WorldWideScience

Sample records for water-soluble inorganic species

  1. Characterization and source analysis of water-soluble inorganic ionic species in PM2.5 in Taiyuan city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Guo, Lili; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guixiang; Wang, Xinming

    2017-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area in Taiyuan for four seasons from August 2009 to April 2010. The Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSI, including F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2 +, and Ca2 +) were analyzed by ion chromatography. The daily PM2.5 levels in the field samples varied from 49.90 to 477.93 μg/m3 with the mean of 209.54 μg/m3, which all largely exceeded the PM2.5 24-hour limitation value of 35 μg/m3 in Environmental Protection Administration of United States and 75 μg/m3 in Ministry of Environmental Protection of China. The WSI average concentration was 68.86 μg/m3 and accounted for about 32.86% of PM2.5. As the most abundant anion and cation, SO42 - and NH4+ were 43.53 and 14.78 percent of WSI, respectively. PM2.5 in Taiyuan was acidic by the micro-equivalents concentration methods but nearly neutral in autumn, and the chemical forms of WSI were mainly NH4HSO4, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. PM2.5 and WSI levels showed obvious seasonal variation and were the highest in winter in all samples. PM2.5, SO42 -, and some coal-related ions such as NH4+ and Cl- were higher in winter than other seasons, which mainly attributed to more coal combustion for power and indoor heating supply. The ratio analysis showed that Mg2 + and Ca2 + were not only from soil dust, but also from coal combustion and industry emission. Biomass burning such as the cornstalk and tree branches led to the highest K+ emission in autumn and summer. Wind had a regular influence on the PM2.5 and WSI, and would transport the soil dust mainly from the northwest and also lead to re-suspension of dust in the air when the wind speed was high. Furthermore, the dustpan topography easily helped the pollutants to concentrate in Taiyuan city, and some coal coking industries might contribute to high PM2.5 and WSI in Taiyuan.

  2. Water soluble inorganic species of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site of Delhi, India: Seasonal variability and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Mohit; Sharma, A.; Sen, A.; Saxena, Priyanka; Saraswati; Mandal, T. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, C.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive data of 2 years (2013-2014) of water soluble inorganic species (WSIS) in the particulate matter (PM10: mean: 233.0 ± 124.6 μg m- 3 and PM2.5: mean: 108.0 ± 86.5 μg m- 3) have been used to study seasonal effect on the variation of total WSIS concentration, composition variability of inorganic aerosols and extent to which secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate aerosol occurred from their precursor gases. Mean concentrations of total WSIS in PM10 and PM2.5 were 82.12 ± 72.15 μg m- 3 and 54.03 ± 49.22 μg m- 3, respectively during the study period. Concentrations of total WSIS (PM10: 140.11 ± 90.67 μg m- 3; PM2.5: 74.41 ± 47.55 μg m- 3) during winter season was recorded higher than summer, monsoon and spring seasons. Significant correlation (p alkaline species responsible for the neutralization of acidic components in the PM10 samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that secondary aerosol, biomass burning and soil driven dust were the possible sources that explained 70% of the total variance. Cluster analysis and Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) analysis for different season depicts the advection of air masses over the continental landmasses of Afghanistan (summer season), northwestern region of Pakistan (summer and winter season), marine region (monsoon season) and adjoining states of Delhi. These air masses from different regions could be the cause of an increase in PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol over the study site.

  3. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with ... central area and major road systems and possible aerosol sources include biomass ..... Tanzania than at European rural sites32 and Asia.33,34. To determine the ...

  4. Rapid screening of water soluble arsenic species in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Briceño, Marisol; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    A methodology for the non-chromatographic screening of the main arsenic species present in edible oils is discussed. Reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to extract water soluble arsenic compounds (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine) from the edible oils into a slightly acidic aqueous medium. The total arsenic content was measured in the extracts by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium as the chemical modifier. By repeating the measurement using cerium instead of palladium, the sum of inorganic arsenic and methylarsonate was obtained. The detection limit was 0.03 ng As per gram of oil. Data for the total and water-soluble arsenic levels of 29 samples of different origin are presented. Inorganic arsenic was not found in any of the samples marketed as edible oils.

  5. Measurement of fine particulate matter water-soluble inorganic species and precursor gases in the Alberta Oil Sands Region using an improved semicontinuous monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Clair, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The ambient ion monitor-ion chromatography (AIM-IC) system, which provides hourly measurements of the main chemical components of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameterPM2.5 sampler. The correlation coefficients of SO4(2-) concentrations between the AIM-IC and ADSS and between the AIM-IC and the Partisol PM2.5 sampler were 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. The comparisons also showed no statistically significant difference between the measurement sets, suggesting that the AIM-IC measurements of the PM2.5 chemical composition are comparable to the ADSS and Partisol PM2.5 methods. NH3 concentration in the summer (mean±standard deviation, 1.9±0.7 µg m(-3)) was higher than in the winter (1.3±0.9 µg m(-3)). HNO3 and NO3- concentrations were generally low in the AOSR, and especially in the winter months. NH4+ (0.94±0.96 µg m(-3)) and SO4(2-) (0.58±0.93 µg m(-3)) were the major ionic species of PM2.5. Direct SO2 emissions from oil sands processing operations influenced ambient particulate NH4+ and SO4(2-) values, with hourly concentrations of NH4+ and SO4(2-) measured downwind (~30 km away from the stack) at 10 and 28 µg m(-3). During the regional forest fire event in 2011, high concentrations of NO3-, NH4+, HNO3, NH3, and PM2.5 were observed and the corresponding maximum hourly concentrations were 31, 15, 9.6, 89, and >450 (the upper limit of PM2.5 measurement) µg m(-3), suggesting the formation of NH4NO3. The AOSR in Canada is one of the most scrutinized industrial regions in the developed world due to the extent of oil extraction activities. Because of this, it is important to accurately assess the effect of these operations on regional air quality. In this study, we compare a new analytical approach, AIM-IC, with more standard analytical approaches to understand how local anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic sources (e.g., forest fires) impact regional air quality. With this approach, we also better characterize PM2.5 composition and its precursor

  6. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble a

  7. [Characteristics of aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions in three types air-pollution incidents of Nanjing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Chen; Zhu, Bin; Su, Ji-Feng; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2012-06-01

    In order to compare aerosol water-soluble inorganic species in different air-pollution periods, samples of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 and the main water-soluble ions (NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, NO2(-), F(-), NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) were measured, which were from 3 air-pollution incidents (continued pollution in October 16-30 of 2009, sandstorm pollution in April 27-30 of 2010, and crop burning pollution in June 14 of 2010. The results show that aerosol pollution of 3 periods is serious. The lowest PM2.1/PM10 is only 0.27, which is from sandstorm pollution period, while the largest is 0. 7 from crop burning pollution period. In continued pollution periods, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) are the dominant ions, and the total anions account for an average of 18.62%, 32.92% and 33.53% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1. Total water-soluble ions only account for 13.36%, 23.72% and 28.54% of PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1 due to the insoluble species is increased in sandstorm pollution period. The mass concentration of Ca2+ in sandstorm pollution period is higher than the other two pollution periods, and which is mainly in coarse particles with diameter larger than 1 microm. All the ten water-soluble ions are much higher in crop burning pollution especially K+ which is the tracer from crop burning. The peak mass concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4+ are in 0.43-0.65 microm.

  8. Seasonal variations and evidence for the effectiveness of pollution controls on water-soluble inorganic species in total suspended particulates and fine particulate matter from Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Arimoto, Richard; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Xuxiang; Du, Na; Okuda, Tomoaki; Nakao, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) samples were collected over Xi'an for a 1-yr period to characterize the seasonal variations of water-soluble inorganic ions and to evaluate the effectiveness of the pollution policies and controls during the past 10 yr. Mass concentrations of five cations (sodium [Na+], potassium [K+], ammonium [NH4+], calcium [Ca2+], and magnesium [Mg2+]) and four anions (fluoride [F-], chloride [Cl-], nitrate [NO3-], and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) were determined by ion chromatography. The yearly arithmetic-mean mass concentrations of the total measured water-soluble ions in TSP and PM2.5 were 83.9 +/- 58.4 and 45 +/- 34.3 microg x m(-3). The most abundant ions in TSP were SO4(2-), NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+; whereas in PM2.5 the dominant ions were SO4(2-), NH4 +, and NO3-. Most of the ions were more concentrated in the PM2.5 than in TSP, but two exceptions were Ca2+ and Mg2+. Comparisons of the molar ratios of Mg2+/Ca2+ in TSP indicated that fugitive dust was the main source for these two ions, and the influence of soil dust from outside of the city was most evident during dust storms. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3-, , NH4+, and K+ in TSP were highest in winter and lowest in spring, but Ca2+ was much higher in spring than other seasons because of suspended mineral dust. In PM2.5, NO3- and K+ also showed winter maxima, but SO4(2-) and NH4+ were highest in summer. Calculations of ion equivalents showed that TSP samples were more alkaline than PM2.5, the latter being weakly acidic in winter and autumn. High sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios occurred in summer and autumn, and there was evidence for the formation of ammonium bisulfate in TSP, ammonium sulfate in PM2.5, and ammonium nitrate in both fractions. Comparisons with the results of prior studies indicate that pollution controls in Xi'an have reduced the levels of air pollution over the past 10 yr. The SO4

  9. Seasonal Variations and Correlation Analysis of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 in Wuhan, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily PM2.5 and water-soluble inorganic ions (NH4+, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ were collected at the Hongshan Air Monitoring Station at the China University of Geosciences (Wuhan (30°31′N, 114°23′E, Wuhan, from 1 January to 30 December 2013. A total of 52 effective PM2.5 samples were collected using medium flow membrane filter samplers, and the anionic and cationic ions were determined by ion chromatography and ICP, respectively. The results showed that the average mass concentration of the eight ions was 40.96 µg/m3, which accounted for 62% of the entire mass concentration. In addition, the order of the ion concentrations was SO42− > NO3− > NH4+ > Cl− >K+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+. The secondary inorganic species SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ were the major components of water-soluble ions in PM2.5, with a concentration of 92% of the total ions of PM2.5, and the total concentrations of the three ions in the four seasons in descending order as follows: winter, spring, autumn, and summer. NH4+ had a significant correlation with SO42− and NO3−, and the highest correlation coefficients were 0.943 and 0.923 (in winter, while the minimum coefficients were 0.683 and 0.610 (in summer. The main particles were (NH42SO4 and NH4NO3 in PM2.5. The charge of the water-soluble ions was nearly balanced in PM2.5, and the pertinence coefficients of water-soluble anions and cations were more than 0.9. The highest pertinence coefficients were in the spring (0.9887, and the minimum was in summer (0.9459. That is, there were more complicated ions in PM2.5 in the summer. The mean value of NO3−/SO42− was 0.64, indicating that stationary sources of PM2.5 had a greater contribution in Wuhan.

  10. Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions, including particulate sulphate (SO42-, nitrate (NO3-, ammonium (NH4+, chloride (Cl-, and base cations (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were measured using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI during fourteen short-term field campaigns at eight locations in both polluted and remote regions of eastern and central Canada. The size distributions of SO42- and NH4+ were unimodal, peaking at 0.3–0.6 µm in diameter, during most of the campaigns, although a bimodal distribution was found during one campaign and a trimodal distribution was found during another campaign made at a coastal site. SO42- peaked at slightly larger sizes in the cold seasons (0.5–0.6 µm compared to the hot seasons (0.3–0.4 µm due to the higher relative humidity in the cold seasons. The size distributions of NO3- were unimodal, peaking at 4.0–7.0 µm during the warm-season campaigns, and bimodal, with one peak at 0.3–0.6 µm and another at 4–7 µm during the cold-season campaigns. A unimodal size distribution, peaking at 4–6 µm, was found for Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ during approximately half of the campaigns and a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 2 µm and the other at 6 µm, was found during the rest of the campaigns. For K+, a bimodal distribution, with one peak at 0.3 µm and the other at 4 µm, was observed during most of the campaigns. Seasonal contrasts in the size-distribution profiles suggest that emission sources and air mass origins were the major factors controlling the size distributions of the primary aerosols while meteorological conditions were more important for the secondary aerosols.

    The dependence of the particle acidity on

  11. Application of ion chromatography to the determination of water-soluble inorganic and organic ions in atmospheric aerosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xue-chun; HE Ke-bin; MA Yong-liang; YANG Fu-mo; DUAN Feng-kui; ZHENG Ai-hua; ZHAO Cheng-yi

    2004-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and convenient ion chromatography(IC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of twelve water-soluble inorganic ions(F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO32-, SO42-, PO43-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+) and sixteen water-soluble organic ions(formate, acetate, MSA, oxalate, malonate, succinate, phthalates, etc.) in atmospheric aerosols. The linear concentrations ranged from 0.005 μg/m3 to 500 μg/m3(r = 0.999-0.9999). The relative standard deviation(RSD) were 0.43%-2.00% and the detection limits were from 2.7 ng/m3 to 88 ng/m3. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of those inorganic ions and organic ions in PM2.5 of Beijing.

  12. Characteristics of mass distributions of aerosol particle and its inorganic water-soluble ions in summer over a suburb farmland in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; ZHU Tong; LIANG Baosheng; HU Min; KANG Ling; GONG Jicheng

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activity is one of the most important sources of aerosol particles.To understand the mass distribution and sources of aerosol particles and their inorganic water-soluble ions in a suburb farmland of Beijing,particle samples were collected using a microoririce uniform deposit impactor(MOUDI)in the summer of 2004 in a suburb vegetable field.The distribution of the particles and their inorganic water-soluble ions in the diameter range of 0.18-18 μm were measured.The dominant fine particle ions were SO42-,NO3-,and NH4+.The association of day-to-day variation of the concentration of these ions with temperature,humidity,and solar radiation suggested that they ate formed by the reaction of NH3 released from the vegetable field with the acid species produced from photochemical reactions.Fine particle K+ is likely from vegetation emission and biomass burning.Coarse particles like Ca2+,Mg2+,NO3-,and SO42- are suggested to come from the mechanical process by which the soil particle entered the atmosphere,and from the reaction of the acid species at the surface of the soil particle.The results show that fertilizer and soil are important factors determining the aerosol particle over agricultural fields,and vegetable fields in suburban Beijing contribute significantly to the aerosol particle.

  13. Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fisseha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and aerosol samples were taken using a wet effluent diffusion denuder/aerosol collector (WEDD/AC coupled to ion chromatography (IC in the city of Zurich, Switzerland from August to September 2002 and in March 2003. Major water soluble inorganic ions; nitrate, sulfate, and nitrite were analyzed online with a time resolution of two hours for the gas and aerosol phase. The fraction of water soluble inorganic anions in PM10 varied from 15% in August to about 38% in March. Seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase were observed with more than 50% of the total nitrate in the gas phase during August and more than 80% of nitrate in the aerosol phase during March exceeding the concentration of sulfate by a factor of 2. Aerosol sulfate, on the other hand, did not show significant variability with season. However, in the gas phase, the SO2 concentration was 6.5 times higher in winter than in summer. Nitrous acid (HONO also showed a diurnal variation in both the gas and aerosol phase with the lowest concentration (0.2–0.6 µg/m3 in the afternoon. The primary pollutants, NO, CO and SO2 mixing ratios were often at their highest between 04:00–10:00 local time due to the build up of fresh vehicle emission under a nocturnal inversion.

  14. Seasonal variation and secondary formation of size-segregated aerosol water-soluble inorganic ions during pollution episodes in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Junke; Wen, Tianxue; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a serious issue that has aroused great public attention in Beijing. To examine the seasonal characteristics of aerosols in typical pollution episodes, water-soluble inorganic ions (SO42 -, NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, K+, Na+, Ca2 + and Mg2 +) in size-segregated PM collected by an Anderson sampler (equipped with 50% effective cut-off diameters of 9.0, 5.8, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1, 0.65, 0.43 μm and an after filter) were investigated in four intensive campaigns from June 2013 to May 2014 in the Beijing urban area. Pronounced seasonal variation of TWSIs in fine particles (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.1 μm) was observed, with the highest concentration in summer (71.5 ± 36.3 μg/m3) and the lowest in spring (28.1 ± 15.2 μg/m3). Different ion species presented different seasonal characteristics of mass concentration and size distribution, reflecting their different dominant sources. As the dominant component, SO42 -, NO3- and NH4+ (SNA) in fine particles appeared to play an important role in the formation of high PM pollution since its contribution to the TWSIs and PM2.1 mass increased significantly during pollution episodes. Due to the hygroscopic growth and enhanced secondary formation in the droplet mode (0.65-2.1 μm) from clean days to polluted days, the size distribution peak of SNA in the fine mode tended to shift from 0.43-0.65 μm to 0.65-2.1 μm. Relative humidity (RH) and temperature contributed to influence the secondary formation and regulate the size distributions of sulfates and nitrates. Partial correlation analysis found that high RH would promote the sulfur and nitrogen oxidation rates in the fine mode, while high temperature favored the sulfur oxidation rate in the condensation mode (0.43-0.65 μm) and reduced the nitrogen oxidation rate in the droplet mode (0.65-2.1 μm). The NO3-/SO42 - mass ratio in PM2.1 (73% of the samples) exceeded 1.0, suggesting that vehicle exhaust currently makes a greater contribution to aerosol

  15. Characterization of water-soluble ion species in urban ambient particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jim Juimin

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations and distributions of water-soluble ion species contained in ambient particles were measured in a coastal urban area, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler from November 1998 to April 1999 and were analyzed for water-soluble ion species with ion chromatography. On the average, ion species measured in this study accounted for 42.2% of the PM2.5 and 35.7% of the PM10. It was found that SO4(2-) , NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components within both fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) fractions, and occupied 90.0% and 80.6% of total dissolved ionic concentrations for PM2.5 and PM10. The secondary aerosol formed through the NOx/SO2 gas-to-particle conversion was estimated based on the oxidation ratio of sulfur and nitrogen (SOR and NOR, respectively), i.e., sulfate sulfur/nitrate nitrogen to total sulfur/total nitrogen. The average SOR/NOR values were 0.25/0.07 and 0.29/0.12 for PM25 and PM10, respectively. The high SOR and NOR values obtained in this study suggested that there existed a secondary formation of SO4(2-) from SO2 along with NO3- from NOx in the atmosphere.

  16. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  17. Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, N Alejandra; López, Mercedes G

    2006-10-04

    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants. The metabolic flexibility of those molecules allows them easily to polymerize and depolymerize to soluble carbohydrates according to plant development stage and environmental conditions. In this work, water-soluble carbohydrates, including fructan structure patterns, were compared among Agave and Dasylirion species grown in different environmental regions in Mexico. Fructans were the main storage carbohydrate present in Agave stems, in addition to other carbohydrates related to its metabolism, whereas Dasylirion spp. presented a different carbohydrate distribution. A good correlation of water-soluble carbohydrate content with climatic conditions was observed. Fructans in Agave and Dasylirion genera were found in the form of polydisperse molecules, where structural heterogeneity in the same plant was evidenced by methylation linkage analysis and chromatographic methods. Fructans from the studied species were classified into three groups depending on DP and linkage-type abundance. These storage carbohydrates share structural characteristics with fructans in plants that belong to the Asparagales members. Agave and Dasylirion fructans can be categorized as graminans and branched neo-fructans, which we have termed agavins.

  18. Characteristics of concentrations and water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in Handan City, Hebei province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C. C.; Wang, L. T.; Zhang, F. F.; Wei, Z.; Ma, S. M.; Ma, X.; Yang, J.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the spatial, temporal, and chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in Handan city, China, a comprehensive dataset including continuous online observations at four air quality monitoring stations in 2013 and 2014, and the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) (NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, Mg2 +, K+, Ca2 +) in PM2.5 samples collected in four representative seasons in 2013 and 2014 are analyzed in this study. And the principal component analysis (PCA) method is applied to identify the source of WSII in Handan. Our results indicate that PM2.5 concentration decreased from 139.4 μg/m3 in 2013 to 116.0 μg/m3 in 2014 on annual average. Spatial variations of PM2.5 mass are not pronounced, indicating that PM2.5 is nearly evenly spread over the study area. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 concentration are significant, normally with 1.7 to 2.4 times higher in winter than in summer. The concentrations of TWSII (total water-soluble inorganic ions) remain relatively stable in two years, with annual averages of 63.1 μg/m3 in 2013 and 57.2 μg/m3 in 2014. SNA (SO42 -, NO3-, NH4+) dominates in the TWSII, accounting for ~ 87% of the TWSII. Similar to PM2.5, WSII exhibits obvious seasonal variations with higher concentrations in autumn and winter, lower in spring and summer. PM2.5 samples are acidic in spring, summer and autumn of 2013, while in winter of 2013 and all seasons of 2014, they are alkaline. SO42 -, NO3- are formed mainly through homogeneous reactions, heterogeneous reactions also exist in winter. Finally, the major sources of WSII in Handan are identified as the mixture of secondary origin, coal combustion, biomass burning (46.1%), dust sources (25.8%), and motor vehicle (12.3%).

  19. Evaluation and application of a semi-continuous chemical characterization system for water soluble inorganic PM2.5 and associated precursor gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dabek-Zlotorzynska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble inorganic particles components (Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ and concentrations of their associated precursor gases (HCl, SO2, HNO3, NH3 were semi-continuously measured using the Dionex Gas Particle Ion Chromatography (GPIC system. Sampling was conducted adjacent to a high traffic street in downtown Toronto, Canada from June 2006 to March 2007. This study evaluated the precision and accuracy of field sampling measurements with the GPIC both relative to filter based measurements and other co-located semi-continuous instruments (R&P 8400N Nitrate Monitor, API Fluorescent SO2 Gas Analyzer, and Aerodyne C-ToF-AMS. High temporal resolution PM2.5 mass reconstruction is presented by combining GPIC measured inorganic species concentrations and Sunset Laboratory OCEC Analyzer determined organics concentrations. Field sampling results were also examined for seasonal and diurnal variations. HNO3 and particulate nitrate exhibited diurnal variation and strong partitioning to the gas phase was observed during the summer. Ammonia and particulate ammonium also demonstrated seasonal differences in their diurnal profiles. However, particulate sulphate and SO2 showed no diurnal variation regardless of season suggesting dominant transport from regional sources throughout the year.

  20. [Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Emitted from Coal-Fired Power Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-kun; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Deng, Jian-guo; Duan, Lei

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the primary PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power plants in China, and to quantitatively evaluate the effects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization on PM2.5 emission, a pulverized coal fired (PC) power plant and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) plant were selected for measuring the mass concentration and water-soluble ion composition of PM2.5 in flue gas. The results showed that the mass concentration of PM2.5 generated from the CFB was much higher than that from the PC, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5 emitted from these two plants were very similar, because the CFB was equipped with an electrostatic-bag precipitator (EBP) with higher PM2.5 removal efficiency than the common electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Although the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from the PC was lower than that from the CFB, the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 emitted from the PC was much higher than that from the CFB, which implied that PM2.5 emission from the PC was greatly affected by the flue gas treatment installations. For example, the flue gas denitrification system produced H2SO4 mist, part of which reacted with the excessive NH3 in the flue gas to form NH4HSO4 in PM2.5 and to increase the acidity of PM2.5. In addition, the escaping of desulfurization solution during the flue gas desulfurization process could also introduce NH4+ and SO2- into PM2.5. Therefore, although the main water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from both of the plants were Ca2+ and SO(4)2-, the major cation was changed to NH4+ when emitted from PC.

  1. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  2. Particle size distributions, PM2.5 concentrations and water- soluble inorganic ions in different public indoor environments: a case study in Jinan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can DONG; Lingxiao YANG; Chao YAN; Qi YUAN; Yangchun YU; Wenxing WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we collected particles with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm (PM2.5) from three different public indoor places (a supermarket, a commercial office, and a university dining hall) in Jinan, a medium-sized city located in northern China. Water- soluble inorganic ions of PM2.5 and particle size distributions were also measured. Both indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels (102.3-143.8 μg·m- 3 and 160.2-301.3 μg·m-3, respectively) were substantially higher than the value recommended by the World Health Organization (25 I.μg·m-3), and outdoor sources were found to be the major contributors to indoor pollutants. Diurnal particle number size distributions were different, while the maximum volume concentrations all appeared to be approximately 300nm in the three indoor locations. Concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were shown to exhibit the same variation trends for the supermarket and dining hall. For the office, PM2.5 concentrations during nighttime were observed to decrease sharply. Among others, SO42-, NH4+ and NO3- were found to be the dominant water-soluble ions of both indoor and outdoor particles. Concentrations of NO3- in the supermarket and office during the daytime were observed to decrease sharply, which might be attributed to the fact that the indoor temperature was much higher than the outdoor temperature. In addition, domestic activities such as cleaning, water usage, cooking, and smoking also played roles in degraded indoor air quality. However, the results obtained here might be negatively impacted by the small number of samples and short sampling durations.

  3. Chemical Composition of Water Soluble Inorganic Species in Precipitation at Shihwa Basin, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Myung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weekly rain samples were collected in coastal areas of the Shihwa Basin (Korea from June 2000 to November 2007. The study region includes industrial, rural, and agricultural areas. Wet precipitation was analyzed for conductivity, pH, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+, and Ca2+. The major components of precipitation in the Shihwa Basin were NH4+, volume-weighted mean (VWM of 44.6 µeq∙L−1, representing 43% of all cations, and SO42−, with the highest concentration among the anions (55% at all stations. The pH ranged from 3.4 to 7.7 with a VMM of 4.84. H+ was weakly but positively correlated with SO42− (r = 0.39, p < 0.001 and NO3− (r = 0.38, p < 0.001. About 66% of the acidity was neutralized by NH4+ and Ca2+. The Cl−/Na+ ratio of the precipitation was 37% higher than seawater Cl−/Na+. The high SO42−/NO3− ratio of 2.3 is attributed to the influence of the surrounding industrial sources. Results from positive matrix factorization showed that the precipitation chemistry in Shihwa Basin was influenced by secondary nitrate and sulfate (41% ± 1.1%, followed by sea salt and Asian dust, contributing 23% ± 3.9% and 17% ± 0.2%, respectively. In this study, the annual trends of SO42− and NO3− (p < 0.05 increased, different from the trends in some locations, due to the influence of the expanding power generating facilities located in the upwind area. The increasing trends of SO42− and NO3− in the study region have important implications for reducing air pollution in accordance with national energy policy.

  4. Water-soluble inorganic ions in airborne particulates from the nano to coarse mode: a case study of aerosol episodes in southern region of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Peng; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Kai-Lun; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-06-01

    In 2004, airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for several aerosol episodes occurring in the southern region of Taiwan. The particulate samples were taken using both a MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a nano-MOUDI sampler. These particulate samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ionic species with an emphasis to characterize the mass concentrations and distributions of these ions in the ambient ultrafine (PM0.1, diameter particles. Particles collected at the sampling site (the Da-Liao station) on the whole exhibited a typical tri-modal size distribution on mass concentration. The mass concentration ratios of PMnano/PM2.5, PM0.1/PM2.5, and PM1/PM2.5 on average were 1.8, 2.9, and 71.0%, respectively. The peak mass concentration appeared in the submicron particle mode (0.1 microm Particles smaller than 0.1 microm were essentially basic, whereas those greater than 2.5 microm were neutral or slightly acidic. The neutralization ratio (NR) was close to unity for airborne particles with diameters ranging from 0.18 to 1 microm. The NRs of these airborne particles were found strongly correlated with their sizes, at least for samples taken during the aerosol episodes under study. Insofar as this study is exploratory in nature, as only a small number of particulate samples were used, there appears to be a need for further research into the chemical composition, source contribution, and formation of the nano and ultrafine mode airborne particulates.

  5. Field performance of a semi-continuous monitor for ambient PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions and gases at a suburban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Li, Chiao-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Jung, Chau-Ren; Chen, Kuan-Chi; Cheng, Dung-Hung; Wang, Ven-Shing; Chiang, Hung-Che; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2016-11-01

    To reduce sampling artifacts and to improve time-resolved measurements of inorganic aerosol system, a recently commercialized semi-continuous In-situ Gas and Aerosol Composition (IGAC) monitoring system was evaluated against a reference annular denuder system (ADS; denuder/two-stage filter pack) at a suburban site over a year, during which the average PM2.5 was 37.0 ± 24.8 μg/m3. A suite of eight ions SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and two gases SO2 and NH3 were the target species. In comparison to the reference ADS method, the IGAC performed well in measuring the major ions SO42-, NO3- and NH4+, and the SO2. For those species, the linear slopes, intercepts and R2 values between the two methods all passed the performance evaluation criteria outlined by earlier similar studies. The performance of IGAC on Cl-, Na+, K+ and NH3 was marginally acceptable, whereas Ca2+ and Mg2+ could not be properly evaluated due to the low concentrations (<0.2 μg/m3) and hence inadequate amount of sample size. The ionic balance of the hourly IGAC samples averaged very close to unity, as did the daily ADS samples, though the former was considerably more variable than the latter. The overall performance of the IGAC has been shown to be comparable to other similar monitors and its improvements are discussed.

  6. Characteristics and sources of water-soluble ionic species associated with PM10 particles in the ambient air of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Tsai, Ying I; Deb, Manas K; Zarmpas, Pavlos

    2012-11-01

    PM(10) aerosol samples were collected in Durg City, India from July 2009 to June 2010 using an Andersen aerosol sampler and analyzed for eight water-soluble ionic species, namely, Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2-) by ion chromatography. The annual average concentration of PM(10) (253.5 ± 99.4 μg/m(3)) was four times higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg/m(3) prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. The three most abundant ions were SO(4) (2-), NO(3) (-), and NH(4) (+), with average concentrations of 8.88 ± 4.81, 5.63 ± 2.22, and 5.18 ± 1.76 μg/m(3), respectively, and in turn accounting for 27.1 %, 16.5 %, and 15.5 % of the total water-soluble ions analyzed. Seasonal variation was similar for all secondary ions i.e., SO(4) (2-), NO(3) (-), and NH(4) (+), with high concentrations during winter and low concentrations during monsoon. Varimax Rotated Component Matrix principal component analysis identified secondary aerosols, crustal resuspension, and coal and biomass burning as common sources of PM(10) in Durg City, India.

  7. Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Rico-Martinez, Roberto; Kotra, Neel; King, Laura; Liu, Jiumeng; Snell, Terry W; Weber, Rodney J

    2012-10-16

    Relative contributions of water- and methanol-soluble compounds and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating potential of ambient fine aerosols (D(p) Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were then subsequently segregated via a C-18 solid phase extraction column. The DTT assay response was significantly higher for the methanol extract, and for both extracts a substantial fraction of PM oxidative potential was associated with the hydrophobic compounds as evident from a substantial attenuation in DTT response after passing PM extracts through the C-18 column (64% for water and 83% for methanol extract; both median values). The DTT activities of water and methanol extracts were correlated with the water-soluble (R = 0.86) and water-insoluble organic carbon (R = 0.94) contents of the PM, respectively. Brown carbon (BrC), which predominantly represents the hydrophobic organic fraction (referred to as humic-like substances, HULIS), was also correlated with DTT activity in both the water (R = 0.78) and methanol extracts (R = 0.83). Oxidative potential was not correlated with any metals measured in the extracts. These findings suggest that the hydrophobic components of both water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols substantially contribute to the oxidative properties of ambient PM. Further investigation of these hydrophobic organic compounds could help identify sources of a significant fraction of ambient aerosol toxicity.

  8. A luminescent-water soluble inorganic co-crystal for a selective pico-molar range arsenic(III) sensor in water medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Biswajit; Saha, Rajat; Mukherjee, Priyanka

    2013-08-14

    The water solution of an intriguing luminescent 'Inorganic Co-crystal' of Cu(II) monomeric and dimeric units shows extremely selective sensing ability towards inorganic arsenic(III) in water medium in the pico-molar concentration range even in the presence of other cations.

  9. Detection of water-soluble disease-associated PrP species in blood and brain of scrapie-infected hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haq, Hanin

    2015-09-01

    The high-speed supernatant (S(HS)) of scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenate contains a soluble infectivity similar to that of the plasma that escapes leukodepletion and can transmit prion infection. This recent finding highlights the fact that soluble prion infectivity could be relevant for prion disease propagation and progression. PrP(Sc) is essential in prion disease pathogenesis, but little to nothing is known about the PrP(Sc) species that may be associated with this form of prion infectivity. Scrapie-infected hamster plasma and S(HS) were subjected to biochemical analysis, and the results demonstrate for the first time that soluble infectivity is associated with a water-soluble PrP(Sc) species with substantially different properties from classical PrP(Sc), the concentration of which seems to correlate with the magnitude and efficiency of the soluble infectivity. Such characteristics suggest that this species might represent the soluble prion agent itself or its vehicle, highlighting the need to adequately revise the strategies involved in prion removal, diagnosis, and therapy.

  10. Optimisation of an extraction procedure for determination of total water-soluble Zn, Pb a,d Cd and their species in soils from a mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svete, P.; Milacic, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Pihlar, B. [Ljubljana Univ., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fac of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2000-06-01

    The parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of total water-soluble Zn, Pb and Cd in various soil samples from a lead and zinc mining area were investigated. Water was added to moist soil sample and the mixture shaken in a classical shaker. Variations of the solution volume to soil weight ratio, and of extraction time were studied in order to develop an optimum extraction procedure for determination of total water-soluble Zn, Pb and Cd. The influence of filtration of the extracts through membrane filters of various pore size was investigated as well. Speciation of Zn, Pb and Cd was also performed in aqueous soil extracts using column chelating ion-exchange (Chelex-100 resin) - flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) technique. Positively charged species and labile complexes of Zn, Pb and Cd were retained on the column and after elution with nitric acid determined by FAAS. Comparative analyses of the total metal concentrations in the soil samples indicated that the percentage of total water soluble Zn, Pb and Cd in samples analyses in these extracts by the chelating ion-exchange - FAAS technique demonstrated that Zn, Pb and Cd exist in the form of positively charged species or weak labile metal complexes. [Italian] Si sono studiati i parametri che influenzano l'efficienza di estrazione delle forme completamente solubili di Zn, Pb e Cd in vari campioni di terreno provenienti da un'area mineraria di piombo e zinco. E' stata addizionata acqua per bagnare i terreni e la sospensione e' stata mantenuta in agitazione. Si sono studiate le variazioni del rapporto tra volume di soluzione e peso del terreno e del tempo di estrazione per sviluppare una procedura ottimizzata di estrazione per la determinazione delle frazioni totalmente solubili in acuqa di Zn, Pb e Cd. Si e' pure studiata l'influenza della filtrazione degli estratti attraverso membrane di diversa porosita'. Si e' poi effettuata la speciazione di Zn, Pb e Cd

  11. Reactive oxygen species associated with water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: spatiotemporal trends and source apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assess the potential of the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric fine aerosols in the southeastern US to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and identify major ROS-associated emission sources. ROS-generation potential of particles was quantified by the dithiothreitol (DTT assay and involved analysis of fine particulate matter (PM extracted from high-volume quartz filters (23 h integrated samples collected at various sites in different environmental settings in the southeast, including three urban Atlanta sites, in addition to a rural site. Paired sampling was conducted with one fixed site in Atlanta (Jefferson Street, representative of the urban environment, with the others rotating among different sites, for ~250 days between June 2012 and September 2013 (N = 483. A simple linear regression between the DTT activity and aerosol chemical components revealed strong associations between PM ROS generation potential and secondary organic aerosol (WSOC in summer, and biomass burning markers in winter. Redox-active metals were also correlated with the DTT activity, but mostly at urban and roadside sites. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to apportion the relative contribution of various sources to the ROS generation potential of water-soluble PM2.5 in urban Atlanta. PMF showed that vehicular emissions contribute uniformly throughout the year (12 to 25%, while secondary oxidation processes dominated the DTT activity in summer (46% and biomass burning in winter (47%. Mineral dust was significant only during drier periods (~12% in summer and fall. Source apportionment by chemical mass balance (CMB was reasonably consistent with PMF, but with higher contribution from vehicular emissions (32%. Given the spatially large data set of PM sampled over an extended period, the study reconciles the results from previous work that showed only region- or season-specific aerosol components or sources contributing to PM ROS activity, possibly due to

  12. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale;

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion...... of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid...

  13. Year-round observations of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Sapporo aerosols: implication for significant contributions from terrestrial biological sources in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, C. M.; Kawamura, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Fu, P.

    2013-03-01

    High aerosol loadings are prevalent in the atmosphere of East Asia, where the aerosols impact the Earth's climate system and human health; however, their sources and seasonal variations are not clearly understood. To better understand the sources of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Northeast Asia, we studied atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. SO42- (average 3.47 ± 1.03 μg m-3) was found as the most abundant ionic species, which accounted for on average 43 ± 15% of the measured total ionic mass followed by Cl- (13 ± 12%) ≈ NO3- ≈ Na+ > NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > MSA-. Among the metals determined, Ca was found as the most abundant (45 ± 5.2%) followed by Fe (27 ± 4.5%), Al (21± 3.1%), Zn (3.2 ± 1.7), Ti, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, As, Cr and Cd. Based on factor analysis, linear relations of selected species with biomarkers, and backward air mass trajectories, we found that long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust (∼ 33%) from arid regions of Mongolia and/or Northeast China is a major source for Sapporo aerosols as well as terrestrial biogenic emissions (≥ 24%) including microbial activities and biomass burning mostly from distant source region(s) (e.g. Siberia). We also found that the contributions of soil dust to the aerosols maximized in early spring whereas those of vegetational emissions maximized in spring/summer. Contributions of microbial activities to aerosols peaked in autumn whereas forest fires/biomass burning peaked in autumn/winter. On the contrary, fossil fuel combustion/industrial activities and oceanic emissions to Sapporo aerosols are suggested to be rather minor. This study also suggests that fungal spores contribute to some trace metals (i.e. Ni, Cu, As) while pollen contributes to Zn in aerosols.

  14. A 12 year observation of water-soluble inorganic ions in TSP aerosols collected at a remote marine location in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. R. Boreddy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the long term trend of remote marine aerosols, a 12 year observation was conducted for water-soluble inorganic ions in TSP aerosols collected from 2001–2012 in the Asian outflow region at a Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific. We found a clear difference in chemical composition between the continentally affected and marine background air masses over the observation site. Asian continental air masses are delivered from late autumn to spring, whereas marine air masses were dominated in summer. Concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, nss-K+ and nss-Ca2+ are high in winter and spring and low in summer. On the other hand, MSA- exhibits higher concentrations during spring and winter, probably due to springtime dust bloom or due to the direct continental transport of MSA- to the observation site. We could not find any clear decadal trend for Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and nss-Ca2+ in all seasons, although there exists a clear seasonal trend. However, concentrations of nss-SO42- continuously decreased from 2007–2012, probably due to the decreased SO2 emissions in East Asia especially in China. In contrast, nss-K+ and MSA- concentrations continuously increased from 2001–2012 during winter and spring seasons, demonstrating that biomass burning and/or terrestrial biological emissions in East Asia are increasingly more transported from the Asian continent to the western North Pacific.

  15. Year-round observations of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Sapporo aerosols: implication for significant contributions from terrestrial biological sources in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Pavuluri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High aerosol loadings are prevalent in the atmosphere of East Asia, where the aerosols impact the Earth's climate system and human health; however, their sources and seasonal variations are not clearly understood. To better understand the sources of water-soluble ionic species and trace metals in Northeast Asia, we studied atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Sapporo, northern Japan for one-year period. SO42− (average 3.47 ± 1.03 μg m−3 was found as the most abundant ionic species, which accounted for on average 43 ± 15% of the measured total ionic mass followed by Cl− (13 ± 12% ≈ NO3− ≈ Na+ > NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > MSA−. Among the metals determined, Ca was found as the most abundant (45 ± 5.2% followed by Fe (27 ± 4.5%, Al (21± 3.1%, Zn (3.2 ± 1.7, Ti, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, As, Cr and Cd. Based on factor analysis, linear relations of selected species with biomarkers, and backward air mass trajectories, we found that long-range atmospheric transport of soil dust (∼ 33% from arid regions of Mongolia and/or Northeast China is a major source for Sapporo aerosols as well as terrestrial biogenic emissions (≥ 24% including microbial activities and biomass burning mostly from distant source region(s (e.g. Siberia. We also found that the contributions of soil dust to the aerosols maximized in early spring whereas those of vegetational emissions maximized in spring/summer. Contributions of microbial activities to aerosols peaked in autumn whereas forest fires/biomass burning peaked in autumn/winter. On the contrary, fossil fuel combustion/industrial activities and oceanic emissions to Sapporo aerosols are suggested to be rather minor. This study also suggests that fungal spores contribute to some trace metals (i.e. Ni, Cu, As while pollen contributes to Zn in aerosols.

  16. Influences of Combined Application of Water-soluble Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield, Nutrient Absorption and Economic Benefit of Cabbage%有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏全杰; 蔡建华; 刘启华; 熊汉锋; 刘新伟; 李鸣凤; 张炜; 赵竹青

    2014-01-01

    研究了有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响。结果表明:与单施无机肥相比,有机水溶性肥以灌根的方式与无机肥配施能显著提高包菜的包心率、包心重、产量、经济效益以及叶片中叶绿素、磷、钾的含量,并在一定程度上提高包菜氮、磷、钾的累积量和各养分利用效率;有机水溶性肥与无机肥灌根的综合效果优于叶面喷施的综合效果。%The influences of combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the yield , nu-trient absorption and economic benefit of cabbage were studied .The results revealed that:as compared with the single application of inorganic fertilizer , the application of water -soluble organic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation combined with inorganic fer-tilizer could significantly enhance the package rate , package weight , yield and economic benefit of cabbage , as well as the contents of chlorophyll , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage leaf , and could increase the accumulation and utilization efficiency of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage to a certain degree .The combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation obtained better comprehensive effect than that in the manner of foliage spray .

  17. Filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen in fine particles over the southeastern USA during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neeraj; Zhang, Xiaolu; Edgerton, Eric S.; Ingall, Ellery; Weber, Rodney J.

    2011-10-01

    Time integrated high-volume PM 2.5 samples were collected separately during day and night from 1 August to 10 September 2008 at a paired urban (Atlanta)-rural (Yorkville) sites as part of the August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS). Selected filters ( n = 96, 48 for each site) were analyzed for a suite of water-soluble chemical species, including major inorganic ions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total and inorganic nitrogen (WSTN and WSIN), and levoglucosan. Semi-continuous analyses of PM 2.5 mass, soluble ions, WSOC, and gaseous O 3, SO 2, NO, NO 2, NO y, CO, and meteorological parameters were also carried out in parallel. This study focuses on the characteristics of filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), estimated by the difference in the measured concentrations of WSTN and WSIN, determined from aqueous filter extracts. At both sites, WSON varied from below the limit of detection (25 ng-N m -3) to ˜600 ng-N m -3 and on average contributed ˜10% to WSTN mass, with the majority of soluble nitrogen being ammonium (˜82%). WSON:WSOC (or N:C) mass ratios ranged between 0 and 27% at both the sites with a median value of ˜5%, similar to what has been reported in another study in the southeastern USA. At both the urban and rural sites median nighttime levels of WSON and N:C were observed to be consistently higher than daytime values. Based on correlation analyses, daytime WSON sources appeared different than nighttime sources, especially at the urban site. Overall, the data suggest the importance of coal-combustion (e.g., link to SO 2), vehicle emissions, soil dust and biomass burning as WSON sources, and that nitrogenous organic compounds are likely a fairly small fraction of the secondary organic aerosol for this location during summer.

  18. Synthesis of water-dispersible silver nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of water-soluble silver oxalate precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takanari; Saito, Kota; Matsuda, Yukiko; Sato, Ibuki; Kon, Hiroki; Uruma, Keirei; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Ohya, Norimasa; Kurihara, Masato

    2014-08-01

    Silver oxalate, one of the coordination polymer crystals, is a promising synthetic precursor for transformation into Ag nanoparticles without any reducing chemicals via thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions. However, its insoluble nature in solvents has been a great disadvantage, especially for systematic control of crystal growth of the Ag nanoparticles, while such control of inorganic nanoparticles has been generally performed using soluble precursors in homogeneous solutions. In this paper, we document our discovery of water-soluble species from the reaction between the insoluble silver oxalate and N,N-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane. The water-soluble species underwent low-temperature thermal decomposition of the oxalate ions at 30 °C with evolution of CO2 to reduce Ag+ to Ag0. Water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized from the water-soluble species in the presence of gelatin via similar thermal decomposition at 100 °C. The gelatin-protected and water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 25.1 nm appeared. In addition, antibacterial activity of the prepared water-dispersible Ag nanoparticles has been preliminarily investigated.

  19. Study on the characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in spring in the key cities of southern Fujian province%闽南重点城市春季PM2.5中水溶性无机离子特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱天雪; 陈进生; 尹丽倩; 牛振川; 张福旺; 徐玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected by polypropylene fiber filters simultaneously in spring from March 7, 2011 to March 16, 2011 in the key cities of southern Fujian province, including the urban and suburban sites of Xiamen city, as well as the urban sites of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou city. The sample filters were dipped in ultrapure water (18.2 MΩ·cm) and the water-soluble inorganic ions were extracted by ultrasonic bath for 30 min. The 9 water-soluble inorganic ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+) were determinated by ion chromatography. This study aimed to profile the pollution characteristics of the water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5, and to analysis and discuss the similarities and differences of water-soluble inorganic ions among the key cities of the southern Fujian Province, so as to providing the basis for air pollution control at the southern Fujian Province which was in a growing trend of air pollution. The results showed that:(1) The pollution characteristics of PM2.5 in the key cities of southern Fujian Province in spring had a similar trend, the average concentration of atmospheric PM2.5 was 94.14μg·m-3, and the concentrations of secondary ions of SO42-, NO3-and NH4+ranged from 14.66 to 66.68μg·m-3 with a mean value of 32.43μg·m-3, and covered 83.30 percentage of the total water-soluble inorganic ions, which were mainly existed in aerosols in the form of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, the level of secondary ions concentration was relatively high comparing with other major domestic cities. (2) The ratios of NO3-/SO42-, NOR and SOR indicated that the stationary emission was the primary source to the atmospheric pollution in key cities of southern Fujian Province, however, the mobile sources in Xiamen presented a higher contribution. Comparingwith other areas of China, the high level of the concentrations of secondary ions in southern Fujian Province was also due to the high level of nitration of NOx, which resulted from the humid

  20. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  1. Water-soluble ions species of size-resolved aerosols: Implications for the atmospheric acidity in São Paulo megacity, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Filho, Marcelo; Pedrotti, Jairo J.; Fornaro, Adalgiza

    2016-11-01

    Over the last decade, an increase of ammonium salts in atmospheric deposition has been reported worldwide, especially in megacities. The present study aims to give a better comprehension analysis about particulate matter acidity in São Paulo megacity (MASP), Brazil. Size-resolved aerosols were sampled in MASP, during 2012 winter, showing a bimodal mass concentration distribution, with sulfate concentration exceeding 3.40 μg m- 3, which accounted for over 25% of PM0.56 mass. Regarding the relative distribution of ionic species, 90% of NH4+ levels, were restricted to smaller than 1 μm diameter range. The average neutralization index for PM < 1 μm was 0.62, which indicated an ammonia-limiting atmosphere due to partial neutralization of atmospheric acids. Particles of the accumulation mode presented more acid behavior than other aerosol fractions, with pH value as low as 4.15 in PM0.56. The total neutralization index registered the lowest value for PM0.56, but it did not respond promptly to aerosol variations as the E-AIM model predictions. The highest discrepancies between the acidity proxies occurred in the smaller fractions of particulate matter, especially in the after-filter (AF) stage (diameter < 0.020 μm). In addition, AF stage had the highest contribution to PM total mass, about 14% for all the stages analyzed. Such contribution indicates that acidity in ultrafine particles are still mixed for the MASP and need further investigation.

  2. WATER SOLUBLE PHENOLIC RESIN/SiO2 HYBRID MATERIALS PREPARED BY ORGANIC-INORGANIC COPOLYMERIZATION PROCESS AND THEIR APPLICATION%有机-无机同步聚合法制备水溶性酚醛树脂/SiO2杂化材料及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫军连; 齐暑华; 张冬娜; 李春华; 史艳梅

    2009-01-01

    The water soluble phenolic resin/SiO_2 hybrid materials are prepared by organic-inorganic copolymerization technique that the polymerization of phenolic resin monomers and the hydrolysis polycondensation reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate process at the same time. FTIR and SEM analyses indicate that SiO_2 particles and phenolic resin matrix form organic-inorganic interpenetrating network, and there are strong combinations between organic-inorganic phases. DSC is applied to study the curing behavior of hybrid materials. TGA analysis indicates that the thermal stability of hybrid materials is improved after adding SiO_2 particles into phenolic resin matrix.%采用有机-无机同步聚合法使酚醛树脂(PF)的单体聚合和正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)的水解缩合反应同步进行制备了水溶性PF/SiO_2杂化材料.红外光谱分析和扫描电镜分析表明,在有机-无机同步聚合过程中,SiO_2粒子与PF基体间形成有机、无机互穿网络结构,并且实现了有机、无机两相间的强界面结合.采用差示扫描量热仪对杂化材料的固化行为进行了研究.热失重分析表明,杂化材料的耐热性能明显提高,大大拓宽了其应用范围.

  3. Development and Deployment of a Particle-into-Liquid sampling - Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PiLs-ESI/MS) for Characterization of Water-Soluble Biomass Burning Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Witkowski, B.; Talukdar, R. K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Roberts, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a major influence on Earth's atmosphere as it is an important source of primary and secondary aerosols. Measuring the aerosol composition for such complex mixtures remains an analytical challenge and the characterization of the water-soluble portion of BB aerosol has been traditionally limited to off-line analysis and/or qualitative techniques. In this work, we present a new method of directly interfacing a particle-into-liquid sampler with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (PiLs-ESI/MS). This technique allows real-time, sensitive, and chemically-specific speciation of water-soluble organics and inorganics for the quantification of fresh BB aerosol sampled during the recent Firelab component of the NOAA FIREX experiments. The aerosol composition is fuel and combustion-phase dependent, and several polar organic species thought to be main contributors to aerosol brown carbon and secondary organic aerosol were measured.

  4. Field Study of Filter Sampling Artifacts for Inorganic and Organic Aerosol Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, W.; Wang, W.; Chi, X.

    2009-12-01

    It is well-known that the collection of carbonaceous aerosols on quartz fibre filters is prone to both positive and negative artifacts (e.g., Turpin et al., 2000). In studies on these artifacts, one normally concentrates on organic carbon (OC) as a whole or occasionally on water-soluble OC (WSOC). It is rare that studies are carried on individual organic species. Examples of the latter type of study are those by Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005), who used a low-volume tandem filter set-up at a rural background site in South Africa and at the urban site Vienna in Austria, and measured dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) on the front and back filters. We conducted a similar study as those of Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005). For our study we collected high-volume PM2.5 samples during summer field campaigns at three European forested sites, i.e., in Hungary, Belgium, and Finland. The front and back filters of our samples were analysed for OC with a thermal-optical transmission technique (Birch & Cary, 1996), for WSOC as described by Viana et al. (2006), and for water-soluble inorganic cationic and anionic species and organic anionic species by suppressed ion chromatography with conductometric detection. The organic species measured included methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and the four major DCAs, i.e., oxalic, malonic, succinic, and glutaric. The median back/front percentage ratios for ammonium and sulphate were low, below 5% and 1%, respectively, but for nitrate they were around 25-30%. That undenuded filter samplings for nitrate are prone to artifacts is well-documented (e.g., Schaap et al., 2004). For OC the median back/front percentage ratios were around 15% and for WSOC around 20%. For MSA and the four DCAs, they increased in the following order: oxalic (1.5%), succinic (3%), MSA (4%), malonic (2-9%), glutaric (7-26%). Our back/front ratios for three of the four DCAs are lower to much lower than these found by Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005); for malonic, however, we found higher back

  5. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals show higher correlation with Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb that are mainly

  6. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  7. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  8. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  9. Chemical characters and source identification of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM10 in Youjiang district of Baise%百色市右江区大气PM10中水溶性无机离子的化学特征与来源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 黄科瑞

    2012-01-01

    PM10 samples were collected in an urbanized area of Youjiang district,Baise from October of 2010 to September of 2011 to study chemical characteristics and source identification of their major water-soluble inorganic I-ons. Results show that PMm in Youjiang district varied in 13. 89-319. 44 fig/m3. The annual mean mass concentration of the PM10 is 117.48 fig/ra', which exceeded the second grade standard of ambient air quality standard (GB 3095-2012). The atmospheric PM10 pollution in Youjiang district,Baise mainly appear in winter and spring. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions in PMl0 are decreased in order of SO5~ >Nor >C1~ >NHK+ >Na+ > Mg2+ >F- where SOT ,NO-1 and Cl- account for 57. TA .14. 9% and 14. 5%,respectively. The collected PM,0 samples show relatively strong acidity,mainly due to the high sulfate radical content in PM10. The seasonal variation of PM10 is significantly influenced by temperature and wind velocity, while meteorological factors have little influence on SO42- , NO3- , F-. The possible source identification was carried out by principal component analysis, which showed that water-soluble inorganic ions are probably from three sources. Nof and Cl3- are likely derived from local coal combustion. Mg2+ , K+ and Na+ are likely from natural sources. F" , SO42- and NH,+ are likely from mixed sources.%2010年10月至2011年9月采集百色市右江区大气PM10样品,分析PM10及其水溶性无机离子的化学特征与来源.结果表明:(1)百色市右江区大气PM10为13.89~319.44μg/m3,年均117.48 μg/m3,年均值超过《环境空气质量标准》(GB 3095-2012)二级标准(100 μg/m3).百色市右江区大气可吸入颗粒物的污染主要出现在春冬季节.(2)水溶性无机离子浓度年均值依次为SO42- >NO3- >Cl- >NH4+ >K+ >Na+>Mg2+>F-,SO42-、NO3-和Cl-浓度最高,分别占水溶性无机离子的57.7%、14.9%和14.5%.(3)百色市右江区大气PM10呈较强的酸性,高浓度的SO42

  10. Water soluble azido polyisocyanopeptides as functional β-sheet mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Kitto, Heather J.; Espelt, Mónica; Nebot-Carda, Vicent J.; Gelder, de Rene; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design and synthesis of functional biomimetic water soluble polymers with a defined secondary structure has been developed using β-sheet polyisocyanopeptide scaffolds. Water soluble isocyanopolymers were prepared by random copolymerisation of the azido functionalized isocyanopeptides with nonfun

  11. Attributes of aerosol bound water soluble ions and carbon, and their relationships with AOD over the Brahmaputra Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pranamika; Barman, Nivedita; Bora, Jayanta; Daimari, Rebecca; Deka, Pratibha; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2016-10-01

    The present study is a ground based investigation of chemical properties of aerosol as PM10 and its relationship with the upper air optical properties. A total of 161 aerosol samples collected during 2010-2014 were characterized for water soluble ions viz. SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Na+ and water soluble carbon factions - water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC). The entire study period was subdivided into four distinct seasons -pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter to assess the characteristics of chemical species in different times of the year contributing to the particulate loading over the study site. To understand the relationship between chemical species and optical properties, aerosol optical depth (AOD) data of the study area have been retrieved from MODIS satellite data at 550 nm. Mean mass concentration of PM10 was found to be 49.3 ± 37 μg/m3 for the whole study period with an explicit seasonal variation and winter maximum of mass concentration. Also, secondary ions have strong influence on the total aerosol loading in the region. Vivid seasonal variability was found in the concentrations of ions and carbons. The winter season showed maximum loading of ionic and carbonaceous species and the presence of crustal derived ions - Ca2+ and Mg2+ - remained uniform all through the seasons. The anions were found to be dominant over the cations during the study period. Interestingly, K+, originating mostly from biomass burning emissions, also play important neutralizing role together with NH4+. Significant relationships between AOD with PM10 and attributes were observed. Strong correlation of anthropogenic (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+), biomass burning (K+) and organic carbon fraction of PM10 with AOD was observed, which indicated the influence of these fractions on the attenuation of incoming light over the study region. HYSPLIT backward trajectories of air masses, which were computed for the study area

  12. Photosynthesis and Calcification by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) as a Function of Inorganic Carbon Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Veldhuis, Marcel J.W.

    1999-01-01

    To test the possibility of inorganic carbon limitation of the marine unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler, its carbon acquisition was measured as a function of the different chemical species of inorganic carbon present in the medium. Because these different species are interde

  13. Properties of water-soluble and insoluble particulate matter emitted from dewatered sewage sludge incineration in a pilot-scale ash melting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Zhang; Megumi Masui; Hiroharu Mizukoshi; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Jugo Koketsu; Chikao Kanaoka [Chubu University, Aichi (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry

    2008-05-15

    Emission of inorganic particulate matter (PM) from the incineration of dewatered sewage sludge has been investigated in a novel ash melting furnace. The sludge containing 79 wt% water was incinerated in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere at the primary temperature of 1400{sup o}C, and its unburned volatile was combusted at 1100{sup o}C in a secondary combustion chamber. A 13-stage low-pressure-impactor and the conventional impinger methods were employed for PM sampling at the outlet of the secondary combustion chamber. The results indicate that, PM is dominated by volatile and semi-volatile elements including Br, Cl, P, S, Na, K, Zn, As, Cu, Mn and Ni. Less refractory elements were found. PM has two major fractions: {lt}0.22 and {ge}0.22 {mu}m. Their chemical forms as well as water solubility are different between two fractions. The majority of Br, nearly half of Cl, and 40% of S and P are present in the small fraction. They are mostly water-soluble due to the association with alkali elements and heavy metals. The water-insoluble calcium sulfate and calcium/iron phosphate were, however, found in the large fraction of PM. Regarding the cations, the water solubilities of Na, K, Mn and Ni are close to their proportions partitioned into the small fraction of PM, since their water-soluble species were preferentially formed in this fraction. A relatively weak correlation for Al, Ca and As, while no such a correlation were found for Cu, Zn and Fe, due to the complex compounds formed for them. 31 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Water Soluble Danshen Extracts on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  15. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Diffusion of inorganic chemical species in compacted clay soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Charles D.; Daniel, David E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    1989-08-01

    This research was conducted to study the diffusion of inorganic chemicals in compacted clay soil for the design of waste containment barriers. The effective diffusion coefficients ( D ∗) of anionic (Cl -, Br -, and I -) and cationic (K +, Cd 2+, and Zn 2+) species in a synthetic leachate were measured. Two clay soils were used in the study. The soils were compacted and pre-soaked to minimize mass transport due to suction in the soil. The results of the diffusion tests were analyzed using two analytical solutions to Fick's second law and a commercially available semi-analytical solution, POLLUTE 3.3. Mass balance calculations were performed to indicate possible sinks/sources in the diffusion system. Errors in mass balance were attributed to problems with the chemical analysis (I -), the inefficiency of the extraction procedure (K +), precipitation (Cd 2+ and Zn 2+), and chemical complexation (Cl - and Br -). The D ∗ values for Cl - reported in this study are in excellent agreement with previous findings for other types of soil. The D ∗ values for the metals (K +, Cd 2+, and Zn 2+) are thought to be high (conservative) due to: (1) Ca 2+ saturation of the exchange complex of the clays; (2) precipitation of Cd 2+ and Zn 2+; and (3) nonlinear adsorption behavior. In general, high D ∗ values and conservative designs of waste containment barriers will result if the procedures described in this study are used to determine D ∗ and the adsorption behavior of the solutes is similar to that described in this study.

  17. Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

  18. Chemical characteristics of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) in PM2.5 in Beijing, China: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Zhou, Xueming; Duan, Jinchun; Tan, Jihua; He, Kebin; Yuan, Cheng; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-01-01

    PM2.5 filter sampling was conducted on a daily basis for one year from 2011 to 2012 at an urban site in Beijing. One-third of the samples were subjected to chemical analysis, including water-soluble inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The results show that OM (Organic Matter = OC × 1.6; average 50.8% of PM2.5) was the most abundant species, followed by SNA (SO42 - + NO3- + NH4+; average 35%); however, SNA contributed more to PM2.5 in summer and OM contributed more in other seasons. The concentrations of nitrate were higher in summer and autumn than that in winter, suggesting that nitrate had formed in acidic and ammonium-poor environments in summer. WSOC accounted for 26.6% of OC and 8.1% of PM2.5 and exhibited distinct seasonal variations: the lowest concentration occurred in spring (3.90 ± 1.78 μg/m3) and the highest in autumn (5.82 ± 3.73 μg/m3). The higher WSOC/OC ratio in summer suggests that OC was more aged, oxidized and hygroscopic during this season. The seasonal trend of SOC (Secondary Organic Carbon) was the opposite of WSOC/OC, which may indicate that the OC/EC minimum ratio method was not suitable for estimating SOC in this study. Correlations between WSOC and K+, EC and inorganic ions indicated that WSOC was dominated by secondary formation, except that biomass burning was an important source in autumn. Aqueous chemical processes may play an important role in the formation of WSOC in winter. Meteorological conditions had an important influence on WSOC: positive correlations were observed between WSOC and relative humidity, but there was a negative correlation when humidity was higher than 80% in summer.

  19. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM2.5 and PM10 at a subtropical site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B. P.; Rao, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42- and NH4-). Most of the PM10 consists of PM2.5 in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM2.5 and PM10 corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM2.5 and PM10 in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction.

  20. Water-soluble Organic Components in Aerosols Associated with Savanna Fires in Southern Africa: Identification, Evolution and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Hegg, Dean A.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Magi, Brian I.; Sadilek, Martin

    2003-01-01

    During the SAFARI 2000 field campaign, both smoke aerosols from savanna fires and haze aerosols in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere were collected from an aircraft in southern Africa. These aerosol samples were analyzed for their water-soluble chemical components, particularly the organic species. A novel technique, electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, was used concurrently with an ion chromatography system to analyze for carbohydrate species. Seven carbohydrates, seven organic acids, five metallic elements, and three inorganic anions were identified and quantified. On the average, these 22 species comprised 36% and 27% of the total aerosol mass in haze and smoke aerosols, respectively. For the smoke aerosols, levoglucosan was the most abundant carbohydrate species, while gluconic acid was tentatively identified as the most abundant organic acid. The mass abundance and possible source of each class of identified species are discussed, along with their possible formation pathways. The combustion phase of a fire had an impact on the chemical composition of the emitted aerosols. Secondary formation of sulfate, nitrate, levoglucosan, and several organic acids occurred during the initial aging of smoke aerosols. It is likely that under certain conditions, some carbohydrate species in smoke aerosols, such as levoglucosan, were converted to organic acids during upward transport.

  1. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  2. Water-soluble cavitands - synthesis, solubilities and binding properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Oskar; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble cavitand receptors have been obtained by the introduction of ionizable groups (5, 21-28, 39) and neutral hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol based dendritic wedges (19, 20). The synthesis of these cavitands and a study of their water solubilities and binding properties toward neutral orga

  3. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Leontiev, Roman; Misak, Anton; Jakusova, Veronika; Ondrias, Karol; Jacob, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx−/Sx2−) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO−). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide (•NO) from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or HSx−, from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO−. Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with •NO storage and release. PMID:28212297

  4. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Leontiev, Roman; Misak, Anton; Jakusova, Veronika; Ondrias, Karol; Jacob, Claus

    2017-02-15

    Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx(-)/Sx(2-)) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO(-)). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide ((•)NO) from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) or HSx(-), from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO(-). Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with (•)NO storage and release.

  5. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Grman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HSx−/Sx2− to thionitrous acid (HSNO and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO−. These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide (•NO from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H2S or HSx−, from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO−. Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with •NO storage and release.

  6. Differences in dinucleotide frequencies of thermophilic genes encoding water soluble and membrane proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi NAKASHIMA; Yuka KURODA

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence frequencies of the dinucleotides of genes of three thermophilic and three mesophilic species from both archaea and eubacteria were investigated in this study. The genes encoding water soluble proteins were rich in the dinucleotides of purine dimers, whereas the genes encoding membrane proteins were rich in pyrimidine dimers. The dinucleotides of purine dimers are the counterparts of pyrimidine dimers in a double-stranded DNA. The purine/pyrimidine dimers were favored in the thermophiles but not in the mesophiles, based on comparisons of observed and expected frequencies. This finding is in agreement with our previous study which showed that purine/pyrimidine dimers are positive factors that increase the thermal stability of DNA. The dinucleotides AA, AG, and GA are components of the codons of charged residues of Glu, Asp, Lys, and Arg, and the dinucleotides TT, CT, and TC are components of the codons of hydrophobic residues of Leu, He, and Phe. This is consistent with the suitabilities of the different amino acid residues for water soluble and membrane proteins. Our analysis provides a picture of how thermophilic species produce water soluble and membrane proteins with distinctive characters: the genes encoding water soluble proteins use DNA sequences rich in purine dimers, and the genes encoding membrane proteins use DNA sequences rich in pyrimidine dimers on the opposite strand.

  7. Water-soluble ruthenium complexes bearing activity against protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarniguet, Cynthia; Toloza, Jeannette; Cipriani, Micaella; Lapier, Michel; Vieites, Marisol; Toledano-Magaña, Yanis; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Moreno, Virtudes; Maya, Juan Diego; Azar, Claudio Olea; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic illnesses are major causes of human disease and misery worldwide. Among them, both amebiasis and Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Trypanosoma cruzi, are responsible for thousands of annual deaths. The lack of safe and effective chemotherapy and/or the appearance of current drug resistance make the development of novel pharmacological tools for their treatment relevant. In this sense, within the framework of the medicinal inorganic chemistry, metal-based drugs appear to be a good alternative to find a pharmacological answer to parasitic diseases. In this work, novel ruthenium complexes [RuCl2(HL)(HPTA)2]Cl2 with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones and PTA=1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane have been synthesized and fully characterized. PTA was included as co-ligand in order to modulate complexes aqueous solubility. In fact, obtained complexes were water soluble. Their activity against T. cruzi and E. histolytica was evaluated in vitro. [RuCl2(HL4)(HPTA)2]Cl2 complex, with HL4=N-phenyl-5-nitrofuryl-thiosemicarbazone, was the most active compound against both parasites. In particular, it showed an excellent activity against E. histolytica (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)=5.2 μM), even higher than that of the reference drug metronidazole. In addition, this complex turns out to be selective for E. histolytica (selectivity index (SI)>38). The potential mechanism of antiparasitic action of the obtained ruthenium complexes could involve oxidative stress for both parasites. Additionally, complexes could interact with DNA as second potential target by an intercalative-like mode. Obtained results could be considered a contribution in the search for metal compounds that could be active against multiple parasites.

  8. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  9. Application of various water soluble polymers in gas hydrate inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Sultan, Abdullah S.

    2016-01-01

    . This review presents the various types of water soluble polymers used for hydrate inhibition, including conventional and novel polymeric inhibitors along with their limitations. The review covers the relevant properties of vinyl lactam, amide, dendrimeric, fluorinated, and natural biodegradable polymers...

  10. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  11. Deep cavitand receptors with pH-independent water solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Agustí; Rebek, Julius

    2010-12-07

    Pendant oligoethyleneglycol groups confer water solubility to a cavitand over a wide pH range. The kinetic stability of the host-guest complexes reveals an effective stabilization through hydrogen bonding even in the highly competitive aqueous environment.

  12. Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Rosazza, Christelle; Winterhalder, Martin J; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-05-11

    Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.

  13. Physical and ionic characteristics in water soluble fraction (WSF) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Physical and ionic characteristics, heavy metals, water soluble fraction, crude oil and Azolla africana. ... impact on aquatic life (Camougis, 1981). Water ..... Fish, fisheries, aquatic macrophytes and water quality in.

  14. Water-soluble dopamine-based polymers for photoacoustic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repenko, T.; Fokong, S.; De Laporte, L.; Go, D.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Kuehne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a facile synthetic method yielding a linear form of polydopamine via Kumada-coupling, which can be converted into water-soluble melanin, generating high contrast in photoacoustic imaging.

  15. Plasma concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-21

    Jan 21, 2012 ... levels of water-soluble vitamins with metabolic syndrome and its various components. Aims: This ... thiamine has a role in reducing cellular oxidative stress.[2,12] ... a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell survival, probably.

  16. Comparison of levels of four water-soluble ionic species in ambient PM2.5 in Beijing%北京市大气PM2.5中四种水溶性阴离子的水平变化比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛立杰; 苏领彦; 吴少伟; 郭新彪

    2011-01-01

    了解北京市城区和郊区大气细颗粒物中的四种水溶性阴离子F、Cl-、SO42-、NO3-的浓度水平,并分析影响其水平高低的因素.使用聚四氟乙烯滤膜分别采集北京市城区和郊区大气中的PM2.5,用纯水提取后采用离子色谱法测定水溶性阴离子质量浓度.采样期间北京市大气PM2.5、F-、Cl-、SO42-和NO3-质量浓度几何均数分别为55.36、0.02、0.46、6.72和1.09 μg·m-3,四种水溶性阴离子质量浓度总和占PM2.5质量浓度的19.14%;同一季节(春季)郊区监测点大气PM2.5、SO42-和NO3-质量浓度显著高于城区监测点;城区大气PM2.5与四种水溶性阴离子质量浓度秋季高于春季,但差异无统计学意义;大气PM2.5与Cl-、SO42-和NO3质量浓度均高度相关.Cl-、SO42-、NO3-是北京市大气PM2.5的重要组成成分.%Objective This study was conducted to understand the levels and influencing factors of four water-soluble ionic species, F, Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-, in ambient fine particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) in Beijing. Methods Polytetrafluoroethylene filters were used to collect ambient PM2.5 in an urban and a suburban area of Beijing. Ionic species were extracted from PM2.5 using super pure water and measured by ion chromatography. Results Geometric mean mass concentrations (ug·m-3) of ambient PM2.5 and F, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- in particles over the entire sampling period were 55.36, 0.02, 0.46, 6.72 and 1.09, respectively. The four water-soluble ionic species accounted for 19.14% of the total PM2.5 mass. In the spring season, the levels of ambient PM2.5, SO42- and NO3-were significantly higher in the suburban area than in the urban area where the levels of PM2.5and four water-soluble ionic species were higher in the fall than in the spring in the urban area although the differences were not statistically significant. The ambient PM2.5 was highly correlated with Cl-, SO42- and NO3-. Conclusion Three ionic

  17. The leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons produced from waste tyre rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, G; Fowler, G D; Sollars, C J

    2002-04-01

    Waste tyre rubber can be used as a precursor for the production of high quality activated carbons. However, there is concern that inorganic impurities present in the rubber feed may restrict their use in liquid phase applications with high purity requirements. This paper presents an investigation of the presence and the leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons derived from waste tyre rubber. For the purpose of this work, a number of carbons were produced, characterised for their BET surface area and analysed for their inorganic composition. Subsequently, a number of tests were performed to evaluate the leaching of different inorganic species into solution at various pH values and carbon doses. Results showed that rubber-derived carbons contained elevated concentrations of sulphur and zinc, as well as traces of other metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and molybdenum. Inorganic levels were significantly affected by production conditions, particularly degree of carbon activation and the nature of the gasification agent. However, leaching tests showed that the availability of these species in neutral pH conditions was very limited. Results demonstrated that, when using carbons doses comparable to those employed in water treatment works, only sulphur levels exceeded, in some occasions, health based quality standards proposed for drinking water.

  18. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  19. Phytoactivity of secondary compounds in aromatic plants by volatile and water-soluble ways of release

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; Dias, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoactivity should be expected as a generalized trait of secondary plant compounds if their primary role is defence against co-occurring plants, and volatilization should be their predominant way of release in dry climates while in wet climates water leaching should prevail. Bioassays were designed to compare the ability of volatiles and water-solubles of four aromatic species thriving in dry environments (Cistus salvifolius L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Myrtus communis L., and Rosmarinus ...

  20. Optical and electrochemical sol-gel sensors for inorganic species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Royce; N.DANSBY-SPARKS

    2009-01-01

    The use of sol-gels as a sensing matrix for the development of unique sensing strategies is discussed.Sol-gels offer almost limitless possibilities for sensing substrates due to the variety of physical properties that can be obtained by altering a number of discussed fabrication conditions and techniques.By careful consideration of the sensing requirements,novel detection methods have been developed for a variety of analytes and applications.Here,sol-gels have been used to monitor pH at the extreme ends of the scale([H+] = 1―11 M and [OH-] = 1―10 M) and in mixed solvent/solute systems using dual sensing approaches.The use of ligand-grafted sol-gel monoliths for optical determination of metal ion species is also discussed.The electrochemical determination of Cr(Ⅵ) by electrodeposited sol-gel modified electrodes is also presented.

  1. Optical and electrochemical sol-gel sensors for inorganic species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Royce N.DANSBY-SPARKS; OUYANG RuiZhuo; XUE ZiLing

    2009-01-01

    The use of sol-gels as a sensing matrix for the development of unique sensing strategies is discussed.Sol-gels offer almost limitless possibilities for sensing substrates due to the variety of physical properties that can be obtained by altering a number of discussed fabrication conditions and techniques.By careful consideration of the sensing requirements,novel detection methods have been developed for a variety of analytes and applications.Here,sol-gels have been used to monitor pH at the extreme ends of the scale ([H~+]=1-11 M and[OH~-]=1-10 M) and in mixed solvent/solute systems using dual sensing approaches.The use of ligand-grafted sol-gel monoliths for optical determination of metal ion species is also discussed.The electrochemical determination of Cr(Ⅵ) by electrodeposited sol-gel modified electrodes is also presented.

  2. Response in soil of Cupriavidus necator and other copper-resistant bacterial predators of bacteria to addition of water, soluble nutrients, various bacterial species, or Bacillus thuringiensis spores and crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casida, L.E. Jr. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Soil was incubated with various species of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, or Bacillus thuringiensis spores and crystals. These were added to serve as potential prey for indigenous, copper-resistant, nonobligate bacterial predators of bacteria in the soil. Alternatively, the soil was incubated with soluble nutrients or water only to cause potential indigenous prey cells to multiply so the predator cells would multiply. All of these incubation procedures caused excessive multiplication of some gram-negative bacteria in soil. Even greater multiplication, however, often occurred for certain copper-resistant bacterial predators of bacteria that made up a part of the gram-negative response. Incubation of the soil with copper per se did not give these responses. In most cases, the copper-resistant bacteria that responded were Cupriavidus necator, bacterial predator L-2, or previously unknown bacteria that resembled them. The results suggest that, under various conditions of soil incubation, gram-negative bacterial predators of bacteria multiply and that several copper-resistant types among them can be detected, counted, and isolated by plating dilutions of the soil onto media containing excess copper.

  3. Use of levoglucosan, potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon to characterize the origins of biomass-burning aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Roberta Cerasi; Lima-Souza, Michele; Caetano-Silva, Letícia; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.; Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; Held, Gerhard; Campos, Maria Lucia A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Three chemical species related to biomass burning, levoglucosan, potassium and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), were measured in aerosol samples collected in a rural area on the outskirts of the municipality of Ourinhos (São Paulo State, Brazil). This region is representative of the rural interior of the State, where the economy is based on agro-industrial production, and the most important crop is sugar cane. The manual harvesting process requires that the cane be first burned to remove excess foliage, leading to large emissions of particulate materials to the atmosphere. Most of the levoglucosan (68-89%) was present in small particles (fertilizers. When only the fine particles (<1.5 μm; typical of biomass burning) were considered, the linear coefficient increased to 0.91 (n = 9). In this case, the average levoglucosan/K+ ratio was 0.24, which may be typical of biomass burning in the study region. This ratio is about 5 times lower than that previously found for Amazon aerosol collected during the day, when flaming combustion prevails. This suggests that the levoglucosan/K+ ratio may be especially helpful for characterization of the type of vegetation burned (such as crops or forest), when biomass-burning is the dominant source of potassium. The relatively high concentrations of WSOC (and inorganic ions) suggest an important influence on the formation of cloud condensation nuclei, which is likely to affect cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  4. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} at a subtropical site of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B.P.; Rao, P.G. (North East Inst. of Science and Technology (NEIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Jorhat (India)), e-mail: kharepuja@rediffmail.com

    2011-11-15

    PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NH{sup 4-}). Most of the PM{sub 10} consists of PM{sub 2.5} in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction

  5. Improved water solubility of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in sweetener blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Del Baño, M J; Lorente, J

    2001-01-01

    Significant technological advantages in terms of sweetness synergy and hence cost-saving can be obtained if neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is used in sweetener blends with other intense or bulk sweeteners. The combination of NHDC with sodium saccharin or sodium cyclamate is an excellent method to improve the water solubility at room temperature of NHDC. In the case of NHDC-sodium saccharin, two different methods for blend preparation, a simple mixture and a cosolubilized mixture, can be used, with similar results obtained for solubility and solution stability properties. To improve temporally the water solubility of NHDC in combination with sodium cyclamate, it is absolutely necessary to prepare cosolubilized blends.

  6. Phosphoryl choline-grafted water-soluble carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Kai Xi; Min Gu; Zheng Sheng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble property is the precondition of biomedical evaluation and application of carbon nanotube (CNT). Novel watersoluble CNT was synthesized in this letter by grafting phosphoryi choline (PC) onto multi-wall CNTs. Utilizing FTIR, XPS, TGAand TEM, the title CNTs were characterized and it was found that the target products could facilely dissolve in water.

  7. Water-soluble diphosphadiazacyclooctanes as ligands for aqueous organometallic catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Boulanger, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    Two new water-soluble diphosphacyclooctanes been synthesized and characterized by NMR and surface tension measurements. Both phosphanes proved to coordinate rhodium in a very selective way as well-defined bidentates were obtained. When used in Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of terminal alkenes, both ligands positively impacted the reaction chemoselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of cumin (fruit of Cuminum cyminum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, sixteen monoterpenoid glucosides, including twelve new compounds, were isolated. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  9. Efficient and Convenient Preparation of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Min章建民; YANG Wen杨文; HE Ping何萍; ZHU Shi-Zheng朱士正

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and convenient preparation of fullerenols was described. With polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as catalyst, fullerenols were conveniently synthesized via the direct reaction of fullerene with aqueous NaOH. By control of reaction conditions, either water-soluble C60 fullerenol or water-insoluble C60 fullerenol could be obtained selectively.

  10. Controlled modification of the structure of polymer surfaces by chemically grafting inorganic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Many chemical and physical methods, such as plasma, e-beam, sputtering, CVD and others, have been used to modify the structure of polymer surfaces by depositing thin inorganic films. Most of these techniques are based upon the use of high energy sources that ultimately can damage either chemically or physically polymer surfaces. Moreover, these methods are usually not versatile enough to allow the design of structurally and chemically tailored surfaces through the control of the distribution of chemical functionalities throughout the surface. In this work, inorganic species were introduced onto polymer substrates in a controlled manner by performing a sequence of chemical reactions at the surface. Sulfonation followed by silanization reactions were used to graft alkoxysilane species at the surface of poly(aryl sulfones. The heterogeneous chemical modification of poly(aryl sulfones was monitored by FTIR-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection - FTIR. Model compounds were used to study the chemical reactions occurring during the grafting procedure. The results showed that the developed procedure can allow a controlled introduction of inorganic species onto polymer surfaces. Furthermore, in order to prove that this procedure enables the deposition of specific chemical functionalities onto polymer surfaces that can be used to create chemically and structurally tailored surfaces, silicate films were deposited on previously silanated PAS bioactive glass composites. In vitro tests showed that the surface modified composite can enhance the rates of hydroxy-carbonate-apatite precipitation.

  11. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Karasov

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites (SMs are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r = 150.1 Da and lactulose (M(r = 342.3 Da. We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r = 194.2 Da, which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species (P<0.001. Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic

  12. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  13. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian H.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to seven weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. PMID:21983145

  14. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian H; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-02-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to 7 weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems.

  15. Mechanisms for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Marianne Ladegaard

    in the development of lipid-based formulations. However, in order for optimum formulations to be developed, knowledge of the mechanisms of absorption of poorly water-soluble drug substances is desired. Accordingly, the purpose of this PhD study was to study the effects of endogenous surfactants (bile salts...... the intake of a lipid-rich meal can increase the bioavailability due to slower gastric emptying, increased solubilization of the drug substance in the intestinal fluids by endogenous and exogenous components, inhibition of efflux carriers and induction of intestinal lymphatic transport. Some...... of these processes can also be obtained by formulating the poorly water-soluble drug substances in lipid-based formulations. Then the drug substance is in solution when administered. Consequently, an enhanced and less variable bioavailability can be obtained, and this has led to an increasing interest...

  16. New water-soluble carbamate ester derivatives of resveratrol

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mattarei; Massimo Carraro; Michele Azzolini; Cristina Paradisi; Mario Zoratti; Lucia Biasutto

    2014-01-01

    Low bioavailability severely hinders exploitation of the biomedical potential of resveratrol. Extensive phase-II metabolism and poor water solubility contribute to lowering the concentrations of resveratrol in the bloodstream after oral administration. Prodrugs may provide a solution—protection of the phenolic functions hinders conjugative metabolism and can be exploited to modulate the physicochemical properties of the compound. We report here the synthesis and characterization of carb...

  17. Water Soluble Iron aminoclay for Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ANBU ANJUGAM VANDARKUZHALI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble iron decorated phyllosilicate is synthesized through one pot sol-gel synthesis by a wet chemical method using NaBH4 as reducing agent. The as-synthesized nanocomposite is characterized by powder-XRD and TGA techniques. The morphology of the composite is obtained using HRSEM and HRTEM. The prepared nanocomposite is an efficient catalyst for the reduction of nitrophenol.

  18. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules for sustained delivery of water-soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S.; Debapriya, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Nagaraja, V. [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2011-03-12

    Polyelectrolyte capsules composed of weak polyelectrolytes are introduced as a simple and efficient system for spontaneous encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs. Polyelectrolyte capsules were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembling of weak polyelectrolytes, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) doped CaCO{sub 3} particles followed by core removal with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The loading process was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using tetramethylrhodamineisothiocyanate labeled dextran (TRITC-dextran) as a fluorescent probe. The intensity of fluorescent probe inside the capsule decreased with increase in cross-linking time. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (a model water-soluble drug) was spontaneously deposited into PAH/PMA capsules and their morphological changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative study of drug loading was also elucidated which showed that drug loading increased with initial drug concentration, but decreased with increase in pH. The loaded drug was released in a sustained manner for 6 h, which could be further extended by cross-linking the capsule wall. The released drug showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli. These findings indicate that such capsules can be potential carriers for water-soluble drugs in sustained/controlled drug delivery applications.

  19. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  20. Reactions between water-soluble organic acids and nitrates in atmospheric aerosols: Recycling of nitric acid and formation of organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) occurs when nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (HNO3) react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory-generated particles composed of water-soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e., NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates and release gaseous HNO3 during the dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase because of its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that, in turn, may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling that may further affect concentrations of gas and condensed phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  1. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  2. Determination of Inorganic Arsenic Species by Electrochemical Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Selective Electrochemical Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xun; WANG Zheng-Hao

    2007-01-01

    A new direct procedure for the determination of inorganic arsenic species was developed by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (EcHG-AAS) with selective electrochemical reduction. The determination of inorganic arsenic species is based on the fact that As(Ⅲ) shows significantly higher absorbance at low electrolytic currents than As(Ⅴ) in 0.3 mol·L-1 H2SO4.The electrolytic current used for the determination of As(Ⅲ) without considerable interferences of As(V) was 0.4 A, whereas the current for the determination of As(Ⅲ)and As(V) was 1.2 A. For equal concentrations of As(Ⅲ) and As(V) in a sample, the interferences of As(V) during the As(Ⅲ) determination were smaller than 5%. The absorbance for As(V) could be calculated by subtracting that for As(Ⅲ) measured at 0.4 A from the total absorbance for As(Ⅲ) and As(V) measured at 1.2 A, and then the concentration of As(V) can be obtained by its calibration curve at 1.2 A. The methodology developed provided the detection limits of 0.3 and 0.6 ng·ml-1 for As(Ⅲ) and As(V) respectively.The relative standrad deviations were of 3.5% for 20 ng·ml-1 As(Ⅲ) and 302% for 20 ng·ml-1 As(V).The method was successfully applied to determination of soluble inorganic arsenic species in Chinese medicine.

  3. Preserving the distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater and acid mine drainage samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 1080 ??g-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 3700 ??g-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively.

  4. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  5. The role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO₂ disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Hu, Jiangyong; Chen, MinDong

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen species have three states including ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)/NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and are often found in the disinfection system. However, no available literature could be found on their role and fate in photocatalytic disinfection systems. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate bacteria inactivation, H2O2 generated and inorganic nitrogen variation to understand the role and fate of inorganic nitrogen species during UVA/TiO2 disinfection and evaluate effects of initial pH and bacteria levels on the role and fate. NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) inhibited the photocatalytic disinfection process obviously. It could be confirmed through that H2O2 yield used for pathogen inactivation was dependent on NH4(+)/NH3 and NO2(-) levels. The NH4(+)/NH3 remaining, NH4(+) remaining and NO3(-) yields in only NH4(+)/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation experiments were obviously different from the corresponding values in the photocatalytic disinfection experiments with NH4(+)/NH3, which confirmed that photocatalytic disinfection had an obvious effect on the fate of NH4(+)/NH3. However, photocatalytic disinfection had slight effects on the fate of NO2(-) and NO3(-). Escherischia coli inactivation rate was the highest in neutral solutions (Initial pH 7) while the lowest in alkaline solutions (Initial pH 8.5). The decrease of NH4(+)/NH3 in alkaline solutions was the most significant. In turn, the photocatalysis of NO2(-) was more evident in acidic solutions. E. coli inactivation was reduced with the increase of initial E. coli concentrations. The initial bacteria concentrations significantly influenced the increase of NH4(+)/NH3, NH4(+) and NO3(-), but slightly impacted the decrease of NO2(-). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass spectrometric determination of the inorganic carbon species assimilated by photoautotrophic cells of Euphorbia characias L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeille, F; Gans, P; Chagvardieff, P; Pean, M; Tapie, P; Thibault, P

    1988-09-05

    The chemical forms of inorganic carbon, CO2 or HCO3-, incorporated during photosynthesis in photoautotrophic Euphorbia characias cell suspension cultures were determined in experiments using 13CO2 and a mass spectrometry technique. From the equations of the CO2 hydration reaction, a kinetic model was first developed, and the effect of photosynthesis on the external CO2 concentration was simulated. It was predicted from this model that CO2 and HCO3- uptakes could be differentiated by recording only the CO2 variation rate in the external medium, successively in absence then in presence of an exogenous carbonic anhydrase activity. The results obtained with either CO2-grown or air-grown photoautotrophic cells were in good agreement with the model and demonstrated that CO2 was the sole species taken up during photosynthesis. In addition no accumulation of inorganic carbon within the cells was observed in the light. Similarly, in dark, CO2 was the only species released by respiration in the external medium.

  7. Senio river ecosystem: characterization and distribution of inorganic species in water and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Torsi, Giancarlo; Locatelli, Clinio

    2006-01-01

    Analytical results are reported for the determination of inorganic species in water and sediments sampled in the Senio river ecosystem. The species determined are Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Hg, F-, Cl-, Br, NO3-, SO4-, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+ in integrated water, and Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Hg in sediments. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, precision and accuracy are given: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), were good, being in all cases lower than 6%. Limitedly to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn a critical comparison with voltammetric measurements is also discussed.

  8. Antibacterial activities of peptides from the water-soluble extracts of Italian cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, C G; Losito, I; Gobbetti, M; Carbonara, T; De Bari, M D; Zambonin, P G

    2005-07-01

    Water-soluble extracts of 9 Italian cheese varieties that differed mainly for type of cheese milk, starter, technology, and time of ripening were fractionated by reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of each fraction was first assayed toward Lactobacillus sakei A15 by well-diffusion assay. Active fractions were further analyzed by HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, and peptide sequences were identified by comparison with a proteomic database. Parmigiano Reggiano, Fossa, and Gorgonzola water-soluble extracts did not show antibacterial peptides. Fractions of Pecorino Romano, Canestrato Pugliese, Crescenza, and Caprino del Piemonte contained a mixture of peptides with a high degree of homology. Pasta filata cheeses (Caciocavallo and Mozzarella) also had antibacterial peptides. Peptides showed high levels of homology with N-terminal, C-terminal, or whole fragments of well known antimicrobial or multifunctional peptides reported in the literature: alphaS1-casokinin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-casein (CN) f22-30 of Pecorino Romano and cow alphaS1-CN f24-33 of Canestrato Pugliese); isracidin (e.g., sheep alphaS1-CN f10-21 of Pecorino Romano); kappacin and casoplatelin (e.g., cow kappa-CN f106-115 of Canestrato Pugliese and Crescenza); and beta-casomorphin-11 (e.g., goat beta-CN f60-68 of Caprino del Piemonte). As shown by the broth microdilution technique, most of the water-soluble fractions had a large spectrum of inhibition (minimal inhibitory concentration of 20 to 200 microg/mL) toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic bacteria of clinical interest. Cheeses manufactured from different types of cheese milk (cow, sheep, and goat) have the potential to generate similar peptides with antimicrobial activity.

  9. Effects of sulfite ions on water-soluble chlorophyll proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, K.; Uchida, S.; Takimoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms and processes of chlorophyll destruction and the relation to the appearance of visible symptoms in SO/sub 2/-injured plants, model experiments were carried out by utilizing the peculiar properties of a water-soluble chlorophyll protein from Chenopodium album. The acceleration of chlorophyll destruction by sulfite ions under aerobic and illuminated conditions, reported previously in organic solvent, was not observed for the water-soluble pigment-protein complex, even in 4 x 10/sup -2/ M sulfite. This indicates that pigments are stabilized by combining with protein molecules. On comparison of pigment destruction between the reconstituted chlorophyll a- and chlorophyllide a-proteins in the presence of sulfite ions, the former was slightly sensitive to sulfite ions. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that photoconversion of water-soluble chlorophyll protein was inhibited by denaturation of the protein moiety caused by sulfite ions in the presence of light. In addition it was shown that it was necessary for the pigment absorbing the light energy to be structurally related to the protein moiety for inhibition of photoconversion. From these results, the inhibition processes of photoconversion are inferred as follows: conformational changes of apoprotein molecules were induced by light energy absorbed by the pigments and which allowed sulfite ions to attack the apoprotein molecules. The mechanism of the sulfite action on the apoprotein is the breakdown of disulfide bonds in proteins, the disulfide bonds having important functions in the photoconversion process. From the present model experiments, it is suggested that the breakdown of disulfide bonds occurred and induced damage to the chloroplast lamellae or physiological functions in the SO/sub 2/-injured plant tissues. 17 references, 8 figures.

  10. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS BY SOLID DISPERSIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid dispersions have been employed to enhance the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. Many approaches have been investigated for the preparation of solid dispersions. This paper reports the various solubility enhancement strategies in solid dispersion. The approaches described are fusion (melting, solvent evaporation, lyophilization (freeze drying, melt agglomeration process, extruding method, spray drying technology, use of surfactant, electro static spinning method and super critical fluid technology. This paper also highlights the potential applications and limitations of theseapproaches in solid dispersions.

  11. [Mutagen properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from Acorus calamus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ev, A M; Belousov, M B; Akhmedzhanov, R R; Iusubov, M S; Voronova, O L; Karpova, G V; Churin, A A

    2010-08-01

    Mutagenic properties of water soluble polysaccharides (WSPS) extracted from Acorus calamus L. have been studied. Neither a single intravenous injection nor a course intraperitoneal introduction of WSPS in a dose of 1/2 LD50 to mice of the CBA/CaLac line increases the level of cytogenetic disorders in the bone marrow cells. The investigation of WSPS by means of the somatic mosaicism test showed that the given dose of WSPS does not increase the rate of mutant spots on Drosophila wings.

  12. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  13. Zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-protected water-soluble nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiao; LIU XiangSheng; XU JianPing; JI Jian; SHEN JiaCong

    2009-01-01

    The water-soluble Ag nanoparticles capped with novel zwitterionic thioalkylated phosphorylcholine were synthesized. The Ag nanoparticles showed remarkable stability in saline media with salt concen-trations as high as 2.0 mol/L and plasma using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Similarly, compared with tiopronin and citrate-protected Ag nanoparticles, the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine Ag nanopar-ticles did not precipitate out of solution when charged polyelectrolytes or biopolymers were added. The zwitterionic phosphorylcholine might be a better ligand for stabilizing metal nanoparticles.

  14. Zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-protected water-soluble Ag nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The water-soluble Ag nanoparticles capped with novel zwitterionic thioalkylated phosphorylcholine were synthesized.The Ag nanoparticles showed remarkable stability in saline media with salt concen-trations as high as 2.0 mol/L and plasma using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.Similarly,compared with tiopronin and citrate-protected Ag nanoparticles,the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine Ag nanopar-ticles did not precipitate out of solution when charged polyelectrolytes or biopolymers were added.The zwitterionic phosphorylcholine might be a better ligand for stabilizing metal nanoparticles.

  15. Preparation and Properties of Water-soluble Conjugated Polyelectrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xiangjun; HONG Ruibin; HU Jianhua; ZHONG Yiping; LIU Ping; DENG Wenji

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly[3-(1′-ethyloxy-2′-N- methylimidazole) thiophene] (PEOIMT), was prepared. Its photophysical and electrochemical properties, and response characteristics to the external condition (e g, temperature response, solvent response and pH response), were investigated. The results show the PEOIMT belongs to the organic semiconductor. The interaction between the PEOIMT and the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the PEOIMT could interact with the BSA. The PEOIMT can be used as a biosensor to detect the BSA.

  16. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site - Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, M. M.; Di Marco, C. F.; Leeson, S.; van Dijk, N.; Jones, M. R.; Leith, I. D.; Morrison, E.; Coyle, M.; Proost, R.; Peeters, A. N. M.; Lemon, E.; Frelink, T.; Braban, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Cape, J. N.

    2015-07-01

    There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements which can provide further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL) allows for the characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3) at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012) of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP supersite, Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m-3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3- and nss-SO42-) were the dominating species (63 %) of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt was the main component (73 %) of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10-PM2.5), though NO3- was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17 %) providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt) coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m-3) were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3-, where smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely that organic acids contributed to the charge balance. This study demonstrates the UK background

  17. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site – Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Twigg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements, which can lead to further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL allows characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3 at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012 of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP "Supersite", Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m−3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3− and nss-SO42−, were the dominating species (63% of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt, was the main component (73% of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10–PM2.5, though NO3− was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17% as providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m−3 were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3−, where as smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other Western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely, that organic acids

  18. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  19. Water-soluble organic carbon in urban aerosol: concentrations, size distributions and contribution to particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, H. J.; Saarikoski, S. K.; Aurela, M. A.; Saarnio, K. M.; Hillamo, R. E. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations and particle mass size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in urban aerosols. The sample collection was carried out in spring 2006 at the SMEAR III station in Helsinki, Finland, by using a size-segregating method (MOUDI) and by collecting sub-micrometer fraction of aerosols on the filter. During the three-month measurement period, a major 12-day biomass burning pollution episode was observed. Concentrations of WSOC, organic carbon, monosaccharide anhydrides, inorganic ions and some organic acids (oxalic, succinic and malonic acid) were analyzed from the PM{sub 1} samples. The measured OC and WSOC concentrations varied in ranges 0.67-15.7 mug m-3 and 0.26-10.7 mug m3, respectively. The WSOC/OC concentration ratio was between 0.30 and 0.89 with an average of 0.54. Size distributions of WSOC, inorganic ions and total mass were determined from the MOUDI samples. WSOC had bimodal size distributions with a clear accumulation mode below 1 mum of particle aerodynamic diameter and minor coarse mode at sizes > 1 mum. (orig.)

  20. Biogeochemistry of organic and inorganic arsenic species in a forested catchment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-How; Matzner, Egbert

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the fate and behavior of diffuse inputs of arsenic (As) species in forested catchments which often are the sources of drinking water. The objective of this study was to investigate the mobility and transformation of different As species in forest ecosystems to assess the environmental risk related to the diffuse pollution of As. We determined concentrations and fluxes in precipitation, litterfall, soil solutions (Oa horizon and 20- and 90-cm depth), and runoff of organic and inorganic As species and Astotal in a forest ecosystem in NE-Bavaria, Germany. The concentrations of Astotal were mostly catchment amounted to 3.8 g As ha(-1) yr(-1). The annual fluxes of total organic As species was highest in total deposition (1.1 g As ha(-1) yr(-1)) and decreased largely with depth in the soil profile. The annual runoff of total organic As species was only 0.08 g As ha(-1) yr(-1). Significant correlations in soil solutions and runoff were found between Astotal and dissolved organic C and Fe. Correlations between Astotal concentrations in runoff and water fluxes were seasonally dependent and with a steeper slope in the growing season than in the dormant season. The elevated concentrations of organic As species in throughfall indicate microbial methylation of As in the phyllosphere, but no evidence for methylation in the soil was found. The mass balance of the catchment points out the strong retention and probable degradation or oxidation of organic As species and arsenite but also to mobilizable pools of Astotal and arsenate. The forest floor is presently a source, whereas the mineral soil is a sink for Astotal and arsenate. The As concentrations in runoff seem to be controlled by As mobilization from forest floor and riparian wetland soils during heavy rain events and superficial flow. The risk for excessment of the drinking water threshold concentrations of As in runoff and soil solutions is considered low at our site.

  1. Titanium dioxide solid phase for inorganic species adsorption and determination: the case of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, R; Fontàs, C; Anticó, E

    2017-04-01

    We have evaluated a new titanium dioxide (Adsorbsia As600) for the adsorption of both inorganic As (V) and As (III) species. In order to characterize the sorbent, batch experiments were undertaken to determine the capacities of As (III) and As (V) at pH 7.3, which were found to be 0.21 and 0.14 mmol g(-1), respectively. Elution of adsorbed species was only possible using basic solutions, and arsenic desorbed under batch conditions was 50 % when 60 mg of loaded titanium dioxide was treated with 0.5 M NaOH solution. Moreover, its use as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of arsenic species from well waters has been investigated, without any previous pretreatment of the sample. Solid-phase extraction was implemented by packing several minicolumns with Adsorbsia As600. The method has been validated showing good accuracy and precision. Acceptable recoveries were obtained when spiked waters at 100-200 μg L(-1) were measured. The presence of major anions commonly found in waters did not affect arsenic adsoption, and only silicate at 100 mg L(-1) level severely competed with arsenic species to bind to the material. Finally, the measured concentrations in water samples containing arsenic from the Pyrinees (Catalonia, Spain) showed good agreement with the ICP-MS results.

  2. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering.

  3. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly (d,l-lactic acid) nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi-Wei; Zi, Yun-Peng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Rong; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Zheng, Wei-Jie; Chen, Feng; Qian, Qi-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (ACP-PLA) nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63) cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due to the high biocompatibility, sustained drug release, and fast mineralization, the as-prepared composite nanofibers may have potential applications in water-soluble drug loading and release for tissue engineering. PMID:27785016

  4. Increasing the oral bioavailability of the poorly water soluble drug itraconazole with ordered mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Mols, Raf; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Aerts, Caroline A; Annaert, Pieter; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick; Martens, Johan A

    2008-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vivo performance of ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as a carrier for poorly water soluble drugs. Itraconazole was selected as model compound. Physicochemical characterization was carried out by SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption, DSC, TGA and in vitro dissolution. After loading itraconazole into OMS, its oral bioavailability was compared with the crystalline drug and the marketed product Sporanox in rabbits and dogs. Plasma concentrations of itraconazole and OH-itraconazole were determined by HPLC-UV. After administration of crystalline itraconazole in dogs (20mg), no systemic itraconazole could be detected. Using OMS as a carrier, the AUC0-8 was boosted to 681+/-566 nM h. In rabbits, the AUC0-24 increased significantly from 521+/-159 nM h after oral administration of crystalline itraconazole (8 mg) to 1069+/-278 nM h when this dose was loaded into OMS. Tmax decreased from 9.8+/-1.8 to 4.2+/-1.8h. No significant differences (AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) could be determined when comparing OMS with Sporanox in both species. The oral bioavailability of itraconazole formulated with OMS as a carrier compares well with the marketed product Sporanox, in rabbits as well as in dogs. OMS can therefore be considered as a promising carrier to achieve enhanced oral bioavailability for drugs with extremely low water solubility.

  5. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  6. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

  7. Measured elemental carbon by thermo-optical transmittance analysis in water-soluble extracts from diesel exhaust, woodsmoke, and ambient particulate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén, Anna; Lidén, Göran; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2010-01-01

    Elemental carbon has been proposed as a marker of diesel particulate matter. The objective of this study was to investigate if water-soluble carbonaceous compounds could be responsible for positive bias of elemental carbon using NIOSH Method 5040 with a thermo-optical carbon transmittance analyzer. Filter samples from eight different aerosol environments were used: pure diesel exhaust fume with a high content of elemental carbon, pure diesel exhaust fume with a low content of elemental carbon, pure biodiesel exhaust fume, pure woodsmoke, an urban road tunnel, an urban street canyon, an urban background site, and residential woodburning in an urban area. Part of each filter sample was analyzed directly with a thermo-optical carbon analyzer, and another part was extracted with water. This water-soluble extract was filtered to remove particles, spiked onto filter punches, and analyzed with a thermo-optical transmittance carbon analyzer. The ratio of elemental carbon in the water-soluble extract to the particulate sample measurement was 18, 12, and 7%, respectively, for the samples of pure woodsmoke, residential woodburning, and urban background. Samples with diesel particulate matter and ambient samples with motor exhaust detected no elemental carbon in the water-soluble extract. Since no particles were present in the filtered water-soluble extract, part of the water-soluble organic carbon species, existing or created during analysis, are misclassified as elemental carbon with this analysis. The conclusion is that in measuring elemental carbon in particulate aerosol samples with thermo-optical transmittance analysis, woodsmoke, and biomass combustion samples show a positive bias of elemental carbon. The water-soluble EC could be used as a simple method to indicate other sources, such as wood or other biomass combustion aerosol particles.

  8. Fluorescence characteristics of water soluble organic carbon in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation and average molecular weight of 46 water soluble organic matter (WSOC) samples extracted from 20 soil types in eastern China were determined. It was found all samples shared similar spectroscopy. A good linear relationship existed between total organic carbon and excitation in the range of 350 to 450 nm though the content of organic carbon and pH of the samples vary in a wide range. No significant correlation between relative excitation intensity and average molecular weight of WSOC and FA was found, but the partial correlation became significant with pH as the controlling factor for WSOC samples. The relative excitation intensity showed a general trend of increasing from south to north in the study area. The pH value might play an important role in regulating the fluorescent spatial variation of WSOC.

  9. Interaction of water-soluble bridged porphyrin with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Zhi ZHANG; Qianni GUO; Xiaoping BAO; Zaoying LI

    2008-01-01

    A water-soluble porphyrin dimer (Por Dimer) containing eight positive charges, bridged by 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine, has been synthesized. With Meso-tetrakis(N-methyl-pyridium-4-yl)porphyrin (H2TMPyP) as the reference compound, the water-sol-uble porphyrin dimer was investigated for its inter-action with DNA by absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The apparent affinity binding constant (Kapp= 1.2×106) of Por Dimer binding to CT DNA was measured by a com-petition method with ethidium bromide (EB) (that of H2TMPyP was 6.9×106). The cleavage ability of Por Dimer to pBR322 plasmid DNA was studied by gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that the binding modes of Por Dimer were complex and involve both intercalation and outside binding.

  10. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid.

  11. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  12. Water Soluble Fluorescent Carbon Nanodots from Biosource for Cells Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Malika Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanodots (CNDs derived from a green precursor, kidney beans, was synthesized with high yield via a facile pyrolysis technique. The CND material was easily modified through simple oxidative treatment with nitric acid, leading to a high density “self-passivated” water soluble form (wsCNDs. The synthesized wsCNDs have been extensively characterized by using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques and were crystalline in nature. The highly carboxylated wsCNDs possessed tunable-photoluminescence emission behavior throughout the visible region of the spectrum, demonstrating their application for multicolor cellular imaging of HeLa cells. The tunable-photoluminescence properties of “self-passivated” wsCNDs make them a promising candidate as a probe in biological cell-imaging applications.

  13. Drug delivery by water-soluble organometallic cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, organometallic derivatives were generally viewed as moisture- and air-sensitive compounds, and consequently very challenging to synthesise and very demanding in terms of laboratory requirements (Schlenk techniques, dried solvent, glove box). However, an increasing number of stable, water-soluble organometallic compounds are now available, and organometallic chemistry in aqueous phase is a flourishing area of research. As such, coordination-driven self-assemblies using organometallic building blocks are compatible with water, thus opening new perspectives in bio-organometallic chemistry.This chapter gives a short history of coordination-driven self-assembly, with a special attention to organometallic metalla-cycles, especially those composed of half-sandwich complexes. These metalla-assemblies have been used as sensors, as anticancer agents, as well as drug carriers.

  14. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  15. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  16. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  17. A Novel Injectable Water-Soluble Amphotericin B-Arabinogalactan Conjugate

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Rama; Domb, Abraham J.; Polacheck, Itzhack

    1999-01-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and ...

  18. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  19. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeslin J.; Kondeti, Vighneswara Siva Santosh Kumar; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs.

  20. [Modulation of plant resistance to diseases by water-soluble chitosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiukova, N I; Zinov'eva, S V; Il'inskaia, L I; Perekhod, E A; Chalenko, G I; Gerasimova, N G; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight water-soluble chitosan with a molecular weight of 5 kDa obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of native crab chitosan was shown to display an elicitor activity by inducing the local and systemic resistance of Solanumi tuberosum potato and Lycopesicon esculentum tomato to Phytophthora infestans and nematodes, respectively. Chitosan induced the accumulation of phytoalexins in tissues of host plants, decreased the total content and changed the composition of free sterols producing adverse effects on infesters, activated chitinases, beta-glucanases, and lipoxygenases, and stimulated the generation of reactive oxygen species. The activation of protective mechanisms in plant tissues inhibited the growth of taxonomically different pathogens (parasitic fungus Phytophthora infestans and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita).

  1. Hygroscopic growth of water soluble organic carbon isolated from atmospheric aerosol collected at US national parks and Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathan F.; Collins, Don R.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Kumar, Naresh; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.

    2017-02-01

    Due to the atmospheric abundance and chemical complexity of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), its contribution to the hydration behavior of atmospheric aerosol is both significant and difficult to assess. For the present study, the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of isolated atmospheric WSOC particulate matter was measured without the compounding effects of common, soluble inorganic aerosol constituents. WSOC was extracted with high purity water from daily high-volume PM2.5 filter samples and separated from water soluble inorganic constituents using solid-phase extraction. The WSOC filter extracts were concentrated and combined to provide sufficient mass for continuous generation of the WSOC-only aerosol over the combined measurement time of the tandem differential mobility analyzer and coupled scanning mobility particle sizer-CCN counter used for the analysis. Aerosol samples were taken at Great Smoky Mountains National Park during the summer of 2006 and fall-winter of 2007-2008; Mount Rainier National Park during the summer of 2009; Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, during the summer of 2010; and Acadia National Park during the summer of 2011. Across all sampling locations and seasons, the hygroscopic growth of WSOC samples at 90 % RH, expressed in terms of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. Comparisons between the hygroscopicity of WSOC and that of samples containing all soluble materials extracted from the filters implied a significant modification of the hydration behavior of inorganic components, including decreased hysteresis separating efflorescence and deliquescence and enhanced water uptake between 30 and 70 % RH.

  2. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  3. Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles and drug loading of poorly water soluble drug cyclosporin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lodha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs are introduced as chemically and thermally stable nanomaterials with well-defined and controllable morphology and porosity. It is shown that these particles possess external and internal surfaces that can be selectively functionalized with multiple organic and inorganic groups. Silica nano-particles were synthesized by chemical methods from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, methanol (CH3OH and deionised water in the presence of sodium hydroxide as catalyst at 80°C temperature. The nature and morphology of particles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption method using BET instrument and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Silica nanoparticles are applicable to a wide range of therapeutic entities from small molecule to peptides and proteins including hydrophobic and hydrophilic entities. Drug loading does not require chemical modification of the molecule; there are no changes in the drug structure or activity after loading and subsequent release of the drug. Thus, well suited to solve formulation problems associated with hydrophobic drugs such as peptide and protein drugs like cyclosporine A. Silica nanoparticles improved the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and enhanced the absorption and bioavailability of these compounds.

  4. Continuous twin-screw granulation for enhancing the dissolution of poorly water soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Nair, Arun; Renault, Maxcene; Nandi, Uttom; Scoutaris, Nicholaos; Farnish, Richard; Bradley, Michael S A; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-12-30

    The article describes the application of a twin-screw granulation process to enhance the dissolution rate of the poorly water soluble drug, ibuprofen (IBU). A quality-by-design (QbD) approach was used to manufacture IBU loaded granules via hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing. For the purpose of the study, a design of experiment (DoE) was implemented to assess the effect of the formulation compositions and the processing parameters. This novel approach allowed the use of, polymer/inorganic excipients such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin(®)-MAS) with polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG) as the binder without requiring a further drying step. IBU loaded batches were processed using a twin screw extruder to investigate the effect of MAS/polymer ratio, PEG amount (binder) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios on the dissolution rates, mean particle size and the loss on drying (LoD) of the extruded granules. The DoE analysis showed that the defined independent variables of the twin screw granulation process have a complex effect on the measured outcomes. The solid state analysis showed the existence of partially amorphous IBU state which had a significant effect on the dissolution enhancement in acidic media. Furthermore, the analysis obtained from the surface mapping by Raman proved the homogenous distribution of the IBU in the extruded granulation formulations.

  5. Water solubility enhancements of PAHs by sodium castor oil sulfonate microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; ZHAO Bao-wei; LI Zong-lai

    2003-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of naphthalene(Naph), phenantherene(Phen) and pyrene(Py) in sodium castor oil sulfonate(SCOS) microemulsions were evaluated. The apparent solubilities of PAHs are linearly proportional to the concentrations of SCOS microemulsion, and the enhancement extent by SCOS solutions is greater than that by ordinary surfactants on the basis of weight solubilization ratio(WSR). The logKem values of Naph, Phen, and Py are 3.13, 4.44 and 5.01 respectively, which are about the same as the logKow values. At 5000 mg/L of SCOS conccentration, the apparent solubilities are 8.80, 121, and 674 times as the intrinsic solubilities for Naph, Phen, and Py. The effects of inorganic ions and temperature on the solubilization of solutes are also investigated. The solubilization is improved with a moderate addition of Ca2+, Na+, NH4+ and the mixture of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+. WSR values are enhanced by 22.0% for Naph, 23.4% for Phen, and 24.6% for Py with temperature increasing by 5℃. The results indicated that SCOS microemulsions improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation(SER) of soil, by increasing solubilities of organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  6. Assessment of inorganic lead species and total organo-alkyllead in some Egyptian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsokkary, I H; Amer, M A; Shalaby, E A

    1995-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the amounts of (i) total Pb in soil, (ii) inorganic Pb species: exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), easily reducible (EASR), moderately reducible (MODR), organic matter and sulfides (ORGS), and residual (RESD) bound Pb, and (iii) total organo-lead as alkyllead, in alluvial and lacustrine soils of the Nile delta, Egypt. Wide ranges of soil Pb were found in the alluvial (18.2-1850 microg g(-1)) and the lacustrine (39-1985 microg g(-1)) soils. The topsoil was highly enriched with Pb relative to the subsurface soils, especially in highly contaminated soils. There was no significant relationship between soil type and Pb content. Amounts of soil Pb greater than the background level (14 microg g(-1)) are due to Pb deposited from various anthropogenic activities. The partitioning of soil Pb into different species varied according to the intensity of contamination. It followed the sequence: RESD > ORGS > CARB > MODR > EASR in the slightly contaminated alluvial as well as lacustrine soils. In the highly contaminated soils, it followed the sequence: ORGS > MODR > CARB > EASR > RESD in the alluvial soils, and the sequence: ORGS > CARB > MODR > EASR > RESD in the lacustrine soils. There is high binding capacity of organic matter and sulfides to Pb, especially in the highly contaminated soils. The concentrations of total alkyllead in soils varied markedly and were related to both intensity of contamination and depth in the soil. The subsurface soil (15-30 cm) was highly enriched by alkyllead (means 224 and 353 ng g(-1) in the alluvial and lacustrine soils, respectively) relative to the surface and deeper soils. The proportion of total alkyllead as a percentage of total Pb in the soil was generally very low. It did not exceed 1.6% in the slightly contaminated soils, and 0.6% in the highly contaminated ones.

  7. "Mixed-solvency approach" - Boon for solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a large number of experiments on solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs, the author is of the opinion that hydrotropy is another type of cosolvency and all water-soluble substances whether liquids, solids, or gases may act as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation, a mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, salicylic acid (as a model drug. Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength of solubilizers containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea and sodium citrate, cosolvents (glycerin, propylene glycol, PEG 300 and PEG 400, and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 were made to study the influence on solubility of salicylic acid. Twelve blends were found to increase the solubility of salicylic acid, synergistically. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to give a strong solution (say 25% w/v or so to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present investigation, the mixed-solvency approach has been employed to analyze salicylic acid in the bulk drug sample (using six blends precluding the use of organic solvents (a way to green chemistry.

  8. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  9. Biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are hyperbranched and perfectly defined macromolecules, constituted of branches emanating from a central core in an iterative fashion. Phosphorhydrazone dendrimers constitute a special family of dendrimers, possessing one phosphorus atom at each branching point. The internal structure of these dendrimers is hydrophobic, but hydrophilic terminal groups can induce the solubility of the whole structure in water. Indeed, the properties of these compounds are mainly driven by the type of terminal groups their bear; this is especially true for the biological properties. For instance, positively charged terminal groups are efficient for transfection experiments, as drug carriers, as anti-prion agents, and as inhibitor of the aggregation of Alzheimer's peptides, whereas negatively charged dendrimers have anti-HIV properties and can influence the human immune system, leading to anti-inflammatory properties usable against rheumatoid arthritis. This review will give the most representative examples of the biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers, organized depending on the type of terminal groups they bear.

  10. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  11. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  12. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly(D,L-lactic acid nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu QW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Fu,1,* Yun-Peng Zi,1,* Wei Xu,1 Rong Zhou,1 Zhu-Yun Cai,1 Wei-Jie Zheng,1 Feng Chen,2 Qi-Rong Qian1 1Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(D,L-lactic acid (ACP-PLA nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63 cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due

  13. Tailor-made release triggering from hot-melt extruded complexes of basic polyelectrolyte and poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Christoph; Matthée, Karin; Strohmeyer, Jutta; Sievert, Frank; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was the formulation of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of poorly water-soluble acid drugs and basic polymethacrylates by hot-melt extrusion enabling a tailor-made release pattern by the addition of inorganic salts. The influence of different electrolytes was analyzed at varying conditions in order to control drug delivery from the complexes. Poorly water-soluble model drugs naproxen and furosemide were applied in their non-ionic form. After hot-melt extrusion of the naproxen-polymethacrylate powder blend, XRPD and DSC measurements indicated the formation of a single-phase amorphous system. Milled extrudates were stable under storage at long-term and intermediate conditions. Polyelectrolyte complex formation by an acid-base reaction during hot-melt extrusion could be proven by the lack of vibrations of dimethylamino and carboxylic groups by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The complexes did not dissolve in demineralized water. Drug release could be immediately induced by addition of neutral electrolytes. Tailor-made dissolution profiles were realized by controlled electrolyte triggering. Maximal effects were achieved by concentrations of 0.05-0.15 M NaCl. Different anions of alkali halogenides revealed variant magnitudes of the effect depending on the anion radius. Polyelectrolyte complex formation and dissolution principles were also confirmed for furosemide.

  14. Alginate encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as a sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We applied a combination of inorganic mesoporous silica material, frequently used as drug carriers, and a natural organic polymer alginate (ALG, to establish a sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug Indomethacin (IND. Mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs were synthesized using an organic template method and then functionalized with aminopropyl groups through postsynthesis. After drug loading into the pores of aninopropyl functionalized MSNs (AP-MSNs, IND loaded AP-MSNs (IND-AP-MSNs were encapsulated by ALG through the ionic interaction. The effects of surface chemical groups and ALG layer on IND release were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, zeta-potential analysis and TGA analysis. The surface structure and surface charge changes of the ALG encapsulated AP-MSNs (ALG-AP-MSNs were also investigated. The results showed that sustained release of IND from the designed drug delivery system was mainly due to the blockage effect from the coated ALG. We believe that this combination will help designing oral sustained drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  15. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  16. Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of water soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, and, at the same time, nitric oxide is recognized as an important messenger molecule for several pathophysiological conditions. Hence, a novel antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase (NOS activator from natural sources have significant importance in human health. Aims: The present study was conducted to evaluate the free radical-scavenging activity and NOS activation properties of water-soluble crude polysaccharide (Floridan from Pleurotus florida. Materials and Methods: Crude polysaccharide was precipitated from hot water extract of P. florida, and their physicochemical parameters were determined. Then, α and β glucan were estimated using mushroom and yeast β glucan assay kit and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Floridan was analyzed for their free radical scavenging activity in different test systems, namely hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating ability, determination of reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Floridan was also tested for NOS activation using oxyhaemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using the Student′s t-test. Results: Results showed that Floridan was rich in water-soluble β glucan with very low amount of protein and phenols. The EC 50 for hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging activity were 140 and 320 μg/ml, respectively, 450 μg/ml for chelating ability, 300 μg/ml for inhibition of lipid peroxidation and 2 mg/ml for reducing power. Floridan also increased nitric oxide production significantly. Conclusions: The present results revealed that this mushroom polysaccharide may be utilized as a promising dietary supplement to combat several killer diseases.

  17. CONFINING CONDUCTING POLYANILINE IN A STABLE INORGANIC NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ju Wang; Nian-jiang Liu; Jin-long Lu; Jian Liu; Ji Li; Xia-bin Jing; Fo-song Wang; Xian-hong Wang

    2003-01-01

    Water soluble conducting polyaniline with electrical conductivity of 10-1-10-2 S/cm was prepared employing dopant induced water solubility technology. The water resistance of the conducting film was significantly improved employing sol-gel hybrids method, especially when the conductive polyaniline loading was below 30 wt%. The reason for the improvement is that the conducting polyaniline chains are confined in a stable inorganic network.

  18. Urinary Trivalent Methylated Arsenic Species in a Population Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Martha B.; Garcia-Montalvo, Eliud A.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with increased risk of various forms of cancer and of noncancerous diseases. Metabolic conversions of iAs that yield highly toxic and genotoxic methylarsonite (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII) may play a significant role in determining the extent and character of toxic and cancer-promoting effects of iAs exposure. In this study we examined the relationship between urinary profiles of MAsIII and DMAsIII and skin lesion markers of iAs toxicity in individuals exposed to iAs in drinking water. The study subjects were recruited among the residents of an endemic region of central Mexico. Drinking-water reservoirs in this region are heavily contaminated with iAs. Previous studies carried out in the local populations have found an increased incidence of pathologies, primarily skin lesions, that are characteristic of arseniasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the urinary profiles for the trivalent and pentavalent As metabolites in both high- and low-iAs–exposed subjects. Notably, methylated trivalent arsenicals were detected in 98% of analyzed urine samples. On average, the major metabolite, DMAsIII, represented 49% of total urinary As, followed by DMAsV (23.7%), iAsV (8.6%), iAsIII (8.5%), MAsIII (7.4%), and MAsV (2.8%). More important, the average MAsIII concentration was significantly higher in the urine of exposed individuals with skin lesions compared with those who drank iAs-contaminated water but had no skin lesions. These data suggest that urinary levels of MAsIII, the most toxic species among identified metabolites of iAs, may serve as an indicator to identify individuals with increased susceptibility to toxic and cancer-promoting effects of arseniasis. PMID:15743710

  19. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L; Profeta, Luisa T M; Johnson, Timothy J; Yokelson, Robert J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  20. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Nachman, Keeve E.; Baron, Patrick A; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were colle...

  1. Linking Atomistic and Mesoscale Simulations of Water Soluble Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    There exist a range of techniques for studying surfactants and polymers in the mesoscale regime. One of the challenges is to link mesoscale theories and simulations to other calculation methods which address different length scales of the system. We introduce some mesoscale methods of calculation for polymers and surfactants and then present a case study of where mesoscale modelling is used for mechanistic understanding, by linking the method to high throughput in-silico screening methods. We look at the adsorption onto silica of ethylene oxide (EO)/ propylene oxide (PO) block copolymers (lutrols) which have been modified by end-grafting of short, cationic dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)chains. Given that the silica surface is negatively charged, it is remarkable that in some circumstances, polymers with longercationic chains have a lower adsorption. The effect is attributed to a competition between strong adsorption of the cationic DMAEMA groups driven by electrostatics, and weaker adsorption of the more numerous EO groups. This then raises the question of how we produce the values for the mesoscale parameters in these models and in the second part of the talk we describe a calculation method for doing this for water soluble polymers. The most promising route, but notoriously costly, is based on free energy calculations at the atomistic level. Free energy calculations are computationally intensive in general, but in an aqueous system one is also faced with the additional problem of using complex continuum models and/or accurate interaction potentials for water. Here we show how potential of mean force (PMF)calculations offer a practical alternative which avoids these drawbacks, though one is still faced with extremely long simulations.

  2. Multilayer encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as an oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Liang [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Hongrui [English Teaching Department, School of Basic Courses, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, Qinfu; Han, Ning; Bai, Ling; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Tongying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Siling, E-mail: silingwang@syphu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, P.O. Box 32, Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We used a combination of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technology to establish a new oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine. Firstly, the model drug was loaded into MSN, and then the loaded MSN were repeatedly encapsulated by chitosan (CHI) and acacia (ACA) via LBL self-assembly method. The structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption. The encapsulating process was monitored by zeta-potential and surface tension measurements. The physical state of the drug in the samples was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The influence of the multilayer with different number of layers on the drug release rate was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface tension measurement. The swelling effect and the structure changes of the multilayer were investigated to explore the relationship between the drug release behavior and the state of the multilayer under different pH conditions. The stability and mucosa adhesive ability of the prepared nanoparticles were also explored. After multilayer coating, the drug release rate was effectively controlled. The differences in drug release behavior under different pH conditions could be attributed to the different states of the multilayer. And the nanoparticles possessed good stability and strong mucosa adhesive ability. We believe that this combination offers a simple strategy for regulating the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and extends the pharmaceutical applications of inorganic materials and polymers. - Highlights: • A combination of inorganic and organic materials was applied. • Mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) were used as drug carriers. • Chitosan and acacia were encapsulated through layer-by-layer self-assembly. • The release rate of the poorly

  3. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  4. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  5. Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-06-30

    The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

  6. Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 μg/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 μg/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic

  7. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  8. Thermoresponsive synergistic hydrogen bonding switched by several guest units in a water-soluble polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenhua; Li, Guangxiang; Yang, Ke; Cai, Yuanli

    2013-03-12

    Thermoresponsive synergistic hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) switched by several guest units in a water-soluble polymer is reported. Adjusting the distribution of guest units can effectively change the synergistic H-bonding inside polymer chains, thus widely switch the preorganization and thermoresponsive behavior of a water-soluble polymer. The synergistic H-bonding is also evidenced by converting less polar aldehyde groups into water-soluble oxime groups, which bring about the lowering-down of cloud point and an amplified hysteresis effect. This is a general approach toward the wide tunability of thermosensitivity of a water-soluble polymer simply by adjusting the distribution of several guest H-bonding units.

  9. Explaining Ionic Liquid Water Solubility in Terms of Cation and Anion Hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Ranke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The water solubility of salts is ordinarily dictated by lattice energy and ion solvation. However, in the case of low melting salts also known as ionic liquids, lattice energy is immaterial and differences in hydrophobicity largely account for differences in their water solubility. In this contribution, the activity coefficients of ionic liquids in water are split into cation and anion contributions by regression against cation hydrophobicity parameters that are experimentally determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this way, anion hydrophobicity parameters are derived, as well as an equation to estimate water solubilities for cation-anion combinations for which the water solubility has not been measured. Thus, a new pathway to the quantification of aqueous ion solvation is shown, making use of the relative weakness of interactions between ionic liquid ions as compared to their hydrophobicities.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Water-Soluble Carboxymethyl-Cyclodextrin Polymer as Capillary Electrophoresis Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble carboxymethyl-cyclodextrin polymer (CM-CD polymer) was synthesized and used as capillary electrophoresis chiral selector.Verrapamil and thiopentorusodium were well separated using CM-CD polymer as chiral selector.

  11. Hydroaminomethylation of 1-Dodecene Catalyzed by Water-soluble Rhodium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yong WANG; Mei Ming LUO; Yao Zhong LI; Hua CHEN; Xian Jun LI

    2004-01-01

    The hydroaminomethylation of 1-dodecene catalyzed by water soluble rhodium complex RhCl(CO)(TPPTS)2 in the presence of surfactant CTAB was investigated. High reactivity and selectivity for tertiary amine were achieved under relatively mild conditions.

  12. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenliang [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Chen, Jingdi, E-mail: ibptcjd@fzu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wang, Hailiang [The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53 wt% abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04 wt% abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro by self-organized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell. • The abalone shell water-soluble matrix contains protein and polysaccharide. • The abalone water-soluble matrix can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP by self-organized. • Achieved self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects in

  13. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Water-soluble Prodrugs of Combretastatin A-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Quan YONG; Xiao Ping XU; Ying Chun CHEN; Xu BAO; Ling Ling WENG; Hu ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Novel water-soluble prodrugs of combretastatin A-4 (5-8) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against lung carcinoma A549. Compound 5, bearing phosphoryl choline (PC) moiety, showed 90% inhibition at 32 μg/mL concentration after 24 h. The findings showed the PC derivative would be a promising candidate for the development of new water-soluble prodrug of cytotoxic combretastatin A-4.

  14. [Characteristics of water-soluble organic nitrogen of PM2.5 in Xi'an during wintertime non-haze and haze periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ge-Hui; Sun, Tao; Cheng, Chun-Lei; Meng, Jing-Jing; Ren, Yan-Qin; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-07-01

    High-volume PM2.5 samples were collected hourly from 4 December to 13 December 2012 at an urban site in Xi'an and analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN), water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) and inorganic ions to investigate the sources and formation mechanism of WSON. The results showed that during the sampling period the averaged hourly concentration of WSON was (12 +/- 9.4) microg x m(-3) and maximized at 31 microg x m(-3), accounting for 47% +/- 9.8% of WSTN with NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N being 29% +/- 8.5% and 23% +/- 8.1%, respectively. WSON: WSOC (N: C) mass ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.65 with an average of 0.31 +/- 0.13 during the observation period. WSON was (1.6 +/- 0.9) microg x m(-3), (6.5 +/- 3.9) microg x m(-3) and (23 +/- 4.7) microg x m(-3) in non-haze days (visibility > 10 km), light haze days (5 km haze days (visibility haze days to 0.3 +/- 0.1 on light haze days and 0.4 +/- 0.1 on heavy haze days, in consistence with the enhanced acidity of the fine particles. In addition, during the whole sampling period, WSON was strongly correlated with NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) (R2 > 0.80), and negatively correlated with cation-anion equivalent ratio (R2 = 0.53). These phenomena can be mainly ascribed to a gas-particle conversion of gaseous water-soluble nitrogen-containing organic compounds like amines via acid-base reactions, which was sharply increased under the favorable meteorological conditions (e.g., low temperature and high humidity) during the heavy haze days.

  15. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I; Miranda-Ham, María L; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Ku-Cauich, José R; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  16. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ivan eCruz Cardenas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC glucose, fructose and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructan represents another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of eleven accessions (I to XI, including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfil across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes

  17. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan. The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC and pH values (pH 5-8, and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. RESULTS: The effect of the pH variation (5-8 on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91% in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition

  18. Multilayer encapsulated mesoporous silica nanospheres as an oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Sun, Hongrui; Zhao, Qinfu; Han, Ning; Bai, Ling; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2015-02-01

    We used a combination of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSN) and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technology to establish a new oral sustained drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug felodipine. Firstly, the model drug was loaded into MSN, and then the loaded MSN were repeatedly encapsulated by chitosan (CHI) and acacia (ACA) via LBL self-assembly method. The structural features of the samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption. The encapsulating process was monitored by zeta-potential and surface tension measurements. The physical state of the drug in the samples was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The influence of the multilayer with different number of layers on the drug release rate was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and surface tension measurement. The swelling effect and the structure changes of the multilayer were investigated to explore the relationship between the drug release behavior and the state of the multilayer under different pH conditions. The stability and mucosa adhesive ability of the prepared nanoparticles were also explored. After multilayer coating, the drug release rate was effectively controlled. The differences in drug release behavior under different pH conditions could be attributed to the different states of the multilayer. And the nanoparticles possessed good stability and strong mucosa adhesive ability. We believe that this combination offers a simple strategy for regulating the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and extends the pharmaceutical applications of inorganic materials and polymers.

  19. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  20. Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian tree species: Results from an experimental riparian stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Jackson, T. L.; Burtch, K. G.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The release of inorganic nitrogen from intensive agricultural practices and urbanization has resulted in significant alterations of the aquatic nitrogen cycle in riparian ecosystems. Nevertheless, impacts of stream nitrogen inputs on the terrestrial nitrogen cycle and the water and carbon cycles are unclear. Information on terrestrial ecosystem responses to stream N loading is largely absent in part because of the difficulty in controlling for temporal and spatial variation in streamflow, geomorphology, climate, and vegetation. To address these issues, we constructed a dual-plot artificial stream riparian system within a 10-year-old plantation of a dominant riparian tree species, box elder (Acer negundo). The dual-plot design allowed for different concentrations of stream inorganic nitrogen between plots while controlling for ecohydrologic and geohydrologic variability. The system was used to investigate elevated inorganic stream nitrogen impacts on water use patterns, above-ground productivity, and leaf chemistry of streamside box elder trees over two consecutive growing seasons (2006 and 2007). One plot received inorganic soluble fertilizer that brought the NO3 concentration of stream water from 5 μmol l-1 to about 100 μmol l-1, while the second plot received no additional nitrogen. Relative stem sap flux density (Js) did not vary between plots until near the conclusion of the 2006 growing season, when trees in the fertilized plot showed a steep upswing in Js relative to trees in the control plot. Sap flux in 2007 increased consistently by 0.4% day-1 in the fertilized plot relative to the control plot over a 75-day period, before leveling off near the conclusion of the growing season. At the onset of the experiment, leaf nitrogen per unit mass and leaf nitrogen per unit area were significantly higher in the control plot, and leaf C:N ratios were lower. In 2007, however, differences in leaf chemistry disappeared, suggesting that leaf nitrogen increased in the

  1. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  2. Tunable and white light emitting AlPO4 mesoporous glass by design of inorganic/organic luminescent species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The realization of tunable and white light emitting sources employed by UV-LED with single-host phosphors has been an exciting development in the search for high luminous efficiency and excellent color rendering index white-light source. A tunable and white light emitting mesoporous glass was prepared by utilizing both inorganic/organic (Europium/coumarin luminescent species in the meso-structure. The tunable and white light emission was deliberately designed by CIE calculation based on the individual emission spectra, which was realized by tailoring the emission of Eu2+/Eu3+ ions and coumarin 535 in sol-gel AlPO4 mesoporous glass. This simple and versatile procedure is not limited in the combination of rare earth and organic dye and is therefore extendable to other luminescent species in meso-structure for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  3. Tunable and white light emitting AlPO{sub 4} mesoporous glass by design of inorganic/organic luminescent species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jin; Li, Rihong, E-mail: lirihong@siom.ac.cn; Yuan, Xinqiang; Zhang, Long, E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Lasers, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Lasers, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Shiqing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China)

    2015-04-01

    The realization of tunable and white light emitting sources employed by UV-LED with single-host phosphors has been an exciting development in the search for high luminous efficiency and excellent color rendering index white-light source. A tunable and white light emitting mesoporous glass was prepared by utilizing both inorganic/organic (Europium/coumarin) luminescent species in the meso-structure. The tunable and white light emission was deliberately designed by CIE calculation based on the individual emission spectra, which was realized by tailoring the emission of Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} ions and coumarin 535 in sol-gel AlPO{sub 4} mesoporous glass. This simple and versatile procedure is not limited in the combination of rare earth and organic dye and is therefore extendable to other luminescent species in meso-structure for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  4. PRESENCE OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS IN THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD: CARBOHYDRATES AND FURFURALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With thermal modification, changes in properties of wood, such as the presence of VOC and water-soluble carbohydrates, may occur. Thermal modifications under saturated steam conditions (160 °C or 170 °C and superheated steam conditions (170, 185, and 212 °C were investigated by analysing the presence of water-soluble 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural, and carbohydrates in heat-treated wood. The influence of thermal modifications on Scots pine, Norway spruce, and silver birch was also studied. Furfurals were analysed using HPLC at 280 nm, while monosaccharides and water-soluble carbohydrates were determined by GC-FID as their acetylated alditiols and, after methanolysis, as their trimethylsilylated methyl-glycosides, respectively. The amount of furfurals was larger in boards thermally modified under saturated steam conditions than those treated under superheated steam conditions. Generally, more of HMF than furfural was found in the thermally modified boards. In process water, in which saturated steam conditions had been used, furfural and only traces of HMF were found. Higher content of water-soluble carbohydrates was found in boards treated in saturated steam rather than in superheated steam. After modification in saturated steam, substantial parts of the water-soluble carbohydrates were due to monosaccharides, but only traces of monosaccharides were found in boards treated under superheated steam conditions.

  5. “ Enhancement of Solubility of poorly water soluble drug by solid dispersion technique”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.Tagalpallewar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atovaquone and Satrinidazole has poor solubility resulting in low oral absorption hence low oral bioavailability. Hence to improve the solubility of poorly Atovaquone and Satrinidazole , hydrophilic polymers were used to enhance the dissolution by solid dispersion technique. Polyehylene Glycol 4000 and PVP k30 used to enhance the dissolution of both the drug by Solubilisation. Many alternative techniques have been used to improve such bioavailability; this study thus employed the simple solid dispersion technique and incorporated excipients which can increase the bioavailability of these drugs directly enhancing the dissolution rate of the drug and indirectly by reducing particle size.The aim of present work is to enhance the dissolution of poorly water soluble drug by using solid dispersion technique. To improve the dissolution rate, by using the various concentration of carrier or matrix with drug and hence ,improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug by formulating solid dispersion.To enhance the solubility of poorly water soluble drug ,by means of solubilising agent. In case of poorly water soluble drug, dissolution may be the rate limiting step in the process of absorption. In such case ,we can improve their solubility and dissolution rate.To study the effect of surfactant on the solid dispersion of poorly water soluble drug.

  6. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  7. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl {beta}-glucuronide, retinoyl {beta}-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates.

  8. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Water-Soluble Resin-Coated Natural Fiber Green Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Hayakawa, Tomoyuki

    In this study, water-soluble biodegradable resin was introduced as a coating agent to improve the interfacial strength and then to fabricate a high-performance green composite with polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp yarn. Dip coating was carried out for hemp yarn and the green composites were fabricated by hot processing. The coated green composite achieves a high tensile strength of 117 MPa even though the fiber volume fraction is less than 30%. Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was measured by a single fiber pull-out test, and the effect of water-soluble resin on the tensile properties of the composites was evaluated. As a result, when using coated natural bundles, the IFSS value is smaller than when using noncoated natural bundles. On the basis of observations of the fractured surface of composites and initial yarns using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the impregnation of water-soluble resin into the natural bundles on the tensile strength is discussed in detail. It is found that water-soluble resin is effective in improving the mechanical properties of the composite, although the interfacial strength between PLA and water-soluble resin was decreased, and as a result, the tensile strength of green composites increases by almost 20%.

  9. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble compounds using amphiphilic phospholipid polymers with different molecular architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mingwei; Konno, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-29

    To achieve stable and effective solubilization of poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds, water-soluble and amphiphilic polymers composed of hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units and hydrophobic n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) units were prepared. MPC polymers having different molecular architectures, such as random-type monomer unit sequences and block-type sequences, formed polymer aggregates when they were dissolved in aqueous media. The structure of the random-type polymer aggregate was loose and flexible. On the other hand, the block-type polymer formed polymeric micelles, which were composed of very stable hydrophobic poly(BMA) cores and hydrophilic poly(MPC) shells. The solubilization of a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, paclitaxel (PTX), in the polymer aggregates was observed, however, solubilizing efficiency and stability were strongly depended on the polymer architecture; in other words, PTX stayed in the poly(BMA) core of the polymer micelle formed by the block-type polymer even when plasma protein was present in the aqueous medium. On the other hand, when the random-type polymer was used, PTX was transferred from the polymer aggregate to the protein. We conclude that water-soluble and amphiphilic MPC polymers are good candidates as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  11. Measurement of inorganic arsenic species in rice after nitric acid extraction by HPLC-ICPMS: verification using XANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, W; Foster, S; Krikowa, F; Donner, E; Lombi, E

    2013-06-04

    The measurement of As species in rice is normally accomplished by extraction followed by HPLC-ICPMS analysis. This method, however, has not been comprehensively validated by comparing these speciation results with XANES, which does not require sample extraction, due to the challenge of conducting XANES analysis at very low As concentrations. In this study As speciation data using nitric acid extraction/HPLC-ICPMS and XANES are compared to verify the efficacy of using 2% v/v nitric acid extraction and HPLC-ICPMS to measure inorganic As, DMA, and MA in reference rice materials and common rice varieties obtainable in Australia. Total As and As species (As(III), As(V), DMA, and MA) concentrations measured in 8 reference materials were in agreement with published values. XANES analysis was performed on 5 samples having total As concentrations ranging from 0.198 to 0.335 μg g(-1). XANES results gave similar proportions of total As(III), As(V), and DMA to HPLC-ICPMS. XANES was able to distinguish two forms of As(III): As(III) and As(III)GSH. Total As concentrations in rice samples varied from 0.006 to 0.45 μg g(-1) As (n = 47) with a mean ± std of 0.127 ± 0.112 μg g(-1) As with most As present as inorganic species (63 ± 26%). DMA was found in nearly all the rice samples with the majority of samples containing concentrations below 0.05 μg g(-1) As while MA concentrations were negligible (<0.003 μg g(-1) As). Six rice varieties produced in Australia, China, and Spain all had elevated DMA concentrations (0.170-0.399 μg g(-1) As) that were correlated with total As concentrations (r(2) = 0.7518). In conclusion, comparison of As speciation by HPLC-ICPMS and XANES showed that similar As species were detected indicating the appropriateness of using 2% v/v nitric acid for extraction of rice prior to speciation. Common rice varieties obtainable in Australia generally have low As concentrations with most As present as inorganic As.

  12. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for six inorganic and organic arsenic species in chicken tissues using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-09-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of six major inorganic and organic arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone) from chicken tissues, followed by detection using a high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry detection method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of both inorganic and organic arsenic species in the extract in a single run. Effects of extraction medium, solution pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and the temperature and time of microwave-assisted extraction on the extraction of the targeted arsenic species were studied. The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions were: 100 mg of chicken tissue, extracted by 5 mL of 22% v/v methanol, 90 mmol/L (NH4 )2 HPO4 , and 0.07% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (with pH adjusted to 10.0 by ammonium hydroxide solution), ramping for 10 min to 71°C, and holding for 11 min. The method has good extraction performance for total arsenic in the spiked and nonspiked chicken tissues (104.0 ± 13.8% and 91.6 ± 7.8%, respectively), except for the ones with arsenic contents close to the quantitation limits. Limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone in chicken tissues using this method were 0.012, 0.058, 0.039, 0.061, 0.102, and 0.240 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively.

  13. A novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative BD926 triggers ROS-mediated B lymphoma cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-Hui; Yang, Ping; Yang, Tai; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jin; Li, Li-Mei; Luo, Xing-Yan; Yang, Shu-Xia; Zou, Qiang; Zhang, Chong-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Benzothiazole derivatives are known for various biological activities, and their potency in cancer therapy have received considerable attention in recent years. However, the poor water solubility of most benzothiazole derivatives has limited their clinical application. We developed BD926, a novel water-soluble benzothiazole derivative and showed here that it could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of human Ramos B-lymphoma cells. We further showed that BD926 triggered apoptosis through both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum pathways. Moreover, BD926 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 stage. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after BD926 treatment and ROS inhibitor was able to attenuate BD926-induced apoptosis, which suggested that BD926-induced apoptosis may be due to over-producing ROS. These results demonstrate the anticancer effects of BD926 in cell models and raise the possibility for the application of BD926 in cancer therapy.

  14. Coaxial electrospinning for encapsulation and controlled release of fragile water-soluble bioactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Liqun; Zhu, Kangjie

    2014-11-10

    Coaxial electrospinning is a robust technique for one-step encapsulation of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents, including growth factors, DNA and even living organisms, into core-shell nanofibers. The coaxial electrospinning process eliminates the damaging effects due to direct contact of the agents with organic solvents or harsh conditions during emulsification. The shell layer serves as a barrier to prevent the premature release of the water-soluble core contents. By varying the structure and composition of the nanofibers, it is possible to precisely modulate the release of the encapsulated agents. Promising work has been done with coaxially electrospun non-woven mats integrated with bioactive agents for use in tissue engineering, in local delivery and in wound healing, etc. This paper reviews the origins of the coaxial electrospinning method, its updated status and potential future developments for controlled release of the class of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents.

  15. Effect of thatch on water-soluble phosphorus of pasture soil fertilized with broiler litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a thatch layer in established pastures could reduce the contact between broiler litter and soil, thus increasing the potential for surface runoff contamination with litter P. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effect of a thatch layer on the dynamics of water-soluble P in undisturbed cores taken from a pasture. Cores with and without a thatch layer received a surface application of broiler litter (5 t@hm-2) and were incubated at 25 oC for 56 d. The result showed that on the soil surface the contents of water soluble-P (39 kg@hm-2) of the cores with the thatch layer was higher than that (20 kg@hm-2) of the cores without the thatch layer. Therefore on well-established pastures fertilized with broiler litter, the presence of a thatch layer might lead to high concentrations of water-soluble P on the soil surface.

  16. [Relationship of resistance to diseases and water-soluble amino acids in Konjac leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongbo; Jiang, Qiaolong

    2008-05-01

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze water-soluble amino acids in the normal Amorphophallus Konjac, Amorphophallus albus, Amorphophallus bulbifer, and the soft rot Amorphophallus Konjac, to determine the relationship of the different soft-rot resistant Konjac varieties and the proportion and content of the multiple water-soluble amino acids. The results showed that there are remarkable differences in the content and proportion of water-soluble amino acids in different resistant varieties and the same variety of normal and diseased leaves of Amorphophallus. In this study, the bank of fingerprint 15 chromatogram was established and can be used to analyze the related characteristic peaks and the resistance of Amorphophallus.

  17. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  18. Study on the sound absorption mechanism in gradient water-soluble polymer solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuansheng; YANG Xue; ZHU Jinhua; YAO Shuren

    2006-01-01

    Attention was paid to the study on the sound absorption mechanism of watersoluble polymer during dissolving. A specially designed water-soluble polymer coating was synthesized in our lab. The sound attenuation property was measured in sound tube. The results showed that the sound attenuation of the gradient polymer solution was larger than that of the uniform. Depending on the experimental result and the theory of sound wave propagation in layered medium, a mechanism of gradient water-soluble polymer solution was developed. This mechanism can be described as follows: a water-soluble polymer coating formed a concentration gradient layer when it was dissolved in water. This gradient layer led to multiple reflection and absorption of sound. Finally the sound energy was transferred into heat.

  19. Development of water soluble binder systems for low pressure injection molding of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, H.I.; Gunes, M. [TUBITAK-MRC Materials and Chemical Technologies Research Inst., Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Low pressure injection molding of alumina powder using a water-soluble binder system has been carried out successfully. The water-soluble based binder system consisted of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), low density polyethylene and stearic acid. The critical powder loading of the binder-powder mixture was determined based on torque rheometry experiments. The rheological properties of the powder-binder mixture were investigated systematically. The binder system used provides satisfactory mixture stability, excellent mouldability and reasonably fast water leaching and thermal debinding rates. The water-soluble constituent, poly (2-ethyl-2-oxaline), was removed by leaching in convecting water at 60 C within 6 hour. The remaining binder constituents were thermally removed during heating to 450 C. Sintering of the parts was conducted at 1550 C for an hour in air. (orig.)

  20. Identification of inorganic and organic species of phosphorus and its bio-availability in nitrifying aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenli; Cai, Wei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from sewage sludge is necessary for a sustainable development of the environment and thus the society due to gradual depletion of non-renewable P resources. Aerobic granular sludge is a promising biotechnology for wastewater treatment, which could achieve P-rich granules during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes. This study aimed to disclose the changes in inorganic and organic P species and their correlation with P mobility and bio-availability in aerobic granules. Two identical square reactors were used to cultivate aerobic granules, which were operated for 120 days with influent ammonia nitrogen (NH₄-N) of 100 mg/L before day 60 and then increased to 200 mg/L during the subsequent 60 days (chemical oxygen demand (COD) was kept constant at 600 mg/L). The aerobic granules exhibited excellent COD removal and nitrification efficiency. Results showed that inorganic P (IP) was about 61.4-67.7% of total P (TP) and non-apatite inorganic P (NAIP) occupied 61.9-70.2% of IP in the granules. The enrichment amount of NAIP and apatite P (AP) in the granules had strongly positive relationship with the contents of metal ions, i.e. Fe and Ca, respectively accumulated in the granules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and solution index calculation demonstrated that hydroxyapatite (Ca₅(PO₄)₃(OH)) and iron phosphate (Fe₇(PO₄)₆) were the major P minerals in the granules. Organic P (OP) content maintained around 7.5 mg per gram of biomass in the aerobic granules during the 120 days' operation. Monoester phosphate (21.8% of TP in extract), diester phosphate (1.8%) and phosphonate (0.1%) were identified as OP species by Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (³¹P NMR). The proportion of NAIP + OP to TP was about 80% in the granules, implying high potentially mobile and bio-available P was stored in the nitrifying aerobic granules. The present results provide a new insight into the characteristics of P species in aerobic

  1. Transdermal Delivery of Water Soluble Molecules into Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Steinsland, Synne

    2012-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and it constitutes a great protective barrier against entry of harmful microbial species and foreign materials into the body. The barrier function is a result of the highly hydrophobic nature and compact structure of the outermost skin layer, which makes transdermal delivery of drugs difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion of hydrophilic fish gelatin peptides and alginate oligomers (G-blocks) into human skin, and to evaluat...

  2. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  3. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J.A.

    1983-09-15

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables.

  4. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J.A.

    1983-09-15

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables.

  5. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Quercus species and Mn2+ in Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached

  6. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have shown great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successfully marketed products. Pre-dissolving drugs in lipids, surfactants, or mixtures of lipids and surfactants omits the dissolving....../dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect...

  7. Smart polyelectrolyte microcapsules as carriers for water-soluble small molecular drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixing; He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yang, Yang; Li, Junbai

    2009-10-15

    Heat treatment is introduced as a simple method for the encapsulation of low molecular weight water-soluble drugs within layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules. A water-soluble drug, procainamide hydrochloride, could thus be encapsulated in large amount and enriched by more than 2 orders of magnitude in the assembled PDADMAC/PSS capsules. The shrunk capsules could control the unloading rate of drugs, and the drugs could be easily unloaded using ultrasonic treatment. The encapsulated amount could be quantitatively controlled via the drug concentration in the bulk. We also found that smaller capsules possess higher encapsulation capability.

  8. Hydrogen production by a hyperthermophilic membrane-bound hydrogenase in water-soluble nanolipoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah E; Hopkins, Robert C; Blanchette, Craig D; Walsworth, Vicki L; Sumbad, Rhoda; Fischer, Nicholas O; Kuhn, Edward A; Coleman, Matt; Chromy, Brett A; Létant, Sonia E; Hoeprich, Paul D; Adams, Michael W W; Henderson, Paul T

    2009-06-10

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBHs), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids offer a novel means of incorporating MBHs into a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity, and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen-production devices.

  9. Water-Soluble Silicon Quantum Dots with Quasi-Blue Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Hao; Guo, Jun; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Li J.; Sun, Ying H.; Zhao, J.; Zou, Gui F.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, water-soluble silicon quantum dots have quasi-blue emission at 390 nm by being capped with 1-vinylimidazole in resese micelles. As-obtained silicon quantum dots have a diameter of 2~5 nm and high crystallinity. The quasi-blue emission of the silicon quantum dots is likely attributed to the polarity of the capping ligands. Moreover, the silicon quantum dots are water-soluble and have photoluminescence nanosecond decay time, suggesting their potential application in biological field.

  10. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  11. Characterization of inorganic species in coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using UV and IR radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, M.P. [Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)], E-mail: pazmateo@udc.es; Nicolas, G.; Yanez, A. [Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)

    2007-12-15

    In this work, the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for process control in a thermal power plant is presented through quantitative compositional characterization of the coal used for combustion. Laser-induced emission signal of seven samples with a range of concentrations was calibrated for quantification purposes. The eighth sample was subsequently analyzed five times as unknown in order to determine the precision and accuracy of the measurements. Two modes of operation, dynamic and static and two laser wavelengths, 1064 nm and 355 nm were employed in this study for comparison. The results revealed that UV wavelength provided better results than IR radiation in terms of accuracy for the quantification of inorganic species in coal after the comparison with conventional atomic absorption spectrometry characterization.

  12. Growth and Histopathological Effects of Chronic Exposition of Marine Pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis Larvae to Petroleum Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emeline Pereira Gusmão; Ricardo Vieira Rodrigues; Cauê Bonucci Moreira; Luis Alberto Romano; Luís André Sampaio; Kleber Campos Miranda-Filho

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile hydrocarbons, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds, considered deleterious to aquatic biota...

  13. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators’ preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  14. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  15. The speciation of water-soluble Al and Zn in the rhizosphere of forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Sauvé, Sébastien; Courchesne, François

    2010-06-01

    This study focuses on the relationships of dissolved Al and Zn speciation with microbial and chemical soil properties in the bulk and rhizosphere of forest soils. The soil components were sampled under Populus tremuloides Michx. at six sites located close to industrial facilities. Total water-soluble (Al(WS), Zn(WS)) and reactive (Al(R), Zn(R)) Al and Zn concentrations measured in soil water extracts, speciation data modeled by WHAM 6, chemical properties (pH, DOC, major cations and anions) and microbial properties (microbial biomass and enzyme activities) were measured on all soils. Enrichment in Al(R) and Zn(R) was observed in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soils. In a given soil material, the speciation of Al and Zn varied according to solution pH and Al-organic as well as Zn-organic complexes or Zn(2+) were generally the dominant species. The factors controlling the Al(WS), Zn(WS), Al(R) and Zn(R) concentrations differed between soil components, shifting from strictly chemical in the bulk (78%) to interactions among microbial and chemical variables in the rhizosphere (87%). Results further indicate that organic matter and pH were significantly linked to these response variables in the rhizosphere. Involvement of rhizospheric microorganisms occurred via pH changes induced by either the microbial assimilation of nitrogen or through the release of metals during the mineralization of roots. Our results therefore suggest that microbial activity is an important component of the biogeochemistry of Al and Zn in the rhizosphere. The study further provides key information to improve the assessment of ecological risk associated to Al and Zn in forest soils.

  16. Chemical characterization of extractable water soluble matter associated with PM10 from Mexico City during 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Castillo, M E; Olivos-Ortiz, M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A; Cebrián, M E

    2005-11-01

    We report the chemical composition of PM10-associated water-soluble species in Mexico City during the second semester of 2000. PM10 samples were collected at four ambient air quality monitoring sites in Mexico City. We determined soluble ions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium), ionizable transition metals (Zn, Fe, Ti, Pb, Mn, V, Ni, Cr, Cu) and soluble protein. The higher PM(10) levels were observed in Xalostoc (45-174 microg m(-3)) and the lowest in Pedregal (19-54 microg m(-3)). The highest SO2 average concentrations were observed in Tlalnepantla, NO2 in Merced and O3 and NO(x) in Pedregal. The concentration range of soluble sulfate was 6.7-7.9 and 19-25.5 microg m(-3) for ammonium, and 14.8-29.19 for soluble V and 3.2-7.7 ng m(-3) for Ni, suggesting a higher contribution of combustion sources. PM-associated soluble protein levels varied between 0.038 and 0.169 mg m(-3), representing a readily inhalable constituent that could contribute to adverse outcomes. The higher levels for most parameters studied were observed during the cold dry season, particularly in December. A richer content of soluble metals was observed when they were expressed by mass/mass units rather than by air volume units. Significant correlations between Ni-V, Ni-SO4(-2), V-SO4(-2), V-SO2, Ni-SO2 suggest the same type of emission source. The variable soluble metal and ion concentrations were strongly influenced by the seasonal meteoclimatic conditions and the differential contribution of emission sources. Our data support the idea that PM10 mass concentration by itself does not provide a clear understanding of a local PM air pollution problem.

  17. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  18. Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.

    1999-02-26

    In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that

  19. Charge-specific size-dependent separation of water-soluble organic molecules by fluorinated nanoporous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jeehye; Patel, Hasmukh A.; Thirion, Damien; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2016-11-01

    Molecular architecture in nanoscale spaces can lead to selective chemical interactions and separation of species with similar sizes and functionality. Substrate specific sorbent chemistry is well known through highly crystalline ordered structures such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks and widely available nanoporous carbons. Size and charge-dependent separation of aqueous molecular contaminants, on the contrary, have not been adequately developed. Here we report a charge-specific size-dependent separation of water-soluble molecules through an ultra-microporous polymeric network that features fluorines as the predominant surface functional groups. Treatment of similarly sized organic molecules with and without charges shows that fluorine interacts with charges favourably. Control experiments using similarly constructed frameworks with or without fluorines verify the fluorine-cation interactions. Lack of a σ-hole for fluorine atoms is suggested to be responsible for this distinct property, and future applications of this discovery, such as desalination and mixed matrix membranes, may be expected to follow.

  20. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  1. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  2. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  3. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude oil on Clarias ... Heavy metal and total hydrocarbon contents of the water and fish were ... THC concentrations in fish were higher at 96 hours and 14days than in the water ...

  4. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  5. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis of Water-Soluble Spruce O-Acetyl Galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Vahasalo, L.; Hemming, J.; Holmbom, B.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) is a softwood-derived polysaccharide, which can be extracted on an industrial scale from wood or mechanical pulping waters and now is available in kilogram scale for research and development of value-added products. To develop applications of GGM, info

  6. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a simple water-soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bin; Feng, Ke; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-08-21

    Combined with a simple water soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic 1, Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and ascorbic acid enable hydrogen production photocatalytically. More than 88 equivalents of H(2) were achieved in water, which is much better than that obtained in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water.

  7. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross-

  8. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross

  9. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei Liu; Yu Zhang; Cun Wang Ge; Yong Long Jin; Sun Ling Hu; Ning Gu

    2009-01-01

    Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized with an electrogenerated precursor. The obtained CdTe QDs can possess good crystallizability, high quantum yield (QY) and favorable stability. Furthermore, a detection system is designed firstly for the investigation of the temperature-dependent PL of the QDs.

  10. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  11. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L) monosaccharide/me

  12. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  13. Novel Water Soluble Fluorescent Trimethine Indocyanines Containing N-p-Carboxybenzyl Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two fluorescent indocyanine dyes containing at least one p-carboxybenzyl group on the nitrogen atoms in the hetcrocyclic rings were designed and synthesized. Their absorption maxima were 549 nm and 551 nm in water respectively. They had good water solubility and photostability.

  14. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement.

  15. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...

  16. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefins...

  17. Water-soluble vitamin deficiencies in complicated peptic ulcer patients soon after ulcer onset in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Akimoto, Teppei; Kusakabe, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Shinpuku, Mayumi; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Ueki, Nobue; Kusunoki, Masafumi; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Futagami, Seiji; Tsukui, Taku; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated over time whether contemporary Japanese patients with complicated peptic ulcers have any water-soluble vitamin deficiencies soon after the onset of the complicated peptic ulcers. In this prospective cohort study, fasting serum levels of water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, and folic acid) and homocysteine were measured at 3 time points (at admission, hospital discharge, and 3 mo after hospital discharge). Among the 20 patients who were enrolled in the study, 10 consecutive patients who completed measurements at all 3 time points were analyzed. The proportion of patients in whom any of the serum water-soluble vitamins that we examined were deficient was as high as 80% at admission, and remained at 70% at discharge. The proportion of patients with vitamin B6 deficiency was significantly higher at admission and discharge (50% and 60%, respectively, ppeptic ulcers may have a deficiency of one or more water-soluble vitamins in the early phase of the disease after the onset of ulcer complications, even in a contemporary Japanese population.

  18. CORAL: QSPR model of water solubility based on local and global SMILES attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Water solubility is an important characteristic of a chemical in many aspects. However experimental definition of the endpoint for all substances is impossible. In this study quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) for negative logarithm of water solubility-logS (mol L(-1)) are built up for five random splits into the sub-training set (≈55%), the calibration set (≈25%), and the test set (≈20%). Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is used as the representation of the molecular structure. Optimal SMILES-based descriptors are calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method using the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). These one-variable models for water solubility are characterized by the following average values of the statistical characteristics: n(sub_train)=725-763; n(calib)=312-343; n(test)=231-261; r(sub_train)(2)=0.9211±0.0028; r(calib)(2)=0.9555±0.0045; r(test)(2)=0.9365±0.0073; s(sub_train)=0.561±0.0086; s(calib)=0.453±0.0209; s(test)=0.520±0.0205. Thus, the reproducibility of statistical quality of suggested models for water solubility confirmed for five various splits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal variations of the abundance and optical properties of water soluble Humic-Like Substances (HULIS) in PM2.5 at Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-05-01

    Humic-Like Substances (HULIS) are important macromolecular compounds that are present in PM2.5 and play significant roles in the atmospheric environment. In this study, 48 PM2.5 samples were collected from February 2010 to January 2011 at an urban site in Guangzhou, southern China. The water soluble HULIS fractions in PM2.5 were analyzed to explore the temporal variation of abundance and optical properties and to identify their possible sources. The HULIS concentrations were in the range of 0.4 to 8.2 μg C m- 3, with a mean of 2.4 μg C m- 3. HULIS are important components in organic aerosols, accounting for 17 ± 5% of the organic carbon (OC), and 49 ± 6 and 68 ± 5% of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as determined with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer and UV absorbance at 250 nm, respectively. The special UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm and 280 nm and the E250/E365 ratio of HULIS were 3.2 ± 0.5 L (m mg C)- 1, 2.2 ± 0.4 L (m mg C)- 1, and 5.9 ± 0.9, respectively. The HULIS fractions had higher concentrations, slightly higher SUVA values, and lower E250/E365 ratios from November to January, indicating the important contribution of aromatic compounds to HULIS in the dry season. The concentrations of HULIS were positively correlated with water soluble K+, secondary organic carbon (SOC), and secondary inorganic ions (NH4+, NO3-, and SO42 -). These results suggest that biomass burning and secondary photochemical formation are both sources of HULIS in our study area. In addition, the SUVA280 of HULIS was strongly correlated with K+ and SOC, suggesting that HULIS properties were also influenced by their primary source of biomass burning and secondary atmospheric formation.

  20. INFLUENCE OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS OF RESTORED SULFUR ONTO TOXIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL AND WASTE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frog Boris Nikolaevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever environmental pollution by sulphur compounds is under discussion, the latter contemplate those compounds that may be subjected to consideration through the employment of methods of analytical control. First of all, sulphates and volatile compounds of partially or completely restored sulphur, such as SO2, H2S, methyl sulphur compounds (merkaptans, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and others may be subjected to control. Elementary sulphur that is contained in the water is difficult to analyze. At the same time, an extensive group of water-soluble compounds of restored sulphur is not considered by numerous nature protection organizations. As a rule, they do not possess distinct analytical properties. The latter include any organic and inorganic thio-acids and their combinations with ions of transitive metals, in particular, with ions of monovalent copper. Microcolloidal (nano- particles of FeS may also be included into this group of compounds. The objective of the article is to generate the awareness of those compounds of reduced sulphur that are out of control. By virtue of this article, the authors apply to specialists in water treatment, water conditioning and water quality regulation.

  1. Composition, hygroscopicity and light absorption of water-soluble fraction of PM2.5 at a rural site near Beijing%华北农村大气PM2.5中水溶性物质化学组成、吸湿性能及光学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳妮; 王格慧

    2016-01-01

    scattering and absorbing, transportation, gasparticle phase partitioning and aqueous reaction. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition,hygroscopic growth factor and optical absorption efficiency of fine particles at Gucheng, a rural site with a distance of about 100 km southwest to Beijing. Materials and methods 121 PM2.5 samples were collected during June 10th—25th 2013 at Gucheng, Hebei Province by using high-volume sampler (1.13 m3∙min−1) with a 3 h interval. The samples were measured for element carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), watersoluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), inorganic ions, hygroscopic growth factor (Gf) and optical mass absorption efficiency (MAE) at 365 nm light wavelength. Results During sampling period PM2.5 ranged from 5.0 μg∙m−3 to 372 μg∙m−3 with an average of 135 μg∙m−3, which was about two times the national air quality secondary standard (GB 3095—2012, 75 μg∙m−3). During the sampling period , and were the dominant inorganic ions, accounting for 29%, 30%, 14% of the total inorganic ions, respectively. The average concentration of WSON was 5.0 ± 4.0 μg∙m−3 with a maximum of 15 μg∙m−3 during the whole campaign and four times higher in polluted periods (6.9 ± 3.9 μg∙m−3) than in the clean periods (1.7 ± 0.9 μg∙m−3). In the whole sampling period WSON well correlated with , and (R2 > 0.89), and enahced with an increase in the equivalent ratio of cations to anions from 1.01 in the polluted periods to 1.45 in the clean periods, suggesting that acidity of PM2.5 was favorable for the gas-to-particle partitioning of WSON species such as low molecular weight amines. Hygroscopic growth factors (Gf) of the water-soluble fraction of the PM2.5 samples were measured by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The results showed that Gf negatively correlated with the mass ratio of (WSOC + WSON) to (inorganic ions), indicating that water-soluble

  2. Water Solubility in the Proto-Lunar Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, E. H.; Nakajima, M.

    2016-12-01

    The giant impact model is the scenario most widely accepted for the origin of the Moon, yet no satisfactory version of this model exists to explain the Earth-like H2O content of primitive lunar magmas. Here we investigate the likelihood that H2O from the Earth was transferred to the Moon in the aftermath of the giant impact. Nearly all variants of the giant impact model produce an energetic impact-generated debris disk that eventually coalesces to form the Moon [1]. Here we investigate the behavior of H2O in disks of Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) composition produced by three impact scenarios; (a) the standard model of a Mars-sized impactor striking the proto-Earth [2]; (b) impact into a fast-spinning Earth [3]; and (c) impact of two sub-earths each being half the mass of the current Earth [4]. All of these models have been shown to be sufficiently energetic that, at maximum entropy and hydrostatic equilibrium following the impact, most of the mass of the proto-lunar disk consists of silicate melt and vapor, with vapor mass fractions ranging from 20-100% and mid-plane temperatures of 3500-6000K [1]. From these models, we calculate the 2D axisymmetric pressure structure of the disk, and calculate the solubility of H2O in liquid droplets that condense from the vapor atmosphere. Assuming a high bulk Earth H2O content of 1000 ppm, at the Roche radius and close to the disk midplane where pressures are highest (1 to 1000 bars), the mass fraction of all H-bearing species in the vapor is calculated to be ≤0.001, and the maximum H2O solubility in silicate melt is predicted to be ppm because most of the water is dissociated at these high temperatures, in agreement with [5]. As the disk cools past the condensation of silicate vapor, the remaining vapor is dominated by Na and similarly volatile elements, with H2O a minor component of the vapor phase from 2500-1000K. The calculated vapor pressures are low at the midplane with strong vertical gradients, and thus calculated H2O

  3. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W.; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine.

  4. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its temperature-resolved carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) can improve our understanding of the chemical properties, formation processes and sources of WSOC in aerosols. We developed a method that can examine different temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC and used this method to characterize aerosol samples (n = 102) collected from an urban site in Beijing in 2010-2011. The aerosol composition data including inorganic ions, elements and temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC were used as input of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to investigate the sources of WSOC. The results showed that the mean concentrations of WSOC were 10.2 μg m- 3 with increased values in winter and decreased values in summer, while WSOC/OC ratios (mean: 51.7%) were higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The sampling artifacts of WSOC (18.2%) were higher than those of OC (13.4%). Though WSOC was significantly influenced by biomass burning in spring and winter, the strong correlations between WSOC and other secondary components suggested that WSOC was secondary in nature. Results of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of OC and WSOC showed that WSOC/OC ratios for different carbon fractions had the highest value of 0.92 and lowest value of 0.30. PMF analysis identified four factors, three of which were associated with three organic polar compounds groups (low, medium, and high molecular weight compounds) based on their thermal evolution features, and one of which was attributed to inorganic secondary formation processes. Annually, the contributions of four factors were 20.5%, 46.2%, 12.4% and 20.9%, respectively.

  5. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  6. Preliminary studies on identification of inorganic species in complex mixtures by electrospray mass spectrometry in the counter ion mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, Sahana

    1999-11-08

    Suppression of mass spectral peaks due to matrix problem is a major hurdle to overcome during identification work. So far, preliminary studies have been done in investigating solutions containing various percentages of nitric and hydrochloric acid. Since other anions would also be present in real samples, also needed to be examined is how the extent of suppression of metal complexes by Cl{sup {minus}} compares with suppression by other anions such as PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. If suppression of other anions is as severe as that of the chloride ion, then it would be virtually impossible to analyze unknown samples containing large amount of such anions by direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. It seems like a separation step is needed to separate these matrix anions from the metal complexes prior to putting the solution through the electrospray. However, separation of inorganic complexes can be difficult and has not been studied thoroughly as LC separation of bioorganic compounds. Both zinc and copper chloro complexes have been observed to be more tolerant to higher amount of chloride ion present in a solution compared to the group I and II metal chloro complexes. Other transition metals including the lanthanide complexes need to be examined more intensively to see how they fare against other transition metal complexes. So far, only preliminary work has been done in identifying inorganic species in solutions using both ICP-MS and ES-MS. The solution contained a number of metals but only one major anion, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Therefore, complex solutions containing a number of anions and metals can be examined to see if identification is still feasible. This identification work can be continued on into investigating real samples.

  7. Determination of inorganic species of Sb and Te in cereals by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Mariela N.M.; Cervera, Maria L.; Guardia, Miguel de la, E-mail: m.luisa.cervera@uv.e [University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    A non-chromatographic fast, sensitive and easy method has been developed for the determination of Sb(III), Sb(V), Te(IV) and Te(VI) in cereal samples. The procedure is based on ultrasound assisted extraction and determination by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS). Preliminary studies were made in order to get the best extraction efficiency using 1 mol L{sup -1} phosphoric acid, 1 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid, aqua regia, 1 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid and 6 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. The extraction with aqua regia showed a clear interconversion of the species during the process, being H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} the best extractant with efficiencies greater than 90% from the total content of Sb and Te quantified previously and without species interconversion. This point was checked by recovery experiments at different spiked levels. The method provided limits of detection values from 0.1 to 0.5 ng g{sup -1} with relative standard deviation values from 5.4 to 9.2% of 10 independent analysis of samples containing few ng g-1 of Sb and Te species. (author)

  8. Speciative determination of total V and dissolved inorganic vanadium species in environmental waters by catalytic–kinetic spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Gürkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic determination of V(V as a catalyst was spectrophotometrically performed by using the indicator reaction of Gallamine blue (GB+ and bromate at pH 2.0. The reaction was followed by measuring absorbance change for a fixed-time of 3 min at 537 nm. The variables such as reagent concentration, pH, buffer concentration, ionic strength and temperature were optimized to improve the selectivity and sensitivity. Under the optimized conditions, the determination of V(V was performed in the range 1–100 μg L−1 with limits of detection and quantification of 0.31 and 0.94 μg L−1. The developed kinetic method is sufficiently sensitive, selective and simple. It was successfully applied to the speciative determination of total V and inorganic dissolved vanadium species, V(V and V(IV in environmental water samples. The oxidizing property of permanganate is used to differentiate between V(IV and V(V species. The V(IV content was found by subtracting the V(V content from those of total V. The recovery is above 95% for V(V spiked samples. Additionally, the accuracy was validated by analysis of a certified water sample, CRM TMDA-53.3, and the results were in good agreement with the certified value.

  9. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  10. Source apportionment of size-segregated atmospheric particles based on the major water-soluble components in Lecce (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, D., E-mail: d.contini@isac.cnr.it [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Cesari, D. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Genga, A.; Siciliano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Ielpo, P. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque, IRSA-CNR, Bari (Italy); Guascito, M.R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Conte, M. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have potential effects on human health, on the radiation balance, on climate, and on visibility. The understanding of these effects requires detailed knowledge of aerosol composition and size distributions and of how the different sources contribute to particles of different sizes. In this work, aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Measurements were taken between February and October 2011 in an urban background site near Lecce (Apulia region, southeast of Italy). Samples were analysed to evaluate the concentrations of water-soluble ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) and of water-soluble organic and inorganic carbon. The aerosols were characterised by two modes, an accumulation mode having a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.35 ± 0.02 μm, representing 51 ± 4% of the aerosols and a coarse mode (MMD = 4.5 ± 0.4 μm), representing 49 ± 4% of the aerosols. The data were used to estimate the losses in the impactor by comparison with a low-volume sampler. The average loss in the MOUDI-collected aerosol was 19 ± 2%, and the largest loss was observed for NO{sub 3}{sup −} (35 ± 10%). Significant losses were observed for Ca{sup 2+} (16 ± 5%), SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} (19 ± 5%) and K{sup +} (10 ± 4%), whereas the losses for Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} were negligible. Size-segregated source apportionment was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which was applied separately to the coarse (size interval 1–18 μm) and accumulation (size interval 0.056–1 μm) modes. The PMF model was able to reasonably reconstruct the concentration in each size-range. The uncertainties in the source apportionment due to impactor losses were evaluated. In the accumulation mode, it was not possible to distinguish the traffic contribution from other combustion sources. In the coarse mode, it was not possible to

  11. Chemical characteristics and light-absorbing property of water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing: Biomass burning contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Sullivan, Amy P.; Bosch, Carme; Desyaterik, Yury; Andersson, August; Li, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoshuang; Zhou, Tian; Gustafsson, Örjan; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning contribute significantly to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon). Ambient atmospheric samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing during winter and summer, along with source samples from residential crop straw burning. Carbonaceous aerosol species, including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), WSOC and multiple saccharides as well as water-soluble potassium (K+) in PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with size less than 2.5 μm) were measured. Chemical signatures of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during winter and summer days with significant biomass burning influence were identified. Meanwhile, light absorption by WSOC was measured and quantitatively compared to EC at ground level. The results from this study indicated that levoglucosan exhibited consistently high concentrations (209 ± 145 ng m-3) in winter. Ratios of levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) and levoglucosan/galacosan (L/G) indicated that residential biofuel use is an important source of biomass burning aerosol in winter in Beijing. Light absorption coefficient per unit ambient WSOC mass calculated at 365 nm is approximately 1.54 ± 0.16 m2 g-1 in winter and 0.73 ± 0.15 m2 g-1 in summer. Biomass burning derived WSOC accounted for 23 ± 7% and 16 ± 7% of total WSOC mass, and contributed to 17 ± 4% and 19 ± 5% of total WSOC light absorption in winter and summer, respectively. It is noteworthy that, up to 30% of total WSOC light absorption was attributed to biomass burning in significant biomass-burning-impacted summer day. Near-surface light absorption (over the range 300-400 nm) by WSOC was about ∼40% of that by EC in winter and ∼25% in summer.

  12. Sensitization potential of dental resins: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and its water-soluble oligomers have immunostimulatory effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Fukumoto

    Full Text Available The immunostimulatory effects of the representative dental resin monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, a HEMA derivative that does not contain a double bond (2-hydroxyethyl isobutyrate, HEIB, and polymerized water-soluble oligomers of HEMA (PHEMA were investigated. It is known that expression levels of either or both of CD54 and CD86 in THP-1 cells are increased by exposure to sensitizing substances. In this study, the expression levels of CD54 and CD86, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the viability of the cells were measured after 24 h of incubation with these materials at different concentrations. The concentrations of the materials that induced the expression of both CD54 and CD86 were low in the following order: NiSO4, HEMA, and methyl methacrylate (MMA. These results indicate that these dental resin monomers have lower sensitizing potentials than NiSO4. Although HEIB, which lacks a double bond, resulted in negligible ROS production and reduced cytotoxicity than HEMA, it induced the expression of CD54 and CD86. Comparison of the results for HEMA and HEIB indicates that dental resin monomer-induced sensitization may be related not only to the oxidative stress related to the methacryloyl group but also to the structures of these compounds. Of particular interest is the result that a water-soluble PHEMA oligomer with a relatively high-molecular weight also exhibited negligible cytotoxicity, whereas the expression level of CD54 increased after exposure to PHEMA at a high concentration. This result serves as a warning that polymerized substances also have the potential to induce sensitization. This study provides insight into the nature of allergic responses to dental resin materials in clinical use and may facilitate the development of more biocompatible restorative materials in the future.

  13. Estimation of dry deposition fluxes of major inorganic species by canopy throughfall approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei; SHAO Min; ZENG Limin; ZHAO Dawei; TANG Dagang

    2006-01-01

    Dry deposition in China has not yet been intensively studied even though it constitutes an important pathway for acid deposition. The total deposition was monitored at Tieshanping catchment, a regional remote site in Chongqing City. The dry deposition loads of sulphur, calcium and nitrogen are estimated by using a canopy throughfall approach. The results indicate that the annual dry deposition loads of sulphur and calcium at Tieshanping site are much higher than those measured in forestry areas in other countries, while the dry deposition flux of nitrogen is at a comparable level. The dry deposition loads of sulphur, calcium and nitrogen are all higher than the wet deposition loads. Applying a canopy budget model has proven that the routine, simplified canopy throughfall approach may underestimate the dry deposition flux of nitrogen-containing species.

  14. Characterization of Dried and Torrefied Arundo Donax Biomass for Inorganic Species Prior to Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Johnson, Bradley R.; Cabe, James E.

    2012-08-01

    Portland General Electric (PGE) potentially plans to replace the coal with torrefied Arundo donax for their Boardman coal-fired power plant by 2020. Since there is only a limited amount of experience with this high yield energy crop, PGE would like to characterize raw and torrefied Arundo before a test burn and therefore avoid possible ash related operational problems such as slagging, deposit formation and corrosion. This report describes the results from characterization of ground and cross-sectioned samples of Arundo with a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and also includes analytical results from a short water-leaching test for concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, and Cl in the non-leached and leached Arundo and leachates. SEM-EDS analysis of torrefied Arundo revealed that condensation of volatile components during torrefaction can result in their undesirable re-deposition on the outside surfaces in the form of amorphous or crystallized clusters with a size from a few µm’s to as large as 100 µm. A short exposure of Arundo to water resulted in an efficient removal of volatile species from the raw and torrefied Arundo, e.g., ~ 98 wt% of total K and Cl, and ~75 wt% of total S were removed from raw Arundo, and more than 90 wt% of total K and Cl, and 70 wt% of S from torrefied Arundo, suggesting that water-leaching of Arundo before combustion can be an effective pre-treatment method because high concentrations of Cl increase emissions of HCl, and in combination with K can form large amounts of KCl deposits on boiler surfaces and in combination with H2O or SO3 cause corrosion.

  15. Online Measurements of Water-Soluble Iron in Ambient Aerosols: A new Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N.; Oakes, M.; Weber, R. J.; Majestic, B. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Snyder, D. C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2008-05-01

    Water-soluble iron, i.e. Fe(II) (hereafter, WS-Fe), is a redox active metal that can act as a catalyst in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In atmospheric aerosol particles, WS-Fe may significantly impact human health and the atmospheric oxidative capacity. Further, WS-Fe acts as a critical nutrient for marine organisms and has been hypothesized to limit phytoplankton productivity in high nitrate, low-chlorophyll ocean regions. In order to assess the role of aerosol WS-Fe on human health, atmospheric chemistry and ocean biogeochemistry, it is necessary to understand its major sources, transport, transformation processes and sinks. Filter-based measurements with several (6-24) hours integration time are predominately used to quantify WS-Fe in aerosols but provide limited insight into acute exposures that could be higher than daily averages, or sources having high temporal variability. Generally, mineral dust and its processing with acidic pollutants, is considered the dominant source of WS-Fe, however, recent studies have reported combustion emissions are also a possible source. A time-resolved data set may help in identifying WS-Fe sources, atmospheric transformations and possible sinks. We have developed a new system for online quantitative analyses of WS-Fe present in ambient aerosols with a 12-minute integration time. It mainly consists of Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a portable UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The complete system is automated so that first the liquid sample (water-extract of ambient aerosols from PILS) is mixed with ferrozine (complexing reagent) by pumping them simultaneously (10:1) through a serpentine reactor and a 100 turn mixing coil using a peristaltic pump. After holding the mixed solution in the mixing coil for three minutes, the sample is pumped through the LWCC and held there for two minutes to acquire the absorbance of the solution at 562 nm (for Fe

  16. External inorganic N source enhances the uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) amended with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Li, Guoliang; Yang, Baomei; Deng, Xiancai

    2013-06-15

    Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, is excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly applied with N fertilizer to meet the N demand of crop. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum plants fertilized with chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites, combined with different inorganic N sources (NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and urea), respectively. The change of pH, N forms and As species in soils was examined as well. The results show that As(V), As(III) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detectable in soils, and conversions between As species were affected by three inorganic N sources, irrespective of N form and soil pH. As(III) was the sole As species in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) could be detected in roots. Urea, superior to NH₄(+), significantly enhanced the uptake of As species in plants by promoting plant growth, while NO₃(-) slightly reduced the As accumulation due to decreased biomass. As(III) was the dominant As compound (86.9-89.7%) in plants. Therefore, inorganic N fertilizers may inadvertently increase the risk of As contamination in plant from ROX via the way ROX→chicken→CM→soil→crop.

  17. Water-soluble UV curable urethane methyl acrylate coating:preparation and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕彦; 罗英武; 李宝芳; 李伯耿

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble and ultraviolet (UV) curable oligomers were synthesized and characterized. The oligomers were evaluated as resins for water-based UV curable coating. The rheology of the two oligomers' aqueous so-lutions was investigated in terms of solid fraction, pH dependence, and temperature dependence. The solutions were found to be Newtonian fluid showing rather low viscosity even at high solid fraction of 0.55. The drying process of the coatings and the properties of the cured coatings were studied by comparing them with water-dispersed UV-curable polyurethane methyl acrylate. It was evident that the water-soluble coating dried more slowly; and that the overall properties were inferior to those of the water-dispersed coating.

  18. Water-soluble UV curable urethane methyl acrylate coating:preparation and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕彦; 罗英武; 李宝芳; 李伯耿

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble and ultraviolet (UV) curable oligomers were synthesized and characterized. The oligomers were evaluated as resins for water-based UV curable coating. The rheology of the two oligomers' aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of solid fraction, pH dependence, and temperature dependence. The solutions were found to be Newtonian fluid showing rather low viscosity even at high solid fraction of 0.55. The drying process of the coatings and the properties of the cured coatings were studied by comparing them with water-dispersed UV-curable polyurethane methyl acrylate. It was evident that the water-soluble coating dried more slowly; and that the overall properties were inferior to those of the water-dispersed coating.

  19. Phosphated cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Mollings Puentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of phosphated α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic substrates is described. Two sets of phosphated cyclodextrins, one with degrees of substitution in the 2–6 range, the other with degrees of substitution in the 6–10 range, are examined. Results with 33 water-soluble cationic substrates are reported. We also explored the possibility that the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide ions such as praseodymium(III and ytterbium(III further enhances the enantiomeric differentiation in the NMR spectra. The chiral differentiation with the phosphated cyclodextrins is compared to prior results obtained with anionic carboxymethylated cyclodextrins. There are a number of examples where a larger differentiation is observed with the phosphated cyclodextrins.

  20. CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Chaudhary * 1 and J. K. Patel 2

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, melting, kneding, spray drying, freeze drying, co-evaporation has been reported to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. The formation of inclusion complex can be confirmed by DSC, FTIR, XRD and SEM study. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrines as complexing agents to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and hence to resolve the many issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.

  1. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  2. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  3. Biodegradation of the water-soluble gasoline components in a novel hybrid bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De-Jesus, A.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.; Santoyo-Tepole, F.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez Mayer, J. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, ' ' Centro Operativo Naranjo' ' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel hybrid bioreactor was designed to remove volatile organic compounds from water contaminated with water-soluble gasoline components, and the performance of this new bioreactor was investigated. It was composed of two biotrickling filter sections and one biofilter section. The liquid phase pollutants were removed by a mixed culture in the biotrickling filter sections and the gas phase pollutants stripped by air injection in the biofilter section. The specific rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained in the reactor were directly proportional to the pollutant-loading rate. A stable operation of the hybrid bioreactor was attained for long periods of time. The bioreactor had the potential to simultaneously treat a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, e.g., those present in the water-soluble fraction of gasoline, as well as the capacity to readily adapt to changing operational conditions, such as an increased contaminant loading, and variations in the airflow rate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations.

  5. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian C; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H; Cheetamun, Roshan; Bacic, Antony; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-06-25

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product is low in protein, fat, and minerals and contains predominantly water-soluble polysaccharides of high molar mass, including arabinan, type I arabinogalactan, homogalacturonan, xyloglucan, rhamnogalacturonan, and (glucurono)arabinoxylan. This treatment provides a straightforward approach for generation of soluble soy polysaccharides and opens a new range of opportunities for this abundant and underutilized material in future research and industrial applications.

  6. Phosphated cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Cira Mollings

    2017-01-01

    Summary The utility of phosphated α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic substrates is described. Two sets of phosphated cyclodextrins, one with degrees of substitution in the 2–6 range, the other with degrees of substitution in the 6–10 range, are examined. Results with 33 water-soluble cationic substrates are reported. We also explored the possibility that the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide ions such as praseodymium(III) and ytterbium(III) further enhances the enantiomeric differentiation in the NMR spectra. The chiral differentiation with the phosphated cyclodextrins is compared to prior results obtained with anionic carboxymethylated cyclodextrins. There are a number of examples where a larger differentiation is observed with the phosphated cyclodextrins.

  7. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Trotta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material.

  9. Chemical composition, properties, and antimicrobial activity of the water-soluble pigments from Castanea mollissima shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Su-Kun; Wen, Jia-Long; Ma, Chao; Xu, Feng

    2014-02-26

    Agricultural residues Castanea mollissima shells represent a promising resource for natural pigments for the food industry. This study provides a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of water-soluble pigments (CSP) from C. mollissima shells, which were obtained by 50% ethanol with microwave-assisted extraction. Spectroscopic techniques (UV, FT-IR, (13)C NMR), elemental analysis, and chromatographic techniques (HPAEC, GPC) revealed that the main components in the CSP were flavonoids procyanidin B3 (condensed tannin), quercetin-3-O-glycoside, and steroidal sapogenins. As a consequence, CSP was water-soluble and presented significant DPPH scavenge capacity (EC50 value was 0.057 mg/mL). Specially, CSP gave excellent antibacterial activity, and even better than 5% aqueous phenol in some case. Moreover, CSP was practically nontoxic and exhibited good stability with temperature, natural light, and metal ions. These outstanding properties will enlarge the application of CSP for natural food additives production.

  10. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel water-soluble prodrugs of buparvaquone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko; Nevalainen, Tapio; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vepsälainen, Jouko; Järvinen, Tomi

    2004-10-01

    Novel water-soluble phosphate prodrugs (2b-5b) of buparvaquone-oxime (1a) and buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as potential oral prodrugs against leishmaniasis. Buparvaquone-oxime (1a), and most probably also buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b), released the parent buparvaquone via a cytochrome P450-catalysed reaction. The prodrugs 2b-5b showed significantly higher aqueous solubilities (>4 mg/ml) than buparvaquone ( 8 days). Although buparvaquone-oxime (1a) has been shown to undergo a cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidation in liver microsomes to the parent buparvaquone and behave as a novel bioreversible prodrug, its usefulness is limited in oral drug delivery due to its poor aqueous solubility, like buparvaquone itself. Further phosphorylation of an oxime form of buparvaquone significantly increased water solubility, and this novel approach is therefore useful to improve physicochemical properties of drugs containing a ketone functional group.

  11. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP. In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate.

  12. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins: Cellular and Molecular Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    The water-soluble vitamins represent a group of structurally and functionally unrelated compounds that share the common feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth, and development. With the exception of some endogenous production of niacin, human cells cannot synthesize...... or deficiency. An impaired absorptive function occurs in a variety of conditions including congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive processes, intestinal diseases, drug interaction, and chronic alcohol use....

  13. Water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ming-An; Chen, Pei-Qing; Wang, Si-Bing

    2007-07-20

    New water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents, ficuscarpanoside A, guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and erythro-guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, along with known guaiacylglycerol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol, 4-methoxy guaiacylglycerol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) propan-1,2-diol, have been isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  14. Interlaboratory validation of small-scale solubility and dissolution measurements of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Sara B. E.; Alvebratt, Caroline; Bevernage, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interlaboratory variability in determination of apparent solubility (Sapp) and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) using a miniaturized dissolution instrument. Three poorly water-soluble compounds were selected as reference compounds and measured...... the concentrations reached are typically below the limit of detection. The following guidelines were established: for compounds with Sapp >1 mg/mL, the disc method is recommended. For compounds with Sapp

  15. Lipid-nanoemulsions as drug delivery carriers for poorly-water soluble drug

    OpenAIRE

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade; F. V. Manvi; Basavaraj K. Nanjwade; Katare, O P

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug Aceclofenac, a lipidnanoemulsion comprising ethanolic solution of phospholipid 90 G and tween 80 in 1:1 ratio (Smix), triacetin and anseed oil as oil phase and distilled water as aqueous phase, in the ratio of 55:15:30 (% w/w) was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for viscosity, % transmittance, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. In vitro diffusion (release) of Aceclofenac from three diff...

  16. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-05

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine.

  17. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weigh...

  18. Prediction of water solubilities for selected PCDDs/PCCDFs with COSMO-RS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleszek-Kudlak, S.; Grabda, M.; Shibata, E.; Nakamura, T. [Inst. of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Rosik-Dulewska, C. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well identified contaminants ubiquitous in the environment. Of the various parameters that affect the fate and behavior of environmental organic compounds, water solubility is one of the most important. However, when we are studying the aqueous behavior of organic chemicals, we should also take into consideration and evaluate several parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved organic matter) influencing their solubility. Among the 210 congeners (mono- to octa-chlorinated) of PCDDs and PCDFs, water solubility values are available for a few congeners only. The reported aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs are often scattered, despite most of them having been measured by the generator column method, recognized as the most accurate for the determination of the water solubility of hydrophobic organic chemicals. These discrepancies reflect an important problem associated with difficulties in the preparation of the saturated solution and in the analytical measurements, particularly of compounds with a solubility below 1 ppb. In practice, the high cost of the experimental determinations also limits the field of research. In recent years, investigators have developed a number of calculational methods to predict the water solubility of organic chemicals. One of them is the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) introduced by Klamt et al. This model was successfully used for finding the solubilities of chlorobenzenes (ClBZs) at a wider range of temperatures (from 5 to 60 C) and in a salty environment. In this study, we have applied COSMO-RS to determine the aqueous solubilities of 19 PCDDs/ PCDFs at 25 C. Additionally, we measured the solubilities of 7 PCDDs/PCDFs using the generator column method at 25 C. We used these data and those available from the literature to estimate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS calculations.

  19. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  20. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefin...... PEI-PNH as ligands show lower stability and activity in both SAPC and biphasic applications....

  1. Preparation and characterization of complexes of RE3+ with furfural modified water-soluble chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoyuan; QIU Ligan; MA Guilin

    2008-01-01

    Degraded chitosan, with highly water-solubility, was obtained by the oxidation of chitosan with H2O2, and then reacted with furfural The final product coordinated with the rare earth ions (RE3+ = Sm3+,Eu3+), which led to the formation of the complexes. The prepared complexes were characterized with Inflated Spectroscopy (IR), Ultra Violet (UV), fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Thermogravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements.

  2. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  3. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  4. Enhanced water-solubility and antibacterial activity of novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cheng, Honghao; Li, Jianna; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Ge, Zaochuan; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has been widely recognized as an important biomaterial due to its good antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, CS is insoluble in water in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution due to the linear aggregation of chain molecules and the formation of crystallinity. This is one of the key factors that limit its practical applications. Therefore, improving the solubility of CS in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution is a primary research direction for biomedical applications. In this paper, a reactive antibacterial compound (4-(2,5-Dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yloxycarbonyl)-benzyl)-triphenyl-phosphonium bromide (NHS-QPS) was synthesized for chemical modification of CS, and a series of novel polymeric antimicrobial agents, N-quaternary phosphonium chitosan derivatives (N-QPCSxy, x=1-2,y=1-4) were obtained. The water solubilities and antibacterial activities of N-QPCSxy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated compare to CS. The water solubility of N-QPCSxy was all better than that of CS at neutral pH aqueous solution, particularly, N-QPCS14 can be soluble in water over the pH range of 3 to 12. The antibacterial activities of CS derivatives were improved by introducing quaternary phosphonium salt, and antibacterial activity of N-QPCSxy increases with degree of substitution. Overall, N-QPCS14 represents a novel antibacterial polymer material with good antibacterial activity, waters solubility and low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of human monocyte activation by a water soluble preparation of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, N; Pasco, D S

    2001-11-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh-water microalgae that is consumed as a nutrient-dense food source and for its health-enhancing properties. The current research characterizes the effect of a water soluble preparation from AFA on human monocyte/macrophage function and compares the effect of AFA with responses from known agents that modulate the immune system. At 0.5 pg/ml the AFA extract robustly activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels at 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/ml) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the AFA extract substantially increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and enhanced the DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B. The effects of AFA water soluble preparation were similar to the responses displayed by LPS, but clearly different from responses exhibited by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma). Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with factors known to induce hyporesponsiveness suppressed both AFA-dependent and LPS-dependent activation. These results suggest that the macrophage-activating properties of the AFA water soluble preparation are mediated through pathways that are similar to LPS-dependent activation.

  6. Studies on Dissolution Enhancement of Prednisolone, a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prednisolone is a class II substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It is a poorly water soluble agent. The aim of the present study was to improve dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone, by a solid dispersion technique. Methods: Solid dispersion of prednisolone was prepared with PEG 6000 or different carbohydrates such as lactose and dextrin with various ratios of the drug to carrier i.e., 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40. Solid dispersions were prepared by coevaporation method. The evaluation of the properties of the dispersions was performed using dissolution studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffractometery. Results: The results indicated that lactose is suitable carriers to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of prednisolone. The data from the x-ray diffraction showed that the drug was still detectable in its solid state in all solid dispersions except solid dispersions prepared by dextrin as carrier. The results from infrared spectroscopy showed no well-defined drug–carrier interactions for coevaporates. Conclusion: Solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug, prednisolone may alleviate the problems of delayed and inconsistent rate of dissolution of the drug.

  7. Encapsulation of poorly water-soluble drugs into organic nanotubes for improving drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Makishima, Takashi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Liu, Nan; Limwikrant, Waree; Ding, Wuxiao; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-07-20

    Hydrocortisone (HC), a poorly water-soluble drug, was encapsulated within organic nanotubes (ONTs), which were formed via the self-assembly of N-{12-[(2-α,β-d-glucopyranosyl) carbamoyl]dodecanyl}-glycylglycylglycine acid. The stability of the ONTs was evaluated in ten organic solvents, of differing polarities, by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The ONTs maintained their stable tubular structure in the highly polar solvents, such as ethanol and acetone. Furthermore, solution-state (1)H-NMR spectroscopy confirmed that they were practically insoluble in acetone at 25°C (0.015 mg/mL). HC-loaded ONTs were prepared by solvent evaporation using acetone. A sample with a 3/7 weight ratio of HC/ONT was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the presence of a halo pattern and the absence of any crystalline HC peak. HC peak broadening, observed by solid-state (13)C-NMR measurements of the evaporated sample, indicated the absence of HC crystals. These results indicated that HC was successfully encapsulated in ONT as an amorphous state. Improvements of the HC dissolution rate were clearly observed in aqueous media at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, probably due to HC amorphization in the ONTs. Phenytoin, another poorly water-soluble drug, also showed significant dissolution improvement upon ONT encapsulation. Therefore, ONTs can serve as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  8. Seasonal variations of concentrations and optical properties of water soluble HULIS collected in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baduel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Major contributors to the organic aerosol include water-soluble macromolecular compounds (e.g. HULISWS: Water Soluble Humic LIke Substances. The nature and sources of HULISWS are still largely unknown. This work is based on a monitoring in six different French cities performed during summer and winter seasons. HULISWS analysis was performed with a selective method of extraction complemented by carbon quantification. UV spectroscopy was also applied for their chemical characterisation. HULISWS carbon represent an important contribution to the organic aerosol mass in summer and winter, as it accounts for 12–22% of Organic Carbon and 34–40% of Water Soluble Organic Carbon. We found strong differences in the optical properties (specific absorbance at 250, 272, 280 nm and E2/E3 ratio and therefore in the chemical structure between HULISWS from samples of summer- and wintertime. These differences highlight different processes responsible for emissions and formation of HULISWS according to the season, namely biomass burning in winter, and secondary processes in summer. Specific absorbance can also be considered as a rapid and useful indicator of the origin of HULISWS in urban environment.

  9. Synthesis and properties of amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yongshan; Li, Xuemei; Wei, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue [Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan (China)

    2015-07-15

    We prepared amino acid functionalized water-soluble perylene diimides: N,N'-bi(L-glutamic acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (1), N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine acid)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (2), N,N'-bi(Lglutamic amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (3) and N,N'-bi(L-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (4). The structures of 3 and 4 were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR and MS. The maximal absorption bands of compound 1 and 2 in concentrated sulfuric acid were red-shifted for about 48 and 74 nm, respectively, compared with that of Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA). Nearly no fluorescence was observed for compounds 1 and 2 in water, while compounds 3 and 4 were significantly water-soluble and had very high fluorescent quantum. The mechanism of the optical properties change was discussed, and the π-π stacking caused by H{sup +} led to the changes of fluorescence spectrum and absorption spectrum. The calculated molecular orbital energies and the frontier molecular orbital maps of compounds 1-2 based on density function theory (DFT) calculations were reported. Owing to the high water-soluble, the perylene derivatives 3 and 4 were successfully applied as high-performance fluorochromes for living hela cells imaging.

  10. Supercritical fluid particle design for poorly water-soluble drugs (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongda

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid particle design (SCF PD) offers a number of routes to improve solubility and dissolution rate for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, which can be adopted through an in-depth knowledge of SCF PD processes and the molecular properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug delivery system (DDS). Combining with research experiences in our laboratory, this review focuses on the most recent development of different routes (nano-micron particles, polymorphic particles, composite particles and bio-drug particles) to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs, covering the fundamental concept of SCF and the principle of SCF PD processes which are typically used to control particle size, shape, morphology and particle form and hence enable notable improvement in the dissolution rate of the poorly water-soluble drugs. The progress of the industrialization of SCF PD processes in pharmaceutical manufacturing environment with scaled-up plant under current good manufacturing process (GMP) specification is also considered in this review.

  11. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  12. A novel injectable water-soluble amphotericin B-arabinogalactan conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, R; Domb, A J; Polacheck, I

    1999-08-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 microg/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37 degrees C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections.

  13. Nanosizing of poorly water soluble compounds using rotation/revolution mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Takayuki; Endo, Tomoko; Jianguo, Yao; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2009-10-01

    In this study, nanoparticles of various poorly water soluble compounds were prepared by wet milling that was carried out using a rotation/revolution mixer and zirconia balls. To be compared with Beads mill, rotation/revolution mixer has superior in very quick process (5 min) and needs very few amounts of zirconia balls (2.4 g) for pulverizing drugs to nanometer range. Phenytoin, indomethacin, nifedipine, danazol, and naproxen were selected as the standard poorly water soluble compounds. Various parameters of the rotation/revolution mixer were studied to decide the optimal pulverization conditions for the production of nanoparticles of the abovementioned compounds. The rotation/revolution speed, shape of the mixing vessel, amount of zirconia balls, and volume of the vehicle (methylcellulose solution) mainly affected the pulverization of the compounds. Using the mixer, phenytoin could be pulverized to nanoparticles within a few minutes. The particle size was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope and a particle size analyzer. The crystallinity of the pulverized phenytoin particles was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the pulverized phenytoin particles retained their crystallinity, and amorphous phenytoin was not detected. Particles of other poorly water soluble compounds were also reduced to the nanometer range by using this method.

  14. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  15. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zimmerman, Mary; Milledge, Gaolin Z; Hou, Xiao-Lin; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, P Andy

    2017-02-11

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. It is usually accompanied by an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics and changes in mitochondrial morphology that are associated with impaired function. The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance by reducing Drp1 and Fis1 protein expression to pre-rotenone levels, as well as reducing rotenone treatment-associated mitochondrial fragmentation. Hence, water-soluble CoQ10 may have therapeutic potential in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

  16. Typing of Typhoidal Salmonella Using Extraction of Water Soluble Whole Cell Proteins and Analysing by SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Salmonella is one of the most important genus of Enterobacteriacea family. The aim of this study was typing of typhoidal Salmonella by SDS-PAGE and comparing the results with those of serotyping method.Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 reference strains of Salmonella species, 5 reference strains of Enterobacteriacea family and 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella that were previously collected from laboratories of Hamadan medical centers were studied. Serotyping of strains were performed by Biomereux and Difco monovalent antisera. Whole-cell proteins of strains were also separated on 10% poly acrylamide gel. Gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue and analyzed by densitometry. Results: Of 100 cases of Salmonella species, 43 cases (43% were S. typhi, 20 cases (20% were S. typhymurium, 12 cases (12% were S. para typhi B, 10 cases (10% were S. para typhi C, S. para typhi A 1 case (1% and other cases were non-typhoidal Salmonella. The results of serotyping were compared with the results obtained by SDS-PAGE. Many protein bands from 220 KDa to 18.5 KDa were detected by SDS-PAGE and they were used to differentiate the strains. S. typhi serotypes were divided into 5 sub-species and S. para typhi B and C were divided each into 3 sub-species. Protein profiles of the reference strains of Salmonella were compared with protein profiles of Enterobacteriaceae species and showed some differences in major protein bands, however, they had a very similar protein band in 43 KDa area. Conclusion: Since our data was able to divide Salmonella species to sub-types and differentiate them from Enterobacteriacea species, we concluded that analsying SDS-PAGE profile of water soluble whole-cell proteins can be used for typing of these organisms and it is comparble with serotyping, nevertheless, further researches are needed to establish SDS-PAGE method and to replace it with serotyping method.

  17. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Ji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a ear thickness, clinical score, (b serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site

  18. Effect Of Pressure On The Temperature Dependence Of Water Solubility In Forsterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, E.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Koga, K.

    2005-12-01

    Water storage capacity of the upper mantle largely depends on water solubility in mantle olivine. Realistic models must take into account the simultaneous effects of variables such as pressure, temperature, iron content and silica activity. Previous experimental studies have shown that the water solubility in olivine increases with increasing water fugacity up to 12 GPa at 1100°C. Water incorporation in olivine was also observed to increase with increasing temperature and increasing iron content at 0.3 GPa, however the temperature dependence was not studied at higher pressures. Interestingly, the only high-pressure data available, that is for wadsleyite and ringwoodite, show that their water solubility decreases with increasing temperature. The goal of this study is to determine the dependence of water maximum concentration on temperature at pressures higher than 0.3 GPa. We performed experiments at 3 and 6 GPa, and temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400°C in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system using a multi-anvil apparatus. The olivine and orthopyroxene molar ratio was 1 to 1 in the starting material with 5 wt% H2O. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mineralogical assemblage consisted of olivine+orthopyroxene+fluid at temperatures below 1250°C both at 3 and 6 GPa and olivine+melt+/-orthopyroxene at higher temperatures. At 3 GPa, above 1325°C orthopyroxene was missing from the assemblage, whereas in case of the 6 GPa experiments it was present even at higher temperatures. This indicates a change in fluid composition from 3 to 6 GPa. Preliminary data using unpolarized FTIR measurements, but comparing same orientations, indicate that water solubility in olivine at 6 GPa decreases with increasing temperature. This observation agrees with the results on wadsleyite and ringwoodite, but contradict the results of the existing low-pressure data. The explaination we propose for the change in temperature

  19. In vitro evaluation of inorganic and methyl mercury mediated cytotoxic effect on neural cells derived from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-03-01

    To extend the current understanding of the mercury-mediated cytotoxic effect, five neural cell lines established from different animal species were comparatively analyzed using three different endpoint bioassays: thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT), neutral red uptake assay (NRU), and Coomassie blue assay (CB). Following a 24-hr exposure to selected concentrations of mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (II) chloride (MeHgCl), the cytotoxic effect on test cells was characterized by comparing their 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values. Experimental results indicated that both these forms of mercury were toxic to all the neural cells, but at very different degrees. The IC50 values of MeHgCl among these cell lines ranged from 1.15±0.22 to 10.31±0.70μmol/L while the IC50 values for HgCl2 were much higher, ranging from 6.44±0.36 to 160.97±19.63μmol/L, indicating the more toxic nature of MeHgCl. The IC50 ratio between HgCl2 and MeHgCl ranged from 1.75 to 96.0, which confirms that organic mercury is much more toxic to these neural cells than inorganic mercury. Among these cell lines, HGST-BR and TriG44 derived from marine sea turtles showed a significantly high tolerance to HgCl2 as compared to the three mammalian neural cells. Among these neural cells, SK-N-SH represented the most sensitive cells to both chemical forms of mercury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  1. A new member of the oxygen-photosensitizers family: a water-soluble polymer binding a platinum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Loredana; Puoci, Francesco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; La Deda, Massimo

    2012-08-28

    The grafting of a 2-picolylamine Pt(II) complex into polymethacrylic acid has been successfully performed. The obtained polymer is water soluble, and it represents the first example of a platinum-containing polymer able to photogenerate singlet oxygen.

  2. Benefits of high resolution IC-ICP-MS for the routine analysis of inorganic and organic arsenic species in food products of marine and terrestrial origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, Ute; Jantzen, Eckard; Kuballa, Jürgen; Jakubik, Sandra

    2003-09-01

    A recently developed and validated method for simultaneous determination of 17 inorganic and organic arsenic compounds in marine biota has been successfully applied to routine analysis of different food products, including fish, shellfish, edible algae, rice, and other types of grain. During one year, approximately 250 food samples were analyzed, mostly fish and rice. Long-term stability and robustness of the system was observed and reproducible results for certified reference materials were ensured by means of control charts. The separation was performed by ion-pair chromatography on an anion-exchange column to separate anionic, neutral, and cationic arsenic species in one chromatographic run. Hyphenation to ICP-MS allowed element-specific and sensitive detection of the different arsenic species with a detection limit as low as 8 ng As L(-1 )in the sample extract, which is equivalent to 2 ng As g(-1) in the original sample. Special emphasis was laid on the analysis of marine algae and rice samples. These food types can contain elevated levels of the very toxic inorganic arsenic species (up to 90% in rice) and therefore are the focus of interest in the food industry. In marine algae, inorganic arsenic was mainly present as arsenate whereas in rice arsenite predominated.

  3. Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Patrick A.; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Love, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) causes cancer and possibly other adverse health outcomes. Arsenic-based drugs are permitted in poultry production; however, the contribution of chicken consumption to iAs intake is unknown. Objectives: We sought to characterize the arsenic species profile in chicken meat and estimate bladder and lung cancer risk associated with consuming chicken produced with arsenic-based drugs. Methods: Conventional, antibiotic-free, and organic chicken samples were collected from grocery stores in 10 U.S. metropolitan areas from December 2010 through June 2011. We tested 116 raw and 142 cooked chicken samples for total arsenic, and we determined arsenic species in 65 raw and 78 cooked samples that contained total arsenic at ≥ 10 µg/kg dry weight. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of total arsenic in cooked chicken meat samples was 3.0 µg/kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.6). Among the 78 cooked samples that were speciated, iAs concentrations were higher in conventional samples (GM = 1.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3) than in antibiotic-free (GM = 0.7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. iAs concentrations in roxarsone-positive samples (GM = 2.3 µg/kg; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.1) were significantly higher than those in roxarsone-negative samples (GM = 0.8 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0). Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. We estimated that consumers of conventional chicken would ingest an additional 0.11 µg/day iAs (in an 82-g serving) compared with consumers of organic chicken. Assuming lifetime exposure and a proposed cancer slope factor of 25.7 per milligram per kilogram of body weight per day, this increase in arsenic exposure could result in 3.7 additional lifetime bladder and lung cancer cases per 100,000 exposed persons. Conclusions: Conventional chicken meat had higher i

  4. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes.

  5. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  6. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-01-01

    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals.We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect.Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3− and CO32−. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many

  7. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  8. Sensitive detection of mercury (II) ion using water-soluble captopril-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jiu-Ju; Huang, Hong; Chen, Wei-Jie; Chen, Jian-Rong; Lin, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ai-Jun, E-mail: ajwang@zjnu.cn

    2013-07-01

    In our work, a simple, facile, and green method was developed for the synthesis of water-soluble and well-dispersed fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) within 5 min, using captopril as a capping agent. The as-prepared Au NPs showed strong emission at 414 nm, with a quantum yield of 5.5%. The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by mercury (II) ion (Hg{sup 2+}) due to the stronger interactions between thiolates (RS{sup −}) and Hg{sup 2+}. It was applied to the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples in the linear ranges of 0.033–0.133 μM and 0.167–2.500 μM, with a detection limit of 0.017 μM. Therefore, the as-prepared Au NPs can meet the requirement for monitoring Hg{sup 2+} in environmental samples. - Graphical abstract: In this work, we developed a simple, fast and facile method for the preparation of water-soluble and fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The trace existence of Hg{sup 2+} could strongly quench the fluorescence of the Au NPs. The Au NPs were used to detect highly toxic Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity. Highlights: ► Water-soluble fluorescent Au NPs stabilized by captopril ► The synthesis procedure was simple, fast and facile. ► The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by Hg{sup 2+}. ► The Au NPs were used to the assay of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  9. Modeling phase distribution of water-soluble organics in aqueous solutions using surface tension data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, B.; Hiatt, J.; Aumann, E.; Cabrera, J.; Tabazadeh, A.

    2006-12-01

    A good fraction (greater than 30 percent) of submicron particle mass in the atmosphere is often composed of water-soluble organic carbon. Identifiable, water-miscible organics, such as, known sugars, small alcohols, small diacids, etc. comprise only a small fraction of the water-soluble mass (about 1-2 percent). Most of the water-soluble mass is often composed of unidentifiable, humic-like materials, which are commonly refereed to as HULIS. Humic substances are known to form colloids in aqueous solutions at very low aqueous concentrations. Thus, it is likely for HULIS to also be colloid-forming in aqueous solutions. Here, we present surface tension measurements of water-miscible and colloid-forming organics, using methanol and sodium laurate as analogs, respectively. By relating the change in surface tension to chemical potential of the solution, we determine a relationship between surface tension and the surface excess of solute; that is, the number of molecules of solute adsorbed at the surface. Assuming surface acts as a monolayer, we model the adsorption with a Langmuir isotherm to extract the surface excess as a function of solute mole fraction. This relationship allows us to calculate the solute's distribution between bulk and surface phases for methanol, and in bulk, surface and colloid phases for sodium laurate. A colloid of sodium laurate contains approximately 100 laurate anions in a spherical cluster. We present adsorption constants for methanol and sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), critical micelle concentration for sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), and all the other thermocehmical constants (obtained from the literature) required to constrain a model for determining phase partitioning of organics in aqueous solutions.

  10. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water-soluble

  11. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    soils was dominated by carbohydrates with ratio from 49% (SP1) to 63-66% (SP2, SP3) of total content of all identified compounds. The increase in relative content in carbohydrates observed for soils under cuts was possibly affected by vegetation cover change after clear-cutting and presence of birch and aspen leaves in plant waste composition (due to tree species change). At SP2 and SP3 cuts, content of alcohols and low-molecular carboxylic acids fell by almost twice as compared with SP1. Tree cuts changed not only in total content of water-soluble compounds but also in ratio of individual low-molecular compounds in water extracts composition. Totally, we identified 26 various compounds, including 12 low-molecular organic (carboxylic) acids, 10 carbohydrates, and 4 alcohols. Composition of carboxylic acids was dominated by aliphatic substituted acids (mainly 2-oxyacetic acid, 2-oxypropane, and 2,3-dioxypropane acids). Total number of aliphatic substituted acids, as well as aliphatic non-substituted and aromatic carboxylic acids, decreased in soils under cuts at initial reforestation stages (SP2). Content of all mentioned acids gradually rose with time (SP3). Soils under cut forests were observed for a decrease of erythrite ratio in composition of water-soluble alcohols (from 52 to 40% of total alcohols) and an increase of glycerin ratio (from 46 to 72%). 10 of identified mono- and disaccharides were dominated by mannose, galactopyranose, and D-ribose. Disturbed soils were identified for increased ratio of galactopyranose and D-ribose and for by almost twice as decreased ratio of mannose. References 1. Dymov, A. A. Changes in the organic matter of taiga soils during the natural reaforestation after cutting in the middle taigaof the Komi Republic / A. A. Dymov, E. Yu. Milanovskii // Eurasian Soil Science, 2013. Vol. 46. № 12. P. 1164-1171. 2. Shamrikova E.V., Punegov V.V., Gruzdev I.V., Vanchikova E.V., Vetoshkina A.A. Individual organic compounds in water extracts from

  12. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  13. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from watewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology being developed to recover valuable or regulated metal ions selectively from process or wastewaters. Water-soluble chelating polymers are specially designed to bind selectively with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers molecular weight is large enough so they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration technology. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions, which are recovered in concentrated form, for recycle or disposal.

  14. Encapsulation of Polythiophene by Glycopolymer for Water Soluble Nano-wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Fukuda; Y Inoue; T Koga; M Matsuoka; Y Miura

    2011-12-31

    A water-soluble polythiophene (PT) was prepared by the self-assembling complex with a glycopolymer. The glycopolymer of poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-D-lactonamide) (PVLA) formed self-assembling cylindrical structure based on the amphiphilicity even after the complexation with PT. We confirmed the improved optical functionality of PT due to the longer conjugated {pi}-orbital. It suggested that PT behaved like molecular nanowire with the self-assembled structure in the hydrophobic core of PVLA. PVLA-PT also showed specific biorecognition against corresponding lectin. These results suggested that the bioactive nanowire formation of PT with the glycopolymer was developed.

  15. Spectral Properties of a Water-Soluble Squaraine Dye and Its Application in Cell Fluorescent Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Yuan, H.; Li, Q. Q.; Jin, J. C.; Chang, W. G.; Yan, Z. Q.

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble bis-1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene squaraine dye (t-OH-SQ) with a D-π-A-π-D conjugated structure was identified and prepared. After its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis, the UV-Vis absorption and fluorescent spectra of the target dye were studied in detail. The results showed that t-OH-SQ combining multi-hydroxyl groups possessed excellent optical properties changing with pH and solvents. In aqueous solution under physiological pH ~ 7-8, it had especially high near-infrared fluorescence, which might be a latent application for cell fluorescent imaging.

  16. Formation of water-soluble soybean polysaccharides from spent flakes by hydrogen peroxide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper; Tran, Tam H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel chemical process for the generation of water-soluble polysaccharides from soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry. This process entails treatment of spent flake with hydrogen peroxide at an elevated temperature, resulting in the release of more than...... 70% of the original insoluble material as high molar mass soluble polysaccharides. A design of experiment was used to quantify the effects of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the reaction yield, average molar mass, and free monosaccharides generated. The resulting product...

  17. The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedriali, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchoa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica]. E-mail: capedriali@hotmail.com; Bernusso, Leandra de Cassia; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Tecnologia Bioquimico-Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of Trolox. Despite the derivative's high solubility in water (log P = -1.13), lipid peroxidation of brain homogenate membranes was very efficiently inhibited (inhibition values were only 19% lower than the inhibition values of rutin). (author)

  18. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of highly stable dispersions of water-soluble copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Wu, Xue-dong; Xue, Qun-ji

    2013-01-15

    Water-soluble and highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles were obtained using a biomolecule-assisted synthetic method. Dopamine was utilized as both reducing and capping agent in aqueous medium. The successful formation of DA-stabilized copper particles was demonstrated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mechanism of dopamine on the effective reduction and excellent stability of copper nanoparticles was also discussed. This facile biomolecule-assisted technique may provide a useful tool to synthesize other nanoparticles that have potential application in biotechnology.

  19. Active Oxygen Radical Scavenging Ability of Water-Soluble β-Alanine C60 Adducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble β-alanine C60 adducts were synthesized, and the scavenging ability to superoxygen anion radical O2-and hydroxyl radicalOH were studied by autoxidation ofpyrogallol and chemiluminescence, respectively. It was found that β-alanine C60 adducts showed an excellent efficiency in eliminating superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for superoxygen anion radical and hydroxyl radical were 0.15 mg/mL and 0.048 mg/mL, respectively. The difference should be mainly attributed to the different scavenging mechanisms.

  20. [Nutrition and bone health. The bone and the foods containing many water-soluble vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2009-08-01

    On the Dietary Reference Intakes in Japan, nine kinds of water-soluble vitamins are taken up. Those vitamins are supplied from various food. Food from animal sources and vegetable sources are those vitamins source of supply. Vitamin C participates in generation of collagen. Vitamin C is supplied from vegetables or fruits. Since vitamin C is lost by cooking processing, the content of a raw state is not expectable after cooking. Moreover, the vitamin B group of food origin has combined with protein etc., and free types, such as supplement, differ in the bioavailability.

  1. Amorphous solid dispersions and nano-crystal technologies for poorly water-soluble drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Chris; Williams, R O

    2013-08-30

    Poor water-solubility is a common characteristic of drug candidates in pharmaceutical development pipelines today. Various processes have been developed to increase the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of these active ingredients belonging to BCS II and IV classifications. Over the last decade, nano-crystal delivery forms and amorphous solid dispersions have become well established in commercially available products and industry literature. This article is a comparative analysis of these two methodologies primarily for orally delivered medicaments. The thermodynamic and kinetic theories relative to these technologies are presented along with marketed product evaluations and a survey of commercial relevant scientific literature.

  2. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  3. Similar Energetic Contributions of Packing in the Core of Membrane and Water-Soluble Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Nathan H.; Oberai, Amit; Yang, Duan; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Bowie, James U.; (UCLA)

    2009-09-15

    A major driving force for water-soluble protein folding is the hydrophobic effect, but membrane proteins cannot make use of this stabilizing contribution in the apolar core of the bilayer. It has been proposed that membrane proteins compensate by packing more efficiently. We therefore investigated packing contributions experimentally by observing the energetic and structural consequences of cavity creating mutations in the core of a membrane protein. We observed little difference in the packing energetics of water and membrane soluble proteins. Our results imply that other mechanisms are employed to stabilize the structure of membrane proteins.

  4. Water soluble decontamination coating for Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1986-12-17

    Water soluble sodium borate glass coating was successfully codeveloped by Clemson University (Dr. H.G. Lefort) and Du Pont as an alternative decontamination process to frit slurry blasting of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters. Slurry blasting requires transport of abrasive slurries, might cause galling by entrapped frit particles, and could result in frit slurry freezeup in pumps and retention basins. Contamination can be removed from precoated canisters with a gentle hot water rinse. Glass waste spilled on a coated canister will spall off spontaneously during canister cooling. A glass coating appears to prevent transfer of contamination to the Canister Decontamination Cell (CDC) guides and cradle. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  5. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... squares regression of the amino acid data and the sensory results indicated that bouillon taste was related to a mixture of different amino acids and peptides, that potato odor in particular correlated with high content of tyrosine, free and as the peptide residue, that bitterness was related to the level...

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingJin He

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw of about  484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant.

  7. Water soluble reduced graphene oxide as an efficient photoluminescence quencher for semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; He, Haiping

    2017-02-01

    Chemically derived water soluble reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized via a two-step reduction approach assisted with sulfonation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the removal of oxygen-related groups from GO. The obtained rGO can effectively quench the photoluminescence (PL) of CdTe quantum dots. Concentration- and volume-dependent quenching behaviors are investigated to reveal the quenching mechanism. The Stern-Volmer plot shows exponential dependence on the rGO concentration, indicating that "sphere of action" model works when the extent of quenching is large.

  8. Mechanistic studies of metal ion binding to water-soluble polymers using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, N V; Wagener, J M

    1995-02-01

    A method for elucidating metal ion binding mechanisms with water-soluble polymers has been developed in which the polymer is treated as a collection of monomeric units. Data obtained from potentiometric titrations are analysed by the ESTA library of programs and apparent formation constants may be calculated. From this information, predictions may be made as to metal ion separation using complexation-ultrafiltration techniques. The polymer used in this study was Polymin Water-Free and its complexation with Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) was successfully modelled.

  9. Water-soluble constituents of anise: new glucosides of anethole glycol and its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation.

  10. Reinforced films based on cross-linked water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes with sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Haiping, Hong; Guiver, Michael; Welsh, Jeffry S

    2009-09-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed.

  11. Reinforced membrane based on crosslink reaction between water soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Hong, Haiping; Welsh, Jeffry S.

    2008-08-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed

  12. Water-Soluble Metalloporphyrins as Mimics of Heme-containing Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This letter compared catalase-, peroxidase-and cytochrome P450-1ike catalytic activities of 15 water-soluble metalloporphyrins produced from Fe, Mn and Co ions and 5 porphyrins. The metalloporphyrins with Fe and Mn as central ions show relatively high catalytic activities of catalase and peroxidase at pH 11.0. Only Mn-meso-tetrakis (4-N-methylpyridinium) porpho-phine of the 15 metalloporphyfins exhibits high cytochrome P450-1ike activity. Effects of imidazole on the catalytic reactions were also studied.

  13. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  14. Relationship between water solubility of chlorobenzenes and their effects on a freshwater green alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.T.S.; Chau, Y.K.; Rhamey, J.S.; Docker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effective concentrations of benzene and 12 chlorobenzenes that reduced 50% of the primary productivity (EC/sub 50/) of a freshwater green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, were determined. Benzene was the least toxic chemical and the toxicity increased as the degree of chlorine substitution in the aromatic ring increased. No EC/sub 50/ value could be obtained for HCB. A quantitative relationship was found to exist between water solubility, lipophilicity and the EC/sub 50/. A good correlation was also observed between the EC/sub 50/ for this alga and other toxicity data for various aquatic biota.

  15. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  16. Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCAGLIA Barbara; ADANI Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is considered the most mobile and reactive soil carbon source and its characterization is an important issue for soil ecology study. A biodegradability test was set up to study WSOC extracted from 7 soils differently managed. WSOC was extracted from soil with water (soil/water ratio of 1:2, W/V) for 30 min, and then tested for biodegradability by a liquid state respirometric test. Result obtained confirmed the finding that WSOC biodegradability depended on both land use and management practice. These results suggested the biodegradability test as suitable method to characterize WSOC, adding useful information to soil fertility.

  17. Preparation and tribology properties of water-soluble fullerene derivative nanoball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized via radical polymerization. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, GPC, TGA, and SEM. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene derivatives to base stock (2 wt.% triethanolamine aqueous solution can effectively increase both the load-carrying capacity (PB value, and the resistance to wear. SEM observations confirm the additive results in a reduced diameter of the wear scar and decreased wear.

  18. Preparation of fructone catalyzed by water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan Wang; Rong Wang; Liang Chun Wu; Li Yi Dai

    2007-01-01

    Fructone (2-methyl-2-ethylacetoacetate-1,3-dioxolane), a flavouring material, has been synthesized from ethyl acetoacetate and glycol using five water-soluble Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids as catalysts for the first time. The used Br(φ)nsted acid ionic liquids include [Hmim]Tfa, [Hmim]Tsa, [Hmim]BF4, [Bmim]HSO4, [Bmim]H2PO4, and [Hmim]BF4 showed the highest catalytic activity for the preparation of fructone. After reaction, the product could be isolated from the reaction system automatically, and the ionic liquid could be directly reused without dehydration.

  19. Size distributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of water-soluble organic carbon in an urban atmosphere in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nijing; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is a significant part of ambient aerosol and plays an active role in contributing to aerosol's effect on visibility degradation and radiation budget through its interactions with atmospheric water. Size-segregated aerosol samples in the range of 0.056-18 μm were collected using a ten-stage impactor sampler at an urban site in Hong Kong over one-year period. The WSOC samples were separated into hydrophilic (termed WSOC_h) and hydrophobic fractions (i.e., the humic-like substances (HULIS) fraction) through solid-phase extraction procedure. Carbon in HULIS accounted for 40 ± 14% of WSOC. The size distribution of HULIS was consistently characterized in all seasons with a dominant droplet mode (46-71%) and minor condensation (9.0-18%) and coarse modes (20-35%). The droplet mode had a mass median aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.7-0.8 μm. This size mode showed the largest seasonal variation in abundance, lowest in the summer (0.41 μg/m3) and highest in the winter (3.3 μg/m3). WSOC_h also had a dominant droplet mode, but was more evenly distributed among different size modes. Inter-species correlations within the same size mode suggest that the condensation-mode HULIS was partly associated with combustion sources and the droplet-mode was strongly associated with secondary sulfate formation and biomass burning particle aging processes. There is evidence to suggest that the coarse-mode HULIS largely originated from coagulation of condensation-mode HULIS with coarse soil/sea salt particles. The formation process and possible sources of WSOC_h was more complicated and multiple than HULIS and need further investigation. Our measurements indicate that WSOC components contributed a dominant fraction of water-soluble aerosol mass in particles smaller than 0.32 μm while roughly 20-30% in the larger particles.

  20. Identification of genes encoding photoconvertible (Class I) water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Chenopodium ficifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Abe, Eriko; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins, called Class I WSCPs, have been detected in Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Polygonaceae plant species. To date, Chenopodium album WSCP (CaWSCP) is the only cloned gene encoding a Class I WSCP. In this study, we identified two cDNAs encoding Chenopodium ficifolium Class I WSCPs, CfWSCP1, and CfWSCP2. Sequence analyses revealed that the open reading frames of CfWSCP1 and CfWSCP2 were 585 and 588 bp, respectively. Furthermore, both CfWSCPs contain cystein2 and cystein30, which are essential for the chlorophyll-binding ability of CaWSCP. Recombinant CfWSCP1 and CfWSCP2, expressed in Escherichia coli as hexa-histidine fusion proteins (CfWSCP1-His and CfWSCP2-His), formed inclusion bodies; however, we were able to solubilize these using a buffer containing 8 M urea and then refold them by dialysis. The refolded CfWSCP1-His and CfWSCP2-His could bind chlorophylls and exhibited photoconvertibility, confirming that the cloned CfWSCPs are further examples of Class I WSCPs.

  1. Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and ω-oxocarboxylic acids in size-segregated aerosols over northern Japan during spring: sources and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Gowda, Divyavani

    2016-04-01

    Seven sets (AF01-AF07) of size-segregated aerosol (12-sizes) samples were collected using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in Sapporo, Japan during the spring of 2001 to understand the sources and atmospheric processes of water-soluble organic aerosols in the outflow region of Asian dusts. The samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ω-oxocarboxylic acids as well as inorganic ions. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas ω-oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) in size-segregated aerosols. SO42- and NH4+ are enriched in submicron mode whereas NO3- and Ca2+ are in supermicron mode. Most of diacids and ω-oxoacids are enriched in supermicron mode in the samples (AF01-AF03) influenced by the long-range transport of mineral dusts whereas enhanced presence in submicron mode was observed in other sample sets. The strong correlations of C2 with Ca2+ (r = 0.95-0.99) and NO3- (r = 0.96-0.98) in supermicron mode in the samples AF01-AF03 suggest the adsorption or production of C2 diacid via heterogeneous reaction on the surface of mineral dust during long-range atmospheric transport. The preferential enrichment of diacids and ω-oxoacids in mineral dust has important implications for the solubility and cloud nucleation properties of the dominant fraction of water-soluble organic aerosols. This study demonstrates that biofuel and biomass burning and mineral dust originated in East Asia are two major factors to control the size distribution of diacids and related compounds over northern Japan.

  2. Simultaneous synthesis and functionalization of water-soluble up-conversion nanoparticles for in-vitro cell and nude mouse imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ling; Hao, Jianhua; Chan, Helen L. W.; Law, Ga-Lai; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Murphy, Margaret B.; Su, T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zeng, S. Q.

    2011-05-01

    Water-solubility and biocompatibility are prerequisites for rare-earth up-converting nanophosphors applied to biological imaging. In this work, we have developed a facile and one-step synthesis technique, through which water-soluble NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ nanoparticles (NPs) with functional groups including 3-mercaptopropionic acid, 6-aminocaproic acid and poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether on their surface can be directly prepared without any further surface treatment. Some inorganic salts will be selected as starting materials, water and some low toxic organic agents have been used as reaction media, which differs from earlier works. Structural and up-converting fluorescence are characterized by a variety of techniques. Cell uptake and in-vitro imaging of the as-synthesized NPs have been investigated using a multiphoton con-focal laser scanning microscope with a near-infrared excitation source. Internalization of the bare and functionalized NPs in human lung carcinoma A549 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells are studied at a nanoparticle loading of 10 µg mL-1 over an exposure period from 30 min to 24 h. The cytotoxicity of modified NPs in HeLa cells is found to be low. In addition, the feasibility of the NPs in animal imaging has been demonstrated by subcutaneously injecting these NPs into nude mouse. The results indicated that our directly synthesized NPs coated with various functional groups are promising as bio-imaging agents due to their easy uptake, long lasting, low cytotoxicity, emissive in various human carcinoma cell lines and small animals through up-conversion with near-infrared excitation.

  3. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  4. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of water-soluble nanographite and its application in water-based cutting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zongting; Liu, Yu; You, Tingzheng

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load ( P B ) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10-3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid.

  6. Spray Freeze-drying - The Process of Choice for Low Water Soluble Drugs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuenberger, H. [University of Basel, Pharmacenter, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology (Switzerland)], E-mail: hans.leuenberger@unibas.ch

    2002-04-15

    Most of the novel highly potent drugs, developed on the basis of modern molecular medicine, taking into account cell surface recognition techniques, show poor water solubility. A chemical modification of the drug substance enhancing the solubility often decreases the pharmacological activity. Thus, as an alternative an increase of the solubility can be obtained by the reduction of the size of the drug particles. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain micro or nanosized drug particles by classical or more advanced crystallization using supercritical gases or by milling techniques. In addition, nanosized particles are often not physically stable and need to be stabilized in an appropriate matrix. Thus, it may be of interest to manufacture directly nanosized drug particles stabilized in an inert hydrophilic matrix, i.e. nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. Solid solutions and solid dispersions represent nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. In this context, the use of the vacuum-fluidized-bed technique for the spray-drying of a low water soluble drug cosolubilized with a hydrophilic excipient in a polar organic solvent is discussed. In order to avoid the use of organic solvents, a special spray-freeze-drying technique working at atmospheric pressure is presented. This process is very suitable for temperature and otherwise sensitive drugs such as pharmaproteins.

  7. The ultrafast reactions in the photochromic cycle of water-soluble fulgimide photoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, C; Boumrifak, C; Hammer, C A; Trojanowski, P; Chen, X; Lees, W J; Wachtveitl, J; Braun, M

    2016-04-21

    Photochromic switches are essential for the control and manipulation of nanoscale reactions and processes. The expansion of their application to aqueous environments depends strongly on the development of optimized water-soluble photoswitches. Here we present a femtosecond time-resolved investigation of the photochromic reactions (transition between the open and the closed form) of a water-soluble indolylfulgimide. We observe a pronounced effect of the protic nature of water as a solvent on the ultrafast ring-opening reaction. Typically, the excited state of the closed form has a larger dipole moment than the ground state, which leads to stabilization of the excited state in polar solvents and hence a lifetime (3 ps) longer than in non-polar solvents (2 ps). However, in water, despite the increased solvent polarity and the increased excited state dipole moment, the opposite trend for the excited state lifetime is observed (1.8 ps). This effect is caused by the opening of a new excited state deactivation pathway involving proton transfer reactions.

  8. Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-07-15

    A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min μg mL⁻¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles for loading and release of the poorly water-soluble drug telmisartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhi, Zhuangzhi; Jiang, Tongying; Zhang, Jinghai; Wang, Zhanyou; Wang, Siling

    2010-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be orally administered, able to improve the dissolution rate and enhance the drug loading capacity. Spherical MSNs were synthesized using an organic template method in an oil/water phase, and large pore diameter MSNs were functionalized with aminopropyl groups through postsynthesis. MSNs as well as the resulting functionalized MSNs were investigated as matrices for loading and release of the model drug telmisartan (TEL). The effects of different pore sizes and surface chemical groups on TEL uptake and release were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and HPLC. The total pore volume and the pore diameter of MSNs were the two main factors limiting the maximum drug load capacity. MSNs allow a very high drug loading of about 60% in weight. The release rate of TEL from MSNs with a pore diameter of 12.9 nm was found to be effectively increased and the release rate of TEL from the functionalized MSNs was effectively controlled compared with that from the unmodified MSNs. We believe that the present study will help in the design of oral drug delivery systems for the dissolution enhancement and/or sustained release of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  10. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  11. Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes with hydroxyproline groups as chiral NMR solvating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Courtney M; Chudomel, J Matthew; Collins, Jan M; Dignam, Catherine F; Wenzel, Thomas J

    2008-04-04

    Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes containing 3- and 4-hydroxyproline, d-nipecotic acid, (S)-2-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine, (S)-2-pyrrolidine methanol, and (S,S)-(+)-2,4-bis(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine substituents are synthesized and evaluated as chiral NMR solvating agents. The derivatives with the hydroxyproline groups are especially effective at causing enantiomeric discrimination in the spectra of water-soluble cationic and anionic compounds with pyridyl, phenyl, and bicyclic aromatic rings. Binding studies show that mono- and ortho-substituted phenyl rings associate within the cavity of the calix[4]resorcinarenes, as do naphthyl rings with mono-, 2,3-, and 1,8-substitution patterns. Anthracene derivatives with an amino or sulfonyl group at the 1-position bind within the cavity, as well. Aromatic resonances of the substrates exhibit substantial upfield shifts because of shielding from the aromatic rings of the calix[4]resorcinarene. The effectiveness of the reagents at producing chiral recognition in 1H NMR spectra is demonstrated with sodium mandelate, the sodium salt of tryptophan, and doxylamine succinate. While no one reagent is consistently the most effective, the calix[4]resorcinarenes with trans-4-hydroxyproline and trans-3-hydroxyproline moieties generally produce the largest nonequivalence in the 1H NMR spectra of the substrates.

  12. Release of small water-soluble drugs from multiblock copolymer microspheres: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, J; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R; de Groot, K; Bezemer, J M

    2003-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) multiblock copolymer was investigated as a possible matrix for controlled delivery of small water-soluble drugs. Two molecules were selected as sustained release candidates from microspheres: leuprorelin acetate (peptide of Mw = 1270 D) and vitamin B(12) (Mw = 1355 D). First, vitamin B(12)-loaded microspheres were prepared using a double emulsion method and preparation parameters were varied (surfactant in the first emulsion and copolymer composition). The resulting microsphere structure, entrapment efficiency and release rate were evaluated. Vitamin B(12)-loaded microsphere parameters could easily be tailored to achieve specific requirements. The addition of surfactant in the first preparation process led to a significant increase of the microsphere entrapment efficiency, whereas the decrease of the PEGT copolymer content allowed the release rates from microspheres to be precisely decreased. However, leuprorelin acetate-loaded microspheres did not show the same characteristics when prepared with the same parameters, possibly because of a high water solubility discrepancy between the vitamin B(12) and the peptide. This study shows the suitability of PEGT/PBT microspheres as a controlled release system for vitamin B(12), but not for leuprorelin acetate. It also underlines the necessity of tailored development for each individual drug and emphasizes the risk of using model molecules. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Improvement of dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drug by supercritical freeze granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Ryoichi; Hara, Yuko; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2009-10-01

    The dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble drug, flurbiprofen (FP) was improved by a novel supercritical freeze granulation using supercritical carbon dioxide. Supercritical freeze granulation was defined as a production method of the granulated substances by using the dry ice to generate intentionally for the rapid atomization of the supercritical carbon dioxide to the atmospheric pressure. This process utilized a rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) process with the mixture of the drug and lactose. In the supercritical freeze granulation, needle-like FP fine particles were obtained which adhered to the surface of lactose particles, which did not dissolve in supercritical carbon dioxide. The number of FP particles that adhered to the surface of particles decreased with an increase in the ratio of lactose added, leading to markedly improve the dissolution rate. This improvement was caused not only by the increase in the specific surface area but also the improvement of the dispersibility of FP in water. It is thus concluded that the supercritical freeze granulation is a useful technique to improve the dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen.

  14. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Rhodamine B piperazinoacetohydrazine: a water-soluble spectroscopic reagent for pyruvic acid labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Wang, Ke; Shi, Wen; Chen, Suming; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2010-06-11

    A new water-soluble reagent, rhodamine B piperazinoacetohydrazine (RBPH), with improved spectroscopic and reaction properties, has been developed and characterized for pyruvic acid labeling. The reagent RBPH is designed and synthesized by using rhodamine B as a spectroscopic unit, and hydrazine as a carbonyl-specific labeling unit; the two units are connected by a well-chosen linker of piperazine, which prohibits the formation of the nonfluorescent spirocyclic structure of rhodamine B, thereby keeping the spectroscopic response of the reagent in a stable state. Such a design enables RBPH not only to maintain its excellent spectroscopic properties over a wide pH range, but also to exist as a stable cation with high water solubility. Moreover, the hydrazino group of RBPH is expected to react selectively with carbonyl compounds under mild conditions through the rapid formation of hydrazones. These important features make RBPH of great potential use in the labeling of aldehydes or ketones in various biosystems, and such an application of RBPH as a precolumn derivatizing reagent has been successfully demonstrated on the analysis of pyruvic acid in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with common UV/Vis detection.

  16. A predictive model for the release of slightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Wang, Y H; Liang, W Q

    2004-08-01

    A model to predict the fraction of slightly water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (C(H), w/w), drug solubility in distilled water at 37 degrees C (C(s), g/100 mL), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived when theophyline, tinidazole, and propylthiouracil were selected as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.8683 logt-0.1930C(s) logt + 0.5406V logt-1.227C(H) + 0.1594C(s) + 0.4423C(H)C(s) - 0.8655 (n = 130, r = 0.9969), where Mt is the amount of drug released at time t, Minfinity is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using sulfamethoxazole and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of variousslightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  17. Water-Soluble Conjugated Polymers: Self-Assembly and Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Guillermo

    2005-03-01

    Homogeneous assays can be designed which take advantage of the optical amplification of conjugated polymers and the self-assembly characteristic of aqueous polyelectrolytes. For example, a ssDNA sequence sensor comprises an aqueous solution containing a cationic water soluble conjugated polymer such as poly(9,9-bis(trimethylammonium)-hexyl)-fluorene phenylene) with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) labeled with a dye (PNA-C*). Signal transduction is controlled by hybridization of the neutral PNA-C* probe and the negative ssDNA target, resulting in favorable electrostatic interactions between the hybrid complex and the cationic polymer. Distance requirements for Förster energy transfer are thus met only when ssDNA of complementary sequence to the PNA-C* probe is present. Signal amplification by the conjugated polymer provides fluorescein emission >25 times higher than that of the directly excited dye. Transduction by electrostatic interactions followed by energy transfer is a general strategy. Examples involving other biomolecular recognition events, such as DNA/DNA, RNA/protein and RNA/RNA, will also be provided. The mechanism of biosensing will be discussed, with special attention to the varying contributions of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, polymer conformation, charge density, local concentration of C*s and tailored defect sites for aggregation-induced optical changes. Finally, the water solubility of these conjugated polymers opens possibilities for spin casting onto organic materials, without dissolving the underlying layers. This property is useful for fabricating multilayer organic optoelectronic devices by simple solution techniques.

  18. P2O5 assisted green synthesis of multicolor fluorescent water soluble carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Kumud Malika; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2014-03-01

    A low cost synthesis of multicolor fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from edible sugars is described here. Common sugars like dextrose, lactose or maltose in aqueous medium gets dehydrated using phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). The reaction is facile and completed within few minutes to form insoluble carbon (C-dots) mostly having the graphitic (G-band, Raman) sp2 hybridized carbon atoms (C-atoms). This insoluble carbon on oxidative treatment with nitric acid produced disordered sp3 (D-band retaining G-band, Raman) hybridized C-atoms, originated from the graphitic pool with sp2 hybridized C-atoms. This high density assimilation of self passivated "surfacial defects" become emissive during electronic transitions. Surfacial defects due to high degree of electrophilic carboxylation create the water soluble version of multicolor fluorescent C-dots as "water soluble fluorescent carbon dots" (wsFCDs). wsFCDs being itself self-passivated imposes the tunable multicolor emission throughout the visible spectrum without having any external coating and surface passivation and could be used as multicolor fluorescent probe especially in the emerging field of optical bio-imaging.

  19. Incorporation of titanate nanosheets to enhance mechanical properties of water-soluble polyamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harito, C.; Bavykin, Dmitry V.; Walsh, Frank C.

    2017-07-01

    Pyromeliticdianhydride (PMDA) and 4’,4’-oxydianiline (ODA) were used as monomers of polyimide. To synthesise a water soluble polyimide precursor (polyamic acid salt), triethylamine (TEA) was added to polyamic acid with a TEA/COOH mole ratio of 1:1. Titanate nanosheets were synthesised by solid-state reaction, ion-exchanged with acid, and exfoliated by TEA. Exfoliated titanate nanosheets were mixed with water soluble polyamic acid salt as reinforcing filler. Drop casting was deployed to synthesise polyamic acid/titanate nanosheet nanocomposite films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to study the morphology and dispersion of nanosheets in the colloidal dispersion and the solid film composite. Modulus and hardness of nanocomposites was provided by nanoindentation. Hardness increased by 90% with addition of 2% TiNS while modulus increased by 103% compared to pure polymer. This behaviour agrees well with Halpin-Tsai theoretical predictions up to 2 wt% filler loading; agglomeration occurs at higher concentrations.

  20. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RADICAL GRAFTING REACTIONS ONTO STARCH AND OTHER WATER-SOLUBLE COPOLYMERS IN ISOLATED GEL DROPLETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liansheng; A.F.Johnson

    1993-01-01

    A novel radical grafting copolymerization process has been designed for water-soluble polymers which avoids the problems of conducting grafting reactions in highly viscous polymerization media.A variety of water-soluble graft copolymers having starch or dextran as the backbone chain with grafted side chains of polyacrylamide (-AM-),poly (acrylic acid) (-AA-),poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (-AM-NH4AA-) or poly (acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulphinic acid)(-AM-AMPS-) have been synthesized in gel droplets using a ceric sulphate redox initiator,and their properties compared.The reaction conditions were optimized taking into account reaction kinetic data and the observed properties of the products produced under different reaction conditions.The effects of the ratios of [backbone]/[graft monomer],[AM]/[AA]/[AMPS],[Ce4+]/[S2O8=] and pH value on the reaction rate,conversion,grafting degree,grafted chain length and the product molecular weight have been investigated.

  2. Influence of polymethacrylates and compritol on release profile of a highly water soluble drug metformin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dahiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present investigation studied effect of polymethacrylates Eudragit RSPO, Eudragit RLPO and compritol 888 ATO on release profile of highly water soluble drug metformin hydrochloride (MET. Materials and Methods: The solid dispersions were prepared using drug:polymer ratios 1:1 and 1:5 by coevaporation and coprecipitation techniques. Solid dispersions were characterized by infrared Spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffractometry (XRD as well as content uniformity, in vitro dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Results and Discussion: Results of the studies suggested that there were progressive disappearance or changes of prominent peaks in IR, X-ray diffraction and thermotropic drug signals in coevaporates and coprecipitates with increased amount of polymers. Moreover, the in vitro release of highly water soluble MET could be extended at higher drug:polymer ratios. Conclusion: It was summarized that Eudragit RLPO had greater capacity of drug release than Eudragit RSPO and Comproitol 888 and its coevaporates in 1:5 drug:polymer ratio (F11 displayed extended drug release with comparatively higher dissolution rates (92.15 % drug release at 12 hour following near Zero order kinetics (r² =0.9822.

  3. Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by single and mixed surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements of pyrene by both single-surfactant and mixed-surfactant solutions were compared andevaluated. The solubility of pyrene in water was greatly enhanced by each of Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-405 (TX405), Brij 35 and SDS, in which the water solubility enhancements increased with increasing surfactant concentrations. The extent of solubility enhancements at surfactant concentrations below the CMC is the order of TX100 > Brij 35 > TX405 > SDS; the sequence at surfactantconcentrations above the CMC is TX100 > Brij 35 > SDS > TX405. Pyrene was solubilized synergistically by anionic-nonionic mixed surfactant solutions, especially at low surfactant concentrations. The synergistic power of the mixed surfactants is SDS-TX405 > SDS-Brij 35 > SDS-TX100. The synergism as noted is attributed to increasing Kmc and/or decreasing the CMC of the mixed surfactan solution. For SDS-TX405 and SDS-Brij 35 mixed surfactant solutions, an increase in Kmc is coupled with a decrease in the CMC; for SDS-TX100, only a decreased in the CMC value is noted. Mixed-surfactant solutions may improve the performance of the surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) of soils by increasing the bioavailability and biodegradation of non-aqueous-phase organic pollutants and reducing the level of surfactant pollution and remediation expenses.

  4. Indoor/outdoor relationships of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 mass concentrations and their water-soluble ions in a retirement home and a school dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Arhami, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Pourpak, Zahra; Rastkari, Noushin; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Kashani, Homa; Gholampour, Akbar; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Yunesian, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Indoor/outdoor particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and their water-soluble ions were measured in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran, from May 2012 to January 2013. Hourly indoor/outdoor PM concentrations were measured using GRIMM dust monitors and 24-h aerosol samples were collected by low-volume air samplers. Water-soluble ions were determined using an ion chromatography (IC) instrument. Although the mean outdoor PM concentrations in both sampling sites were almost equal, the mean indoor PM10 in the school dormitory was approximately 1.35 times higher than that in the retirement home. During a Middle Eastern dust storm, the 24-h average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations were respectively 3.4, 2.9, and 1.9 times as high as those in normal days outdoors and 3.4, 2.8, and 1.6 times indoors. The results indicated that secondary inorganic aerosols were the dominant water-soluble ions of indoor and outdoor PM. We found that the smaller the particle, the higher the percentage of secondary inorganic aerosols. Except for PM10 in the school dormitory, strong correlations were found between indoor and outdoor PM. We estimated that nearly 45% of PM10, 67% of PM2.5, and 79% of PM1 in the retirement home, and 32% of PM10, 76% of PM2.5, and 83% of PM1 in the school dormitory originated from outdoor environment.

  5. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duester; H.G. van der Geest; S. Moelleken; A.V. Hirner; K. Kueppers

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms. Stu

  6. [Effect of chlorine and phosphorus on water soluble and exchangeable lead in a soil contaminated by lead and zinc mining tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi-ling; Xie, Zheng-miao; Li, Jing; Wu, Wei-hong; Jiang, Jun-tao

    2008-06-01

    Effect of chlorine on in situ lead immobilization using phosphorus in a soil contaminated by lead and zinc mining tailings was evaluated. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Pb were reduced by 92.0%-95.1% in the soil after P application. It was also suggested that application dosage of phosphorus at the P/Pb molar ratio of 0.6, was enough to remediate Pb toxicity in the soil. Compared to without Cl treatment at the level of molar ratio of 0.6 P/Ph, water soluble and exchangeable Pb in the soil treated with Cl was reduced markedly. It was concluded that the effects chlorine addition on in situ lead (Pb) immobilization using phosphate were improved. Visual MINTEQ model was employed to figure out Pb and P species distribution and saturation indices for minerals in the soils treated by P and Cl. The results showed that Pb activity was controlled by lead phosphate in the soil, especially pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl], which would be the reason for Pb bioactivity reduction in the soil after application of Cl and P. The effective Pb bioactivity reduction indicated that addition of Cl was necessary to to improve in situ lead immobilization using phosphorous in the lead-contaminated soil.

  7. Facile Size-controllable Aqueous Synthesis of Water Soluble CdTe/Cd(OH)2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles with Tunable Optical Property, High Quantum Yield and Good Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI,Zhao-Xia; CHEN,Ying-Jun; YAN,Xiu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    A facile procedure was developed to prepare size-tunable and water soluble CdTe/Cd(OH)2 core/shell nanopar-ticles with high quantum yields and good stability using inexpensive inorganic precursors (CdCl2 and elemental Te). The emission colors of the prepared CdTe/Cd(OH)2 core/shell nanoparticles can be readily tuned from cyan to salmon pink by varying incubation time to control the growth of the Cd(OH)2 shell onto the CdTe nanoparticles. The CdTe/Cd(OH)2 core/shell nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction spectrometry, photoluminescence and UV-Vis spec-trometry. The good water-soluble nature of the CdTe/Cd(OH)2 core/shell nanoparticles offers great potentiality for their bio-labeling application. This approach is simple, mild and readily scaled up, affording a simple way for synthesis of size-tunable inorganic metal hydroxide capped core/shell nanoparticles.

  8. Antimicrobial and Antifungal Effects of Acid and Water-Soluble Chitosan Extracted from Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, efforts are underway to seek new and effective antimicrobial agents, and marine resources are potent candidates for this aim. The following study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of water-soluble and acid-soluble chitosan against some pathogenic organisms.   Materials & Method s: Inhibition zone of different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/ml of acid- soluble and water-soluble chitosan were examined for in vitro antibacterial activity against 4 kinds of hospital bacteria and penicillium sp. Results were compared with 4 standard antibiotics: streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum lethal concentration were determined.   Results: Inhibition activity of acid-soluble chitosan (10% showed the best result (p value < 0.05, whereas water-soluble chitosan exhibited the least antibacterial effects (p value < 0.05. Chitosan demonstrated maximum effect on V. cholera cerotype ogava , and the least effect was seen on E. coli (p value < 0.05. Acid-soluble chitosan had a more potent effect than the standard antibiotics. Also, acid-soluble chitosan (10% and water-soluble chitosan showed maximum inhibitory effects on penicillium sp.   Conclusion: Chitosan showed maximum antibacterial effect against S. aureus, V. cholerae cerotype ogava, and water-soluble chitosan demonstrated good antifungal effects, revealing a statistically significant difference with common antibacterial and antifungal medicines.

  9. One-step synthesis and antibacterial property of water-soluble silver nanoparticles by CGJ bio-template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zi-Chun; Wu, Qing-Sheng; Chen, Ping; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In this article, a new synthetic method of nanoparticles with fresh Chinese gooseberry juice (CGJ) as bio-template was developed. One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanoparticles at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents and special capping agent was fulfilled with this method. In the process, the products were obtained by adding AgNO3 to CGJ, which was used as reducing agent, capping agent, and the bio-template. The products of silver nanoparticles with diameter of 10-30 nm have strong water solubility and excellent antibiotic function. With the same concentration 0.047 μg mL-1, the antibacterial effect of water-soluble silver particles by fresh CGJ was 53%, whereas only 27% for silver nanoparticles synthesized using the template method of fresh onion inner squama coat (OISC). The excellent water solubility of the products would enable them have better applications in the bio-medical field. The synthetic method would also have potential application in preparing other highly water-soluble particles, because of its simple apparatus, high yield, mild conditions, and facile operation.

  10. Species-specific isotope tracers to study the accumulation and biotransformation of mixtures of inorganic and methyl mercury by the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Monperrus, Mathilde; Amouroux, David; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2014-09-01

    The present study demonstrates that species-specific isotope tracing is an useful tool to precisely measure Hg accumulation and transformations capabilities of living organisms at concentrations naturally encountered in the environment. To that end, a phytoplanktonic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae) was exposed to mixtures of (199)-isotopically enriched inorganic mercury ((199)IHg) and of (201)-isotopically enriched monomethylmercury ((201)CH3Hg) at a concentration range between less than 1 pM to 4 nM. Additionally, one exposure concentration of both mercury species was also studied separately to evaluate possible interactive effects. No difference in the intracellular contents was observed for algae exposed to (199)IHg and (201)CH3Hg alone or in their mixture, suggesting similar accumulation capacity for both species at the studied concentrations. Demethylation of (201)CH3Hg was observed at the highest exposure concentrations, whereas no methylation was detected.

  11. Phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs for water-soluble and biocompatible nature through silanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhou, Guangjun [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm) via silanization. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of ligand exchange plays an important role to retain high fluorescence quantum yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs. -- Abstract: A novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). The silanization of the QDs was carried out by using partially hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to replace organic ammine or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the surface of the QDs. The partially hydrolyzed 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane attached to the hydrolyzed TEOS layer on the QDs prevented the QDs from agglomeration when the QDs were transferred into water. The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs exhibited the same absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as those of initial QDs in organic solvents. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs preserved PL intensities, is colloidally stable over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). Because the mean diameter of amphiphilic polymer-coated QDs was almost 2 times of that of functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs, the QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs.

  12. Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, K. E.; Hastings, M. G.; Peters, A. J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W), which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2281 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+), CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+), CHON compounds that contained phosphorus (CHONP+), CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorus (CHONSP+), and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+). Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Despite their prevalence in continental rainwater, no organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March) which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September) with remote marine air mass origins. This, in

  13. Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties, and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W, which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2455 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+, CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+, CHON compounds that contained phosphorous (CHONP+, CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorous (CHONSP+, and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+. No organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September with remote marine air mass origins. This, in conjunction with patterns

  14. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  15. Au nanorods modulated NIR fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation of water soluble dendritic zinc phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefei; He, Xiaohong; Wei, Shiliang; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-11-15

    A novel cyano-terminated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-CN) exhibiting visible near infrared (vis-NIR) emitting around 690nm in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent has been synthesized. Furthermore, the peripheral cyano groups of newly synthesized zinc phthalocyanine were hydrolyzed in strong basic solution, leading to water soluble carboxylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-COOH) with completely quenched fluorescence in aqueous solution. Interestingly, we found that the NIR fluorescence of aqueous ZnPc-COOH was dramatically recovered in the presence of gold nanorods (Au NR), which was due to the alternation of ZnPc-COOH molecules self-assembling via electrostatic interaction between cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the surface of Au NR and peripheral carboxyl of ZnPc-COOH. In addition, ZnPc-COOH/Au NR conjugates demonstrated an improved singlet oxygen generation, which could be served as potential bioimaging probe and photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

  16. Amino acids as co-amorphous stabilizers for poorly water-soluble drugs - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, K.; Laitinen, R.; Strachan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of co-amorphous drug-drug mixtures has proved to be a powerful approach to stabilize the amorphous form and at the same time increase the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Molecular interactions in these co-amorphous formulations can play a crucial role in stabilization...... and dissolution enhancement. In this regard, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a valuable tool to analyze the molecular near range order of the compounds in the co-amorphous mixtures. In this study, several co-amorphous drugs - low molecular weight excipient blends - have been analyzed with FTIR...... spectroscopy. Molecular interactions of the drugs carbamazepine and indomethacin with the amino acids arginine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were investigated. The amino acids were chosen from the biological target site of both drugs and prepared as co-amorphous formulations together with the drugs...

  17. PREPARATION AND PHOTOSENSITIVITY OF WATER SOLUBLE PHENOLIC RESINS CONTAINING ACRYLOYL AND QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CHLORIDE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ming Tan; Hong-quan Xie; Nai-yu Huang

    2002-01-01

    New water soluble and photocrosslinkable prepolymers containing acrylate and quaternary ammonium salt groups were synthesized from epoxy phenolic resin via ring-opening reaction with acrylic acid and with aqueous solution of triethylamine hydrochloride successively. The second reaction needs no phase transfer catalyst to accelerate, since the product formed can act as a phase transfer catalyst. The prepolymer obtained contains both photocrosslinkable acrylate groups and hydrophilic quaternary ammonium salt groups. Optimum conditions for these reactions were studied. The photosensitivity of the prepolymer was also investigated. The effects of different photoinitiators, different crosslinkable diluent monomers and amine accelerator on the photosensitivity of the prepolymer were compared. The photoinitiator of hydrogen abstraction type is still effective without using amine or alcohol as accelerator, because the prepolymer contains α H beside the OH groups formed in the ring-opening reactions.

  18. LiFePO 4 water-soluble binder electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfi, A.; Kaneko, M.; Petitclerc, M.; Mori, M.; Zaghib, K.

    A new water-soluble elastomer from ZEON Corp. was evaluated as binder with LiFePO 4 cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The mechanical characteristic of this cathode was compared to that with PVdF-based cathode binder. The elastomer-based cathode shows high flexibility with good adhesion. The electrochemical performance was also evaluated and compared to PVdF-based cathodes at 25 and at 60 °C. A lower irreversible capacity loss was obtained with the elastomer-based cathode, however, aging at 60 °C shows a comparable cycle life to that observed with PVdF-based cathodes. The LiFePO 4-WSB at high rate shows a good performance with 120 mAh g -1 at 10 C rate at 60 °C.

  19. LiFePO{sub 4} water-soluble binder electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerfi, A.; Petitclerc, M.; Zaghib, K. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, 1800 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Que. J3X 1S1 (Canada); Kaneko, M.; Mori, M. [ZEON Corporation, R and D Center, 1-2-1 Yako, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-9507 (Japan)

    2007-01-01

    A new water-soluble elastomer from ZEON Corp. was evaluated as binder with LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The mechanical characteristic of this cathode was compared to that with PVdF-based cathode binder. The elastomer-based cathode shows high flexibility with good adhesion. The electrochemical performance was also evaluated and compared to PVdF-based cathodes at 25 and at 60{sup o}C. A lower irreversible capacity loss was obtained with the elastomer-based cathode, however, aging at 60{sup o}C shows a comparable cycle life to that observed with PVdF-based cathodes. The LiFePO{sub 4}-WSB at high rate shows a good performance with 120mAhg{sup -1} at 10C rate at 60{sup o}C. (author)

  20. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  1. Nanonization of poorly water-soluble drug clobetasone butyrate by using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sunqiang; Takebe, Gen; Suzuki, Masumi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Ge, Jianhong; Liu, Chong; Hiramatsu, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    Nanonization, which involves the formation of the drug with nanometer particle size, is an effective method to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. A pulsewidth-tunable femtosecond laser was used to produce nanoparticles of clobetasone butyrate using poloxamer 188 as stabilizing agent. The effects of temperature and pulsewidth on the particle size and concentration were studied for the first time. The particle size and drug concentration dependence on the laser intensity and irradiation time were also investigated. Permeability test releaved that laser nanonization improved the drug permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayer. This laser nanonization method has a great potential to be used for new drug development.

  2. Synthesis and Spectral Properties of Novel Water-soluble Near-infrared Fluorescent Indocyanines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiu WANG; Xiao Jun PENG; Wei Bing ZHANG; Fei YIN; Jing Nan CUI; Xin Qin GAO

    2005-01-01

    Two fluorescent pentamethine and a squarylium indocyanines containing at least one p-carboxybenzyl group on N atoms in the heterocyclic rings were synthesized. They had good water solubility and photostability. Their maximum absorption and maximum emission were600-700 nm in water. When it was anchored onto nanostructured TiO2 electrode, compared with in water, the squaraine showed double absorption peaks (one blue shifted and another red shifted)and absorption intensity of the red shift peak increased with the increase of the time of irradiation.The intensity of the blue one decreased simultaneously. We proposed that the presence of two electronic charge forms of squaraine anchored on the TiO2 film might be the reason.

  3. Water-soluble Hantzsch ester as switch-on fluorescent probe for efficiently detecting nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Li; Liu, Fu-Tao; Ding, Ai-Xiang; Ma, Su-Fang; He, Lan; Lin, Lan; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-12-01

    A water soluble Hantzsch ester derivative of coumarin, DHPS, was synthesized and successfully applied in the fluorescent sensing nitric oxide (NO) in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of probe DHPS is extremely weak, while its fluorescence was greatly switched on upon the addition of NO solution and showed high selectivity and sensitivity to NO. The limitation of the detection was calculated to be 18 nM. The NO-induced aromatization of dihydropyridine in DHPS to pyridine derivative (PYS) proved to be the switching mechanism for the fluorescent sensing process, which was confirmed through spectra characterization and computation study. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated both DHPS and PYS are biocompatible, the DHPS was successfully applied to track the endogenously produced NO in the RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  5. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Ecocos Wolf.

  6. Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy by Water-Soluble Self-Assembled Conjugated Porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Ogawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on two-photon absorption (2PA photodynamic therapy (PDT by using three water-soluble porphyrin self-assemblies consisting of ethynylene-linked conjugated bis (imidazolylporphyrin are reviewed. 2PA cross-section values in water were obtained by an open aperture Z-scan measurement, and values were extremely large compared with those of monomeric porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin. These compounds were found to generate singlet oxygen efficiently upon one- as well as two-photon absorption as demonstrated by the time-resolved luminescence measurement at the characteristic band of singlet oxygen at 1270 nm and by using its scavenger. Photocytotoxicities for HeLa cancer cells were examined and found to be as high as those of hematoporphyrin, demonstrating that these compounds are potential candidates for 2PA-photodynamic therapy agents.

  7. Water-soluble polythiophene-single walled carbon Nanotube bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Choi, Jaewu

    2011-10-01

    Two symmetrical terminal electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) were employed to study the current-voltage characteristics of a bulk-heterojunction consisting of water soluble polythiophene and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). However, the current-voltage curves were asymmetrical, attributed to the polarization induced by the initial bias voltage. The polymer-SWCNT heterojunction were superior to the pristine polymer in both dark conductivity and photoconductivity by two orders of magnitude. Additionally, the open-cell voltage of 0.075 V was observed from the heterojunction even though the electrodes were symmetrical. The high conductivity and photoresponse originated from the high conductivity, high interconnectivity and hole doping capability of CNT.

  8. Radiation crosslinking of starch/water-soluble polymer blends for hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, K.; Mohid, N.; Bahari, K.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute Nuclear Technology Research Malaysia (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-03-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as PVP(polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and PVA(polyvinyl alcohol), in aqueous solution can form hydrogel easily upon gamma or electron beam irradiation. The properties of hydrogels, particularly for wound dressing application, can be further improved by adding sago starch to the blend. Results show improved gel strength and elongation properties of the hydrogel with increasing sago concentration. It was found that the PVA/sago hydrogel gives better gel strength and elongation than the PVP/sago hydrogel. The tackiness property of the PVA/sago hydrogel increased with increase amount of sago starch added. In case of PVP/sago hydrogel, the tackiness property shows significant increase with increasing amount of sago except for the 5%PVP composition. The swelling properties of PVP/sago and PVA/sago hydrogel decreased with increasing amount of sago but the crosslink density of the hydrogels also reduced. (author)

  9. [Water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Lotus corniculatus L.: structure and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A V; Mestechkina, N M; Plennik, R Ia; Shcherbukhin, V D

    2003-01-01

    Galactomannan, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, was isolated from the seed of Far-Eastern population of ground honeysuckle Lotus corniculatus L. (yield, 1.65%). Analysis of this galactomannan showed that is consists of D-mannose and D-galactose residues (molar ratio, 1.22:1). Its aqueous solutions were characterized by specific rotation [alpha]D = +84.10 and characteristic viscosity [eta] = 559 ml/g. Analysis of this heteropolysaccharide using chemical and enzymatic procedures, as well as IR- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, showed that its main chain comprises 1,4-beta-D-mannopyranose residues, 95.5% of which are substituted at C-6 with single residues of alpha-D-galactopyranose.

  10. A Highly Efifcient and Selective Water-Soluble Bimetallic Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Chloronitrobenzene to Chloroaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yafen; Yang Wenjuan; Zhou Limei; Wang Manman; Ma Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Selective hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzene (CNB) to chloroaniline (CAN) catalyzed by water-soluble Ru/Pt bimetallic catalyst in an aqueous-organic biphasic system was studied. It was found that the catalytic activity increased ob-viously due to the addition of platinum. Ru/Pt bimetallic catalysts exhibited a strong synergistic effect when the molar ratio of Pt was in the range of 5%—80%. Under the mild conditions including a temperature of 25℃, a hydrogen pressure of 1.0 MPa and a Pt molar ratio of 20%, the conversion of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) reached 99.9%, with the selectivity to p-chloroaniline (p-CAN) equating to 99.4%. The Ru/Pt catalyst also showed high activity and selectivity for the hydrogena-tion of other chloro-and dichloro-nitrobenzenes with different substituted positions. In addition, the catalyst can be recycled ifve times without signiifcant loss of activity.

  11. Formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs via coacervation--a pilot study using febantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeghere, W; De Geest, B G; Van Bocxlaer, J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Antunes da Fonseca, A

    2013-11-01

    In this study, febantel was dissolved under increased temperature in a nonionic surfactant Lutrol L44® and subsequently mixed into an aqueous maltodextrin solution. After 8h under static conditions, coacervation or phase separation took place. (1)H NMR spectra and HPLC analysis showed that the upper phase contained mainly all febantel, while no febantel was detected in the lower phase. Fluorescent microscopy showed that maltodextrin is distributed in the lower phase. Coacervation proved to be a promising formulation technology for certain poorly water-soluble drugs, such as febantel. The coacervate phase showed an increase in in vitro dissolution kinetics, compared to Rintal® granules. These results were confirmed in an in vivo study performed on dogs. Febantel and fenbendazole showed a significant increase in plasma concentration compared to Rintal® granules. Further studies have to be performed to transform coacervates into a solid dosage form and to prove broad applicability to other poorly soluble drugs.

  12. Bioavailability Improvement Strategies for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Based on the Supersaturation Mechanism: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Li; Li, Ying; Gao, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    The formulation development for poorly soluble drugs still remains a challenge. Supersaturating drug delivery systems (SDDS) or drug delivery systems based on supersaturating provide a promising way to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. In supersaturable formulations, drug concentration exceeds the equilibrium solubility when exposed to gastrointestinal fluids, and the supersaturation state is maintained long enough to be absorbed, resulting in compromised bioavailability. In this article, the mechanism of generating and maintaining supersaturation and the evaluation methods of supersaturation assays are discussed. Recent advances in different drug delivery systems based on supersaturating are the focus and are discussed in detail.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  13. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of water-soluble self-passivated graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Cao, Xiangke; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing; Li, Xueming; Teng, Kar Seng; Luk, Chi Man; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua; Lau, Shu Ping

    2012-06-26

    Glucose-derived water-soluble crystalline graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with an average diameter as small as 1.65 nm (∼5 layers) were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The GQDs exhibits deep ultraviolet (DUV) emission of 4.1 eV, which is the shortest emission wavelength among all the solution-based QDs. The GQDs exhibit typical excitation wavelength-dependent properties as expected in carbon-based quantum dots. However, the emission wavelength is independent of the size of the GQDs. The unique optical properties of the GQDs are attributed to the self-passivated layer on the surface of the GQDs as revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the GQDs were determined to be 7-11%. The GQDs are capable of converting blue light into white light when the GQDs are coated onto a blue light emitting diode.

  14. Interaction of Globular Plasma Proteins with Water-Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotsana; Rawat, Kamla; Sanwlani, Shilpa; Bohidar, H B

    2015-06-08

    The interactions between water-soluble semiconductor quantum dots [hydrophilic 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-coated CdSe] and three globular plasma proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and human serum albumin (HSA), are investigated. Acidic residues of protein molecules form electrostatic interactions with these quantum dots (QDs). To determine the stoichiometry of proteins bound to QDs, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential techniques. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments revealed energy transfer from tryptophan residues in the proteins to the QD particles. Quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of protein molecules was noticed during this binding process (hierarchy HSA<β-Lg

  15. Removal of chromium from aqueous solution by complexation-ultrafiltration using a water-soluble macroligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, A; Bounatiro, N; Cherif, A T; Akretche, D E

    2001-06-01

    A process for purifying waste waters containing heavy and toxic metal such as chromium has been studied. A batch complexation-ultrafiltration process was used to concentrate and recover chromium from sulphate solution. As the chromium ions are too small to be retained by the filter, they are first complexed with a water-soluble macroligand (polyethylene-imine). Factors affecting the rejection rate and permeate flux such as pH, concentration ligand, chloride and sulphate concentration, membrane pore size, applied pressure and extraction factor were investigated. Best operating conditions can be obtained in order to achieve high levels of removal (> 95%). Then, decomplexation is obtained so that metal can be separated from macroligand by a second ultrafiltration plant to reuse the macroligand.

  16. Lumbar myelography using water-soluble contrast media. Lumbale Myelographie mit wasserloelichen Kontrastmitteln. Lehrbuch und Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlotz, M.

    1981-01-01

    With the new water-soluble contrast media developed in the last 10 years, lumbar myelography has become a simple and low-risk diagnostic method of great value which is hardly ever omitted before surgery is undertaken. The book attempts a synopsis of radiology and clinical examinations. In its first part, the pathological, clinical, and radiological aspects of diseases of the lumbosacral spinal duct are reviewed. The second part contains more than 300 myelographic pictures in original size. Each of the myelograms is supplemented by the case history of the patient (anamnesis, neurological examination, therapy and course). Interpretation is facilitated by drawings at the beginning of each chapter which show the major pathological and radiological changes.

  17. A mathematical model to predict the release of water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Fu, C Y; Liang, W Q

    2004-09-01

    A mathematical model to predict the fraction of water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (CH, w/w), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived with ranitidine hydrochloride, diltiazem hydrochloride, and ribavirin as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.5 log t-0.3322CH-0.2222V-0.2988 (n = 140, r = 0.9848), where M(t) is the amount of drug released at time t, M(infinity) is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using isoniazid and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of various soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  18. Reversible Covalent and Supramolecular Functionalization of Water-Soluble Gold(I) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Benedict; von Gröning, Maximilian; Lewe, Vanessa; Spitzer, Daniel; Otremba, Tobias; Stergiou, Natascha; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Schmitt, Edgar; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Besenius, Pol

    2017-02-09

    The ligation of gold(I) metalloamphiphiles with biomolecules is reported, using water-soluble Au(I) -N-alkynyl substituted maleimide complexes. For this purpose, two different polar ligands were applied: 1) a neutral, dendritic tetraethylene glycol-functionalized phosphane and 2) a charged, sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). The retro Diels-Alder reaction of a furan-protected maleimide gold(I) complex, followed by cycloaddition with a diene-functionalized biotin under mild conditions leads to a novel gold(I) metalloamphiphile. The strong streptavidin-biotin binding affinity in buffered aqueous solution of the resulting biotin alkynyl gold(I) phosphane conjugate remains intact. The cytotoxicity of the biotinylated gold(I) complex against a T47D human breast cancer cell line is higher than for cisplatin.

  19. Determination of Water Content of Water-soluble Paints by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾润南; 钦维民; 肖舸

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of water content of water-soluble paints by gas chromatography. The water in paints is extracted by dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent.Isopropanol is used as an internal standard. The mixture is separated by low-speed centrifugation.Then a 1-uL sample of the supernatant from the prepared solution is injected into the gas chromatograph. The water content is determined by internal standard calibration curve. The rate of recovery of added standard of this method is more than 98%. Relative mean deviation is less than 3‰.The linearity of calibration curve is good and relativity coefficient is higher than 0.998.

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Water-Soluble Dyes by LaCoO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅希贤; 杨秋华; 王俊珍; 白树林; 桑丽霞

    2003-01-01

    Perovskite-type oxides LaCoO3 was prepared by citrate method in granula of 20~30 nm. Using a fluorescent Hg lamp or sunlight as irradiator, the degradation experiments of various water-soluble dyes were carried out in the suspension system of LaCoO3. The results show that the perovskite-type oxide LaCoO3 has good photocatalytic activity. With the study of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectra, its photocatalytic activity is mainly related with the factors such as the d-electron structure of ion Co3+, Co-O binding energy and adsorbed oxygen on the surface etc.

  1. Super fast detection of latent fingerprints with water soluble CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin; Wang, Yanji; Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-03-10

    A new method based on the use of highly fluorescent water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) capped with mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was explored to develop latent fingerprints. After optimized the effectiveness of QDs method contains pH value and developing time, super fast detection was achieved. Excellent fingerprint images were obtained in 1-3s after immersed the latent fingerprints into quantum dots solution on various non-porous surfaces, i.e. adhesive tape, transparent tape, aluminum foil and stainless steel. High sensitivity of the new latent fingerprints develop method was obtained by developing the fingerprints pressed on aluminum foil successively with the same finger. Compared with methyl violet and rhodamine 6G, the MSA-CdTe QDs showed the higher develop speed and fingerprint image quality. Clear image can be maintained for months by extending exposure time of CCD camera, storing fingerprints in a low temperature condition and secondary development.

  2. The Quality of Dory Fillets based on Water Soluble Protein, Color, and Myoglobin Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfajrin Nisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fillet of dory is very easy to be find in Indonesian market with various brand and produsen.Imported dory fillet is preferred by consumer so far because it has a white color compare than localfillets. Color is the important parameter that used by consumers to determine the quality of filet. Thisstudy was aimed to determine the quality of local and imported fillets, including protein profile usingSDS PAGE, color measurement, and myoglobin extractability. The results of water soluble protein profilesshowed dory fillet contained 13-15 bands. The redness value (a* of local fillet (DN, DL, DM was highercompared others. However, imported fillet (DI had the highest if redness index (a/b. Imported fillet (DIshowed the lowest concentration of myoglobin compared other samples.

  3. The Quality of Dory Fillets based on Water Soluble Protein, Color, and Myoglobin Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfajrin Nisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fillet of dory is very easy to be find in Indonesian market with various brand and produsen. Imported dory fillet is preferred by consumer so far because it has a white color compare than local fillets. Color is the important parameter that used by consumers to determine the quality of filet. This study was aimed to determine the quality of local and imported fillets, including protein profile using SDS PAGE, color measurement, and myoglobin extractability. The results of water soluble protein profiles showed dory fillet contained 13-15 bands. The redness value (a* of local fillet (DN, DL, DM was higher compared others. However, imported fillet (DI had the highest if redness index (a/b. Imported fillet (DI showed the lowest concentration of myoglobin compared other samples.

  4. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2017-08-08

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  5. Amino acids as co-amorphous stabilizers for poorly water soluble drugs--Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Laitinen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    . However, this strategy only led to a small number of marketed products usually because of inadequate physical stability of the drug (crystallization). In this study, we investigated a fundamentally different approach to stabilize the amorphous form of drugs, namely the use of amino acids as small...... molecular weight excipients that form specific molecular interactions with the drug resulting in co-amorphous forms. The two poorly water soluble drugs carbamazepine and indomethacin were combined with amino acids from the binding sites of the biological receptors of these drugs. Mixtures of drug...... and the amino acids arginine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine were prepared by vibrational ball milling. Solid-state characterization with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the various blends could be prepared as homogeneous, single phase co...

  6. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  7. Controlled synthesis of titania using water-soluble titanium complexes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Dien, Luong Xuan; Vo, Dai-Viet N.; Le, Thanh Son

    2017-07-01

    The development of human society has led to the increase in energy and resources consumption as well as the arising problems of environmental damage and the toxicity to the human health. The development of novel synthesis method which tolerates utilization of toxic solvents and chemicals would fulfill the demand of the society for safer, softer, and environmental friendly technologies. For the past decades, a remarkable progress has been attained in the development of new water-soluble titanium complexes (WSTC) and their use for the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials by aqueous solution-based approaches. The progress of synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide using such WSTCs is reviewed in this work. The key structural features responsible for the successfully controlled synthesis of TiO2 are discussed to provide guidelines for the morphology-controlled synthesis. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges as well as new directions in this fascinating research.

  8. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology under development to selectively recover valuable or regulated metal ions from process or wastewaters. The technology uses water-soluble chelating polymers that are designed to selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular weight that they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration (UF) technology. The UF range is generally considered to include molecular weights from about 3000 to several million daltons and particles sizes of about 2 to 1000 nm. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the UF membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions that are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Some of the advantages of polymer filtration relative to technology now in use are rapid binding kinetics, high selectivity, low energy and capital costs, and a small equipment footprint. Some potential commercial applications include electroplating rinse waters, photographic processing, nuclear power plant cooling water; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater; removal of mercury contamination; and textile, paint and dye production. The purpose of this project is to evaluate this technology to remove plutonium, americium, and other regulated metal ions from various process and waste streams found in nuclear facilities. The work involves preparation of the water-soluble chelating polymers; small-scale testing of the chelating polymer systems for the required solubility, UF properties, selectivity and binding constants; followed by an engineering assessment at a larger scale to allow comparison to competing separation technologies. This project focuses on metal-ion contaminants in waste streams at the Plutonium Facility and the Waste Treatment Facility at LANL. Potential applications at other DOE facilities are also apparent.

  9. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  10. Bilirubin adsorption properties of water-soluble adsorbents with different cyclodextrin cavities in plasma dialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Cao, Yaming; Wei, Houliang; Jia, Lingyun; Xu, Li; Xie, Jian

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we explored the use of α-, β- or γ-cyclodextrin (CD)-grafted polyethyleneimine (PEI) as water-soluble adsorbent for removing excess plasma bilirubin. To evaluate the bilirubin-binding capacity of these adsorbents, bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution or plasma with high level of bilirubin were dialyzed against CD-PEI-spiked dialysate. In BSA solution with an initial biliurbin concentration of 171.5mg/L, α-CD-PEI, β-CD-PEI and γ-CD-PEI achieved adsorption capacities of 2.5, 5.8 and 3.8 mg/g, respectively. In a plasma dialysis system, 45.6% of bilirubin (260 mg/L) was removed from 200 mL plasma by 1L dialysate spiked with 10mg/mL β-CD-PEI, which was significantly higher than that removed by the same volume of BSA-spiked dialysate (Padsorption was related to the CD functional group, not the PEI matrix. Subsequent molecular docking study indicated that the size of CD cavity could affect the affinity energy of CD-bilirubin complex. The cavity of β-CD was most suitable for accommodating the pyrrole rings of bilirubin. The inclusion complex of bilirubin and β-CD in the molar ratio of 1:2 was more logical in terms of affinity energy. All the results demonstrated the potential of β-CD-PEI (water-soluble adsorbent) as an effective agent for removing of bilirubin from plasma in dialysis system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetically assisted fluorescence ratiometric assays for adenosine deaminase using water-soluble conjusated polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fang; YU MingHui; WANG Shu

    2009-01-01

    A magnetically assisted fluorescence ratiometric technique has been developed for adenosine deami-nase assays with high sensitivity using water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs).The assay contains three elements:a biotin-labeled aptamer of adenosine (biotin-aptamer),a signaling probe single-stranded DNA-tagged fiuorescein at terminus (ssDNA-FI) and a CCP.The specific binding of adenosine to biotin-aptamer makes biotin-aptamer and ssDNA-FI unhybridized,and the ssDNA-FI is washed out after streptavidin-coated magnetic beads are added and separated from the assay solution under magnetic field.In this case,after the addition of CCP to the magnetic beads solution,the fluo-rescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from CCP to fluorescein is inefficient.Upon adding adenosine deaminase,the adenosine is converted into inosine,and the biotin-aptamer is hybridized with ssDNA-FI to form doubled stranded DNA (biotin-dsDNA-FI).The ssONA-FI is attached to the mag-netic beads at the separation step,and the addition of CCP to the magnetic beads solution leads to efficient FRET from CCP to fluorescein.Thus the adenosine deaminase activity can be monitored by fluorescence spectra in view of the intensity decrease of CCP emission or the increase of fluorescein emission in aqueous solutions.The assay integrates surface-functionalized magnetic particles with significant amplification of detection signal of water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers.

  12. EPR and Structural Characterization of Water-Soluble Mn(2+)-Doped Si Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Tonya M; Walton, Jeffrey H; Singh, Mani P; Ganguly, Shreyashi; Janka, Oliver; Louie, Angelique Y; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2017-01-26

    Water-soluble poly(allylamine) Mn(2+)-doped Si (SiMn) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and show promise for biologically related applications. The nanoparticles show both strong photoluminescence and good magnetic resonance contrast imaging. The morphology and average diameter were obtained through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); spherical crystalline Si NPs with an average diameter of 4.2 ± 0.7 nm were observed. The doping maximum obtained through this process was an average concentration of 0.4 ± 0.3% Mn per mole of Si. The water-soluble SiMn NPs showed a strong photoluminescence with a quantum yield up to 13%. The SiMn NPs had significant T1 contrast with an r1 relaxivity of 11.1 ± 1.5 mM(-1) s(-1) and r2 relaxivity of 32.7 ± 4.7 mM(-1) s(-1) where the concentration is in mM of Mn(2+). Dextran-coated poly(allylamine) SiMn NPs produced NPs with T1 and T2 contrast with a r1 relaxivity of 27.1 ± 2.8 mM(-1) s(-1) and r2 relaxivity of 1078.5 ± 1.9 mM(-1) s(-1). X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra are fit with a two-site model demonstrating that there are two types of Mn(2+) in these NP's. The fits yield hyperfine splittings (A) of 265 and 238 MHz with significant zero field splitting (D and E terms). This is consistent with Mn in sites of symmetry lower than tetrahedral due to the small size of the NP's.

  13. A general strategy to fabricate ligand-free water-soluble up-conversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhihua, E-mail: lizhihua2006@126.com [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Ying; Wang, Yanan; Miao, Haixia; Du, Yu [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Hong [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We notice that the coordination energy of Y{sup 3+} ions with oleate is less than the normal chemical bond, which can be broken by high power external force. • We report a simple and easily-operated physical method, ultrasonic separation, to remove the oleate ligand from the surface of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}. • The oleate removing method can be applied to the converting of many nanomaterials from oil soluble to water soluble. - Abstract: It is a generally accepted method to synthesize the monodisperse NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} with uniform size and shape by using oleic acid (OA) as surfactant or solvent. However, the obtained oleate-capped up-conversion nanoparticles NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} (Ln-UCNPs, Ln = Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) have inherent hydrophobia properties, which should be processed by complicated post-treatments to render them water dispersible before used in biomedicine. Herein, we introduce a facile approach, ultrasonic separation, to obtain water-soluble and ligand-free Ln-UCNPs by analyzing the capping effect between Ln{sup 3+} and the carboxy group of oleate anions. After ultrasonic separation, the ligand-free of Ln-UCNPs disperse in water and ethanol easily, which are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and zeta potential. The experiments demonstrate that the present method is simple and effective to remove oleate layers from the surface of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and worthy of being generalized.

  14. Streptavidin sensor and its sensing mechanism based on water-soluble fluorescence conjugated polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguo; Hong, Peng; Xu, Baoming; He, Zhike; Zhou, Baohan

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching effect of water-soluble anionic conjugated polymer (CP) (poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV)) by [Re(N-N)(CO)3(py-CH2-NH-biotin)](PF6) [N-N=2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; py-CH2-NH-biotin=N-[(4-pyridyl) methyl] biotinamide] (Re-Biotin) and fluorescence recovery in the presence of streptavidin (or avidin) were investigated using Re-Biotin as quencher tether ligand (QTL) probe. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of fluorescence quenching and recovery were discussed to provide new thoughts to design biosensor based on water-soluble CPs. The results indicate that the sensing mechanisms of streptavidin sensor or avidin sensor, using Re-Biotin as QTL probe, are the same and stable, whether in non-buffer system (aqueous solution) or different buffer systems [0.01 mol·L-1 phosphate buffered solution (pH = 7.4), 0.1 mol·L-1 ammonium carbonate buffered solution (pH = 8.9)]. There exists specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin. Fluorescence quenching and recovery processes of MPS-PPV are reversible. Mechanisms of Re-Biotin quenching MPS-PPV fluorescence can be interpreted as strong electrostatic interactions and charge transferences between Re-Biotin and MPS-PPV. Fluorescence recovery mechanisms of Re-Biotin-MPS-PPV system can be interpreted as specific interactions between streptavidin (or avidin) and biotin of Re-Biotin making Re-Biotin far away from MPS-PPV. Avidin or strptavidin as re-Biotin probe can not only be quantitatively determinated, but also be identified.

  15. Design and synthesis of monofunctionalized, water-soluble conjugated polymers for biosensing and imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Christopher A; Bakus, Ronald C; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2011-08-17

    Water-soluble conjugated polymers with controlled molecular weight characteristics, absence of ionic groups, high emission quantum yields, and end groups capable of selective reactions of wide scope are desirable for improving their performance in various applications and, in particular, fluorescent biosensor schemes. The synthesis of such a structure is described herein. 2-Bromo-7-iodofluorene with octakis(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether chains at the 9,9'-positions, i.e., compound 4, was prepared as the reactive premonomer. A high-yielding synthesis of the organometallic initiator (dppe)Ni(Ph)Br (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) was designed and implemented, and the resulting product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Polymerization of 4 by (dppe)Ni(Ph)Br can be carried out in less than 30 s, affording excellent control over the average molecular weight and polydispersity of the product. Quenching of the polymerization with [2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl]magnesium bromide yields silylacetylene-terminated water-soluble poly(fluorene) with a photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 80%. Desilylation, followed by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction, yields a straightforward route to introduce a wide range of specific end group functionalities. Biotin was used as an example. The resulting biotinylated conjugated polymer binds to streptavidin and acts as a light-harvesting chromophore to optically amplify the emission of Alexa Fluor-488 chromophores bound onto the streptavidin. Furthermore, the biotin end group makes it possible to bind the polymer onto streptavidin-functionalized cross-linked agarose beads and thereby incorporate a large number of optically active segments.

  16. Fast dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs from fluidized bed coated nanocomposites: Impact of carrier size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Moreno, Jacqueline; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh

    2016-11-20

    Formation of core-shell nanocomposites of Fenofibrate and Itraconazole, model poorly water soluble drugs, via fluidized bed (FB) coating of their well-stabilized high drug loaded nanosuspensions is investigated. Specifically, the extent of dissolution enhancement, when fine carrier particles (sub-50μm) as opposed to the traditional large carrier particles (>300μm) are used, is examined. This allows testing the hypothesis that greatly increased carrier surface area and more importantly, thinner shell for finer carriers at the same drug loading can significantly increase the dissolution rate when spray-coated nanosuspensions are well-stabilized. Fine sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac(®) 200) carrier particles were made fluidizable via dry coating with nano-silica, enabling decreased cohesion, fluidization and subsequent nanosuspension coating. For both drugs, 30% drug loaded suspensions were prepared via wet-stirred media milling using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizers. The stabilizer concentrations were varied to affect the milled particle size and prepare a stable nanosuspension. The suspensions were FB coated onto hydrophilic nano-silica (M-5P) dry coated sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac(®) 200) carrier particles or larger carrier particles of median size >300μm (PrismaLac(®)40). The resulting finer composite powders (sub-100μm) based on GranuLac(®) 200 were freely flowing, had high bulk density, and had much faster, immediate dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drugs, in particular for Itraconazole. This is attributed to a much higher specific surface area of the carrier and corresponding thinner coating layer for fine carriers as opposed to those for large carrier particles.

  17. Water soluble drug releasing soft contact lens in response to pH of tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G.; Noh, H.

    2016-06-01

    Human tear characteristics including pH and compositions can vary significantly depending on physical and environmental factors. Contact lenses directly contact with human tears can be swelled or de-swelled depending on the pH of the solution due to the nature of the hydrogel. For examples, anionic hydrogels, when the solution's pH is low, is shrunken due to the electric attraction force within the hydrogel network; the opposite phenomenon appears when the solution is basic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of water soluble drug, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, released from contact lens according to the pH of the artificial tears. Artificial tears are prepared by mixing lysozyme, albumin, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride following physiological concentrations. Hydrogel contact lens was thermally polymerized using HEMA, EGDMA, and AIBN. The prepared hydrogel lens was immersed in drug for 3 hours and the eluted drug mass was measured as a function of the time. As a result, the drug was released from the lens for 12 hours in all the pH of artificial tears. At the lower pH of artificial tears (pH 5.8), the total amount of dye emitted from the lens was increased than the total amount of dye emitted at the basic tear (pH 8.4). Also, initial burst at acidic tears was increased within 1 hour. Release pattern of water-soluble drug from hydrogel lens turned out to be different depending on the pH of the artificial tears. When designing drug releasing contact lens, physiological pH of tears should be considered.

  18. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  19. A water-soluble polycarbonate with dimethylamino pendant groups prepared by enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Cai, Mengmeng; Zhong, Zhenlin; Zhuo, Renxi

    2012-04-23

    A water-soluble polycarbonate with dimethylamino pendant groups, poly(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene carbonate) (PDMATC), is synthesized and characterized. First, the six-membered carbonate monomer, 2-dimethylaminotrimethylene carbonate (DMATC), is prepared via the cyclization reaction of 2-(dimethylamino)propane-1,3-diol with triphosgene in the presence of triethylamine. Although the attempted ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of DMATC with Sn(Oct)(2) as a catalyst fails, the ROP of DMATC is successfully carried out with Novozym-435 as a catalyst to give water-soluble aliphatic polycarbonate PDMATC with low cytotoxicity and good degradability.

  20. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  1. Aqueous-phase exfoliation of graphite in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone for the production of water-soluble graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Zboril, Radek; Steriotis, Theodore A.; Stubos, Athanasios K.; Trapalis, Christos

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of crystalline graphite fine powder with an aqueous solution of the harmless and versatile substance polyvinylpyrrolidone under sonication results in water-soluble, polymer-protected graphene single layers without oxidation or destruction of the sp 2 character of the carbon core. The liquid-phase extraction of graphene monolayers was evidenced by TEM and AFM techniques, while their graphitic character was checked with Raman spectroscopy. Besides PVP, the water-soluble biopolymers albumin and sodic carboxymethylcellulose were also employed successfully in the aqueous-phase exfoliation of graphite, thereby supporting the generic character of the present method using a variety of suitable polymeric extractants.

  2. Multiple transformation pathways of p-arsanilic acid to inorganic arsenic species in water during UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suqi; Xu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Yu, Yingtan; Liu, Zizheng; Li, Jinjun; Wu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    p-Arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is widely used in China as livestock and poultry feed additive for promoting animal growth. The use of organoarsenics poses a potential threat to the environment because it is mostly excreted by animals in its original form and can be transformed by UV-Vis light excitation. This work examined the initial rate and efficiency of p-ASA phototransformation under UV-C disinfection lamp. Several factors influencing p-ASA phototransformation, namely, pH, initial concentration, temperature, as well as the presence of NaCl, NH4(+), and humic acid, were investigated. Quenching experiments and LC-MS were performed to investigate the mechanism of p-ASA phototransformation. Results show that p-ASA was decomposed to inorganic arsenic (including As(III) and As(V)) and aromatic products by UV-C light through direct photolysis and indirect oxidation. The oxidation efficency of p-ASA by direct photosis was about 32%, and those by HO and (1)O2 were 19% and 49%, respectively. Cleavage of the arsenic-benzene bond through direct photolysis, HO oxidation or (1)O2 oxidation results in simultaneous formation of inorganic As(III), As(IV), and As(V). Inorganic As(III) is oxidized to As(IV) and then to As(V) by (1)O2 or HO. As(IV) can undergo dismutation or simply react with oxygen to produce As(V) as well. Reactions of the organic moieties of p-ASA produce aniline, aminophenol and azobenzene derivatives as main products. The photoconvertible property of p-ASA implies that UV disinfection of wastewaters from poultry and swine farms containing p-ASA poses a potential threat to the ecosystem, especially agricultural environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synthesis of silica nanoparticles for encapsulation of oncology drugs with low water solubility: effect of processing parameters on structural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan; Bartlett, John R.

    2015-12-01

    Silica nanoparticles with tailored properties have been developed for a variety of biomedical applications, with particular emphasis on their use as carriers for the encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive species. Among the various strategies described, silica nanoparticles with uniform mesoporosity (MSN) prepared in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template have a range of desirable properties. However, the processing windows available to control the dimensions and other key properties of such nanoparticles prepared using fluoride salts as catalysts have not been elucidated, with mixed products containing gel fragments and non-uniform products obtained under many conditions. Here, we present a parametric study of the synthesis of MSN under fluoride-catalysed conditions using tetraethylorthosilicate as silica precursor. The processing conditions required to produce uniform nanoparticles with controlled dimensions are elucidated, together with the conditions under which dried powders can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution after long-term storage to regenerate unaggregated nanospheres with dimensions (as measured by dynamic light scattering) comparable to those measured via scanning electron microscopy analysis of the dried material. The ability to dry and store such powders for extended periods of time is an important requirement for the use of such materials in drug delivery applications. Preliminary results demonstrating the use of such MSNs as hosts for oncology drugs [substituted 3-hydroxyquinolinones ( 3-HQ)] with low water solubility (≪1 µg/g H2O) are presented, with loadings of several wt% demonstrated. The ability of the silica host to protect the 3-HQ from oxidative degradation during impregnation and release is discussed.

  4. Synthesis of silica nanoparticles for encapsulation of oncology drugs with low water solubility: effect of processing parameters on structural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Palacký University Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: JBartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Silica nanoparticles with tailored properties have been developed for a variety of biomedical applications, with particular emphasis on their use as carriers for the encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive species. Among the various strategies described, silica nanoparticles with uniform mesoporosity (MSN) prepared in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template have a range of desirable properties. However, the processing windows available to control the dimensions and other key properties of such nanoparticles prepared using fluoride salts as catalysts have not been elucidated, with mixed products containing gel fragments and non-uniform products obtained under many conditions. Here, we present a parametric study of the synthesis of MSN under fluoride-catalysed conditions using tetraethylorthosilicate as silica precursor. The processing conditions required to produce uniform nanoparticles with controlled dimensions are elucidated, together with the conditions under which dried powders can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution after long-term storage to regenerate unaggregated nanospheres with dimensions (as measured by dynamic light scattering) comparable to those measured via scanning electron microscopy analysis of the dried material. The ability to dry and store such powders for extended periods of time is an important requirement for the use of such materials in drug delivery applications. Preliminary results demonstrating the use of such MSNs as hosts for oncology drugs [substituted 3-hydroxyquinolinones (3-HQ)] with low water solubility (≪1 µg/g H{sub 2}O) are presented, with loadings of several wt% demonstrated. The ability of the silica host to protect the 3-HQ from oxidative degradation during impregnation and release is discussed.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, DFT calculation and DNA binding studies of new water-soluble derivatives of dppz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Mohammad; Eslami, Abbas; Kia, Reza; Aleeshah, Roghayeh

    2017-10-01

    Diquaternarization of dipyrido-[2,3-a:2‧,3‧-c]-phenazine,(dppz) and its analogous dipyrido-[2,3-a:2‧,3‧-c]-dimethylphenazine,(dppx) using 1,3-dibromopropane afford new water-soluble derivatives of phenazine, propylene-bipyridyldiylium-phenazine (1) and propylene-bipyridyldiylium-dimethylphenazine (2). The compounds have been characterized by means of FT-IR, NMR, elemental analysis and conductometric measurements and their structure were determined by X-ray crystallography. The experimental studies on the compounds have been accompanied computationally by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The DNA binding properties of both compounds to calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by UV-Vis absorption and emission methods. The expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was analyzed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) technique to obtain the concentration profile and pure spectra of all reaction species which existed in the interaction procedure. Multivariate curve resolution may help us to give a better understanding of the 1(Cl)2-ctDNA and 2(Cl)2-ctDNA interaction mechanism. The results suggest that both compounds bind tightly to DNA through intercalation mechanism and the DNA binding affinity of 2 is slightly lower than that of 1 due to steric hindrance of the methyl group. Also, thermal denaturation studies reveal that these compounds show strong affinity for binding with calf thymus DNA. The thermodynamic parameters of the DNA binding process were obtained from the temperature dependence of the binding constants and the results showed that binding of both compounds to DNA is an enthalpically driven process that is in agreement with proposed DNA intercalation capability of these compounds.

  6. Water-soluble light-emitting nanoparticles prepared by non-covalent bond self-assembly of a hydroxyl group functionalized oligo(p-phenyleneethynylene) with different water-soluble polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble light-emitting nanoparticles were prepared from hydroxyl group functionalized oligos(p-phenyleneethynylene) (OHOPEL) and water-soluble polymers(PEG,PAA,and PG) by non-covalent bond self-assembly.Their structure and optoelectronic properties were investigated through dynamic light scattering(DLS) ,UV and PL spectroscopy.The optical properties of OHOPEL-based water-soluble nanoparticles exhibited the same properties as that found in OHOPEL films,indicating the existence of interchain-aggregation of OHOPELs in the nanoparticles.OHOPEL-based nanoparticles prepared from conjugated oligomers show smaller size and lower dispersity than nanoparticles from conjugated polymers,which means that the structures of water-soluble nanoparticles are linked to the conjugated length.Furthermore,the OHOPEL/PG and OHOPEL/PAA systems produced smaller particles and lower polydispersity than the OHOPEL/PEG system,indicating that there may exist influence of the strength of non-covalent bonds on the size and degree of dispersity of the nanoparticles.

  7. Solution chemistry of a water-soluble eta2-H2 ruthenium complex: evidence for coordinated H2 acting as a hydrogen bond donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Nathaniel K; Zakharov, Lev N; Tyler, David R

    2006-12-13

    The ability of an eta2-H2 ligand to participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding in solution has long been an unresolved issue. Such species are proposed to be key intermediates in numerous important reactions such as the proton-transfer pathway of H2 production by hydrogenase enzymes. We present the synthesis of several new water-soluble ruthenium coordination complexes including an eta2-H2 complex that is surprisingly inert to substitution by water. The existence of dihydrogen hydrogen bonding (DHHB) was experimentally probed by monitoring the chemical shift of H-bonded Ru-(H2) complexes using NMR spectroscopy, by UV-visible spectroscopy, and by monitoring the rotational dynamics of a hydrogen-bonding probe molecule. The results provide strong evidence that coordinated H2 can indeed participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding to bulk solvent and other H-bond acceptors.

  8. Water Soluble Organic Compounds over the Eastern Mediterranean: Study of their occurrence and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziaras, T.; Spyros, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Apostolaki, M.; Stephanou, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Fine marine aerosols influence the climate system by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The organic chemical composition and origin of the marine fine particulate matter are still largely unknown, because of the insufficient reports on in situ studies, the large variability in the emission from the sea, from the complex transfer of gases and particles at the air-sea interface, and the transport of aerosol particles from very distant sources. As important processes of formation of marine organic aerosol production we consider: transport of terrestrial particles, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the oxidation of biogenic dimethyl-sulfide (DMS), and biogenic particle emissions through sea spray. Specific compounds related to the above-mentioned processes have been proposed as molecular markers: e.g. n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanes (terrestrial particles), levoglucosan (biomass burning aerosol), aminoacids (biological terrestrial or marine particles), methanesulphonate (MSA) (DMS oxidation), C8 and C9 dicarboxylic acids and oxo-carboxylic acids (marine SOA) and other short-chain dicarboxylic acids (marine or terrestrial SOA), and humic-like compounds (emission of marine organic carbon). In our study, we made an effort to characterize the water-soluble organic fraction of marine aerosols collected at a background sampling site of Eastern Mediterranean (Finokalia, N35o20', E25o40', Island of Crete, Greece). The sampling period was 2007-2008. In order to identify and quantify the water-soluble organic compounds of marine aerosols determined in the present study we have used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ion chromatography (IC). The origin of air masses arriving in the study area was studied by using backward trajectories calculation (NOAA HYSPLIT Model). In addition, we have used the "MODIS fire products" for fire

  9. Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Kaul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive field measurement during winter was carried out at a site located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP which gets heavily influenced by the fog during winter almost every year. The chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy episodes and chemical composition of the fogwater are presented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF as a tool for the source apportionment was employed to understand the sources of pollution. Four major sources viz. biomass burning, refractory, secondary and mineral dust were identified. Aerosols properties during foggy episodes were heavily influenced by almost all the sources and they caused considerable loading of almost all the organic and inorganic species during the period. The biomass generated aerosols were removed from the atmosphere by scavenging during foggy episodes. The wet removal of almost all the species by the fog droplets was observed. The K+, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC and NO3- were most heavily scavenged among the species and their concentrations consequently became lower than the nonfoggy episode concentrations. The production of secondary inorganic aerosol, mainly sulfate and ammonium, during foggy episodes was considerably higher than nitrate which was rather heavily scavenged and removed by the fog droplets. The fogwater analysis showed that dissolved inorganic species play a vital role in processing of organic carbon such as the formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate inside the fog droplets. The formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate in aerosol and the influence of acidity on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation were rather found to be negligible. The study average inorganic component of the aerosol was considerably higher than the carbonaceous component during both foggy and nonfoggy episode. The secondary production of the aerosol changed the

  10. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  11. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble organic carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2014-02-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over one billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water-soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble "brown carbon" and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual carbon isotopes with light-absorption measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from northern China. The mass absorption cross section at 365 nm (MAC365) of WSOC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). However, this effect corresponds to only 2-10% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by elemental carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WSOC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher fraction fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements were consistent with aging during long-range air mass transport for this large fraction of carbonaceous aerosols.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of A Novel Water-soluble Block Copolymer with A Rod-coil Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijian Zhang; Wei Wei; Wei Huang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In this paper, a novel water-soluble block copolymer with rod-coil structures was prepared using polyfluorene (PF) as rod segment and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as coil segment in the main chain. A new but simple way of polycondensation ( shown in Scheme 1 ) was employed, compared with tedious atom transfer radical polymerization and ionic polymerization approaches.

  13. An Approach to New Water-soluble Oligo(ethylene glycol) Camptothecin Analogues by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yan XU; Ming Zhi HUANG

    2006-01-01

    Combined with an effective copper-catalyzed triazole-forming reaction, a series of novel camptothecin derivatives were synthesized. Incorporating oligo(ethylene glycol) chains into the derivatives enhanced their water-solubility when compared to the parent compound (up to 55-fold).

  14. Enhanced in vitro and in vivo cellular imaging with green tea coated water-soluble iron oxide nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Lisong; Mertens, Marianne; Wortmann, Laura; Kremer, Silke; Valldor, Martin; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Mathur, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Fully green and facile redox chemistry involving reduction of colloidal iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) through green tea (GT) polyphenols produced water-soluble Fe3O4 nanocrystals coated with GT extracts namely epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin (EC). Electron donating polyphenols stoichiomet

  15. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  16. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one.

  17. A kinetic study of a poorly water soluble drug released from pectin microcapsules using diffusion/dissolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new microcapsular system for controlled drug delivery was developed from pectins obtained from various sources, with different molecular weight and degree of esterification. The release kinetics of a poorly water-soluble drug from the pectin microcapsules was investigated in simulated gastrointes...

  18. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1,2 Omer Mustapha,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Dong Shik Kim,1 Kyeong Soo Kim,1 Sung Giu Jin,1 Chul Soon Yong,3 Yu Seok Youn,4 Yu-Kyoung Oh,5 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi1 1College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Johar, Lahore, Pakistan; 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, North Gyeongsang, 4School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 5College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion.Results: All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1

  20. Effect of novel water soluble curcumin derivative on experimental type- 1 diabetes mellitus (short term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziz Mohamed T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disorder caused by lymphocytic infiltration and beta cells destruction. Curcumin has been identified as a potent inducer of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a redoxsensitive inducible protein that provides protection against various forms of stress. A novel water soluble curcumin derivative (NCD has been developed to overcome low in vivo bioavailability of curcumin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti diabetic effects of the “NCD” and its effects on diabetes-induced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in experimental type- 1 diabetes mellitus. We also examine whether the up regulation of HO-1 accompanied by increased HO activity mediates these antidiabetic and anti oxidant actions. Materials and methods Rats were divided into control group, control group receiving curcumin derivative, diabetic group, diabetic group receiving curcumin derivative and diabetic group receiving curcumin derivative and HO inhibitor ZnPP. Type-1 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Curcumin derivative was given orally for 45 days. At the planned sacrification time (after 45 days, fasting blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of plasma glucose, plasma insulin and lipid profile . Animals were sacrificed; pancreas, aorta and liver were excised for the heme oxygenase - 1 expression, activity and malondialdehyde estimation. Results NCD supplementation to diabetic rats significantly lowered the plasma glucose by 27.5% and increased plasma insulin by 66.67%. On the other hand, the mean plasma glucose level in the control group showed no significant difference compared to the control group receiving the oral NCD whereas, NCD supplementation to the control rats significantly increased the plasma insulin by 47.13% compared to the control. NCD decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Also, it decreased lipid

  1. Characterization of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Woody Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip; McDonald, Armando G.; Helms, Gregory L.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-31

    This paper reports a study of the chemical composition of the water soluble (WS) fraction obtained by cold water precipitation of two commercial wood pyrolysis oils (BTG and Amaron). The fraction studied accounts for between 50.3 and 51.3 wt. % of the oils. With the most common analytical techniques used today for the characterization of this fraction (KF titration, GC/MS, hydrolysable sugars and total carbohydrates), it is possible to quantify only between 45 and 50 wt. % of it. Our results confirm that most of the total carbohydrates (hydrolysable sugars and non-hydrolysable) are soluble in water. The ion chromatography hydrolysis method showed that between 11.6 and 17.3 wt. % of these oils were hydrolysable sugars. A small quantity of phenols detectable by GC/MS (between 2.5 and 3.9 wt. %) were identified. It is postulated that the unknown high molecular weight fraction (30-55 wt. %) is formed by highly dehydrated sugars rich in carbonyl groups and WS phenols. The overall content of carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenolic compounds in the WS fraction were quantified by titration, Folin-Ciocalteu, 31P-NMR and 1H-NMR. The WS fraction contains between 5.5 and 6.2 mmol/g of carbonyl groups, between 0.4 and 1.0 mmol/g of carboxylic acid groups, between 1.2 and 1.8 mmol/g phenolic -OH, and between 6.0 and 7.9 mmol/g of aliphatic alcohol groups. Translation into weight fractions of the WS was done by supposing surrogate structures for the water soluble phenols, carbonyl and carboxyl groups and we estimated the content of WS phenols (21-27 wt. %), carbonyl (5-14 wt.%), and carboxyl (0-4 wt.%). Together with the total carbohydrates (23-27 wt.%), this approach leads to > 90 wt. % of the WS material in the bio-oils being quantified. We speculate the larger portion of the difference between the total carbohydrates and hydrolysable sugars is the missing furanic fraction. Further refinement of the suggested methods and development of separation schemes to obtain and

  2. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  3. Water-soluble nitric-oxide-releasing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Barbara; Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Marini, Elisabetta; Joseph, Sony; Morini, Giuseppina; Pozzoli, Cristina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    A series of water-soluble (benzoyloxy)methyl esters of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), commonly known as aspirin, are described. The new derivatives each have alkyl chains containing a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nitrooxy group and a solubilizing moiety bonded to the benzoyl ring. The compounds were synthesized and evaluated as ASA prodrugs. After conversion to the appropriate salt, most of the derivatives are solid at room temperature and all possess good water solubility. They are quite stable in acid solution (pH 1) and less stable at physiological pH. In human serum, these compounds are immediately metabolized by esterases, producing a mixture of ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and of the related NO-donor benzoic acids, along with other minor products. Due to ASA release, the prodrugs are capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Simple NO-donor benzoic acids 3-hydroxy-4-(3-nitrooxypropoxy)benzoic acid (28) and 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoic acid (48) were also studied as representative models of the whole class of benzoic acids formed following metabolism of the prodrugs in serum. These simplified derivatives did not trigger antiaggregatory activity when tested at 300 μM. Only 28 displays quite potent NO-dependent vasodilatatory action. Further in vivo evaluation of two selected prodrugs, {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl-3-[(3-[aminopropanoyl)oxy]-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate⋅HCl (38) and {[2-(acetyloxy)benzoyl]oxy}methyl 3-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-4-[3-(nitrooxy)propoxy]benzoate oxalate (49), revealed that their anti-inflammatory activities are similar to that of ASA when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. The gastrotoxicity of the two prodrugs was also determined to be lower than that of ASA in a lesion model in rats. Taken together, these results indicated that these NO-donor ASA prodrugs warrant further investigation for clinical application.

  4. Effects of inorganic amendments (urea, gypsum) on seed germination and seedling recruitment of 20 native plant species used in dryland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Amber; E Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Soil health and functionality are major determining factors for restoration of degraded arid and semi-arid ecosystems. These highly nutrient impoverished soil substrates with low water retention capabilities dictate plant growth and survival in these landscapes that are subject to variable rainfall event and high temperatures (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Anthropogenic disturbances derived from mining activities have contributed to the degradation of soil functionality and have altered plant-soil-water interactions. With unknown positive or negative rehabilitation outcomes, inorganic amendments in the form of urea and gypsum are commonly added to reconstructed soil substrates disturbed by mining to replenish soil nutrients (nitrogen) and improve soil water holding capacity to improve seedling establishment and survival. Methods Using existing protocols for amendment addition to soil substrates, two experiments assessed the effects of urea and gypsum at multiple doses in reconstructed soil substrates (topsoil (TS), waste (W) and, 50:50 blend of both materials (TW) to evaluate its effectiveness as a supplement to improve seed germination, seedling recruitment and plant growth. In the first experiment, 20 species native to the resource-rich biodiverse Pilbara region of Western Australia were grown in 30 °C glasshouse facilities under well-watered conditions for three weeks with seedling emergence scored daily. At the end of the trial, seedlings were harvested and biomass was assessed. In the second experiment, five of the original 20 species (e.g. Acacia bivenosa, Gossypium robinsonii, Eucalyptus gamophylla, Triodia wiseana and, Senna notabilis) were assessed for germination in amended soils by burying nylon sachets in the reconstructed substrates. After three weeks, the sachets were retrieved and seeds were assessed for germination (i.e. radicle emergence was evident). Results and Discussion Total emergence and biomass of seedlings was negatively

  5. Novel third-generation water-soluble noscapine analogs as superior microtubule-interfering agents with enhanced antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henary, Maged; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Ahad, Shazia; Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Sharma, Vibhuti; Owens, Eric A; Yadav, Yogesh; Nagaraju, Mulpuri; Hamelberg, Donald; Tandon, Vibha; Panda, Dulal; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-11-15

    Noscapine, an opium-derived 'kinder-gentler' microtubule-modulating drug is in Phase I/II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. However, its limited water solubility encumbers its development into an oral anticancer drug with clinical promise. Here we report the synthesis of 9 third-generation, water-soluble noscapine analogs with negatively charged sulfonato and positively charged quaternary ammonium groups using noscapine, 9-bromonoscapine and 9-aminonoscapine as scaffolds. The predictive free energy of solvation was found to be lower for sulfonates (6a-c; 8a-c) compared to the quaternary ammonium-substituted counterparts, explaining their higher water solubility. In addition, sulfonates showed higher charge dispersability, which may effectively shield the hydrophobicity of isoquinoline nucleus as indicated by hydrophobicity mapping methods. These in silico data underscore efficient net charge balancing, which may explain higher water solubility and thus enhanced antiproliferative efficacy and improved bioavailability. We observed that 6b, 8b and 8c strongly inhibited tubulin polymerization and demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines compared to noscapine. Molecular simulation and docking studies of tubulin-drug complexes revealed that the brominated compound with a four-carbon chain (4b, 6b, and 8b) showed optimal binding with tubulin heterodimers. Interestingly, 6b, 8b and 8c treated PC-3 cells resulted in preponderance of mitotic cells with multipolar spindle morphology, suggesting that they stall the cell cycle. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of 6b, 8b and 8c revealed at least 1-2-fold improvement in their bioavailability compared to noscapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate novel water-soluble noscapine analogs that may pave the way for future pre-clinical drug development.

  6. Quantification of the dissolved inorganic carbon species and of the pH of alkaline solutions exposed to CO2 under pressure: a novel approach by Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Thomas; Calvignac, Brice; Bardeau, Jean-François; Bulou, Alain; Boury, Frank; Gibaud, Alain

    2014-10-07

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content of aqueous systems is a key function of the pH, of the total alkanility (TA), and of the partial pressure of CO2. However, common analytical techniques used to determine the DIC content in water are unable to operate under high CO2 pressure. Here, we propose to use Raman spectroscopy as a novel alternative to discriminate and quantitatively monitor the three dissolved inorganic carbon species CO2(aq), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) of alkaline solutions under high CO2 pressure (from P = 0 to 250 bar at T = 40 °C). In addition, we demonstrate that the pH values can be extracted from the molalities of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-). The results are in very good agreement with those obtained from direct spectrophotometric measurements using colored indicators. This novel method presents the great advantage over high pressure conventional techniques of not using breakable electrodes or reference additives and appears of great interest especially in marine biogeochemistry, in carbon capture and storage and in material engineering under high CO2 pressure.

  7. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.

  8. The haemodynamic effects of iodinated water soluble radiographic contrast media: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom); Dawson, P. [Department of Imaging, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Pearson, J.D. [Vascular Biology Research Centre, King' s College, Kensington, London W8 7AH (United Kingdom); Jeremy, J.Y. [Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol BS2 8HW (United Kingdom); Davenport, A.P. [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom); Yates, M.S. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tirone, P.; Cipolla, P.; Haeen, C. de [Contrast Media Research, Bracco, Milan (Italy); Muschick, P.; Krause, W. [Contrast Media Research, Schering AG, Berlin (Germany); Refsum, H. [Research and Development, Nycomed Imaging AS and University of Oslo, Institute for Experimental Medical Research, Ullevaal Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Emery, C.J. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Liss, P.; Nygren, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Haylor, J. [Sheffield Kidney Institute, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Pugh, N.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff CF4 4XW (United Kingdom); Karlsson, J.O.G. [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    All classes of iodinated water-soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) are vasoactive with the iso-osmolar dimers inducing the least changes in the vascular tone. The mechanisms responsible for RCM-induced changes in the vascular tone are not fully understood and could be multifactorial. A direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells causing alterations in the ion exchanges across the cell membrane is thought to be an important factor in RCM-induced vasodilatation. The release of the endogenous vasoactive mediators adenosine and endothelin may also play a crucial role in the haemodynamic effects of RCM particularly in the kidney. In addition, the effects of RCM on blood rheology can cause a reduction in the blood flow in the microcirculation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of the haemodynamic effects of RCM and to offer some insight into the biology of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as the pharmacology of the important vasoactive mediators endothelin and adenosine. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Wettability and surface chemistry of crystalline and amorphous forms of a poorly water soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Dantuluri, Ajay K; Kumar, Mahesh; Karar, N; Bansal, Arvind K

    2010-05-12

    The present study compares energetics of wetting behavior of crystalline and amorphous forms of a poorly water soluble drug, celecoxib (CLB) and attempts to correlate it to their surface molecular environment. Wettability and surface free energy were determined using sessile drop contact angle technique and water vapor sorption energetics was measured by adsorption calorimetry. The surface chemistry was elucidated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and crystallographic evaluation. The two solid forms displayed distinctly different wetting with various probe liquids and in vitro dissolution media. The crystalline form surface primarily exhibited dispersive surface energy (47.3mJ/m(2)), while the amorphous form had a slightly reduced dispersive (45.2mJ/m(2)) and a small additional polar (4.8mJ/m(2)) surface energy. Calorimetric measurements, revealed the amorphous form to possess a noticeably high differential heat of absorption, suggesting hydrogen bond interactions between its polar energetic sites and water molecules. Conversely, the crystalline CLB form was found to be inert to water vapor sorption. The relatively higher surface polarity of the amorphous form could be linked to its greater oxygen-to-fluorine surface concentration ratio of 1.27 (cf. 0.62 for crystalline CLB), as determined by XPS. The crystallographic studies of the preferred cleavage plane (020) of crystalline CLB further supported its higher hydrophobicity. In conclusion, the crystalline and amorphous forms of CLB exhibited disparate surface milieu, which in turn can have implications on the surface mediated events.

  10. Effect of Thiobacillus, sulfur, and vermicompost on the water-soluble phosphorus of hard rock phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Marzieh Mohammady; Lakzian, Amir; Haghnia, Gholam Hosain; Berenji, Ali Reza; Besharati, Hosein; Fotovat, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur, organic matter, and inoculation with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are considered as amendments to increase the availability of phosphorus from rock phosphate. The present study was conducted to evaluate the best combination of sulfur, vermicompost, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans inoculation with rock phosphate from Yazd province for direct application to agricultural lands in Iran. For such study, an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement: Elemental sulfur originated from Sarakhs mine at three rates, 0% (S1), 10% (S2), 20% (S3), vermicompost at two rates, 0% (V1), 15% (V2), and inoculation without (B1) and with (B2) T. thiooxidans, in three replications. The results showed that water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) content was significantly higher in inoculated treatments compared to non-inoculated treatments. Sulfur had a significant effect on WSP. The highest solubility rate of rock phosphate was obtained in 20% of sulfur (S3) treatments and it was 2.4 times more than S1 treatments. Vermicompost also had a significant and positive effect on WSP of rock phosphate dissolution. The results also revealed that the highest concentration of WSP, sulfate and the lowest pH were obtained in treatments with 20% sulfur, 15% vermicompost inoculated with T. thiooxidans (B2S3V2).

  11. Water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of some tills in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintinen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of tills were studied on three nunataks with differing bedrock characteristics in the Vestfjella and Heimefrontfjella areas of the Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The chemical analyses were performed using ion chromatography and ICP-AES. The relative weathering characteristics of the till surface boulders was assessed in study locations. No colour differences were observed in test pits dug in Basen and Utpostane nunataks at Vestfjella, whereas the till in Mygehenget nunatak at Heimefrontfjella has a pronounced soil profile in which the surface part has a banded rusty brown and light-coloured accumulations. The highest concentrations of readily soluble ions were recorded in the Mygehenget samples characterized by high (SO42- (5800-39000 ppm and Mg concentrations (540-6000 ppm, while the Basen samples had the highest concentrations of Fe2+(23-390 ppm, Al3+ (60-1000 ppm and Si4+ (23-1700 ppm and the Utpostane samples the lowest ones. The SO4/Na+, Na+/CI- and Mg2+/Na+ ratios for the samples differ markedly from those typically encountered in sea water. The presence of the highest concentrations of many of the analysed ions in the Mygehenget soil samples is in line with the advanced weathering of the surface boulders. The high Fe2+ , Si4+ and Al3+ concentrations in the Basen samples may be attributable to the weathering of olivine alteration products.

  12. Effects of cell cycle on the uptake of water soluble quantum dots by cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shen; Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Jun-Yong; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Peng, Qian

    2011-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) with excellent optical properties have become powerful candidates for cell imaging. Although numerous reports have studied the uptake of QDs by cells, little information exists on the effects of cell cycle on the cellular QD uptake. In this report, the effects of cell cycle on the uptake of water soluble thiol-capped CdTe QDs by the human cervical carcinoma Hela cell line, human hepatocellular carcinoma QGY7701 cell line, and human embryonic kidney 293T cell line were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. All three cell lines show to take up CdTe QDs via endocytosis. After arresting cells at specific phases with pharmacological agents, the cells in G2/M phase take up the most CdTe QDs, probably due to an increased membrane expansion during mitosis; whereas the cells in G1 phase do the least. A mathematical physics model was built to calculate the relative uptake rates of CdTe QDs by cells in different phases of the cell cycle, with the result as the uptake rate in G2/M phase is 2-4 times higher than that in G1 phase for these three cell lines. The results obtained from this study may provide the information useful for intracellular delivery of QDs.

  13. Formulation and particle size reduction improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds with antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxing; Li, Qigui; Reyes, Sean; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Lisa; Melendez, Victor; Hickman, Mark; Kozar, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Decoquinate (DQ) is highly effective at killing malaria parasites in vitro; however, it is extremely insoluble in water. In this study, solid dispersion method was used for DQ formulation which created a suitable physical form of DQ in aqueous phase for particle manipulation. Among many polymers and surfactants tested, polyvinylpyrrolidone 10, a polymer, and L- α -phosphatidylcholine or polysorbate, two surfactants, were chosen as DQ formulation components. The formulation particles were reduced to a mean size between 200 to 400 nm, which was stable in aqueous medium for at least three weeks. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies showed that compared to DQ microparticle suspension, a nanoparticle formulation orally dosed to mice showed a 14.47-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) of DQ plasma concentration and a 4.53-fold increase in AUC of DQ liver distribution. WR 299666, a poorly water-soluble compound with antimalarial activity, was also tested and successfully made into nanoparticle formulation without undergoing solid dispersion procedure. We concluded that nanoparticles generated by using appropriate formulation components and sufficient particle size reduction significantly increased the bioavailability of DQ and could potentially turn this antimalarial agent to a therapeutic drug.

  14. Modeling the Release Kinetics of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Molecules from Liposomal Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Loew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes are frequently used as pharmaceutical nanocarriers to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs such as temoporfin, cyclosporine A, amphotericin B, and paclitaxel to their target site. Optimal drug delivery depends on understanding the release kinetics of the drug molecules from the host liposomes during the journey to the target site and at the target site. Transfer of drugs in model systems consisting of donor liposomes and acceptor liposomes is known from experimental work to typically exhibit a first-order kinetics with a simple exponential behavior. In some cases, a fast component in the initial transfer is present, in other cases the transfer is sigmoidal. We present and analyze a theoretical model for the transfer that accounts for two physical mechanisms, collisions between liposomes and diffusion of the drug molecules through the aqueous phase. Starting with the detailed distribution of drug molecules among the individual liposomes, we specify the conditions that lead to an apparent first-order kinetic behavior. We also discuss possible implications on the transfer kinetics of (1 high drug loading of donor liposomes, (2 attractive interactions between drug molecules within the liposomes, and (3 slow transfer of drugs between the inner and outer leaflets of the liposomes.

  15. Formulation of a Novel Nanoemulsion System for Enhanced Solubility of a Sparingly Water Soluble Antibiotic, Clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Vatsraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparingly water soluble property of majority of medicinally significant drugs acts as a potential barrier towards its utilization for therapeutic purpose. The present study was thus aimed at development of a novel oil-in-water (o/w nanoemulsion (NE system having ability to function as carrier for poorly soluble drugs with clarithromycin as a model antibiotic. The therapeutically effective concentration of clarithromycin, 5 mg/mL, was achieved using polysorbate 80 combined with olive oil as lipophilic counterion. A three-level three-factorial central composite experimental design was utilized to conduct the experiments. The effects of selected variables, polysorbate 80 and olive oil content and concentration of polyvinyl alcohol, were investigated. The particle size of clarithromycin for the optimized formulation was observed to be 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoemulsion was explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The emulsions prepared with the optimized formula demonstrated good physical stability during storage at room temperature. Antibacterial activity was conducted with the optimized nanoemulsion NESH 01 and compared with free clarithromycin. Zone of inhibition was larger for NESH 01 as compared to that with free clarithromycin. This implies that the solubility and hence the bioavailability of clarithromycin has increased in the formulated nanoemulsion system.

  16. Inhibition of complement activation by water-soluble polysaccharides of some far-eastern brown seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintseva, T N; Shevchenko, N M; Nazarova, I V; Scobun, A S; Luk'yanov, P A; Elyakova, L A

    2000-07-01

    Fucoidans and laminarans from Laminaria cichorioides, Laminaria japonica, Fucus evanescens, laminaran from Laminaria gurjanovae, other beta-D-glucans (translam, pustulan and zymosan) and lambda-carrageenan from Chondrus armatus were used to study the effect of water-soluble polysaccharides from seaweeds on the alternative pathway of complement (APC). beta-D-Glucans and fucoidans under study differed appreciably from each other by structural characteristics, and also by degree of purification. beta-D-glucans, on ability to bind complement, ranked in a line according to a degree of their purification. Highly purified beta-D-glucans under study did not reveal an ability to bind complement. The fucoidans were divided conventionally into three groups according to their action on APC. Highly sulfated alpha-L-fucan from L. cichorioides with the greatest activity toward APC and caused 50% inhibition of reaction of activation (RA) of APC in a concentration of 0.5-0.7 mg/ml. Opposite 50% of inhibition of lysis of erythrocytes by sulfated heterogeneous fucoidan from L. japonica was achieved with 20 mg/ml. All other fucoidans and lambda-carrageenan have activity at 6-10 mg/ml concentration. Decreasing the sulfate content from 36% up to 9% in sample fucoidans under study was not reflected practically in the 50% inhibition concentration. Apparently, the degree of sulfating of fucoidans did not influence their action on APC. But the positive influence of fucose in structure of polysaccharide was obvious.

  17. A novel dismantling process of waste printed circuit boards using water-soluble ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Xie, Henghua; Liu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Recycling processes for waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have been well established in terms of scientific research and field pilots. However, current dismantling procedures for WPCBs have restricted the recycling process, due to their low efficiency and negative impacts on environmental and human health. This work aimed to seek an environmental-friendly dismantling process through heating with water-soluble ionic liquid to separate electronic components and tin solder from two main types of WPCBs-cathode ray tubes and computer mainframes. The work systematically investigates the influence factors, heating mechanism, and optimal parameters for opening solder connections on WPCBs during the dismantling process, and addresses its environmental performance and economic assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, retention time, and turbulence resulting from impeller rotation during the dismantling process, were 250 °C, 12 min, and 45 rpm, respectively. Nearly 90% of the electronic components were separated from the WPCBs under the optimal experimental conditions. This novel process offers the possibility of large industrial-scale operations for separating electronic components and recovering tin solder, and for a more efficient and environmentally sound process for WPCBs recycling.

  18. New water soluble phosphonate and polycarboxylate complexants for enhanced f element separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L.; Rickert, P.G.; Lessmann, E.P.; Mendoza, M.D.; Feil, J.F.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    While lipophilic extractant molecules and ion exchange polymeric materials are clearly essential to efficient separation of metal ions by solvent extraction or ion exchange, the most difficult separations often could not be accomplished without the use of water soluble complexants. This report focuses on recent developments in design, synthesis and characterization of phosphonic acid and polycarboxylic acid ligands for enhanced f element separations. Emphasis is on the basic solution chemistry and crystal structures of complexes of the f elements with selected amino-derivatives of methanediphosphonic acid and with tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid. The former series of compounds exhibit high affinity for lanthanides and actinides in acidic solutions. The latter ligand exhibits an unusual (and very useful) ``anti-selectivity`` for uranyl ion in a solvent extraction process, which permits efficient separation of uranyl from more radioactive components of nuclear wastes. Most of the observed effects can be explained through examination of the structure of the ligand, and comparison of the spectroscopic and thermodynamic parameters for complexation of various metal ions.

  19. Extraction of water-soluble polysaccharide and the antioxidant activity from Semen cassiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Semen cassiae using water for extraction and ethanol for deposition. The optimized conditions for polysaccharide isolation by orthogonal experiments were a sample to liquid ratio of 1:30 at 80°C for 3.5 hours; the yield of polysaccharide from Semen cassiae under these conditions was 5.46%. Different polysaccharides (SCPW-1, SCPW-2, SCPW-3, SCPW-4, SCPW-5, SCPS-1, SCPS-2 were obtained from the extract (i.e., crude polysaccharide by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The polysaccharides obtained showed different structures by Fourier transform infrared therein the five elected from the seven kinds separated. The antioxidant activities of the extract were evaluated. The scavenging rates of the present extract on hydroxyl and superoxide were 43.32% and 64.97%, respectively, at a concentration of polysaccharide of 94.03 μg/mL, which was better than vitamin C at the same concentration. The scavenging rate of the present extract on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was 13.33% at a polysaccharide concentration of 94.03 μg/mL, which was less than vitamin C at the same concentration.

  20. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoza, Phindile; Antunes, Edith [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa); Chen, Ji-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2013-02-15

    This work reports on the synthesis of zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (ZnTAPc) functionalized with folic acid (FA), forming ZnTAPcFA. The conjugate between FA and ZnTAPc was soluble in water whereas ZnTAPc alone is not. The structure of ZnTAPcFA conjugate was elucidated by {sup 1}H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass and FTIR spectra. Photophysical and photochemical studies of ZnTAPcFA were conducted in DMSO. The increase in fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was accompanied by a decrease in the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields. The changes in triplet quantum and singlet oxygen quantum yields were marginal when ZnTAPc was simply mixed with FA without a chemical bond. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conjugate between folic acid and a zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugate is water soluble even though the phthalocyanine alone is not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was enhanced compared to the phthalocyanine alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triplet quantum yields decreased for the conjugate.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-VISIBLE SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN RIBOFLAVIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Shah et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise and cost effective UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Riboflavin raw material. The Riboflavin is water soluble vitamin, so the solvent used throughout the experiment was 0.1N NaOH, the absorption maxima of drug was found at 445 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 5ppm-30ppm. the developed method was successfully validated with respect to linearity, accuracy and precision. The method was validated and shown linearity in mentioned concentration. The correlation coefficient for Riboflavin was 0.999. The percentage relative standard deviation of inter-day precision range 0.66-1.04% and intra-day precision 1.05-1.39% both should be less than 2%. Hence proposed method was precise, accurate and cost effective, simple and rapid. This validated method can be applicable for quantitative determination of the titled drug with respect to assay from or for their solid dosage forms.

  2. ASSOCIATION BEHAVIOR OF PORPHYRIN PENDANTS IN pH-SENSITIVE WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-wei Ding; Fei Wang; Fei-peng Wu

    2012-01-01

    A novel tripyridylporphyrin monomer,5-[4-[2-(acryloyloxy)ethoxy]phenyl]-10,15,20-tris(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TrPyP),was synthesized and polymerized with acrylamide (AM) to prepare the hydrophobically associating water-soluble polymer PAM-TrPyP.The aggregation behavior of porphyrin pendants was investigated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectra.The polymer displays a strong tendency of hydrophobic association even in dilute solutions.With increasing the concentration,the maximum absorption wavelength of Sorer band changes from 416 nm to 407 nm,and the fluorescence corrected for the inner filter effect exhibits moderate concentration quenching.All the results indicate that π-π interaction of porphyrin pendants plays a key role in association of PAM-TrPyP,and H-aggregates of porphyrins are mainly formed in the conccntrated solution.On the other hand,dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to follow the changes in size and structure of the macromolecular assemblies with the concentration increase.The polymer aggregation conformation changes from loose "vesicle-like" morphology to solid globule accordingly.When pH value of solution decreases to 4.3,pyridine moieties on porphyrin pendants could be protonated and the H-aggregates formed in macromolecular matrix are destroyed by electrostatic repulsion interactions.

  3. Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prozorova GF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Galina F Prozorova,1 Alexsandr S Pozdnyakov,1 Nadezhda P Kuznetsova,1 Svetlana A Korzhova,1 Artem I Emel'yanov,1 Tamara G Ermakova,1 Tat'yana V Fadeeva,2 Larisa M Sosedova31AE Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 2Scientific Center of Reconstructive and Restorative Surgery Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medicinal Sciences, Irkutsk, 3Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medicinal Sciences, Angarsk, RussiaAbstract: New water-soluble nontoxic nanocomposites of nanosized silver particles in a polymer matrix were synthesized by a green chemistry method. Nontoxic poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole was used as a stabilizing precursor agent in aqueous medium. Glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as the silver ion-reducing agents to yield silver nanoparticles 2–26 nm and 2–8 nm in size, respectively. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, and thermogravimetric data analysis. The nanocomposites showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole, glucose, dimethyl sulfoxide, green synthesis

  4. A study on antifungal activity of water-soluble chitosan against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Guha, Arun K

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal effect of water-soluble chitosan (s-chitosan) on Macrophomina phaseolina (M. phaseolina) causing jute seedling infection and monitor the change in activity of released enzymes during infection. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of s-chitosan for M. phaseolina was found at 12.5g/l and s-chitosan exhibited fungistatic mode of action against this pathogen. The application of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during infection of jute seedlings by M. phaseolina inhibited fungal infection and length of the seedlings was found almost similar to seedlings without infection. M. phaseolina infected jute seedlings showed length of 22mm over 10 days of incubation and it increased to 58mm in presence of s-chitosan (12.5g/l) during incubation for 10 days. TEM study indicated presence of hyphae in the cortical and epidermal cells of fungus infected jute seedlings indicating colonization by the fungus and it disappeared after treatment with s-chitosan. The changes in enzyme profiles of jute seedling during prevention of fungal infection using s-chitosan helped in proper understanding of mode of action of s-chitosan as antifungal agent. The activity of defense related enzymes like chitosanase and peroxidase in infected seedlings was observed to be enhanced after treatment with s-chitosan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials.

  6. Effects of Water-Soluble Co-Solvent on Properties of W/O Pickering Emulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭斌; 谢世巍; 蔡旺锋; 王富民

    2016-01-01

    Effects of water-soluble co-solvents(WSCs)on the properties of water/oil Pickering emulsions were investigated. Pickering emulsions were prepared in the system of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene(TMB)/ hydrophobic sil-ica/water with varied concentrations of WSCs(ethanol, acetic acid and glycerin). Mean droplet diameter distribu-tions of the obtained emulsions were studied to investigate the effects of WSCs types and concentrations. The re-sults demonstrated that mean droplet diameter distributions decreased at first and then increased with the increase of WSC concentration. Moreover, the effect of WSC concentration on the phase inversion locus was further investi-gated. At the same time, infrared radiation(IR)spectrometer was used to investigate the mechanism. The results showed that the WSC attaching on hydrophobic silica changed the wettability of the particles, which facilitated the formation and phase inversion of the emulsion. The hydrogen bonds between the co-solvent groups attaching on the solid particles made a great effect on the droplet size of the emulsion and strengthened the interaction among emul-sifiers. Overall, proper WSC was in favor of the stability of Pickering emulsion.

  7. Synthesis of a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative for flocculated decolorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xue, E-mail: jiangx@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Textiles and Clothing, Key Laboratory of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cai Ke; Zhang Jing [School of Textiles and Clothing, Key Laboratory of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Shen Yan [Jiangsu Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Wang Shugen [School of Textiles and Clothing, Key Laboratory of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tian Xiuzhi, E-mail: tianxz@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Textiles and Clothing, Key Laboratory of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2011-01-30

    To increase the water solubility and cationic charges at pH 7, cationic moieties were introduced onto both the C{sub 6}-OH and C{sub 2}-NH{sub 2} groups in the chitosan (CTS) matrix by graft modification. The chemical structure of the obtained copolymer was demonstrated by characterizations of FT-IR, {sup 13}C NMR, WXRD, SEM. Its excellent decolorization properties as a novel flocculant were evaluated with the C.I. Reactive Orange 5 (RO 5) and C.I. Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19) solutions using a jar test method. Both the nature of the anionic dyes and the pH of the initial dye solutions had effects on the decolorization properties. Charge neutralization played a dominant role for the color removal at pH 4, while polymer bridging contributed mainly to the color removal at pH 7. For the given flocculant/dye solutions, added salt was not in favor of the flocculated decolorization. At 25 deg. C, the flocculant needed for the highest color removal at pH 4 was 60 wt% of the dye (RO 5 or RB 19), but that at pH 7 were 100 wt% of RB 19 and 120 wt% of RO 5, respectively.

  8. A water soluble heteropolyoxotungstate as a selective, efficient and environment friendly oxidation catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Maity; Double Mukesh; Sumit Bhaduri; Goutam Kumar Lahiri

    2009-07-01

    A series of water soluble Keggin type heteropolyoxotungstates have been tested as oxidation catalysts in aqueous-biphasic media with dilute H2O2 (30%) as the oxygen atom donor, without using any phase transfer agent. The Zn substituted polyoxoanion {(NH4)7Zn0.5[-ZnO4W11O30ZnO5(OH2)].H2O} has been found to be the most efficient catalyst, which oxidizes a wide range of organic functionalities with good turnovers and high selectivities. The functionalities that undergo oxidations are: organic sulfides, pyridines, anilines, benzyl alcohols and benzyl halides. The oxidations of sulfides to sulfoxides and/or sulfones have been studied in detail, and a simple kinetic model consisting of two consecutive reactions, is shown to give good fit with the experimental data. In the catalytic system described here product isolation is easy, and the aqueous catalyst solution can be re-used several times with little loss in its efficiency.

  9. On-line Measurement of Water-Soluble Ions in Ambient Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Combining the system of rapid collection of ambient particles and ion chromatography, the system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC) was established to automatically analyze on-line the concentrations of water-soluble ions in ambient particles. Here, the general scheme of RCFP-IC is described and its basic performance is tested. The detection limit of RCFP-IC for SO42-,NO-3, NO-2, Cl- and F- is below 0.3 μg m-3. The collection efficiency of RCFP-IC increases rapidly with increasing sized particles. For particles larger than 300 nm, the collection efficiency approaches 100%. The precision of RCFP-IC is more than 90% over 28 repetitions. The response of RCFP-IC is very sensitive and no obvious cross-pollution is found during measurement. A comparison of RCFP-IC with an integrated filter measurement indicates that the measurement of RCFP-IC is comparable in both laboratory experiments and field observations. The results of the field experiment prove that RCFP-IC is an effective on-line monitoring system and is helpful in source apportionment and pollution episode monitoring.

  10. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  11. Polyelectrolyte multilayers prepared from water-soluble poly(alkoxythiophene) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkari, J; Salomäki, M; Viinikanoja, A; Aäritalo, T; Paukkunen, J; Kocharova, N; Kankare, J

    2001-06-27

    Electronically conducting polyanion and polycation based on poly(alkoxythiophene) derivatives, poly-3-(3'-thienyloxy)propanesulfonate (P3TOPS) and poly-3-(3'-thienyloxy)propyltriethylammonium (P3TOPA) have been synthesized. Both polymers are water-soluble and exhibit high conjugation length in solution and in the solid state. These polyelectrolytes were used to prepare conducting and electroactive polyelectrolyte multilayers by the sequential layer-by-layer adsorption technique. In aqueous solutions multilayers of P3TOPS with inactive polyelectrolytes (e.g., poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDADMA) displayed electrochemical and optical behavior similar to polythiophene films prepared in organic media. Their in-plane conductivity was low (ca. 1.6 x 10(-)(5) S cm(-)(1)). The conductivity could, however, be increased by a factor of ca. 40 in "all-thiophene" films, in which P3TOPA was substituted for the inactive polycation (PDADMA). The interpenetration of layers is of prime importance in films containing conducting components. The interpenetration of P3TOPS was studied by measuring the charge-transfer rate across an insulating polyelectrolyte multilayer between the substrate and the P3TOPS layer with modulated electroreflectance. The extent of interpenetration was 8-9 polyelectrolyte layers, the length scale (7-15 nm) depending on the nature of the insulating layer and, especially, on the ionic strength of the solution used for the adsorption of P3TOPS.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotubes from mustard soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Dubey; Devarajan Muthukumaran; Subhashis Dash; Rupa Mukhopadhyay; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized by pyrolysing mustard oil using an oil lamp. It was made water-soluble (wsCNT) through oxidative treatment by dilute nitric acid and was characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized wsCNT showed the presence of several junctions and defects in it. The presence of curved graphene structure (sp2) with frequent sp3 hybridized carbon is found to be responsible for the observed defects. These defects along with the presence of di- and tri-podal junctions showed interesting magnetic properties of carbon radicals formed by spin frustration. This trapped carbon radical showed ESR signal in aqueous solution and was very stable even under drastic treatment by strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative acid treatment of CNT introduced several carboxylic acid group functionalities in wsCNT along with the nicking of the CNT at different lengths with varied molecular weight. To evaluate molecular weights of these wsCNTs, an innovative method like gel electrophoresis using high molecular weight DNA as marker was introduced.

  13. Versatile particles from water-soluble chitosan and sodium alginate for loading toxic or bioactive substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Rongrui; Xiao, Congming; Zhang, Li; Dong, Yanrui

    2015-08-01

    Versatile hydrogel particles were obtained by cross-linking of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) with sodium alginate (SA) in an acid-free medium. The structure of the particles was investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization results confirmed that the product was physically cross-linked hydrogel consisted of WSC and SA. It was found that the swelling ratio of the particles depended on the formation time, which indicated that their cross-linking degrees were easily modulated. The particles showed high capability to bind heavy metal ions, acidic gas and basic gas. The adsorption capacities of the particles could reach 88.2 and 66.0 mg/g for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+), 33.8 and 30.3 mg/g for NH3 and H2S, respectively. Especially, the existence of water significantly enhanced the adsorption capacities for NH3 and H2S. In addition, the mild formation condition made the particles suitable for encapsulating bioactive substance. The loading efficiency of the beads for hemoglobin (HB) reached close to 100%. Moreover, the release behavior of the HB-loaded particles was pH-sensitive. In contrast, HB was deactivated during encapsulating it with chitosan and sodium alginate. Obviously, such a kind of particles was an attractive adsorbent or carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methane hydrate stability in the presence of water-soluble hydroxyalkyl cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mohammad-Taheri; A. Zarringhalam Moghaddam; K. Nazari; N. Gholipour Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The effect of low-dosage water-soluble hydroxyethyl cellulose (approximate Mw~90,000 and 250,000) as a member ofhydroxyalkyl cellulosic polymer group on methane hydrate stability was investigated by monitoring hydrate dissociation at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure in a closed vessel.In particular,the influence of molecular weight and mass concentration of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) was studied with respect to hydrate formation and dissociation.Methane hydrate formation was performed at 2 ℃ and at a pressure greater than 100 bar.Afterwards,hydrate dissociation was initiated by step heating from - 10 ℃ at a mild pressure of 13 bar to -3 ℃,0 ℃ and 2 ℃.With respect to the results obtained for methane hydrate formation/dissociation and the amount of gas uptake,we concluded that HEC 90,000 at 5000 ppm is suitable for long-term gas storage and transportation under a mild pressure of 13 bar and at temperatures below the freezing point.

  15. Analysis of Water Soluble Vitamins (Thiamine, Nicotinamide and Pyridoxine in Fortified Infant Food Products by Hplc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the levels of fortification of three water soluble vitamins i.e. thiamine (B1, nicotinamide (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 in a variety of foodstuffs include milk products and cereals for young children. Food fortification is key implement for improving health of the growing children. Twenty food samples were chosen for analysis because of their common utilization in the local area. The vitamin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with C18 column with a gradient of mobile phase made of water and acetonitrile and a diode array detector set at 280 nm. The thiamine content investigated in the samples ranging from 268 µg/mL to 3 µg/ml, nicotinamide content was from 41 µg/ml to 1 µg/mL while the pyridoxine level was in between 412 µg/mL to 20 µg/mL. Detection and Quantification of compounds were attained by comparing their retention times with standard reference materials and on the basis the off peak area match against those of a standard. The method used, offer excellent linearity with r2 ≥ 0.994, detection limits, reproducibility, and analyte recovery.

  16. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles’ heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  17. Irreversible catalyst activation enables hyperpolarization and water solubility for NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Shi, Fan; He, Ping; Yuan, Bingxin; Plunkett, Kyle N; Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V; Waddell, Kevin W; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-12-04

    Activation of a catalyst [IrCl(COD)(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; COD = cyclooctadiene)] for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was monitored by in situ hyperpolarized proton NMR at 9.4 T. During the catalyst-activation process, the COD moiety undergoes hydrogenation that leads to its complete removal from the Ir complex. A transient hydride intermediate of the catalyst is observed via its hyperpolarized signatures, which could not be detected using conventional nonhyperpolarized solution NMR. SABRE enhancement of the pyridine substrate can be fully rendered only after removal of the COD moiety; failure to properly activate the catalyst in the presence of sufficient substrate can lead to irreversible deactivation consistent with oligomerization of the catalyst molecules. Following catalyst activation, results from selective RF-saturation studies support the hypothesis that substrate polarization at high field arises from nuclear cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized (1)H spins of the hydride/orthohydrogen spin bath. Importantly, the chemical changes that accompanied the catalyst's full activation were also found to endow the catalyst with water solubility, here used to demonstrate SABRE hyperpolarization of nicotinamide in water without the need for any organic cosolvent--paving the way to various biomedical applications of SABRE hyperpolarization methods.

  18. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  19. Synthesis of water soluble chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles and determination of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanh Le, Thi; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Hoa Tran, Thai; Nguyen, Hai Phong; Le Hien Hoang, Thi; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been successfully synthesized by utilizing water soluble chitosan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The colloidal Au-NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the colloidal Au-NPs had a plasmon absorption band with maximum wavelength in the range of 520-526 nm and the diameters were about 8-15 nm. In addition, a new Au-NPs-modified electrode was fabricated by self-assembling Au-NPs to the surface of the L-cysteine-modified glassy carbon electrode (Au-NPs/L-Cys/GCE). The Au-NPs-modified electrode showed an excellent character for electro-catalytic oxidization of uric acid (UA) in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.2). Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DP-ASV), a high selectivity for determination of UA has been explored for the Au-NPs-modified electrode. DP-ASV peak currents of UA increased linearly with their concentration at the range of 2.0 × 10-6 to 4.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 2.7 × 10-6 mol L-1 for UA. The proposed method was applied for the detection of UA in human urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside, a water-soluble antioxidant isolated from Gentiana arisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, F N; Chu, C C; Lin, C N; Chang, C C; Teng, C M

    1998-01-15

    The antioxidant activities of isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside were studied using various models. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside was more potent than Trolox, probucol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It also scavenged superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. The IC50 value, stoichiometry factor and second-order rate constant were 9.0+/-0.8 microM, 1.8+/-0.1 and 2.6 X 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) for superoxide generation, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. However, isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), carbon radical or 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile) (AMVN)-derived peroxyl radical in hexane. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside inhibited Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation and electrophoretic mobility. Since isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not possess pro-oxidant activity, it may be an effective water-soluble antioxidant that can prevent LDL against oxidation.

  1. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood compatibility of thermoplastic polyurethane membrane immobilized with water-soluble chitosan/dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ching; Yu, Da-Guang; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble chitosan (WSC)/dextran sulfate (DS) was immobilized onto the surface of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) membrane after ozone-induced graft polymerization of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The surface was characterized with contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption of human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results showed that the surface density of peroxides generated and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) grafted reached the maximum value at 20 min of ozone treatment. It was found that the WSC- and DS-immobilized amount increased with pH and the molecular weight of WSC. The membrane/water interfacial free energy increased with PAA-grafting and WSC/DS-immobilization, indicating the increasing wettability of TPU membrane. The adsorption of HPF on TPU-WSC/DS membranes could be effectively curtailed and exhibited unfavorable adsorption. Moreover, WSC/DS immobilization could effectively reduce platelet adhesion and prolong the blood coagulation time, thereby membrane improving blood compatibility of TPU membrane. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of PEC modification was non-cytotoxic according to much low growth inhibition of L929 fibroblasts. Furthermore, TPU-WSC/DS membranes exhibited higher cell viability than native TPU membrane.

  3. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming

    2010-06-16

    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Method for production of polymer and carbon nanofibers from water-soluble polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spender, Jonathan; Demers, Alexander L; Xie, Xinfeng; Cline, Amos E; Earle, M Alden; Ellis, Lucas D; Neivandt, David J

    2012-07-11

    Nanometer scale carbon fibers (carbon nanofibers) are of great interest to scientists and engineers in fields such as materials science, composite production, and energy storage due to their unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Precursors currently used for production of carbon nanofibers are primarily from nonrenewable resources. Lignin is a renewable natural polymer existing in all high-level plants that is a byproduct of the papermaking process and a potential feedstock for carbon nanofiber production. The work presented here demonstrates a process involving the rapid freezing of an aqueous lignin solution, followed by sublimation of the resultant ice, to form a uniform network comprised of individual interconnected lignin nanofibers. Carbonization of the lignin nanofibers yields a similarly structured carbon nanofiber network. The methodology is not specific to lignin; nanofibers of other water-soluble polymers have been successfully produced. This nanoscale fibrous morphology has not been observed in traditional cryogel processes, due to the relatively slower freezing rates employed compared to those achieved in this study.

  5. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Tingming, E-mail: futingming@gmail.com [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Guo Liwei; Le Kang; Wang Tianyao; Lu Jin [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20}) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  6. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingming, Fu; Liwei, Guo; Kang, Le; Tianyao, Wang; Jin, Lu

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO 20PO 70EO 20) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N 2 adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  7. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  8. Nanocomposite hydrogels based on water soluble polymer and montmorillonite-Na+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Reguieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of composites hydrogels based on Poly (1,3-dioxolane (PDXL,water soluble polymer, were synthesized directly in water by free-radical homopolymerization of a,w-methacryloyloxy PDXL macromonomers using hydrophilic sodium Montmorillonite clay: Maghnite-Na+ (Mag-Na+ and potassium persulfate as an initiator. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (ATG and their equilibrium swelling behavior in water and were compared with those of pure hydrogels prepared without Mag-Na+. X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy confirmed insertion of clay into polymer. The thermal decomposition temperature of the hydrogels based on maghnite-Na+ was found to be higher than of pure hydrogels. At the same time, the influence of the macromonomer precursor molar mass value, its concentration and the quantities of Mag-Na+, on the values of the volume degree of equilibrium swelling were studied. The results showed that the volume degree of equilibrium swelling was investigated as a function of the clay content. However, whether the concentration of macromonomer precursor increased, the volume or weight degree of equilibrium swelling of hydrogels all decreased. The addition of Mag-Na+ particles changed the crosslinking density of hydrogels.

  9. Water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles as a novel carrier system for protein delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun; FU Xiong; YANG LianSheng

    2007-01-01

    High MW chitosan (CS) solutions have already been proposed as vehicles for protein delivery. The aim of the present work is to investigate the potential utility of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) as vehicles to load and deliver proteins. WSC nanoparticles (WSC NP) with various formations were prepared based on ionic gelation of WSC with pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) anions. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein drug incorporated into the WSC nanoparticles. Blank and BSA-loaded WSC nanoparticles were examined and determined to have a spherical shape with diameters between 35-190 nm, and zeta potential between 35-42 mV. FTIF confirmed that the tripolyphosphoric groups of TPP linked to the ammonium groups of WSC in the nanoparticles. Some factors affecting delivery properties of BSA have been investigated. Altering the concentration of BSA from 0.05 to 1 mg/mL enhanced the loading capacity of BSA but decreased loading efficiency simultaneously.Also, with the introduction of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), BSA release accelerated. Nanoparticle preparation from WSC with various deacetylation degrees (DDs) from 72.6% to 90% and MWs ranging from 3.5 to 15.8 kDa promoted loading efficiency and decreased the release rate. These results indicate that WSC nanoparticles are promising carriers for protein delivery.

  10. Water-soluble Ag(2)S quantum dots for near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Tian, Zhi-Quan; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2012-07-01

    A one-step method for synthesizing water-soluble Ag(2)S quantum dots terminated with carboxylic acid group has been reported. The crystal structure and surface of the prepared Ag(2)S quantum dots were characterized. The prepared Ag(2)S quantum dots exhibited bright photoluminescence and excellent photostabilities. The photoluminescence emissions could be tuned from visible region to near-infrared (NIR) region (from 510 nm to 1221 nm). Ultra-small sized Ag(2)S nanoclusters were synthesized with high initial monomer concentration in the current system. The in vivo imaging experiments of nude mice showed that the NIR photoluminescence of the prepared Ag(2)S quantum dots could penetrate the body of mice. Compared to the conventional NIR quantum dots, the Ag(2)S quantum dots don't contain toxic elements to body (such as Cd and Pb), thus, the prepared Ag(2)S quantum dots could serve as excellent NIR optical imaging probes and would open the opportunity to study nanodiagnostics and imaging in vivo.

  11. Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Protein (WSCP) Stably Binds Two or Four Chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Daniel M; Agostini, Alessandro; Tenzer, Stefan; Gloeckle, Barbara M; Werwie, Mara; Carbonera, Donatella; Paulsen, Harald

    2017-03-28

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) of class IIa from Brassicaceae form tetrameric complexes containing one chlorophyll (Chl) per apoprotein but no carotenoids. The complexes are remarkably stable toward dissociation and protein denaturation even at 100 °C and extreme pH values, and the Chls are partially protected against photooxidation. There are several hypotheses that explain the biological role of WSCPs, one of them proposing that they function as a scavenger of Chls set free upon plant senescence or pathogen attack. The biochemical properties of WSCP described in this paper are consistent with the protein acting as an efficient and flexible Chl scavenger. At limiting Chl concentrations, the recombinant WSCP apoprotein binds substoichiometric amounts of Chl (two Chls per tetramer) to form complexes that are as stable toward thermal dissociation, denaturation, and photodamage as the fully pigmented ones. If more Chl is added, these two-Chl complexes can bind another two Chls to reach the fully pigmented state. The protection of WSCP Chls against photodamage has been attributed to the apoprotein serving as a diffusion barrier for oxygen, preventing its access to triplet excited Chls and, thus, the formation of singlet oxygen. By contrast, the sequential binding of Chls by WSCP suggests a partially open or at least flexible structure, raising the question of how WSCP photoprotects its Chls without the help of carotenoids.

  12. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  13. Diagnostic image quality of hysterosalpingography: ionic versus non ionic water soluble iodinated contrast media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, H; Jayapragasam, KJ; Abdullah, BJJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic image quality between three different water soluble iodinated contrast media in hysterosalpingography (HSG). Material and method In a prospective randomised study of 204 patients, the diagnostic quality of images obtained after hysterosalpingography were evaluated using Iopramide (106 patients) and Ioxaglate (98 patients). 114 patients who had undergone HSG examination using Iodamide were analysed retrospectively. Image quality was assessed by three radiologists independently based on an objective set of criteria. The obtained results were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results Visualisation of fimbrial rugae was significantly better with Iopramide and Ioxaglate than Iodamide. All contrast media provided acceptable diagnostic image quality with regard to uterine, fallopian tubes outline and peritoneal spill. Uterine opacification was noted to be too dense in all three contrast media and not optimal for the assessment of intrauterine pathology. Higher incidence of contrast intravasation was noted in the Iodamide group. Similarly, the numbers of patients diagnosed with bilateral blocked fallopian tubes were also higher in the Iodamide group. Conclusion HSG using low osmolar contrast media (Iopramide and Ioxaglate) demonstrated diagnostic image qualities similar to HSG using conventional high osmolar contrast media (Iodamide). However, all three contrast media were found to be too dense for the detection of intrauterine pathology. Better visualisation of the fimbrial outline using Ioxaglate and Iopramide were attributed to their low contrast viscosity. The increased incidence of contrast media intravasation and bilateral tubal blockage using Iodamide are probably related to the high viscosity. PMID:21611058

  14. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  15. Antimicrobial Action of Water-Soluble β-Chitosan against Clinical Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of patients infected by drug-resistant pathogenic microbes has increased remarkably worldwide, and a number of studies have reported new antibiotics from natural sources. Among them, chitosan, with a high molecular weight and α-conformation, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity, but useful applications as an antibiotic are limited by its cytotoxicity and insolubility at physiological pH. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of low molecular weight water-soluble (LMWS α-chitosan (α1k, α5k, and α10k with molecular masses of 1, 5, and 10 kDa, respectively and β-chitosan (β1k, β5k, and β10k was compared using a range of pathogenic bacteria containing drug-resistant bacteria isolated from patients at different pH. Interestingly, β5k and β10k exhibited potent antibacterial activity, even at pH 7.4, whereas only α10k was effective at pH 7.4. The active target of β-chitosan is the bacterial membrane, where the leakage of calcein is induced in artificial PE/PG vesicles, bacterial mimetic membrane. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed that they caused significant morphological changes on the bacterial surfaces. An in vivo study utilizing a bacteria-infected mouse model found that LMWS β-chitosan could be used as a candidate in anti-infective or wound healing therapeutic applications.

  16. Water-soluble phosphate-functionalized polyfluorene as fluorescence biosensors toward cytochrome c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An anionic water-soluble polyfluorene derivative, poly(9,9-bis(6′-phosphatehexyl)fluorene-alt-1,4-pheny lene) sodium salt (PFHPNa), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction in DMF/water. Polymer PFHPNa was well soluble in water with a strong blue fluorescence emission. Effect of the side chain length on fluorescence sensory properties was studied by comparing quenching efficiencies toward different quenchers of PFHPNa with a reported polymer poly(9,9-bis(3′-phosphatepropyl)fluorene-alt-1,4-phenylene) sodium salt (PFPPNa), which have different side chains in length. For small molecular quenchers (methylviologen, MV2+) and meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), polymer PFHPNa had lower sensitivity due to the much longer side chain length. The positively charged metalloprotein cytochrome c could quench fluorescence of conjugated polymers via energy transfer and electron transfer. Moreover, polymer PFHPNa showed higher fluorescence quenching toward large biomolecules than PFPPNa. The corresponding Stern-Volmer (Ksv) value of polymer PFHPNa was determined to be 2.1×108 M-1 for cytochrome c. It could be used as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for protein cytochrome c.

  17. Water-soluble phosphate-functionalized polyfluorene as fluorescence biosensors toward cytochrome c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN ChuanJiang; TONG Hui; WANG LiXiang

    2009-01-01

    An anionic water-soluble polyfluorene derivative, poly(9,9-bis(6'-phosphatehexyl)fluorene-a/t-1,4-pheny-lene) sodium salt (PFHPNa), was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction in DMF/water. Polymer PFHPNa was well soluble in water with a strong blue fluorescence emission. Effect of the side chain length on fluo-rescenoe sensory properties was studied by comparing quenching efficiencies toward different quenchers of PFHPNa with a reported polymer poly(g,9-bis(3"phosphatepropyl)fluorene-a/t-1,4-phenylene) sodium salt (PFPPNa), which have different side chains in length. For small molecular quenchers (methylviologen, MV2+) and meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), polymer PFHPNa had lower sensi-tivity due to the much longer side chain length. The positively charged metalloprotein cytoohrome c could quench fluorescence of conjugated polymers via energy transfer and electron transfer. Moreover, polymer PFHPNa showed higher fluorescence quenching toward large biomolecules than PFPPNa. The corre-sponding Stern-Volmer (Ksv) value of polymer PFHPNa was determined to be 2.1×108 M-1 for cytochrome c. It could be used as a sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for protein cytochrome c.

  18. Drug carrier systems based on water-soluble cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianshu; Xiao, Huining; Li, Jiehua; Zhong, YinPing

    2004-07-08

    This study was designed to synthesize, characterize and investigate the drug inclusion property of a series of novel cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymers (CPbetaCDs). Proposed water-soluble polymers were synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), epichlorohydrin (EP) and choline chloride (CC) through a one-step polymerization procedure by varying molar ratio of EP and CC to beta-CD. Physicochemical properties of the polymers were characterized with colloidal titration, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and aqueous solubility determination. The formation of naproxen/CPbetaCDs inclusion complexes was confirmed by NMR and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Cationic beta-CD polymers showed better hemolytic activities than parent beta-CD and neutral beta-CD polymer in hemolysis test. The morphological study of erythrocytes revealed a cell membrane invagination induced by the cationic groups. The effects of molecular weight and charge density of the polymers on their inclusion and release performance of naproxen were also investigated through phase-solubility and dissolution studies. It was found that the cationic beta-CD polymers with high molecular weight or low charge density exhibited better drug inclusion and dissolution abilities.

  19. Water-soluble PEGylated silicon nanoparticles and their assembly into swellable nanoparticle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zejing; Li, Yejia; Zhang, Boyu; Purkait, Tapas [Tulane University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Alb, Alina [Tulane University, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics (United States); Mitchell, Brian S. [Tulane University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Grayson, Scott M.; Fink, Mark J., E-mail: fink@tulane.edu [Tulane University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Water-soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water-stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl-terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the Si nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido-terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with mono-alkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core–shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently linked Si nanoparticle clusters were synthesized via the CuAAC “click” reaction of functional Si NPs with α,ω-functional PEG polymers of various lengths. Dynamic light scattering studies show that the flexible globular nanoparticle aggregates undergo a solvent-dependent change in volume (ethanol > dichloromethane > toluene) similar in behavior to hydrogel nanocomposites.

  20. Modeling the Release Kinetics of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Molecules from Liposomal Nanocarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Stephan; Fahr, Alfred; May, Sylvio

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes are frequently used as pharmaceutical nanocarriers to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs such as temoporfin, cyclosporine A, amphotericin B, and paclitaxel to their target site. Optimal drug delivery depends on understanding the release kinetics of the drug molecules from the host liposomes during the journey to the target site and at the target site. Transfer of drugs in model systems consisting of donor liposomes and acceptor liposomes is known from experimental work to typically exhibit a first-order kinetics with a simple exponential behavior. In some cases, a fast component in the initial transfer is present, in other cases the transfer is sigmoidal. We present and analyze a theoretical model for the transfer that accounts for two physical mechanisms, collisions between liposomes and diffusion of the drug molecules through the aqueous phase. Starting with the detailed distribution of drug molecules among the individual liposomes, we specify the conditions that lead to an apparent first-order kinetic behavior. We also discuss possible implications on the transfer kinetics of (1) high drug loading of donor liposomes, (2) attractive interactions between drug molecules within the liposomes, and (3) slow transfer of drugs between the inner and outer leaflets of the liposomes. PMID:21773045