Division". To best of our knowledge the role of partial information in fair division has not been studied so far from an information theoretic perspective. In this paper we study two important algorithms in fair division, namely "divide and choose" and "adjusted winner" for the case of two agents. We quantify the benefit of negotiation in the divide and choose algorithm, and its use in tricking the adjusted winner a...

  3. Portable top drive cuts horizontal drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, B. [Saskoil, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yager, D. [Tesco Drilling Tech., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-11-01

    Economic analysis of a seven-well, long-reach horizontal drilling program into an unconsolidated, heavy-oil-bearing reservoir in Winter field near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border in Canada reveals that -- in the right application -- renting a portable top drive drilling system can reduce total drilling costs. Use of the portable top drive combined with other cost-saving measures enabled Saskoil, one of Canada`s larger independents, to drill more cheaply, on a cost-per-meter basis, in 1993 than in 1992. This was despite significant rental rates for drilling rigs and directional drilling services caused by increased demand in Western Canada. Total cost savings of 10% on wells that would otherwise cost in the (C) $500,000 range are believed realistic. Based on this year`s performance, Saskoil recommends top drive for the company`s future horizontal wells in this area. This article describes the operator`s horizontal well program, advantages of top drive in that program and how it was installed and applied. Estimated time savings for six wells, plus other ways top drive can cut costs and improve operations are discussed.

  4. [Cuts, austerity and health. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2014-06-01

    Since 2009, the economic recession has led to cuts in spending on social welfare policy and in health care. The most important risks to health depend on negative changes in social determinants. Notable among these determinants are unemployment and the large proportion of people at risk of poverty, which affects 30% of children younger than 14 years. Social inequalities have increased significantly, much more than health inequalities, probably because the value of retirement pensions has been maintained until now. Most of the population is fairly satisfied with the public health system, although it is under considerable pressure. Mortality statistics have not been affected so far, but there has been an increase in mood disorders and mental health problems. Health services utilization has decreased and the number of publicly prescribed drugs has fallen dramatically. This restriction accounts for much of the decrease in public spending on health, since the hospital care budget has not decreased, despite the fall in primary care and public health spending. The crisis could encourage community health and the inclusion of health in all policies. It is the responsibility of professionals and public health institutions monitoring the trend in health problems and their determinants to avoid irreversible situations as far as possible. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).

  6. The cutting stock problem in the wood industry

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Durán, Rosa Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This thesis proposes a solution for board cutting in the wood industry with the aim of usage minimization and machine productivity. The problem is dealt with as a Two-Dimensional Cutting Stock Problem and specific Combinatorial Optimization methods are used to solve it considering the features of the real problem.

  7. Vascular occlusion in cut rose flowers - a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The causes of low water uptake and water stress symptoms in cut rose flowers are briefly reviewed. Low water uptake is due to an occlusion, mainly located in the basal stem end. No evidence has been found for a reaction of the plant after cutting, in the formation of this occlusion. The blockage has

  8. How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse Love and Romance Understanding Other People How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Print A ... them? If so, what should you do? It can be hard to understand why a friend might ...

  9. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology ...

  10. Gamma and electron-beam irradiation of cut flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2003-01-01

    Fresh cut flowers are commodities that require quarantine treatment for export/import. In the present work some cut flowers were irradiated in a gamma panoramic source and in an electron beam accelerator with doses up to 800 Gy, and the results for the radiation tolerance of the flowers are presented.

  11. Economics of cutting hardwood dimension parts with an automated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Huber; Steve Ruddell; Kalinath Mukherjee; Charles W. McMillin

    1989-01-01

    A financial analysis using discounted cash-flow decision methods was completed to determine the economic feasibility of replacing a conventional roughmill crosscut and rip operation with a proposed automated computer vision and laser cutting system. Red oak and soft maple lumber were cut at production levels of 30 thousand board feet (MBF)/day and 5 MBF/day to produce...

  12. Melt flow characteristics in gas-assisted laser cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    laser cutting, the gas jet plays two roles, one is to generate additional thermal energy during formation of FeO and other oxides. This additional energy enhances the process parameters like cutting speed and thickness of the workpiece. The second role is to supply the shear force to the gas/liquid boundary to eject the ...

  13. Which Types of Firms React More to a Tax Cut?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    The agency model of Chetty and Saez (2010) predicts that firms with stronger corporate governance are more responsive to a dividend tax cut in their dividend and investment policies. We test these predictions by exploiting the sudden and significant dividend tax cut following the Jobs and Growth...

  14. Which Types of Firms React More to a Tax Cut?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    tax cut following the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 and the pre-tax cut variations in the firms’ governance indexes (the Corporate Governance Index constructed by Gompers, Ishii, and Metrick, 2003, and the Entrenchment Index constructed by Bebchuk, Cohen, and Ferrel, 2009). We...

  15. Daffodil flower delay senescence in cut Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering

  16. The results of cutting disks testing for rock destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoreshok Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rational order of disk tools placement on the working body is necessary to know the maximum amount of rock, destroyed by the disk tool in benching cutting mode depending on the tool geometry parameters, physical and mechanical parameters of rocks. The article contains the definition of rational parameters of cutting disk tools as well as power and energy parameters of the destruction process by cutting disks and by executive body of the coal cutter. The rational geometric parameters of cutting discs are specified. It was found that each step of cutting with a minimum depth of penetration has its own maximum height of bench outcrop. The dependence of the volumes of large items destroyed by the disk tool on the cutting step height was determined. The existence of the cyclic alternation of destruction phases, regardless the fracture parameters, the height of the ledge outcrop, and tools like free cutting geometry were found. In contrast to the free cutting in benching mode of destruction two large fragments of rocks in one cycle were observed. Consequently, the cyclical nature of the destruction process in the benching mode will be characterized by two chips and crushing, and this cycling repeats throughout the destruction process with the same parameters of destruction.

  17. Seed yam tuber production from vine cuttings | Okunade | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed yam tuber production accounts for 30 per cent to 50 per cent of total cost of production. Efforts to obtain seed yam tubers from vine cuttings are still rudimentary, and research information available is scanty and sparse. Studies to compare the effectiveness of vine cuttings for seed yam tuber production were conducted ...

  18. Experimental investigation on fiber laser cutting of aluminium thin sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele

    2014-02-01

    The most extensively used lasers for aluminum and its alloys cutting, are CO2 and Nd:YAG operating in continuous wave and pulsed mode. High power solid state fiber lasers operating in continuous wave mode offer a great potential in improving the cut quality and productivity of highly reflective materials cutting process due to the better absorptivity of 1 μm laser radiation. The high processing speeds of CW mode and a good cut quality could be achieved at the same time. In this work, cutting experiments were performed on Al1050 1mm thick sheets using a fiber laser and Nitrogen as assist gas. A DOE approach that consists of fitting the regression models by means of response surface method (RSM) was adopted. The effects of cutting speed, focal position and assist gas pressure on dross height, kerf width and roughness parameters were investigated. Results showed that processing in CW with fiber laser increases the cutting speed and gives a cut quality comparable with results obtained with CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers and reported in literature.

  19. Gear cutting tools fundamentals of design and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Presents the DG/K-based method of surface generation, a novel and practical mathematical method for designing gear cutting tools with optimal parameters. This book proposes a scientific classification for the various kinds of the gear machining meshes, discussing optimal designs of gear cutting tools.

  20. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was ...