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Sample records for water-model-specific ion parameters

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic and energetic properties of alkali and halide ions using water-model-specific ion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, In Suk; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2009-10-01

    The dynamic and energetic properties of the alkali and halide ions were calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations with various different water and ion force fields including our recently developed water-model-specific ion parameters. The properties calculated were activity coefficients, diffusion coefficients, residence times of atomic pairs, association constants, and solubility. Through calculation of these properties, we can assess the validity and range of applicability of the simple pair potential models and better understand their limitations. Due to extreme computational demands, the activity coefficients were only calculated for a subset of the models. The results qualitatively agree with experiment. Calculated diffusion coefficients and residence times between cation-anion, water-cation, and water-anion showed differences depending on the choice of water and ion force field used. The calculated solubilities of the alkali-halide salts were generally lower than the true solubility of the salts. However, for both the TIP4P(EW) and SPC/E water-model-specific ion parameters, solubility was reasonably well-reproduced. Finally, the correlations among the various properties led to the following conclusions: (1) The reliability of the ion force fields is significantly affected by the specific choice of water model. (2) Ion-ion interactions are very important to accurately simulate the properties, especially solubility. (3) The SPC/E and TIP4P(EW) water-model-specific ion force fields are preferred for simulation in high salt environments compared to the other ion force fields.

  2. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  3. Impact-parameter-dependent electronic stopping of swift ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinner, A.; Sigmund, P.

    2010-01-01

    A computational scheme has been developed to estimate the mean electronic energy loss of an incident swift ion on an atomic target as a function of the impact parameter between the moving nuclei. The theoretical basis is binary stopping theory. In order to extract impact-parameter dependencies it wa

  4. Characteristics of the Thermal Ion Bulk Parameters in the Cleft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk parameters for the thermal ions (0.3 to 25 eV) have been derived using data from the Scanning Thermal Ion Composition Spectrometer (STICS) on the Sounding of the Cleft Ion Fountain Energization Region (SCIFER) experiment. The SCIFER rocket was launched into the ionospheric cleft region at 1000 MLT with a maximum altitude of 1450 km. The heated cleft plasma was observed to be H(+) dominated, in sharp contrast with observations of the same region near solar maximum. Regions of particular interest include the sharp, heated equatorward wall of the cleft and highly structured patches of transversely-accelerated ions (TAI). Densities, temperatures and velocities are used to characterize and distinguish these regions and to compare to predicted bulk parameters from candidate heating mechanisms.

  5. Focused Ion Beam Induced Effects on MOS Transistor Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo, Marsha T.; Antoniou, Nicholas; Campbell, Ann N.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Hembree, Charles E.; Jessing, Jeffrey R.; Soden, Jerry M.; Swanson, Scot E.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Vanderlinde, William E.

    1999-07-28

    We report on recent studies of the effects of 50 keV focused ion beam (FIB) exposure on MOS transistors. We demonstrate that the changes in value of transistor parameters (such as threshold voltage, V{sub t}) are essentially the same for exposure to a Ga+ ion beam at 30 and 50 keV under the same exposure conditions. We characterize the effects of FIB exposure on test transistors fabricated in both 0.5 {micro}m and 0.225 {micro}m technologies from two different vendors. We report on the effectiveness of overlying metal layers in screening MOS transistors from FIB-induced damage and examine the importance of ion dose rate and the physical dimensions of the exposed area.

  6. Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolkin, Timofey V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    H{sup -} beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H{sup -} magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V and a probe step of about 5 mil. Normalized 90% emittance obtained for this H{sup -} source is 0.22 {pi} mm-mr, for an extraction voltage of 18 kV at a beam energy of 30 keV and a beam current of 11 mA.

  7. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jieyu; YU Lixiang; WU Yuejin; TANG Canming

    2008-01-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine,including ion energy,total dose,dose rate,impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied.The best parameters were screened out.The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  8. The Freezeout Parameters in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the freezeout parameters estimated in heavy-ion collisions all have the common property that the entropy density $s$ normalized to $T^3$ is constant. The value of $s/T^3$ has been taken from lattice QCD simulations at zero baryo-chemical potential $\\mu_B$ and assumed to remain constant at finite $\\mu_B$ in a hadron resonance gas model. This implies that the hadronic matter in rest frame of produced system can be determined by constant degrees of freedom. The entropy content is reflected in the multiplicity of produced particles in final state. We made predictions for freezeout parameters at very low temperatures. Furthermore, we found that the strangeness degrees of freedom are very essential at low incident energies.

  9. THERMODINAMIC PARAMETERS ON THE SORPTION OF PHOSPHATE IONS BY MONTMORILLONITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Jaslin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of phosphate by montmorillonite at 10, 30, and 50 oC were investigated aiming to mainly determine thermodynamic parameters for the formation of surface complexes in the adsorption of phosphate ions by montmorillonite. Data were collected by adsorption edge experiments investigating the effect of pH, adsorption isotherms enabling the effect of sorbate concentration, and acid-base titration calculating protons released or taken up by adsorption process. Data analysis was carried out using surface complexation model to fit the data collected in this study using the parameters obtained from previous study, as well as to calculate the values of ΔH and ΔS. Previous study reported that phosphate ions formed two outer-sphere surface complexes with active sites of montmorillonite through hydrogen bonding. In the first complex,  [(XH0– H2L─]─, the phosphate was held to permanent-charge X─ sites on the tetrahedral siloxane faces, and the second complex, [[(SO─(SOH]– – [H2L]─] 2─ was formed through the interaction between the phosphate and variable charge surface hydroxyl groups at the edges of montmorillonite crystals and on the octahedral alumina faces. The values of ΔH for the first and second reactions are 39.756 and 3.765x10-7 kJ mol‒1 respectively. Since both reactions have positive enthalpy values, it can be concluded that the reactions are endothermic. Large energy for the first reaction is needed by X─  sites (permanent negatively charge sites of montmorillonite to be partially desolvated, on which K+ or other surface cations are replaced by H+ ions in the surface protonated process, and are then ready to interact phosphate ions in the solution. Small values of ΔH for the second reactions indicates that hydrogen bonds formed by phosphate and SOH sites in the second reaction are easily broken out, and the phosphate can easily desorbed from the surface. The values of ΔS for the first and second reactions are

  10. FY2014 Parameters for Helions and Gold Ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    The nominal parameters for helions (helion is the bound state of two protons and one neutron, the nucleus of a helium-3 atom) and gold ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the FY2014 running period. The parameters are found using various formulas to derive mass, helion anomalous g-factor, kinetic parameters, RF parameters, ring parameters, etc..

  11. Downstream plasma parameters in laminar shocks from ion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ion dynamics in oblique shocks is governed by the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of the shock front. In laminar shocks, these fields are time-independent and depend only on the coordinate along the shock normal. The shock ramp is narrow and the ion motion across the shock is manifestly non-adiabatic. The ion distribution just behind the ramp is significantly non-gyrotropic. Gyrotropy is achieved well behind the ramp mainly due to the gyrophase mixing. The asymptotic values of the ion density and temperature are determined by the eventual collisionless relaxation of the gyrating ion distribution. Given a distribution at the downstream edge of the ramp, the moments of the distribution after gyrophase mixing are derived using proper spatial averaging. The obtained expressions can be used for independent determination of the downstream plasma state and implementation in Rankine-Hugoniot relations.

  12. A new hybrid ion exchanger: Effect of system parameters on the adsorption of vanadium (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Bong-Yeol [Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Lee, Chang-Soo [School of Applied Chemistry and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Taek-Sung, E-mail: tshwang@cnu.ac.kr [School of Applied Chemistry and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The hybrid ion exchanger consisted of PONF-g-GMA anion fibrous exchanger and IRA-96 bead-type anion exchanger was developed by combining different types of layers with hot-melt adhesive. Its ion exchange capacity and the pressure drop with flow rate of water were measured and the adsorption of vanadium (V) ions on the hybrid ion exchanger was evaluated with various process parameters such as pH, initial concentration, and temperature. It was observed that the adsorption kinetics of vanadium (V) ions on the hybrid ion exchanger could be analyzed with pseudo-second-order model.

  13. Influence of deposition parameters on the microstructure of ion-plated films

    OpenAIRE

    Broitman, Esteban; Zimmerman, Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Ion plating is essentially vapor deposition onto a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge. The most important characteristic of the technique is that the growing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles (neutrals and ions). In this study we report information about the effect of ion plating parameters on grain diameter and crystallite size distribution. At a constant potential grain size remains constant with the increase of ion density. On the other hand, at a constan...

  14. FY2014 Parameters for Gold Ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-07-30

    The nominal parameters for gold ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the FY2014 running period. The parameters are worked out using various formulas to derive mass, kinetic parameters, RF parameters, ring parameters, etc.. The ''standard setup'', ''medium-energy'', and ''low-energy'' parameters are summarized in separate sections.

  15. Nonlinear Inverse Problem for an Ion-Exchange Filter Model: Numerical Recovery of Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of identifying unknown parameters for a mathematical model of an ion-exchange filter via measurement at the outlet of the filter. The proposed mathematical model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion-exchange for the nonequilibrium case, and an equation for the ion-exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion-exchange and several parameters. First, a numerical solution of the direct problem, the calculation of the impurities concentration at the outlet of the filter, is provided. Then, the inverse problem, finding the parameters of the ion-exchange process in nonequilibrium conditions, is formulated. A method for determining the approximate values of these parameters from the impurities concentration measured at the outlet of the filter is proposed.

  16. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jieyu; Yu, Lixiang; Wu, Yuejin; Tang, Canming

    2008-10-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine, including ion energy, total dose, dose rate, impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied. The best parameters were screened out. The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  17. In situ measurement of ions parameters of laser produced ion source using high resolution Thomson Parabola Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Kaur, C.; Rastogi, V.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Bhatia, R. K.; Nataraju, V.

    2016-08-01

    The laser produced plasma based heavy ion source has become an outstanding front end for heavy ion accelerators. Before being implemented in the heavy ion accelerators its detailed characterization is required. For this purpose, a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola spectrometer comprising of Time-of-Flight diagnostics has been developed for the characterization of ions with energy in the range from 1 keV to 1 MeV/nucleon and incorporated in the Laser plasma experimental chamber. The ion spectrometer is optimized with graphite target. The carbon ions of charge states C1+ to C6+ are observed in the energy range from 3 keV to 300 keV, which has also been verified by Time-of-Flight measurement. Experimental results were matched with simulation done by SIMION 7.0 code which is used for the design of the spectrometer. We also developed data analysis software using Python language to measure in situ ion's parameters and the results are in better agreement to the experimental results than the commercially available software SIMION 7.0. The resolution of the spectrometer is ΔE/E = 0.026 @ 31 keV for charge state (C4+) of carbon.

  18. Crystal lattice properties fully determine short-range interaction parameters for alkali and halide ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Albert H; 10.1063/1.4742068

    2012-01-01

    Accurate models of alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution are necessary for computer simulations of a broad variety of systems. Previous efforts to develop ion force fields have generally focused on reproducing experimental measurements of aqueous solution properties such as hydration free energies and ion-water distribution functions. This dependency limits transferability of the resulting parameters because of the variety and known limitations of water models. We present a solvent-independent approach to calibrating ion parameters based exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Our procedure relies on minimization of lattice sums to calculate lattice energies and interionic distances instead of equilibrium ensemble simulations of dense fluids. The gain in computational efficiency enables simultaneous optimization of all parameters for Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, F-, Cl-, Br-, and I- subject to constraints that enforce consistency with periodic table trends. We demonstrate the method by presenting lattice-d...

  19. Ion beam sputter deposition of Ge films: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C., E-mail: carsten.bundesmann@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Feder, R. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wunderlich, R.; Teschner, U.; Grundmann, M. [Universität Leipzig, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Several sets of Ge films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of ion beam parameters (ion species and ion energy) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle and polar emission angle). The films were characterized concerning thickness, growth rate, mass density, structural properties and composition. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution, and the growth rates were found to increase with increasing ion incidence angle and ion energy. All films are amorphous and the average mass density was found to be (4.3 ± 0.2) g/cm{sup 3}, without a systematic relation to ion energy and geometrical parameters. Slightly higher mass densities were found for Ge films grown by sputtering with Xe than for sputtering with Ar. The Ge films contain a fraction of inert gas atoms from backscattered primary particles. This fraction is found to be higher for sputtering with Ar than for sputtering with Xe. The fraction of inert gas atoms increases with increasing polar emission angle and increasing ion incidence angle. Raman scattering experiments revealed also systematic shifts of the characteristic Raman mode. The shifts are tentatively assigned to the change of the Ge particle densities caused by the incorporation of inert gas particles. There seem to be also slight changes in short range ordering. The experimental data are discussed with respect to the known energy and angular distributions of the sputtered and backscattered particles. - Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters • Thickness, growth rate, mass density, composition, structure, phonon properties • All germanium films are amorphous with small variations in mass density. • Incorporation of considerable amount of inert process gas • Vibrational properties correlate with composition.

  20. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28212405

  1. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Theoretical investigation of the optical and EPR parameters for VO 2+ion in some complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfaoğlu, Emel; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2012-04-01

    The molecular orbital coefficients and the EPR parameters of trisodium citrate dihydrate, sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate, potassium d-gluconate monohydrate and L-Alanine vanadyl complexes are calculated theoretically. Two d-d transition spectra and EPR parameters for the VO2+ complex are calculated theoretically by using crystal-field theory. The calculated g and A paramaters have indicated that paramagnetic center is axially symmetric. Having the relations of g∥A⊥ for VO2+ ions, it can be concluded that VO2+ ions are located in distorted octahedral sites (C4v) elongated along the z-axis and the ground state of the paramagnetic electron is dxy.

  3. Influence of deposition parameters on the microstructure of ion-plated films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Esteban; Zimmerman, Rosa

    1996-07-01

    Ion plating is essentially vapor deposition onto a substrate which is the cathode of a glow discharge. The most important characteristic of the technique is that the growing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles (neutrals and ions). In this study we report information about the effect of ion plating parameters on grain diameter and crystallite size distribution. At a constant potential grain size remains constant with the increase of ion density. On the other hand, at a constant ion density the grain size decreases with the substrate potential increment. Ion bombardment also has an effect on the crystallite size distribution. The ion plated films show a higher degree of uniformity in grain size than vacuum evaporated films. In contrast with vacuum evaporated films, where the grain size is proportional to the thickness, no variation of grain size with film thickness has been observed for the ion-plated films. Electron diffraction patterns have shown that the orientation remains near random over the entire J and V range studied.

  4. Unidirectional expansion of lattice parameters in GaN induced by ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa Tao; Li Lin; Yao Shu-De; Wu Ming-Fang; Zhou Sheng-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the 150-keV Mn ions are implanted into GaN thin film grown on Al2O3 by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. The X-ray diffraction reciprocal spacing mapping is applied to study the lattice parameter variation upon implantation and post-annealing. After implantation, a significant expansion is observed in the perpendicular direction. The lattice strain in perpendicular direction strongly depends on ion fluence and implantation geometry and can be partially relaxed by post-annealing. While in the parallel direction, the lattice parameter approximately keeps the same as the unimplanted GaN, which is independent of ion fluence, implantation geometry and post-annealing temperature.

  5. Investigating the robustness of ion beam therapy treatment plans to uncertainties in biological treatment parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Fossati, P; Haberer, T; Mairani, A; Patera, V

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in determining clinically used relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for ion beam therapy carry the risk of absolute and relative misestimations of RBE-weighted doses for clinical scenarios. This study assesses the consequences of hypothetical misestimations of input parameters to the RBE modelling for carbon ion treatment plans by a variational approach. The impact of the variations on resulting cell survival and RBE values is evaluated as a function of the remaining ion range. In addition, the sensitivity to misestimations in RBE modelling is compared for single fields and two opposed fields using differing optimization criteria. It is demonstrated for single treatment fields that moderate variations (up to +/-50\\%) of representative nominal input parameters for four tumours result mainly in a misestimation of the RBE-weighted dose in the planning target volume (PTV) by a constant factor and only smaller RBE-weighted dose gradients. Ensuring a more uniform radiation quality in the PTV...

  6. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  7. Quantum Logic Operation with Single Trapped Ion Without Limitation of Lamb-Dicke Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2003-01-01

    By applying the nonlinear interaction between internal and external degrees of a trapped ion with theassistance of two pairs or three pairs of laser beams that are perpendicular to each other, the realization of quantumlogic operation without the limitation on the Lamb-Dicke parameter can be achieved when the lasers are tuned to thecarrier.

  8. Adsorption kinetic parameters of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestutis Baltakys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the adsorption kinetic parameters for Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite are presented. Additionally, the adsoption mechanism was described by using pseudo first order and pseudo second order  equations. It was determined that the adsorption capacity of gyrolite and intrusion of heavy metals ions in its structure depends on reaction time and the pH value of adsorptive. It was observed that the incorporation of Fe3+ ions occurs more intensive than Ni2+ ions. It was found that in the acidic solution the intrusion of Fe3+ ions into gyrolite structure proceeds by two types of chemical reaction mechanisms: substitution and addition. Meanwhile, nickel ions were participated only in substitution reaction: gyrolite-Ca0 + Mex+ ↔ gyrolite-Me0 + Ca2+. It was observed that the pseudo second order model fit well for iron and nickel ions adsorption mechanism. It was estimated that the adsorption reactions are not reversible process and the crystal structure of gyrolite is stable. Moreover, synthetic adsorbent and the products of sorption were characterized by XRD, STA and FT-IR methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5735

  9. Adsorption kinetic parameters of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kestutis Baltakys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the adsorption kinetic parameters for Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions by gyrolite are presented. Additionally, the adsoption mechanism was described by using pseudo first order and pseudo second order  equations. It was determined that the adsorption capacity of gyrolite and intrusion of heavy metals ions in its structure depends on reaction time and the pH value of adsorptive. It was observed that the incorporation of Fe3+ ions occurs more intensive than Ni2+ ions. It was found that in the acidic solution the intrusion of Fe3+ ions into gyrolite structure proceeds by two types of chemical reaction mechanisms: substitution and addition. Meanwhile, nickel ions were participated only in substitution reaction: gyrolite-Ca0 + Mex+ ↔ gyrolite-Me0 + Ca2+. It was observed that the pseudo second order model fit well for iron and nickel ions adsorption mechanism. It was estimated that the adsorption reactions are not reversible process and the crystal structure of gyrolite is stable. Moreover, synthetic adsorbent and the products of sorption were characterized by XRD, STA and FT-IR methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5735

  10. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H- formation at ion source relevant parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density nH- /ne is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of nH- /ne on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance nH- /ne like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5 cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not

  11. Effect of counter- and co-ions on the structural transport parameters of sulfoacid cationite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, O. A.; Falina, I. V.; Kononenko, N. A.; Demin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion permeability and specific electroconductivity of MK-40 sulfoacid cationite and Nafion 425 membranes are studied experimentally in NaOH, NaCl, and HCl solutions with various concentrations. The resulting concentration dependences of the electrodiffusion characteristics and data on the nonexchange sorption of the electrolytes are used to calculate the structural transport parameters of the membranes in terms of a two-phase conduction model. Analysis of a set of parameters, including the electroconductivity and diffusion permeability of the membrane gel phase, the volume fractions of the conductive phases, and a parameter that reflects their relative positions, the Donnan constant, and the diffusion coefficients of counter and co-ions in the membrane gel phase reveals the effect the nature of counter- and co-ions has on the electrodiffusion, structural, and sorption characteristics of sulfoacid cationite membranes with different types of structure.

  12. Relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian-bin; TANG You-gen; LIANG Yi-zeng; TAN Xin-xin

    2008-01-01

    The initial efficiency is a very important criterion for carbon anode material of Li-ion battery. The relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material of Li-ion battery was investigated by an artificial intelligence approach called Random Forests using D10, D50, D90, BET specific surface area and TP density as inputs, initial efficiency as output.The results give good classification performance with 91% accuracy. The variable importance analysis results show the impact of 5 variables on the initial efficiency descends in the order of D90, TP density, BET specific surface area, D50 and D10; smaller D90 and larger TP density have positive impact on initial efficiency. The contribution of BET specific surface area on classification is only 18.74%, which indicates the shortcoming of BET specific surface area as a widely used parameter for initial efficiency evaluation.

  13. Diagnostics of recombining laser plasma parameters based on He-like ion resonance lines intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, S. N.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    While the plasma created by powerful laser expands from the target surface it becomes overcooled, i.e. recombining one. Improving of diagnostic methods applicable for such plasma is rather important problem in laboratory astrophysics nowadays because laser produced jets are fully scalable to young stellar objects. Such scaling is possible because of the plasma hydrodynamic equations invariance under some transformations. In this paper it is shown that relative intensities of the resonance transitions in He-like ions can be used to measure the parameters of recombining plasma. Intensity of the spectral lines corresponding to these transitions is sensitive to the density in the range of 1016-1020 cm-3 while the temperature ranges from 10 to 100 eV for ions with nuclear charge Zn ∼ 10. Calculations were carried out for F VIII ion and allowed to determine parameters of plasma jets created by nanosecond laser system ELFIE (Ecole Polytechnique, France) for astrophysical phenomenon modelling. Obtained dependencies are quite universal and can be used for any recombining plasma containing He-like fluorine ions.

  14. Ion beam sputter deposition of Ag films: Influence of process parameters on electrical and optical properties, and average grain sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C., E-mail: carsten.bundesmann@iom-leipzig.de; Feder, R.; Gerlach, J.W.; Neumann, H.

    2014-01-31

    Ion beam sputter deposition is used to grow several sets of Ag films under systematic variation of ion beam parameters, such as ion species and ion energy, and geometrical parameters, such as ion incidence angle and polar emission angle. The films are characterized concerning their thickness by profilometry, their electrical properties by 4-point-probe-measurements, their optical properties by spectroscopic ellipsometry, and their average grain sizes by X-ray diffraction. Systematic influences of the growth parameters on film properties are revealed. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution. The electrical resistivity increases for all sets with increasing emission angle and is found to be considerably smaller for Ag films grown by sputtering with Xe ions than for the Ag films grown by sputtering with Ar ions. Increasing the ion energy or the ion incidence angle also increases the electrical resistivity. The optical properties, which are the result of free charge carrier absorption, follow the same trends. The observed trends can be partly assigned to changes in the average grain size, which are tentatively attributed to different energetic and angular distributions of the sputtered and back-scattered particles. - Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Film characterization: thickness, electrical, optical and structural properties. • Electrical resistivity changes considerably with ion species and polar emission angle. • Electrical and optical data reveal a strong correlation with grain sizes. • Change of film properties related to changing properties of film-forming particles.

  15. Parameter Extraction and Characteristics Study for Manganese-Type Lithium-Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Somakettarin, Natthawuth; Funaki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the battery transient response model and parameter extraction method for studying the dynamic behaviors of Manganese-type Lithium-Ion battery. The background knowledge of the battery structure and its operating principle are also concluded. Several aspects of operating conditions, such as charging and discharging operations, environments of terminal currents and temperatures, are considered through the experiments for understanding the battery behaviors.  The charact...

  16. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a simplified electrochemical and thermal model for Li-ion batteries aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, C.; Petit, M.; Forgez, C.; Bernard, J.; Revel, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model that can predict both physicochemical and aging behavior of Li-ion batteries is studied. A sensitivity analysis of all its physical parameters is performed in order to find out their influence on the model output based on simulations under various conditions. The results gave hints on whether a parameter needs particular attention when measured or identified and on the conditions (e.g. temperature, discharge rate) under which it is the most sensitive. A specific simulation profile is designed for parameters involved in aging equations in order to determine their sensitivity. Finally, a step-wise method is followed to limit the influence of parameter values when identifying some of them, according to their relative sensitivity from the study. This sensitivity analysis and the subsequent step-wise identification method show very good results, such as a better fitting of the simulated cell voltage with experimental data.

  17. A universal description for the freezeout parameters in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the freezeout parameters estimated in the heavy-ion collisions all are well described by a constant value of the entropy density $s$ divided by $T^3$. The value of $s/T^3$ has been taken from the lattice QCD simulations at zero baryo-chemical potential $\\mu_B$ and assumed to remain constant for finite $\\mu_B$. This implies that the hadronic matter in rest frame of produced system can be determined by constant degrees of freedom. Furthermore, this condition has been used to predict the freezeout parameters at low temperatures.

  18. Progress towards precision measurements of beta-decay correlation parameters using atom and ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Melconian, D; Fenker, B; Mehlman, M; Shidling, P D; Anholm, M; Ashery, D; Behr, J A; Gorelov, A; Gwinner, G; Olchankski, K; Smale, S

    2014-01-01

    The correlations of the decay products following the beta decay of nuclei have a long history of providing a low-energy probe of the fundamental symmetries of our universe. Over half a century ago, the correlation of the electrons following the decay of polarized 60Co demonstrated that parity is not conserved in weak interactions. Today, the same basic idea continues to be applied to search for physics beyond the standard model: make precision measurements of correlation parameters and look for deviations compared to their standard model predictions. Efforts to measure these parameters to the 0.1% level utilizing atom and ion trapping techniques are described.

  19. HBT Parameters and Space-Momentum Correlations in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景波; 霍雷; 张卫宁; 李新华; 许怒; 刘亦铭

    2001-01-01

    Using the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics approach, with a correlation after-burner, the physics of the transverse momentum dependence of the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss parameters is studied for Au t Au, Si + Si and p + p collisions at the centre-of-mass energy v s = 200 AGeV. The results indicate that the space-momentum correlations would affect such dependence in both heavy-ion and elementary collisions. The size parameters as a function of the transverse mass mt are sensitive to the degree of space-momentum correlations.

  20. Parameter Identification of Equivalent Circuit Models for Li-ion Batteries Based on Tree Seeds Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. J.; Tan, X. J.; Cai, M.

    2017-07-01

    Parameter identification method of equivalent circuit models for Li-ion batteries using the advanced tree seeds algorithm is proposed. On one hand, since the electrochemical models are not suitable for the design of battery management system, the equivalent circuit models are commonly adopted for on-board applications. On the other hand, by building up the objective function for optimization, the tree seeds algorithm can be used to identify the parameters of equivalent circuit models. Experimental verifications under different profiles demonstrate the suggested method can achieve a better result with lower complexity, more accuracy and robustness, which make it a reasonable alternative for other identification algorithms.

  1. Parameters contributing to efficient ion generation in aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L; Jackson, William M; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Tobias, Herbert; Bogan, Michael J; Gard, Eric E; Frank, Matthias; Steele, Paul T

    2008-03-01

    The Bioaerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS) system was developed for the real-time detection and identification of biological aerosols using laser desorption ionization. Greater differentiation of particle types is desired; consequently MALDI techniques are being investigated. The small sample size ( approximately 1 microm3), lack of substrate, and ability to simultaneously monitor both positive and negative ions provide a unique opportunity to gain new insight into the MALDI process. Several parameters known to influence MALDI molecular ion yield and formation are investigated here in the single particle phase. A comparative study of five matrices (2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapinic acid) with a single analyte (angiotensin I) is presented and reveals effects of matrix selection, matrix-to-analyte molar ratio, and aerosol particle diameter. The strongest analyte ion signal is found at a matrix-to-analyte molar ratio of 100:1. At this ratio, the matrices yielding the least and greatest analyte molecular ion formation are ferulic acid and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, respectively. Additionally, a significant positive correlation is found between aerodynamic particle diameter and analyte molecular ion yield for all matrices. SEM imaging of select aerosol particle types reveals interesting surface morphology and structure.

  2. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  3. Reactive Ar ion beam sputter deposition of TiO{sub 2} films: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C., E-mail: carsten.bundesmann@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lautenschläger, T.; Thelander, E. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Spemann, D. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universität Leipzig, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Thickness, growth rate, structure, mass density, composition, optical properties. • All TiO{sub 2} films are amorphous with systematic variations in mass density. • Considerable amount of inert process gas correlated with scattering angle. • Correlation of mass density and index of refraction. - Abstract: Several sets of TiO{sub 2} films were grown by Ar ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of ion energy and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle and polar emission angle). The films were characterized concerning thickness, growth rate, structural properties, composition, mass density, and optical properties. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution, and the growth rates were found to increase with increasing ion incidence angle and ion energy. All films are amorphous and stoichiometric, but can contain a considerable amount of backscattered primary particles. The atomic fraction of Ar particles decreases systematically with increasing scattering angle, independent from ion energy and ion incidence angle. Mass density and index of refraction show similar systematic variations with ion energy and geometrical parameters. The film properties are mainly influenced by the scattering geometry, and only slightly by ion energy and ion incidence angle. The variations in the film properties are tentatively assigned to changes in the angular and energy distribution of the sputtered target particles and back-scattered primary particles.

  4. A study of line widths and kinetic parameters of ions in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, G Q; Wang, C B

    2014-01-01

    Solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lines emitted by highly charged ions have been extensively studied to discuss the issue of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Based on observations of the polar corona by the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer, this paper investigates the relation between the line widths and kinetic parameters of ions. It is shown that there exists a strongly linear correlation between two variables $(\\sigma/\\lambda)^2$ and $M^{-1}$, where $\\sigma$, $\\lambda$ and $M$ are the half-width of the observed line profile at $1/\\sqrt{e}$, the wavelength and the ion mass, respectively. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients exceed 0.9. This finding tends to suggest that the ions from a given height of polar corona have a common temperature and a common non-thermal velocity in terms of existing equation. The temperature and non-thermal velocity are obtained by linear least-square fit. The temperature is around $2.8$ MK at heights of 57$''$ and 102$''$. The non-thermal velocity is typical 21.6...

  5. Luminescence dynamics and investigation of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters of Sm3+ ion containing glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Balakrishna, A.; Kumar, Vijay; Swart, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    Sm3+ ion doped 20 ZnOsbnd 10Li2Osbnd 10Na2Osbnd 60P2O5 glasses were prepared. The density was determined by the Archimedes method and the glasses were analyzed by using, optical absorption spectroscopy, excitation and emission luminescence studies. The Sm3+ concentration was varied between 0 and 1 mol%. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) were calculated by using the absorption data and the least square fit method. The Nephelauxetic ratio (β), bonding parameters (δ), spectroscopic quality factors, effective line width (Δλeff), radiative transition probability (A) and emission cross section (σp) were deduced by using the J-O parameters and emission spectra. The emission spectra showed the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 &4G5/2 → 6H11/2 transitions of the Sm3+ ions in the prepared glasses. Concentration quenching behavior was also observed, which was explained by the increase number of Sm3+ ions in the glass matrix. This was confirmed by the decrease in decay times with an increase in Sm3+ concentration. The analysis of the concentration shows 0.75 mol % Sm2O3 containing glasses can possibly be used for visible laser and fiber optic amplifier applications due to the fact that it has higher emission cross section and branching ratio values.

  6. Integral electrical characteristics and local plasma parameters of a RF ion thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masherov, P. E.; Riaby, V. A., E-mail: riaby2001@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics of the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Godyak, V. A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA and RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Comprehensive diagnostics has been carried out for a RF ion thruster based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source with an external flat antenna coil enhanced by ferrite core. The ICP was confined within a cylindrical chamber with low aspect ratio to minimize plasma loss to the chamber wall. Integral diagnostics of the ICP electrical parameters (RF power balance and coil current) allowed for evaluation of the antenna coils, matching networks, and eddy current loss and the true RF power deposited to plasma. Spatially resolved electron energy distribution functions, plasma density, electron temperatures, and plasma potentials were measured with movable Langmuir probes.

  7. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  8. Recoil ion and electronic angular asymmetry parameters for photo double ionization of helium at 99 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuning, H. [Kansas State Univ., Physics Dept., Manhattan, KS (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Doerner, R.; Braeuning-Demian, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany)] [and others

    1997-10-14

    Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy has been used to map the entire five-dimensional momentum space of the photo double ionization of helium at 20 eV above threshold. Angular asymmetry parameters for the relative motion of the electrons and the recoil ion have been determined and are found to be close to similar data at 1 eV above threshold. In addition the asymmetry parameter of one photoelectron is found to be in good agreement with recent theory. (author).

  9. Reactive Ar ion beam sputter deposition of TiO2 films: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundesmann, C.; Lautenschläger, T.; Thelander, E.; Spemann, D.

    2017-03-01

    Several sets of TiO2 films were grown by Ar ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of ion energy and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle and polar emission angle). The films were characterized concerning thickness, growth rate, structural properties, composition, mass density, and optical properties. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution, and the growth rates were found to increase with increasing ion incidence angle and ion energy. All films are amorphous and stoichiometric, but can contain a considerable amount of backscattered primary particles. The atomic fraction of Ar particles decreases systematically with increasing scattering angle, independent from ion energy and ion incidence angle. Mass density and index of refraction show similar systematic variations with ion energy and geometrical parameters. The film properties are mainly influenced by the scattering geometry, and only slightly by ion energy and ion incidence angle. The variations in the film properties are tentatively assigned to changes in the angular and energy distribution of the sputtered target particles and back-scattered primary particles.

  10. Determination of discharge parameters via OES at the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, S., E-mail: stefan.briefi@physik.uni-augsburg.de [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fink, D.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [Linac4 Ion Source Team, CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (T{sub e} ≈ 1.2 eV, n{sub e} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, and n{sub H}/n{sub H{sub 2}} ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.

  11. Optimization of parameters of a surface-electrode ion trap and experimental study of influences of surface on ion lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, BaoQuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, XinFang; Xie, Yi; Chen, Ting; Wu, ChunWang; Wu, Wei; Chen, PingXing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the optimal design and fabrication of a gold-on-silica linear segmented surface-electrode ion trap. By optimizing the thickness and width of the electrodes, we improved the trapping ability and trap scalability. By using some practical experimental operation methods, we successfully minimized the trap heating rate. Consequently, we could trap a string of up to 38 ions, and a zigzag structure with 24 ions, and transport two trapped ions to different zones. We also studied the influences of the ion chip surface on the ion lifetime. The excellent trapping ability and flexibility of operation of the planar ion trap shows that it has high feasibility for application in the development a practical quantum information processor or quantum simulator.

  12. Modeling for mean ion activity coefficient of strong electrolyte system with new boundary conditions and ion-size parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyi Li; Tao Fang

    2015-01-01

    A rigorous approach is proposed to model the mean ion activity coefficient for strong electrolyte systems using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. An effective screening radius similar to the Debye decay length is introduced to define the local composition and new boundary conditions for the central ion. The crystallographic ion size is also considered in the activity coefficient expressions derived and non-electrostatic contributions are neglected. The model is presented for aqueous strong electrolytes and compared with the classical Debye–Hückel (DH) limiting law for dilute solutions. The radial distribution function is compared with the DH and Monte Carlo studies. The mean ion activity coefficients are calculated for 1:1 aqueous solutions containing strong electrolytes composed of alkali halides. The individual ion activity coefficients and mean ion activity coefficients in mixed sol-vents are predicted with the new equations.

  13. Bulk matter evolution and extraction of jet transport parameter in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian; Xu, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Within the picture of jet quenching induced by multiple parton scattering and gluon bremsstrahlung, medium modification of parton fragmentation functions and therefore the suppression of large transverse momentum hadron spectra are controlled by both the value and the space-time profile of the jet transport parameter along the jet propagation path. Experimental data on single hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC energy are analyzed within the higher-twist (HT) approach to the medium modified fragmentation functions and the next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) parton model. Assuming that the jet transport parameter $\\hat q$ is proportional to the particle number density in both QGP and hadronic phase, experimental data on jet quenching in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off nuclear targets can provide guidance on $\\hat q_{h}$ in the hot hadronic matter. One can then study the dependence of extracted initial value of jet quenching parameter $\\hat q_{0}$ at initial ...

  14. Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode-index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M N; Srivastava, R

    1995-01-20

    We report a method for characterizing ion-exchanged channel waveguides in terms of the diffusion depth, width, and surface-index change from mode-index measurements. The method is then used to study the effect of the diffusion time and the mask width on these parameters in K(+)-Na(+)-exchanged guides in BK7 glass. It is observed that the mask width affects the waveguide dimensions in ways not reported in earlier studies. Our results reveal that the diffusion depth depends on the mask opening and saturates with time to a maximum value for a given mask width. The lateral-diffusion rate and the side diffusion beneath the mask are independent of the mask width, which indicates that the lateral electric field associated with the metallic mask plays an important role in such diffusion. We discuss the implications of this behavior to modeling and fabricating integrated optical devices.

  15. Relationships between Pitzer's ion interaction coefficients and ionic parameters of electrolyte solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国正; 杨杰; 张良苗; 陆文聪; 陈念贻

    2004-01-01

    Pattern recognition methods were used to treat the experimentally measured data of Pitzer's coefficients of 107 electrolytes, to find the relationships between the ionic structural parameters of these electrolytes and Pitzer's coefficients. It is found that these relationships can be approximately expressed as linear equations of four dimensionless numbers, (R+/R- ), (R+ +R-)/Z+ Z- , (Z+/Z- ) and (Rt/Rl), where R+ and R- are the cationic and anionic radii respectively; Z+ and Z- are the cationic and anionic charge numbers respectively, and (Rt/Rl) denotes the nonsphericity of some non-spherical ions. Besides, it is found that the difference of the nuclear magnetic resonance measured rotational relaxation time of water molecules around cations and anions, |△τ|, has good correlation with Pitzer's coefficients. The relationships can be interpreted by the theory of corresponding states of ionic solutions. Based on the relationships, an example of application to some hydrometallurgical process was discussed.

  16. A Priori Intrinsic PTM Size Parameters for Predicting the Ion Mobilities of Modified Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszycki, Julia L.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2017-02-01

    The rising profile of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in proteomics has driven the efforts to predict peptide cross-sections. In the simplest approach, these are derived by adding the contributions of all amino acid residues and post-translational modifications (PTMs) defined by their intrinsic size parameters (ISPs). We show that the ISPs for PTMs can be calculated from properties of constituent atoms, and introduce the "impact scores" that govern the shift of cross-sections from the central mass-dependent trend for unmodified peptides. The ISPs and scores tabulated for 100 more common PTMs enable predicting the domains for modified peptides in the IMS/MS space that would guide subproteome investigations.

  17. Dosimetric and kinetic parameters of lithium cadmium borate glasses doped with rare earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anjaiah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL characteristics of X-ray irradiated pure and doped with four different rare earth ions (viz., Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+ and Eu3+ Li2O–Cdo–B2O3 glasses have been studied in the temperature range 303–573 K; the pure glass has exhibited single TL peak at 466 K. When this glass is doped with different rare earth ions no additional peaks are observed but the glow peak temperature of the existing glow peak shifted gradually towards higher temperatures with gain in intensity of TL light output. The area under the glow curve is found to be maximum for Eu3+ doped glasses. The trap depth parameters associated with the observed TL peaks have been evaluated using Chen's formulae. The possible use of these glasses in radiation dosimetry has been described. The result clearly showed that europium doped cadmium borate glass has a potential to be considered as the thermoluminescence dosimeter.

  18. Optimizing the modified microdosimetric kinetic model input parameters for proton and 4He ion beam therapy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Böhlen, T. T.; Molinelli, S.; Ferrari, A.; Parodi, K.; Debus, J.; Haberer, T.

    2017-06-01

    Models able to predict relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are necessary for an accurate determination of the biological effect with proton and 4He ion beams. This is particularly important when including RBE calculations in treatment planning studies comparing biologically optimized proton and 4He ion beam plans. In this work, we have tailored the predictions of the modified microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM), which is clinically applied for carbon ion beam therapy in Japan, to reproduce RBE with proton and 4He ion beams. We have tuned the input parameters of the MKM, i.e. the domain and nucleus radii, reproducing an experimental database of initial RBE data for proton and He ion beams. The modified MKM, with the best fit parameters obtained, has been used to reproduce in vitro cell survival data in clinically-relevant scenarios. A satisfactory agreement has been found for the studied cell lines, A549 and RENCA, with the mean absolute survival variation between the data and predictions within 2% and 5% for proton and 4He ion beams, respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity study has been performed varying the domain and nucleus radii and the quadratic parameter of the photon response curve. The promising agreement found in this work for the studied clinical-like scenarios supports the usage of the modified MKM for treatment planning studies in proton and 4He ion beam therapy.

  19. Theoretical explanation of electron paramagnetic resonance and optical parameters for Cu2+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ravi; P Subramanian

    2007-08-01

    The EPR parameters, anisotropic -factors , and for Cu2+ ion and hyperfine structure constants , and for Cu2+ in LiNbO3 crystal are calculated by the method of diagonalizing the full Hamiltonian matrix. The crystal-field parameters contact with the crystal structure by the aid of the superposition model. The optical transition parameters are calculated using Zhao crystal-field model. The calculated results are in good agreement with the observed values. The results are discussed.

  20. First-principles calculation of crystal field parameters of Dy ions substituted for Nd in Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Moriya, H; Tsuchiura, H; Sakuma, A [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Divis, M [Department of Condensed Matter, Charles University, FMF, Prague (Czech Republic); Novak, P, E-mail: tanaka@olive.apph.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Physics of ASCR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-01

    We study the electronic structures of crystalline Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, Dy{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Dy-doped Nd-Fe-B, and estimate the crystal field parameter A{sup 0}{sub 2}(r{sup 2}) of the rare earth ions of these systems based on the first principles calculations. We find that the crystal field of the Dy ions is appreciably insensitive to its crystallographic location than that of Nd ions.

  1. Ion source parameters and hydrogen scrambling in the ECD of selectively deuterated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Magalie; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Robine, Ophélie

    2014-01-01

    . In the present work, we investigate the occurrence of scrambling in the Apollo I electrospray ion source using ECD of selectively deuterium labeled peptides. The electrospray ion source settings leading to minimal scrambling were identified. Furthermore, an energy dependent loss of deuterium occurring in the ion...

  2. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  3. Effects of ion source operating parameters on direct analysis in real time of 18 active components from traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Qu, Haibin

    2016-03-20

    Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) provides a new analytical method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The present study investigated the effects of key ion source operating parameters on DART-MS analysis of various TCM active components. A total of 18 active components, including phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavones, volatile oils, and glycosides, were examined. For each substance, the peak area and signal-to-noise of its characteristic ions under different reagent gases and heater temperatures were compared. Based on the comparison, the relationships among chemical structures, ion source parameters and instrument responses were revealed. Finally, some suggestions about choosing reagent gas and heater temperature were proposed for types of TCM active substance, which offered a reference for the application of DART-MS on TCM analysis.

  4. Estimation of Total Fusion Reactivity and Contribution from Suprathermal Tail using 3-parameter Dagum Ion Speed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Rudrodip

    2016-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions,with energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, is generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating in the fusion devices. In the current work 3-parameter Dagum speed distribution has been introduced to include the effect of suprathermal ion population in the calculation of total fusion reactivity. The extent of enhancement in the fusion reactivity, at different back-ground temperatures of the fusion fuel plasma, due to the suprathermal ion population has also been discussed.

  5. Ion Adsorption Parameters Determined from Zeta Potential and Titration Data for a y-Alumina Nanofiltration Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lint, de W.B. Samuel; Benes, Nieck E.; Lyklema, Johannes; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Linde, van der Ab J.; Wessling, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical models for the prediction of nanofiltration separation performance as a function of, e.g., pH and electrolyte composition require knowledge on the ion-surface adsorption chemistry. Adsorption parameters have been extracted from electrophoretic mobility measurements on a ceramic y-alumina

  6. Study and optimization of key parameters of a laser ablation ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Li, Jianan; Tang, Binchao; Shi, Yuan; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-11-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), having an advantage in real-time and on-line detection, is an atmospheric pressure detecting technique. LA-IMS (Laser Ablation Ion Mobility Spectrometry) uses Nd-YAG laser as ionization source, whose energy is high enough to ionize metal. In this work, we tested the signal in different electric field intensity by a home-made ion mobility spectrometer, using silicon wafers the sample. The transportation of metal ions was match with the formula: Td = d/K • 1/E, when the electric field intensity is greater than 350v/cm. The relationship between signal intensity and collection angle (the angle between drift tube and the surface of the sample) was studied. With the increasing of the collection angle, signal intensity had a significant increase; while the variation of incident angle of the laser had no significant influence. The signal intensity had a 140% increase when the collection angle varied from 0 to 45 degree, while the angle between the drift tube and incident laser beam keeping the same as 90 degree. The position of ion gate in LA-IMS(Laser Ablation Ion Mobility Spectrometry) is different from the traditional ones for the kinetic energy of the ions is too big, if the distance between ion gate and sampling points less than 2.5cm the ion gate will not work, the ions could go through ion gate when it closed. The SNR had been improved by define the signal when the ion gate is closed as background signal, the signal noise including shock wave and electrical field perturbation produced during the interaction between laser beam and samples is eliminated when the signal that the ion gate opened minus the background signal.

  7. Impact of Various Beam Parameters on Lateral Scattering in Proton and Carbon-ion Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Loushab M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In radiation therapy with ion beams, lateral distributions of absorbed dose in the tissue are important. Heavy ion therapy, such as carbon-ion therapy, is a novel technique of high-precision external radiotherapy which has advantages over proton therapy in terms of dose locality and biological effectiveness. Methods: In this study, we used Monte Carlo method-based Geant4 toolkit to simulate and calculate the effects of energy, shape and type of ion beams incident upon water on multiple scattering processes. Nuclear reactions have been taken into account in our calculation. A verification of this approach by comparing experimental data and Monte Carlo methods will be presented in an upcoming paper. Results: Increasing particle energies, the width of the Bragg curve becomes larger but with increasing mass of particles, the width of the Bragg curve decreases. This is one of the advantages of carbon-ion therapy to treat with proton. The transverse scattering of dose distribution is increased with energy at the end of heavy ion beam range. It can also be seen that the amount of the dose scattering for carbon-ion beam is less than that of proton beam, up to about 160mm depth in water. Conclusion: The distortion of Bragg peak profiles, due to lateral scattering of carbon-ion, is less than proton. Although carbon-ions are primarily scattered less than protons, the corresponding dose distributions, especially the lateral dose, are not much less.

  8. Impact of Various Beam Parameters on Lateral Scattering in Proton and Carbon-ion Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi Loushab, M.; Mowlavi, A.A.; Hadizadeh, M.H.; Izadi, R.; Jia, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In radiation therapy with ion beams, lateral distributions of absorbed dose in the tissue are important. Heavy ion therapy, such as carbon-ion therapy, is a novel technique of high-precision external radiotherapy which has advantages over proton therapy in terms of dose locality and biological effectiveness. Methods In this study, we used Monte Carlo method-based Geant4 toolkit to simulate and calculate the effects of energy, shape and type of ion beams incident upon water on multiple scattering processes. Nuclear reactions have been taken into account in our calculation. A verification of this approach by comparing experimental data and Monte Carlo methods will be presented in an upcoming paper. Results Increasing particle energies, the width of the Bragg curve becomes larger but with increasing mass of particles, the width of the Bragg curve decreases. This is one of the advantages of carbon-ion therapy to treat with proton. The transverse scattering of dose distribution is increased with energy at the end of heavy ion beam range. It can also be seen that the amount of the dose scattering for carbon-ion beam is less than that of proton beam, up to about 160mm depth in water. Conclusion The distortion of Bragg peak profiles, due to lateral scattering of carbon-ion, is less than proton. Although carbon-ions are primarily scattered less than protons, the corresponding dose distributions, especially the lateral dose, are not much less. PMID:26688795

  9. Investigations on Cs-free alternatives for negative ion formation in a low pressure hydrogen discharge at ion source relevant parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-07-01

    Caesium (Cs) is applied in high power negative hydrogen ion sources to reduce a converter surface’s work function and thus enabling an efficient negative ion surface formation. Inherent drawbacks with the usage of this reactive alkali metal motivate the search for Cs-free alternative materials for neutral beam injection systems in fusion research. In view of a future DEMOnstration power plant, a suitable material should provide a high negative ion formation efficiency and comply with the RAMI issues of the system: reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability. Promising candidates, like low work function materials (molybdenum doped with lanthanum (MoLa) and LaB6), as well as different non-doped and boron-doped diamond samples were investigated in this context at identical and ion source relevant parameters at the laboratory experiment HOMER. Negative ion densities were measured above the samples by means of laser photodetachment and compared with two reference cases: pure negative ion volume formation with negative ion densities of about 1× {10}15 {{{m}}}-3 and the effect of H- surface production using an in situ caesiated stainless steel sample which yields 2.5 times higher densities. Compared to pure volume production, none of the diamond samples did exhibit a measurable increase in H- densities, while showing clear indications of plasma-induced erosion. In contrast, both MoLa and LaB6 produced systematically higher densities (MoLa: ×1.60 LaB6: ×1.43). The difference to caesiation can be attributed to the higher work functions of MoLa and LaB6 which are expected to be about 3 eV for both compared to 2.1 eV of a caesiated surface.

  10. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions.

  11. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  12. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...

  13. Optimized treatment parameters to account for interfractional variability in scanned ion beam therapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevet, Romain

    2015-02-04

    Scanned ion beam therapy of lung tumors is severely limited in its clinical applicability by intrafractional organ motion, interference effects between beam and tumor motion (interplay) as well as interfractional anatomic changes. To compensate for dose deterioration by intrafractional motion, motion mitigation techniques, such as gating have been developed. The latter confines the irradiation to a predetermined breathing state, usually the stable end-exhale phase. However, optimization of the treatment parameters is needed to further improve target dose coverage and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the study presented in this dissertation was to determine treatment planning parameters that permit to recover good target coverage and homogeneity during a full course of lung tumor treatments. For 9 lung tumor patients from MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), a total of 70 weekly time-resolved computed tomography (4DCT) datasets were available, which depict the evolution of the patient anatomy over the several fractions of the treatment. Using the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP4D, 4D simulations were performed on each weekly 4DCT for each patient using gating and optimization of a single treatment plan based on a planning CT acquired prior to treatment. It was found that using a large beam spot size, a short gating window (GW), additional margins and multiple fields permitted to obtain the best results, yielding an average target coverage (V95) of 96.5%. Two motion mitigation techniques, one approximating the rescanning process (multiple irradiations of the target with a fraction of the planned dose) and one combining the latter and gating, were then compared to gating. Both did neither show an improvement in target dose coverage nor in normal tissue sparing. Finally, the total dose delivered to each patient in a simulation of a fractioned treatment was calculated and clinical requirements in terms of target coverage and normal tissue sparing were

  14. Ion beam sputtering of Ti: Influence of process parameters on angular and energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, T.; Feder, R.; Neumann, H.; Rice, C.; Schubert, M.; Bundesmann, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E-n, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson's theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to simulations done with the Monte Carlo code SDTrimSP. Both confirm in principle the experimental findings.

  15. Impact of tissue specific parameters on the predition of the biological effectiveness for treatment planning in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, Rebecca Antonia

    2014-06-03

    Treatment planning in ion beam therapy requires a reliable estimation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the irradiated tissue. For the pilot project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH and at other European ion beam therapy centers RBE prediction is based on a biophysical model, the Local Effect Model (LEM). The model version in use, LEM I, is optimized to give a reliable estimation of RBE in the target volume for carbon ion irradiation. However, systematic deviations are observed for the entrance channel of carbon ions and in general for lighter ions. Thus, the LEM has been continuously developed to improve accuracy. The recent version LEM IV has proven to better describe in-vitro cell experiments. Thus, for the clinical application of LEM IV it is of interest to analyze potential differences compared to LEM I under treatment-like conditions. The systematic analysis presented in this work is aiming at the comparison of RBE-weighted doses resulting from different approaches and model versions for protons and carbon ions. This will facilitate the assessment of consequences for clinical application and the interpretation of clinical results from different institutions. In the course of this thesis it has been shown that the RBE-weighted doses predicted on the basis of LEM IV for typical situations representing chordoma treatments differ on average by less than 10 % to those based on LEM I and thus also allow a consistent interpretation of the clinical results. At Japanese ion beam therapy centers the RBE is estimated using their clinical experience from neutron therapy in combination with in-vitro measurements for carbon ions (HIMAC approach). The methods presented in this work allow direct comparison of the HIMAC approach and the LEM and thus of the clinical results obtained at Japanese and European ion beam therapy centers. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the RBE on the model parameters was evaluated. Among all parameters the

  16. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  17. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou0388@hotmail.com [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kai-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  18. Evolution of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) parameters in the cusp region related to ion upflow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Lühr, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigate the relationships of various IT parameters with the intensity of vertical ion flow. Our study area is the ionospheric cusp region in the northern hemisphere. The approach uses superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method, centered alternately on peaks of the three different variables: neutral density enhancement, vertical plasma flow, and electron temperature. Further parameters included are large-scale field-aligned currents (LSFACs) and thermospheric zonal wind velocity profiles over magnetic latitude (MLat), which are centered at the event time and location. The dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component orientation and the local (Lloyd) season is of particular interest. Our investigations are based on CHAMP and DMSP (F13 and F15) satellite observations and the OMNI online database collected during the years 2002-2007. The three Lloyd seasons of 130 days each are defined as follows: local winter (1 January ± 65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April and 1 October ± 32 days), and local summer (1 July ± 65 days). A period of 130 days corresponds to the time needed by CHAMP to sample all local times. The SEA MLat profiles with respect to neutral density enhancement and vertical plasma flow peaks show no significant but only slight (decreasing towards local summer) seasonal variations for both IMF By orientations. The latitude profiles of median LSFACs show a clear dependence on the IMF By orientation. As expected, the maximum and minimum values of LSFAC amplitudes are increasing towards local summer for both IMF By signs. With respect to zero epoch latitude, FAC peaks appear equatorward (negative MLat) related to Region 1 (R1) and poleward (positive MLat) to Region 0 (R0) FACs. However, there is an imbalance between the amplitudes of LSFACs, depending on the current latitude. R1 currents are systematically stronger than R0 FACs. A somewhat different distribution of density enhancements and large-scale FACs emerges when

  19. Improving the laser damage resistance of oxide thin films and multilayers via tailoring ion beam sputtering parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosar, M.B. [Aselsan Inc. Microelectronics, Guidance and Electro-Optics Division, Cankırı Yolu 7. Km, 06750 Akyurt, Ankara (Turkey); Middle East Technical University, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Universiteler Mah. Dumlupınar Blv. No: 1, 06800 Cankaya, Ankara (Turkey); Ozhan, A.E.S. [Aselsan Inc. Microelectronics, Guidance and Electro-Optics Division, Cankırı Yolu 7. Km, 06750 Akyurt, Ankara (Turkey); Atılım University, Graduate School of Natural & Applied Sciences, Kızılcasar Mah., 06836 Incek, 06836 Golbası, Ankara (Turkey); Aydogdu, G.H., E-mail: gkuru@aselsan.com.tr [Aselsan Inc. Microelectronics, Guidance and Electro-Optics Division, Cankırı Yolu 7. Km, 06750 Akyurt, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen amount during deposition supports to laser performance. • Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films prepared without 12-cm ion source results in lower damage resistance. • We report 15.9 J/cm{sup 2} LIDT value of multilayer application. • This paper presents a novel approach to prepare oxide films without post treatment by tailoring only ion beam deposition parameters that directly influence their laser damage resistance performance. - Abstract: Ion beam sputtering is one of the widely used methods for manufacturing laser optical components due to its advantages such as uniformity, reproducibility, suitability for multilayer coatings and growth of dielectric materials with high packing densities. In this study, single Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} heterostructures were deposited on optical quality glass substrates by dual ion beam sputtering. We focused on the effect of deposition conditions like substrate cleaning, assistance by 12 cm diameter ion beam source and oxygen partial pressure on the laser-induced damage threshold of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} single layers. Afterwards, the obtained information is employed to a sample design and produces a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer structure demonstrating low laser-induced damage without a post treatment procedure.

  20. Effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, M.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on the electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas is studied by particle in cell method. Phase space diagrams show that the size of the holes, and consequently, the number of trapped particles strongly depends on the q-parameter and saturation time. Furthermore, the mechanism of the instability and exchange of energy between electron-positron and electric field is explained by the profiles of the energy density. Moreover, it is found that the q-parameter, saturation time, and electron and positron velocities affect the nonlinear evolution of the electron density which leads to the steepening of its structure. The q-nonextensive parameter or degree of nonextensivity is the relation between temperature gradient and potential energy of the system. Therefore, the deviation of q-parameter from unity indicates the degree of inhomogeneity of temperature or deviation from equilibrium. Finally, using the kinetic theory, a generalized q-dispersion relation is presented for electron-positron-ion plasma systems. It is found that the simulation results in the linear regime are in good agreement with the growth rate results obtained by the kinetic theory.

  1. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... spectroscopy method can be still improved in terms of e.g. accuracy and measurement time and it has a potential to be extended to new applications. Performed review indicates that the electrothermal impedance spectroscopy is a very promising, non-destructive, simple and especially cost-efficient method...

  2. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H{sup −} formation at ion source relevant parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with

  3. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    Katz’s theory of cellular track structure (1) is an amorphous analytical model which applies a set of four cellular parameters representing survival of a given cell line after ion irradiation. Usually the values of these parameters are best fitted to a full set of experimentally measured survival...... curves available for a variety of ions. Once fitted, using these parameter values and the analytical formulae of the model calculations, cellular survival curves and RBE may be predicted for that cell line after irradiation by any ion, including mixed ion fields. While it is known that the Katz model...... of the proton response. This suggests that for increased accuracy of a therapy planning system based on Katz’s model, different sets of parameters may need to be used to represent cell survival after proton irradiation from those representing survival of this cell line after heavier ions, up to and including...

  4. Measurements of atomic parameters of highly charged ions for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Utter, S.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Boyce, K.R.; Gendreau, K.C.; Kelley, R.; Porter, F.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Gu, M.F.; Kahn, S.M.; Savin, D.W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Gygax, J. [Swales and Associates, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectra obtained by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission put new demands on atomic data including line positions, excitation cross sections, and radiative rates of cosmically-abundant highly-charged ions. To address this need, we are performing measurements of the line emission from ions of cosmically abundant elements. The data are obtained at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and focus on cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, and resonance excitation as well as atomic structure measurements. We find that ratios of the electron-impact excitation cross sections of singlet and triplet levels are systematically different from the calculated values in the case of many highly charged ions. This, for example, has a profound impact on inferring optical depths from solar and stellar atmospheres. Moreover, new line identifications are presented that resolve some long-standing puzzles in the interpretation of solar data, and the importance of resonance contributions to the spectral emission is assessed. (orig.)

  5. Computing excess functions of ionic solutions: the smaller-ion shell model versus the primitive model. 2. Ion-size parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2015-01-13

    A recent Monte Carlo (MC) simulation study of the primitive model (PM) of ionic solutions ( Abbas, Z. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009 , 113 , 5905 ) has resulted in an extensive "mapping" of real aqueous solutions of 1-1, 2-1, and 3-1 binary electrolytes and a list of "recommended ionic radii" for many ions. For the smaller cations, the model-experiment fitting process gave much larger radii than the respective crystallographic radii, and those cations were therefore claimed to be hydrated. In Part 1 (DOI 10.1021/ct5006938 ) of the present work, the above study for the unrestricted PM - dubbed MC-UPM - has been confronted with the Smaller-ion Shell (SiS) treatment ( Fraenkel, D. Mol. Phys. 2010 , 108 , 1435 ), or "DH-SiS", by comparing the range and quality of model-experiment fits of the mean ionic activity coefficient as a function of ionic concentration. Here I compare the ion-size parameters (ISPs) of "best fit" of the two models and argue that since ISPs derived from DH-SiS are identical with (or close to) crystallographic or thermochemical ionic diameters for both cations and anions, and they do not depend on the counterion - they are more reliable, as physicochemical entities, than the PM-derived "recommended ionic radii".

  6. Studies of the optical spectra and spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the trivalent ytterbium ions in lithium yttrium fluoride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W. L.; Han, Z.; Zhong, Y. C.

    In this paper, the crystal field (CF) levels and spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters (g factors g∥ and g⊥ and hyperfine structure constants A∥ and A⊥) of the rare-earth ion Yb3+ in lithium yttrium fluoride crystals are calculated under D2d point symmetry assumption. Two main methods are used in the calculation to study the SH parameters: one is the perturbation theory method and the other is the complete diagonalization (energy matrix) method (CDM). Comparing the calculated results with the experimental data, we can see that the CDM is more effective to calculate the SH parameters. In addition, the CF J-mixing of all excited-state multiplets into the ground-state multiplet 2F7/2 is considered. The validity of the calculated results is discussed.

  7. Use of natural clays as sorbent materials for rare earth ions: Materials characterization and set up of the operative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Pelosato, Renato; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Lacalamita, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Two mineral clays of the montmorillonite group were tested as sorbents for the removal of Rare Earths (REs) from liquid solutions. Lanthanum and neodymium model solutions were used to perform uptake tests in order to: (a) verify the clays sorption capability, (b) investigate the sorption mechanisms and (c) optimize the experimental parameters, such as contact time and pH. The desorption was also studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of REs recovery from waters. The adsorption-desorption procedure with the optimized parameters was also tested on a leaching solution obtained by dissolution of a dismantled NdFeB magnet of a hard-disk. The clays were fully characterized after REs adsorption and desorption by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the liquid phase was characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses. The experimental results show that both clays are able to capture and release La and Nd ions, with an ion exchange mechanism. The best total efficiency (capture ≈ 50%, release ≈ 70%) is obtained when the uptake and release processes are performed at pH=5 and pH=1 respectively; in real leached scrap solutions, the uptake is around 40% but release efficiency is strongly decreased passing from a mono-ion system to a real system (from 80% to 5%). Furthermore, a strong matrix effect is found, with the matrix largely affecting both the uptake and the release of neodymium.

  8. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  9. Cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner - Distribution functions and bulk parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.

  10. Multi-Scale Parameter Identification of Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Models Using a PSO-LM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-scale parameter identification algorithm for the lithium-ion battery (LIB electric model by using a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithms. Two-dimensional Poisson equations with unknown parameters are used to describe the potential and current density distribution (PDD of the positive and negative electrodes in the LIB electric model. The model parameters are difficult to determine in the simulation due to the nonlinear complexity of the model. In the proposed identification algorithm, PSO is used for the coarse-scale parameter identification and the LM algorithm is applied for the fine-scale parameter identification. The experiment results show that the multi-scale identification not only improves the convergence rate and effectively escapes from the stagnation of PSO, but also overcomes the local minimum entrapment drawback of the LM algorithm. The terminal voltage curves from the PDD model with the identified parameter values are in good agreement with those from the experiments at different discharge/charge rates.

  11. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  12. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  13. The accuracy of determining ion parameters by means of a cylindrical Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, K. Ia.; Kirov, B. B.; Kraleva, L. Kh.

    A method is presented whereby a cylindrical Langmuir probe can be used to obtain an estimate of the concentration distribution of two prevalent kinds of ions in space plasmas when their masses are known. In many cases, the use of a Langmuir probe can thus compensate for the absence of a mass spectrometer. The probe can also be used as a backup if the data obtained by other instruments are not dependable.

  14. Theoretical investigation of the optical and EPR parameters for VO{sup 2+}ion in some complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfaoglu, Emel [OndokuzMay Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I s University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey); Karabulut, Buenyamin, E-mail: bbulut@omu.edu.tr [OndokuzMay Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I s University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    The molecular orbital coefficients and the EPR parameters of trisodium citrate dihydrate, sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate, potassium d-gluconate monohydrate and L-Alanine vanadyl complexes are calculated theoretically. Two d-d transition spectra and EPR parameters for the VO{sup 2+} complex are calculated theoretically by using crystal-field theory. The calculated g and A paramaters have indicated that paramagnetic center is axially symmetric. Having the relations of g{sub Parallel-To } Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket g{sub Up-Tack } Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket g{sub e} and A{sub Parallel-To } Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket A{sub Up-Tack} for VO{sup 2+} ions, it can be concluded that VO{sup 2+} ions are located in distorted octahedral sites (C{sub 4v}) elongated along the z-axis and the ground state of the paramagnetic electron is d{sub xy}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EPR parameters and molecular orbital coefficients are calculated theoretically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The g and A values of all complexes are found to be nearly axially symmetric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ground state of the paramagnetic electron is d{sub xy.}.

  15. Mass dependence of critical parameter and multiplicity of intermediatemass fragments in heavy ion reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mass dependence of critical parameters for the liquid-gas phase transition andmultiplicity of intermediate mass fragment in the heavyion reaction is qualitatively explored under the frameworkof lattice gas model. Some results are compared with experimental data.

  16. Data pieces-based parameter identification for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zou, Yuan; Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Yu, Yang; Feng, Sen

    2016-10-01

    Battery characteristics vary with temperature and aging, it is necessary to identify battery parameters periodically for electric vehicles to ensure reliable State-of-Charge (SoC) estimation, battery equalization and safe operation. Aiming for on-board applications, this paper proposes a data pieces-based parameter identification (DPPI) method to identify comprehensive battery parameters including capacity, OCV (open circuit voltage)-Ah relationship and impedance-Ah relationship simultaneously only based on battery operation data. First a vehicle field test was conducted and battery operation data was recorded, then the DPPI method is elaborated based on vehicle test data, parameters of all 97 cells of the battery package are identified and compared. To evaluate the adaptability of the proposed DPPI method, it is used to identify battery parameters of different aging levels and different temperatures based on battery aging experiment data. Then a concept of "OCV-Ah aging database" is proposed, based on which battery capacity can be identified even though the battery was never fully charged or discharged. Finally, to further examine the effectiveness of the identified battery parameters, they are used to perform SoC estimation for the test vehicle with adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF). The result shows good accuracy and reliability.

  17. KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM PARAMETERS OF BIOSORPTION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF LEAD IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY TRICHODERMA LONGIBRACHIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enitan S. Balogun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption and bioaccumulation of Lead ions (Pb(II by Trichoderma longibrachiatum were investigated in a batch system. The effects of some important parameters such as pH, initial metal concentration, temperature and inoculum concerntration on biosorption capacity were also studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum was at 25 ppm of lead, showed 100 % removal at pH 7 and 25 oC after fifteen days. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 150 minutes. The process fitted well into pseudo second order kinetic model and was best explained by Langmuir isotherm.

  18. Combined Yamamoto approach for simultaneous estimation of adsorption isotherm and kinetic parameters in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdt, Matthias; Gillet, Florian; Heege, Stefanie; Hitzler, Julian; Kalbfuss, Bernd; Guélat, Bertrand

    2015-09-25

    Application of model-based design is appealing to support the development of protein chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the required efforts for parameter estimation are frequently perceived as time-consuming and expensive. In order to speed-up this work, a new parameter estimation approach for modelling ion-exchange chromatography in linear conditions was developed. It aims at reducing the time and protein demand for the model calibration. The method combines the estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters based on the simultaneous variation of the gradient slope and the residence time in a set of five linear gradient elutions. The parameters are estimated from a Yamamoto plot and a gradient-adjusted Van Deemter plot. The combined approach increases the information extracted per experiment compared to the individual methods. As a proof of concept, the combined approach was successfully applied for a monoclonal antibody on a cation-exchanger and for a Fc-fusion protein on an anion-exchange resin. The individual parameter estimations for the mAb confirmed that the new approach maintained the accuracy of the usual Yamamoto and Van Deemter plots. In the second case, offline size-exclusion chromatography was performed in order to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of an impurity (high molecular weight species) simultaneously with the main product. Finally, the parameters obtained from the combined approach were used in a lumped kinetic model to simulate the chromatography runs. The simulated chromatograms obtained for a wide range of gradient lengths and residence times showed only small deviations compared to the experimental data.

  19. Variation in ion leakage parameters of two wheat genotypes with different Rht-B1 alleles in response to drought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Konstantina V Kocheva; Svetlana P Landjeva; Georgi I Georgiev

    2014-12-01

    The reaction to soil drying was evaluated in two Triticum aestivum near-isogenic lines carrying different alleles of the height-reducing gene Rht-B1 based on an improved method for assessment of electrolyte leakage. The two lines were previously shown to differ in their physiological responses to induced water deficit stress. Drought was imposed for 6 days on 10-day-old seedlings. Ion efflux from leaves was measured conductometrically in multiple time points during the 24 h incubation period, and the obtained biphasic kinetics was interpreted according to a previously developed theoretical model proposing different leakage rates through the apoplast and the symplast. Most of the model parameters were able to properly differentiate the two closely related genotypes. The mutant Rht-B1c displayed lower and slower electrolyte leakage in comparison with the wild-type Rht-B1a. It was speculated that the Rht genes expressing defective DELLA proteins might be involved in water stress response through modulation of cell wall stiffness, which influences its capacity for ions retention, and also by their contribution to ROS detoxification, thus indirectly stabilizing cellular membranes. The presented analytical approach relating processes of ion and water flow in and out of the cell could be used for characterization of membrane and cell wall properties of different genotypes under normal and stress conditions.

  20. Rapid implementation of the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model facilitating online adaption of radiosensitivity parameters in ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, F.; Carlson, D. J.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Treatment planning for ion therapy must account for physical properties of the beam as well as differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions compared to photons. In this work, we present a fast RBE calculation approach, based on the decoupling of physical properties and the αx / βx ratio commonly used to describe the radiosensitivity of irradiated cells or organs. Material and methods: In the framework of the mechanistic repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model, the biological modeling can be decoupled from the physical dose. This was implemented into a research treatment planning system for carbon ion therapy. Results: The presented implementation of the RMF model is very fast, allowing online changes of αx / βx . For example, a change of αx / βx including a complete biological modeling and a recalculation of RBE for 2.9\\cdot 105 voxel takes 4 ms on a 4 CPU, 3.2 GHz workstation. Discussion and conclusion: The derived decoupling within the RMF model allows fast changes in αx / βx , facilitating online adaption by the user. This provides new options for radiation oncologists, facilitating online variations of the radiobiological input parameters during the treatment plan evaluation process as well as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  1. A novel method for identification of lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit model parameters considering electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jinling; Yuan, Shifei; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel parameter identification method for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) considering the electrochemical properties. An improved pseudo two-dimension (P2D) model is established on basis of partial differential equations (PDEs), since the electrolyte potential is simplified from the nonlinear to linear expression while terminal voltage can be divided into the electrolyte potential, open circuit voltage (OCV), overpotential of electrodes, internal resistance drop, and so on. The model order reduction process is implemented by the simplification of the PDEs using the Laplace transform, inverse Laplace transform, Pade approximation, etc. A unified second order transfer function between cell voltage and current is obtained for the comparability with that of ECM. The final objective is to obtain the relationship between the ECM resistances/capacitances and electrochemical parameters such that in various conditions, ECM precision could be improved regarding integration of battery interior properties for further applications, e.g., SOC estimation. Finally simulation and experimental results prove the correctness and validity of the proposed methodology.

  2. Transport Parameters For Positive IONS In Pure H2O DC Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Zoran; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Jovanovic, Jasmina; Maric, Dragana

    2016-09-01

    Transport properties of positive ions originating from H2O (H2O+, OH+) in DC fields and at the room temperature were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Initially, the relevant cross section sets were assessed by using Denpoh-Nanbu theory for resolving between elastic and reactive collision events and then resolving contribution of exothermic processes from available experimental data. Newest experimentally or theoretically determined cross sections were compiled and included wherever possible. We present transport coefficients for low and moderate reduced electric fields E / N (N-gas density) accounting for non-conservative processes. Acknowledgment to Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Republic Serbia, Projects No. 171037 and 410011.

  3. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Plasma Parameters in the Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Schulz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities (GOES and Polar/MFE) and ion densities (LANL/MPA and Polar/CAMMICE) to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 11 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a constant magnetopause location. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times agree fairly well with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O’Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) and on the Polar satellite. Agreement between the simulated and observed magnetic intensities tends to agree better on the nightside than on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. In particular, the model cannot account for observed drops in the dayside magnetic intensity during decreases in the solar wind pressure. We will modify the RCM-E to include a time-varying magnetopause location to simulate compressions and expansions associated with variations in the solar wind pressure. We investigate whether this will lead to improved agreement between the simulated and model magnetic intensities.

  4. Model parameter estimation approach based on incremental analysis for lithium-ion batteries without using open circuit voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Yuan, Shifei; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Chengliang; Ma, Xuerui

    2015-08-01

    To improve the suitability of lithium-ion battery model under varying scenarios, such as fluctuating temperature and SoC variation, dynamic model with parameters updated realtime should be developed. In this paper, an incremental analysis-based auto regressive exogenous (I-ARX) modeling method is proposed to eliminate the modeling error caused by the OCV effect and improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Then, its numerical stability, modeling error, and parametric sensitivity are analyzed at different sampling rates (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 s). To identify the model parameters recursively, a bias-correction recursive least squares (CRLS) algorithm is applied. Finally, the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) and urban dynamic driving sequences (UDDSs) profiles are performed to verify the realtime performance and robustness of the newly proposed model and algorithm. Different sampling rates (1 Hz and 10 Hz) and multiple temperature points (5, 25, and 45 °C) are covered in our experiments. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the proposed I-ARX model can present high accuracy and suitability for parameter identification without using open circuit voltage.

  5. Speciation of phytate ion in aqueous solution Thermodynamic parameters for protonation in NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    Phytate protonation enthalpies and entropies were determined by direct calorimetric titrations, in sodium chloride aqueous media at different ionic strengths (0.1{<=}I/mol L{sup -1}{<=}1) and at t=25 deg. C. Only the first seven protonation steps were taken into account, since the remaining five protons of phytic acid could be considered as 'strongly acidic' (log K{sub i}{sup H}{<=}1, 8{<=}i{<=}12). The analysis of results evidenced slight variations among enthalpy and entropy values, for the same protonation step (i), at different ionic strengths. T{delta}S{sub i} values for each protonation step are significantly higher than the corresponding enthalpy changes, revealing the entropic nature of the bond involved in phytate protonation. The enthalpy changes for phytate protonation generally increase for each protonation step, as typical for phosphate ligands. Dependence on ionic strength for both log K{sub i}{sup H} and {delta}H{sub i} was taken into account by Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT). Useful predictive relationships for the dependence of T{delta}S on {delta}G and on protonation step 'i' were proposed.

  6. Radiative parameters of Eu{sup 3+} ions in CdSe nanocrystal containing silica matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Gijo [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India); Thomas, Vinoy [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India); Fernandez, Toney T. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India); Adiyodi, Amrutha K. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India); Joseph, Cyriac [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India); Ittyachen, M.A. [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 22 (India); Unnikrishnan, N.V. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam-686 560 (India)]. E-mail: nvu50@yahoo.co.in

    2005-03-15

    Optical absorption and emission spectra of Eu{sup 3+}/CdSe nanocrystallites and Eu{sup 3+} in sol-gel silica glass samples are being carried out. From the measured intensities of various absorption bands and applying thermal correction, the three Judd-Ofelt parameters {omega}{sub 2},{omega}{sub 4} and {omega}{sub 6} are evaluated for these glasses. From this theory, various radiative properties like transition probability A, branching ratio {beta}, the radiative lifetime {tau}{sub R}, absorption cross-section {sigma}{sub a} and the emission cross-section {sigma}{sup E} for various levels of these glasses are determined.

  7. Influence of the nonlinearity parameter on the solar-wind sub-ion magnetic energy spectrum: FLR-Landau fluid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sulem, P L; Laveder, D; Borgogno, D

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs) at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind is numerically simulated using a fluid approach that retains ion and electron Landau damping, together with ion finite Larmor radius corrections. Assuming initially equal and isotropic ion and electron temperatures, and an ion beta equal to unity, different simulations are performed by varying the propagation direction and the amplitude of KAWs that are randomly driven at a transverse scale of about one fifth of the proton gyroradius in order to maintain a prescribed level of turbulent fluctuations. The resulting turbulent regimes are characterized by the nonlinearity parameter, defined as the ratio of the characteristic times of Alfv\\'en wave propagation and of the transverse nonlinear dynamics. The corresponding transverse magnetic energy spectra display power laws with exponents spanning a range of values consistent with spacecraft observations. The meandering of the magnetic field lines together with the ion temperature h...

  8. Prediction of equilibrium parameters of adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Taylan; Ardalı, Yüksel; Gamze Turan, N.

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are one of the most important environmental issues to be solved today. Due to their toxicity and nonbiodegradable nature, heavy metals cause environmental and public health problems. Various techniques have been developed to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. These include chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion Exchange and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is considered to be a particularly competitive and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. There is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. Diatomite is a siliceous sedimentary rock having an amorphous form of silica (SiO2. nH2O) containing a small amount of microcrystalline material. It has unique combination of physical and chemical properties such as high porosity, high permeability, small particle size, large surface area, and low thermal conductivity. In addition, it is available in Turkey and in various locations around the world. Therefore, diatomite has been successfully used as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption properties of diatomite. The equilibrium adsorption data were applied to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) isotherm models. Adsorption experiments were performed under batch process, using Pb (II) initial concentration, pH of solution and contact time as variables. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb (II) was strongly dependent on pH of solution. The effect of pH on adsorption of Pb(II) on diatomite was conducted by varying pH from 2 to 12 at 20 oC. In the pH range of 2.0-4.0, the adsorption percentage increases slightly as the pH increasing. At pH>4, the adsorption percentage decreases with increasing pH because hydrolysis product and the precipitation begin to play an important role in the sorption of Pb (II). At pH4, the maximum adsorption

  9. $S_{e}$ -scaling of lattice parameter change in high ion-velocity region ($v\\geq 2.6 x 10^{9} cm/s$) in ion-irradiated EuBa$_{2}$ Cu$ _{3}$ O$_{y}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, N; Chimi, Y; Michikami, O; Wakana, H; Hashimoto, T; Kambara, T; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Swift heavy ions ( sup 3 sup 5 Cl- sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) with wide energy range of 80 MeV-3.84 GeV have been irradiated to EuBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub y oxide superconductor films, and the lattice parameter change due to electronic excitation has been measured. In the high ion-velocity region (v>=2.6x10 sup 9 cm/s), the change in crystallographic c-axis lattice parameter per unit ion-fluence varies as the 4th power of S sub e. However, in the low ion-velocity region (v<=1.7x10 sup 9 cm/s), the deviation from the 4th power dependence is observed. The S sub e scaling in the high ion-velocity region cannot be explained by the thermal spike model that is based on a radial distribution of energy deposition by secondary electrons. The change in c-axis lattice parameter per unit ion-fluence varies as the 4th power of the primary-ionization rate, dJ/dx, in the whole ion-velocity region. The result supports that the Coulomb explosion triggers the atomic displacements.

  10. SU-E-T-778: Use of the 2D MatriXX Detector for Measuring Scanned Ion Beam Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, M Varasteh; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Guarachi, L Fanola; Cirio, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Division of Turin, TO (Italy); University of Torino, Turin, TO (Italy); Giordanengo, S; Marchetto, F; Vignati, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Division of Turin, TO (Italy); Donetti, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Division of Turin, TO (Italy); Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), Pavia, PV (Italy); Ciocca, M; Panizza, D [Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), Pavia, PV (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The quality assurance (QA) procedure has to check the most relevant beam parameters to ensure the delivery of the correct dose to patients. Film dosimetry, which is commonly used for scanned ion beam QA, does not provide immediate results. The purpose of this work is to answer whether, for scanned ion beam therapy, film dosimetry can be replaced with the 2D MatriXX detector as a real-time tool. Methods: MatriXX, equipped with 32×32 parallel plate ion-chambers, is a commercial device intended for pre-treatment verification of conventional radiation therapy.The MatriXX, placed at the isocenter, and GAFCHROMIC films, positioned on the MatriXX entrance, were exposed to 131.44 MeV proton and 221.45 MeV/u Carbon-ion beams.The OmniPro-I’mRT software, applied for the data taking of MatriXX, gives the possibility of acquiring consecutive snapshots. Using the NI LabVIEW, the data from snapshots were logged as text files for further analysis. Radiochromic films were scanned with EPSON scanner and analyzed using software programs developed in-house for comparative purposes. Results: The field dose uniformity, flatness, beam position and beam width were investigated. The field flatness for the region covering 6×6 cm{sup 2} square field was found to be better than 2%. The relative standard deviations, expected to be constant over 2×2, 4×4 and 6×6 pixels from MatriXX measurement gives a uniformity of 1.5% in good agreement with the film results.The beam center position is determined with a resolution better than 200 µm for Carbon and less than 100 µm for proton beam.The FWHM determination for a beam wider than 10 mm is satisfactory, whilst for smaller beams the determination is uncertain. Conclusion: Precise beam position and fast 2D dose distribution can be determined in real-time using MatriXX detector. The results show that MatriXX is quick and accurate enough to be used in charged-particle therapy QA.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of the Thermal Runaway Behavior of Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells—Computing of Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Melcher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of Li-ion cells is an important safety issue and has to be known under varying thermal conditions. The main objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the temperature increase within the cell considering different heat sources under specified working conditions. With respect to the governing physical parameters, the major aim is to find out under which thermal conditions a so called Thermal Runaway occurs. Therefore, a mathematical electrochemical-thermal model based on the Newman model has been extended with a simple combustion model from reaction kinetics including various types of heat sources assumed to be based on an Arrhenius law. This model was realized in COMSOL Multiphysics modeling software. First simulations were performed for a cylindrical 18650 cell with a L i C o O 2 -cathode to calculate the temperature increase under two simple electric load profiles and to compute critical system parameters. It has been found that the critical cell temperature T crit , above which a thermal runaway may occur is approximately 400 K , which is near the starting temperature of the decomposition of the Solid-Electrolyte-Interface in the anode at 393 . 15 K . Furthermore, it has been found that a thermal runaway can be described in three main stages.

  12. Irradiation effects on c-axis lattice parameter in EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} irradiated with energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Norito; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Akihiro; Maeta, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tsuru, Koji; Michikami, Osamu

    1997-03-01

    We report an irradiation effect on c-axis lattice parameter in EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} oxide superconductors when irradiated with ions of energy ranging from 0.85 to 200 MeV. For the irradiation with low energy (0.85-2 MeV) ions, the defect production and the resultant c-axis lattice expansion were dominated by elastic collisions. On the other hand, for the irradiation with high energy (120-200 MeV) ions, the change in the c-axis lattice parameter was found to be much greater than that expected from the elastic displacement of target atoms. For high energy ion irradiation we could observe the excessive increase of c-axis lattice parameter reflecting additional production of defects which can be attributed to the electronic excitation. The large increase in c-axis lattice parameter due to high energy ion irradiation should be taken into account for the study on the interaction between vortices and irradiation-induced defects. (author)

  13. Impact parameter and beam energy dependence for azimuthal asymmetry of direct photons and free protons in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-Hua; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; FANG De-Qing; SHEN Wen-Qing; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Kun

    2009-01-01

    Hard photon emitted from energetic heavy ion collisions is of very interesting since it does not experience the late-stage nuclear interaction, therefore it is useful to explore the early-stage information of matter phase. In this work, we have calculated the impact parameter and beam energy dependence for azimuthal asymmetry, characterized by directed transverse flow parameter F and elliptic asymmetry coefficient v2, of direct photons and the corresponding free protons in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. It is further shown the anti-correlated azimuthal asymmetry between direct photons and free protons.

  14. Investigation of the Working Parameters of a Single Magnetron of a Multiple Ion Cluster Source: Determination of the Relative Influence of the Parameters on the Size and Density of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Ion Cluster Source (MICS is the new optimized route of a standard technique based on a sputtering gas aggregation source, the Ion Cluster Source. The single magnetron used in the standard Ion Cluster Source is replaced by three magnetrons inside the aggregation zone, and they are controlled individually in order to fabricate nanoparticles with the desired and tunable chemical composition. Apart from the working parameters of each magnetron, it is also reported that the relation between the working parameters of individual magnetrons is of prime importance for the control of both the size and density of the nanoparticles. The influences of fluxes of the sputtering gas applied to each magnetron, the total gas flux in the aggregation zone, the position in the aggregation zone of Ag magnetron, and the relative position of the magnetrons in the aggregation zone have been studied through the operation of one of the magnetrons loaded with a silver target.

  15. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  16. Adaptive approach for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Robust algorithms using reduced order equivalent circuit model (ECM) for an accurate and reliable estimation of battery states in various applications become more popular. In this study, a novel adaptive, self-learning heuristic algorithm for on-board impedance parameters and voltage estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles is introduced. The presented approach is verified using LIBs with different composition of chemistries (NMC/C, NMC/LTO, LFP/C) at different aging states. An impedance-based reduced order ECM incorporating ohmic resistance and a combination of a constant phase element and a resistance (so-called ZARC-element) is employed. Existing algorithms in vehicles are much more limited in the complexity of the ECMs. The algorithm is validated using seven day real vehicle data with high temperature variation including very low temperatures (from -20 °C to +30 °C) at different Depth-of-Discharges (DoDs). Two possibilities to approximate both ZARC-elements with finite number of RC-elements on-board are shown and the results of the voltage estimation are compared. Moreover, the current dependence of the charge-transfer resistance is considered by employing Butler-Volmer equation. Achieved results indicate that both models yield almost the same grade of accuracy.

  17. Investigation of effective impact parameters in electron-ion temperature relaxation via Particle-Particle Coulombic molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjian

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at a high simulation accuracy, a Particle-Particle (PP) Coulombic molecular dynamics model is implemented to study the electron-ion temperature relaxation. In this model, the Coulomb's law is directly applied in a bounded system with two cutoffs at both short and long length scales. By increasing the range between the two cutoffs, it is found that the relaxation rate deviates from the BPS theory and approaches the LS theory and the GMS theory. Also, the effective minimum and maximum impact parameters (bmin* and bmax*) are obtained. For the simulated plasma condition, bmin* is about 6.352 times smaller than the Landau length (bC), and bmax* is about 2 times larger than the Debye length (λD), where bC and λD are used in the LS theory. Surprisingly, the effective relaxation time obtained from the PP model is very close to the LS theory and the GMS theory, even though the effective Coulomb logarithm is two times greater than the one used in the LS theory. Besides, this work shows that the PP model (commonly known as computationally expensive) is becoming practicable via GPU parallel computing techniques.

  18. New force field parameters for metalloproteins I: Divalent copper ion centers including three histidine residues and an oxygen-ligated amino acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Olivia; Coskuner, Orkid

    2014-06-30

    Transition metal ion complexation with proteins is ubiquitous across such diverse fields as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this study, the structures of divalent copper ion centers including three histidine and one oxygen-ligated amino acid residues and the relative binding affinities of the oxygen-ligated amino acid residues with these metal ion centers, which are debated in the literature, are presented. Furthermore, new force field parameters, which are currently lacking for the full-length metal-ligand moieties, are developed for metalloproteins that have these centers. These new force field parameters enable investigations of metalloproteins possessing these binding sites using molecular simulations. In addition, the impact of using the atom equivalence and inequivalence atomic partial charge calculation procedures on the simulated structures of these metallopeptides, including hydration properties, is described.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of Mn4+ ion in h-BaTiO3 crystal from a two-mechanism model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Xiao-Xuan; Fang Wang; Feng Wen-Lin; Zheng Wen-Chen

    2009-03-01

    The EPR parameters ( factors ∥, ⊥ and zero-field splitting ) of Mn4+ ion in h-BaTiO3 crystal are calculated from the complete high-order perturbation formulas based on a two-mechanism model for the EPR parameters of 33 ions in trigonal symmetry. In the model, not only the widely used crystal-field mechanism, but also the charge-transfer mechanism (which is not considered in crystal-field theory) are included. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. The relative importance of charge-transfer mechanism to EPR parameters and the defect structure of Mn4+ centre in h-BaTiO3 crystal obtained from the calculations are discussed.

  20. Optimization of parameters for competitive adsorption of heavy metal ions (Pb{sup +2}, Ni{sup +2}, Cd{sup +2}) onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavand, Mohammad; Kaghazchi, Tahereh; Soleimani, Mansooreh [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    This study investigates optimization of various competitive adsorption parameters for removal of Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by commercial activated carbon (AC) using the Taguchi method. Adsorption parameters such as initial metal concentration of each metal ion (C{sub 0,i}), initial pH (pH0), adsorbent dosage (m) and contact time (t) in batch technique were studied to observe their effects on the total adsorption capacity of metals onto activated carbon (q{sub tot}). The adsorbent dosage has been found to be the most significant parameter. Interactions between C{sub 0,Cd} x C{sub 0,Ni}, C{sub 0,Cd} x C{sub 0,Pb} and C{sub 0,Ni} x C{sub 0,Pb} have been considered for simultaneous metal ions adsorption. The optimum condition for adsorption of metal ions were obtained with C{sub 0,i}=100 mg L{sup -1}, pH{sub 0}=7, m=2 g L{sup -1} and t=80min. Finally, experimental results showed that a multi-staged adsorptive treatment would be necessary to reach the minimal discharge standards of metal ions in the effluent.

  1. Assessing the Interplay between the Physicochemical Parameters of Ion-Pairing Reagents and the Analyte Sequence on the Electrospray Desorption Process for Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Babak; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2017-08-01

    Alkylamines are widely used as ion-pairing agents during LC-MS of oligonucleotides. In addition to a better chromatographic separation, they also assist with the desorption of oligonucleotide ions into the gas phase, cause charge state reduction, and decrease cation adduction. However, the choice of such ion-pairing agents has considerable influence on the MS signal intensity of oligonucleotides as they can also cause significant ion suppression. Interestingly, optimal ion-pairing agents should be selected on a case by case basis as their choice is strongly influenced by the sequence of the oligonucleotide under investigation. Despite imposing major practical difficulties to analytical method development, such a highly variable system that responds very strongly to the nuances of the electrospray composition provides an excellent opportunity for a fundamental study of the electrospray ionization process. Our investigations using this system quantitatively revealed the major factors that influenced the ESI ionization efficiency of oligonucleotides. Parameters such as boiling point, proton affinity, partition coefficient, water solubility, and Henry's law constants for the ion-pairing reagents and the hydrophobic thymine content of the oligonucleotides were found to be the most significant contributors. Identification of these parameters also allowed for the development of a statistical predictive algorithm that can assist with the choice of an optimum IP agent for each particular oligonucleotide sequence. We believe that research in the field of oligonucleotide bioanalysis will significantly benefit from this algorithm (included in Supplementary Material) as it advocates for the use of lesser-known but more suitable ion-pair alternatives to TEA for many oligonucleotide sequences.

  2. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources; Profile der Plasmaparameter und Dichte negativer Wasserstoffionen mittels Laserdetachmentmessungen in HF-angeregten Ionenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-12-20

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields ({proportional_to} 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H{sup -})=1.10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3}, which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  3. Influence of instrumental parameters on the kinetic energy of ions and plasma temperature for a hexapole collision/reaction-cell-based inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Georges; Brennetot, René; Chartier, Frédéric; Tortajada, Jeanine

    2009-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in inorganic analytical chemistry for element and/or isotope ratio measurements. The presence of interferences, which is one of the main limitations of this method, has been addressed in recent years with the introduction of collision/reaction cell devices on ICP-MS apparatus. The study of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase then became of great importance for the development of new analytical strategies. Knowing the kinetic energy and the electronic states of the ions prior to their entrance into the cell, i.e., just before they react, thereby constitutes crucial information for the interpretation of the observed reactivities. Such studies on an ICP-MS commonly used for routine analyses require the determination of the influence of different instrumental parameters on the energy of the ions and on the plasma temperature from where ions are sampled. The kinetic energy of ions prior to their entrance into the cell has been connected to the voltage applied to the hexapole according to a linear relationship determined from measurements of ion energy losses due to collisions with neutral gas molecules. The effects of the plasma forward power, sampling depth, and the addition of a torch shield to the ICP source were then examined. A decrease of the plasma potential due to the torch shielding, already mentioned in the literature, has been quantified in this study at about 3 V.

  4. Impact parameter dependent electron capture by decelerated U{sup 91+} ions at 20 MeV/u using crystal channeling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvergne, D. E-mail: d.dauvergne@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning, H.; Chevallier, M.; Cohen, C.; Gumberidze, A.; L' Hoir, A.; Kirsch, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mokler, P.H.; Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Stoehlker, Th.; Tarisien, M.; Testa, E.; Toleikis, S.; Toulemonde, M

    2003-05-01

    We present results of an experiment using decelerated U{sup 91+} ions, extracted from the GSI-ESR storage ring, and transmitted through a thin silicon crystal in channeling conditions. Charge state at emergence, secondary electron multiplicity and X-rays are measured simultaneously. These conditions allow to study the competition between mechanical electron capture (MEC) and radiative electron capture (REC) as a function of impact parameter. We observe that REC is the dominant charge exchange process for the best channeled ions, i.e. those travelling always far from the silicon target core electrons. For ions with high transverse energy, MEC into highly excited states is counterbalanced by enhanced ionization arising from a succession of close collisions along atomic rows.

  5. Link between optical spectra, crystal-field parameters, and local environments of Eu3+ ions in Eu2O3-doped sodium disilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T.; Mountjoy, G.; Afify, N. D.; Reid, M. F.; Yeung, Y. Y.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.

    2011-09-01

    Rare-earth-doped glasses are key materials for optical technology due to the luminescent properties of 4fn ions. The crystal-field model describes the effect of local environment on transitions between 4f electrons. We present a detailed modeling study of the optical spectra of sodium disilicate glass, 33Na2O·67SiO2, doped with 0.2% and 1.0 mol% Eu2O3. This study uses very large molecular dynamics models with up to 100 Eu3+ ions, the superposition model for covalent and overlap effects on crystal-field parameters, and realistic values for homogeneous linewidth broadening. The simulated spectra are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The trends in 7FJ energy levels across different Eu3+ ion sites have been examined and a very detailed analysis is presented that looks at how features of the spectra are related to features of the local environment of Eu3+ ions. Increasing the crystal-field strength Stotal causes the 7F0 energy level to decrease and causes the splitting of 7FJ manifolds to increase, and this is due to increasing mixing of 4f wave functions. To a reasonable approximation the crystal-field strength components Sk depend on angular positions of ligands independently of distances to ligands. The former are seen to be more significant in determining Sk, which are closely related to the rotationally invariant bond-orientational order parameters Qk. The values of S2 are approximately linear in Q2, and the values of Q2 are higher for fivefold than sixfold coordinated rare-earth ions. These results can be of importance for efforts to enhance the local environment of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses for optical applications.

  6. Improving the laser damage resistance of oxide thin films and multilayers via tailoring ion beam sputtering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, M. B.; Ozhan, A. E. S.; Aydogdu, G. H.

    2015-05-01

    Ion beam sputtering is one of the widely used methods for manufacturing laser optical components due to its advantages such as uniformity, reproducibility, suitability for multilayer coatings and growth of dielectric materials with high packing densities. In this study, single Ta2O5 layers and Ta2O5/SiO2 heterostructures were deposited on optical quality glass substrates by dual ion beam sputtering. We focused on the effect of deposition conditions like substrate cleaning, assistance by 12 cm diameter ion beam source and oxygen partial pressure on the laser-induced damage threshold of Ta2O5 single layers. Afterwards, the obtained information is employed to a sample design and produces a Ta2O5/SiO2 multilayer structure demonstrating low laser-induced damage without a post treatment procedure.

  7. Solar wind dependence of ion parameters in the Earth's magnetospheric region calculated from CLUSTER observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments calculated from the ion distributions (~0–40 keV measured by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS instrument are combined with data from the Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM instrument and used to characterise the bulk properties of the plasma in the near-Earth magnetosphere over five years (2001–2005. Results are presented in the form of 2-D xy, xz and yz GSM cuts through the magnetosphere using data obtained from the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS and the Cluster Active Archive (CAA. Analysis reveals the distribution of ~0–40 keV ions in the inner magnetosphere is highly ordered and highly responsive to changes in solar wind velocity. Specifically, elevations in temperature are found to occur across the entire nightside plasma sheet region during times of fast solar wind. We demonstrate that the nightside plasma sheet ion temperature at a downtail distance of ~12 to 19 Earth radii increases by a factor of ~2 during periods of fast solar wind (500–1000 km s−1 compared to periods of slow solar wind (100–400 km s−1. The spatial extent of these increases are shown in the xy, xz and yz GSM planes. The results from the study have implications for modelling studies and simulations of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, which ultimately rely on in situ observations of the plasma sheet properties for input/boundary conditions.

  8. Measurement of track structure parameters of low and medium energy helium and carbon ions in nanometric volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, G.; Bug, M. U.; Rabus, H.

    2017-10-01

    Ionization cluster size distributions produced in the sensitive volume of an ion-counting wall-less nanodosimeter by monoenergetic carbon ions with energies between 45 MeV and 150 MeV were measured at the TANDEM-ALPI ion accelerator facility complex of the LNL-INFN in Legnaro. Those produced by monoenergetic helium ions with energies between 2 MeV and 20 MeV were measured at the accelerator facilities of PTB and with a 241Am alpha particle source. C3H8 was used as the target gas. The ionization cluster size distributions were measured in narrow beam geometry with the primary beam passing the target volume at specified distances from its centre, and in broad beam geometry with a fan-like primary beam. By applying a suitable drift time window, the effective size of the target volume was adjusted to match the size of a DNA segment. The measured data were compared with the results of simulations obtained with the PTB Monte Carlo code PTra. Before the comparison, the simulated cluster size distributions were corrected with respect to the background of additional ionizations produced in the transport system of the ionized target gas molecules. Measured and simulated characteristics of the particle track structure are in good agreement for both types of primary particles and for both types of the irradiation geometry. As the range in tissue of the ions investigated is within the typical extension of a spread-out Bragg peak, these data are useful for benchmarking not only ‘general purpose’ track structure simulation codes, but also treatment planning codes used in hadron therapy. Additionally, these data sets may serve as a data base for codes modelling the induction of radiation damages at the DNA-level as they almost completely characterize the ionization component of the nanometric track structure.

  9. Determination of model parameters for zinc (II) ion biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) in a fed-batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Cikla, Sinem

    2007-12-01

    Biosorption of zinc (II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a completely mixed tank operating in fed-batch mode instead of an adsorption column. Experiments with variable feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 L h(-1)), feed Zn(II) ion concentrations (37.5-275 mg L(-1)) and amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) were performed using fed-batch operation at pH 5 and room temperature (20-25 degrees C). Break-through curves describing variations of aqueous (effluent) zinc ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent zinc removal from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) zinc ion concentration increased with increasing feed flow rate and zinc concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS (q'(s)) and the rate constant (K) for zinc ion biosorption. Biosorption capacity (q'(s)=57.7 g Zn kg(-1) PWS) of PWS in fed-batch operation was found to be comparable with powdered activated carbon (PAC) in column operations. However, the adsorption rate constant (K=9.17 m(3) kg(-1) h(-1)) in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed tank operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  10. Spectral parameters of Nd3+ ion in Nd sup 3 sup + :LaCa sub 4 O(BO sub 3) sub 3 crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, L

    2003-01-01

    The spectral parameters of Nd sup 3 sup + ions in Nd:LaCa sub 4 O(BO sub 3) sub 3 crystal have been investigated based on Judd-Ofelt theory. The spectral parameters were obtained: the intensity parameters OMEGA sublambda are OMEGA sub 2 =1.98 x 10 sup - sup 2 sup 0 cm sup 2 , OMEGA sub 4 =2.39 x 10 sup - sup 2 sup 0 cm sup 2 , OMEGA sub 6 =1.38 x 10 sup - sup 2 sup 0 cm sup 2 , the radioactive lifetime is 655 mu s, the quantum efficiency is 10%, and the fluorescence branch ratios were calculated: beta sub 1 = 0.51, beta sub 2 = 0.42, beta sub 3 = 0.066, beta sub 4 = 0.003. (orig.)

  11. A systematic review of lumped-parameter equivalent circuit models for real-time estimation of lithium-ion battery states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, S.; Gladwin, D. T.; Stone, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a systematic review for the most commonly used lumped-parameter equivalent circuit model structures in lithium-ion battery energy storage applications. These models include the Combined model, Rint model, two hysteresis models, Randles' model, a modified Randles' model and two resistor-capacitor (RC) network models with and without hysteresis included. Two variations of the lithium-ion cell chemistry, namely the lithium-ion iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (LiNMC) are used for testing purposes. The model parameters and states are recursively estimated using a nonlinear system identification technique based on the dual Extended Kalman Filter (dual-EKF) algorithm. The dynamic performance of the model structures are verified using the results obtained from a self-designed pulsed-current test and an electric vehicle (EV) drive cycle based on the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) profile over a range of operating temperatures. Analysis on the ten model structures are conducted with respect to state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-power (SOP) estimation with erroneous initial conditions. Comparatively, both RC model structures provide the best dynamic performance, with an outstanding SOC estimation accuracy. For those cell chemistries with large inherent hysteresis levels (e.g. LiFePO4), the RC model with only one time constant is combined with a dynamic hysteresis model to further enhance the performance of the SOC estimator.

  12. Thick layers of PPy and PTh: electrosynthesis and modification of electrical parameters by ion implantation p-n junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B. (LEPOFI, Fac. des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Ratier, B. (LEPOFI, Fac. des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Moliton, A. (LEPOFI, Fac. des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Moliton, J.P. (LEPOFI, Fac. des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Otero, T.F. (U.P.V., Fac. de Quimica, Lab. de Electroquimica, San Sebastian (Spain)); Santamaria, C. (U.P.V., Fac. de Quimica, Lab. de Electroquimica, San Sebastian (Spain)); Angulo, E. (U.P.V., Fac. de Quimica, Lab. de Electroquimica, San Sebastian (Spain)); Rodriguez, J. (U.P.V., Fac. de Quimica, Lab. de Electroquimica, San Sebastian (Spain))

    1993-03-22

    Thick layers of polypyrrole and polythiophene (d > 10 [mu]m) were electrogenerated by square or trapezoidal waves of potential. These polymers were electrogenerated on stainless steel, electrochemically reduced, and later translated on a non metal. In the last state the electric characterization is possible without any influence of the conducting electrode. The electrogenerated films have a conductivity of p type, even after a deep electrochemical reduction and were employed to obtain a negative doping by implantation of alkali ions. Measurements of alternating conductivity ([sigma][proportional to]) showed that n doping is efficient. The conductivity [sigma][proportional to] increases with fluence (number of ions deposited on the unit surface). This increase is more efficient when a lower energy of implantation was used, as in the case of other electroactive polymers. From electroreduced polythiophene having a conductivity of 10[sup -6] S.cm[sup -1] and a > 600 [mu]V.K[sup -1] thermoelectric power, a change of sign is obtained for the thermoelectric power after implantation with Cs[sup +] or Na[sup +] ions. A stable p-n junction was constructed and controlled. (orig.)

  13. Free Cu2+ Ions, Cu Fractionation and Microbial Parameters in Soils from Apple Orchards Following Long-Term Application of Copper Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-Mei; WANG Quan-Ying; CANG Long

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from apple orchards 5, 15, 20, 30, and 45 years old, and one adjacent forest soil was used as reference to investigate the free Cu2+ ion activity in soil solution and the soil Cu fractionation in the solid phase following long-term application of copper fungicide, Bordeaux mixture, in apple orchards and to investigate the relationships among soil free Cu2+ ions, Cu fractionation and soil microbial parameters. The total Cu concentration in the orchard soils varied from 21.8 to 141 mg kg-l, increasing with the orchard age, and the value for the reference soil was 12.5 mg kg-1. The free Cu2+ ion concentrations in the soil solutions extracted by 0.01 mol L-1 KNO3 ranged from 3.13 × 10-8 (reference) to 4.08 × 10-6 mol L-1 (45 years-old orchard). The concentration of Cu complexed in the fulvic fraction increased with orchard age from 5.16 to 52.5 mg kg-1. This was also the case for other soil Cu fractions except the residual one. The residual soil Cu remained practically constant, ranging from 4.28 to 5.66 mg kg-1, suggesting that anthropogenic soil Cu mainly existed in the more labile active fractions. Regression analyses revealed that both the free Cu2+ ions in the soil solution and the humic acid-complexed Cu fraction in the solid phase were strongly related with soil microbial parameters.

  14. Direct evaluation of radiobiological parameters from clinical data in the case of ion beam therapy: an alternative approach to the relative biological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, A; Russo, G; Bourhaleb, F; Milian, F M; Giordanengo, S; Marchetto, F; Cirio, R; Attili, A

    2014-12-07

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) concept is commonly used in treatment planning for ion beam therapy. Whether models based on in vitro/in vivo RBE data can be used to predict human response to treatments is an open issue. In this work an alternative method, based on an effective radiobiological parameterization directly derived from clinical data, is presented. The method has been applied to the analysis of prostate cancer trials with protons and carbon ions.Prostate cancer trials with proton and carbon ion beams reporting 5 year-local control (LC5) and grade 2 (G2) or higher genitourinary toxicity rates (TOX) were selected from literature to test the method. Treatment simulations were performed on a representative subset of patients to produce dose and linear energy transfer distribution, which were used as explicative physical variables for the radiobiological modelling. Two models were taken into consideration: the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) and a linear model (LM). The radiobiological parameters of the LM and MKM were obtained by coupling them with the tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability models to fit the LC5 and TOX data through likelihood maximization. The model ranking was based on the Akaike information criterion.Results showed large confidence intervals due to the limited variety of available treatment schedules. RBE values, such as RBE = 1.1 for protons in the treated volume, were derived as a by-product of the method, showing a consistency with current approaches. Carbon ion RBE values were also derived, showing lower values than those assumed for the original treatment planning in the target region, whereas higher values were found in the bladder. Most importantly, this work shows the possibility to infer the radiobiological parametrization for proton and carbon ion treatment directly from clinical data.

  15. Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II ion sorption from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand, are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA, diethylene triamine (DETA and triethylene tetramine (TETA. Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA. The sorption of Cu(II for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption

  16. Multiple Ion Cluster Source for the Generation of Magnetic Nanoparticles: Investigation of the Efficiency as a Function of the Working Parameters for the Case of Cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Llamosa Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present dataset of Co nanoparticles production using a Multiple Ion Cluster Source (MICS. We study the evolution of the mean size and deposition rate of Co nanoparticles as a function of the power and argon flux applied to the Co magnetron, the aggregation length of the Co magnetron and the total argon flux. The results show the strong influence of these parameters on the mean size of the nanoparticles and the efficiency of the process as well as on the atomic deposition rate. In particular, it is shown that nanoparticles of mean size ranging from 4 to 14 nm can be produced and that the influence of the working parameters on the production of magnetic nanoparticles is more complex than for the case of noble metal presented previously.

  17. Effects of various experimental parameters on errors in triangulation solution of elongated object in space. [barium ion cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of various experimental parameters on the displacement errors in the triangulation solution of an elongated object in space due to pointing uncertainties in the lines of sight have been determined. These parameters were the number and location of observation stations, the object's location in latitude and longitude, and the spacing of the input data points on the azimuth-elevation image traces. The displacement errors due to uncertainties in the coordinates of a moving station have been determined as functions of the number and location of the stations. The effects of incorporating the input data from additional cameras at one of the stations were also investigated.

  18. Parameter optimization for Doppler laser cooling of a low-energy heavy ion beam at the storage ring S-LSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Kazuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2014-05-01

    S-LSR is a compact ion storage ring constructed at Kyoto University several years ago. The ring is equipped with a Doppler laser cooling system aimed at beam crystallization. Bearing in mind hardware limitations in S-LSR, we try to find an optimum set of primary experimental parameters for the production of an ultracold heavy ion beam. Systematic molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for this purpose. It is concluded that the detuning and spot size of the cooling laser should be chosen around -42 MHz and 1.5 mm, respectively, for the most efficient cooling of 40 keV ^{24}Mg^+ beams in S-LSR. Under the optimum conditions, the use of the resonant coupling method followed by radio-frequency field ramping enables us to reach an extremely low beam temperature on the order of 0.1 K in the transverse degrees of freedom. The longitudinal degree of freedom can be cooled to close to the Doppler limit; i.e., to the mK range. We also numerically demonstrate that it is possible to establish a stable, long one-dimensionally ordered state of ions.

  19. Biosorption of cadmium(II) ions by citrus peels in a packed bed column: effect of process parameters and comparison of different breakthrough curve models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Schiewer, Silke [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of low cost citrus peels as biosorbents for removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution was investigated in a fixed bed column, a process that could be applied to treat industrial wastewaters similar to commonly used ion exchange columns. Effluent concentration versus time profiles (i.e., breakthrough curves) were experimentally determined in a laboratory-scale packed bed column for varying operational parameters such as flow rate (2, 9, and 15.5 mL/min), influent cadmium concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg/L), and bed height (24, 48, and 72 cm) at pH 5.5. Column operation was most efficient for empty bed contact times of at least 10 min, which were apparently necessary for mass transfer. While the sorption capacity was largely unaffected by operational variables, the Thomas (Th) rate constant increased with the flow rate, and slightly decreased with increasing column length. Three widely used semi-mechanistic models (Th, Bohart-Adams, and Yoon-Nelson) were shown to be equivalent and the generalized model was compared with a two-parameter empirical model (dose-response). The latter was found to be able to better simulate the breakthrough curve in the region of breakthrough and saturation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility - Hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Mikael; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E. J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-01

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC's), Time to Digital Converters (TDC's), scaler's, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  1. A tailored 200 parameter VME based data acquisition system for IBA at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility – Hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfman, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Ros, Linus; Kristiansson, Per; Nilsson, E.J. Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2016-03-15

    With the recent advances towards modern Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), going from one- or few-parameter detector systems to multi-parameter systems, it has been necessary to expand and replace the more than twenty years old CAMAC based system. A new VME multi-parameter (presently up to 200 channels) data acquisition and control system has been developed and implemented at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF). The system is based on the VX-511 Single Board Computer (SBC), acting as master with arbiter functionality and consists of standard VME modules like Analog to Digital Converters (ADC’s), Charge to Digital Converters (QDC’s), Time to Digital Converters (TDC’s), scaler’s, IO-cards, high voltage and waveform units. The modules have been specially selected to support all of the present detector systems in the laboratory, with the option of future expansion. Typically, the detector systems consist of silicon strip detectors, silicon drift detectors and scintillator detectors, for detection of charged particles, X-rays and γ-rays. The data flow of the raw data buffers out from the VME bus to the final storage place on a 16 terabyte network attached storage disc (NAS-disc) is described. The acquisition process, remotely controlled over one of the SBCs ethernet channels, is also discussed. The user interface is written in the Kmax software package, and is used to control the acquisition process as well as for advanced online and offline data analysis through a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). In this work the system implementation, layout and performance are presented. The user interface and possibilities for advanced offline analysis are also discussed and illustrated.

  2. Evaluation study of an ion selective field effect transistor electrode for measuring quality parameters of fuel ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano B.; Sobral, Sidney P.; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Goncalves, Mary A., E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia(INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Metrologia Quimica

    2013-01-15

    An ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) electrode was evaluated for measuring pH and acid number (AN) of fuel ethanol and compared to two glass electrodes with different reference filling solutions: KCl aqueous solution (glass-KCl electrode)and LiCl ethanolic solution (glass-LiCl electrode). pH was determined at different measurement times and AN was determined using automatic potentiometric titration. For pH, the glass-KCl electrode showed the best precision and stability, with an average repeatability about four times better when compared to the ISFET electrode for the measurement time of 30 s (as indicated in the ASTM D6423 standard). For AN, the glass-KCl and glass-LiCl electrodes showed similar repeatabilities, which were about three times better than that of the ISFET electrode. In addition, the results from a recovery study demonstrated better accuracy of the glass-LiCl electrode, with a recovery value of 100.1% (author)

  3. A transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model with modified boundary conditions and Padé approximation for Li-ion battery: Part 2. Modeling and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The electrochemistry-based battery model can provide physics-meaningful knowledge about the lithium-ion battery system with extensive computation burdens. To motivate the development of reduced order battery model, three major contributions have been made throughout this paper: (1) the transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model is proposed to address the current-voltage relationship with Padé approximation method and modified boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations. The model performance has been verified under pulse charge/discharge and dynamic stress test (DST) profiles with the standard derivation less than 0.021 V and the runtime 50 times faster. (2) the parametric relationship between the equivalent circuit model and simplified electrochemical model has been established, which will enhance the comprehension level of two models with more in-depth physical significance and provide new methods for electrochemical model parameter estimation. (3) four simplified electrochemical model parameters: equivalent resistance Req, effective diffusion coefficient in electrolyte phase Deeff, electrolyte phase volume fraction ε and open circuit voltage (OCV), have been identified by the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm with the modified DST profiles under 45, 25 and 0 °C. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model coupled with RLS algorithm can achieve high accuracy for electrochemical parameter identification in dynamic scenarios.

  4. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  5. Applying Bayesian parameter estimation to relativistic heavy-ion collisions: simultaneous characterization of the initial state and quark-gluon plasma medium

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, Jonah E; Bass, Steffen A; Liu, Jia; Heinz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    We quantitatively estimate properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions utilizing Bayesian statistics and a multi-parameter model-to-data comparison. The study is performed using a recently developed parametric initial condition model, TRENTO, which interpolates among a general class of particle production schemes, and a modern hybrid model which couples viscous hydrodynamics to a hadronic cascade. We calibrate the model to multiplicity, transverse momentum, and flow data and report constraints on the parametrized initial conditions and the temperature-dependent transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We show that initial entropy deposition is consistent with a saturation-based picture, extract a relation between the minimum value and slope of the temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity, and find a clear signal for a nonzero bulk viscosity.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Ionic Liquids:Effect of Specific Ions and Reaction Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 李晶; 张磊霞; 顾双双; 吴福安

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a rare, naturally occurring phenolic food additive. This work systematically reported fundamental data on conversion of caffeic acid (CA), yield of CAPE, and reactive selectiv-ity during the lipase-catalyzed esterification process of CA and phenylethanol (PE) in ionic liquids (ILs). Sixteen ILs were selected as the reaction media, and the relative lipase-catalyzed synthesis properties of CAPE were meas-ured in an effort to enhance the yield of CAPE with high selectivity. The results indicated that ILs containing weakly coordinating anions and cations with adequate alkyl chain length improved the synthesis of CAPE. [Emim][Tf2N] was selected as the optimal reaction media. The optimal parameters were as follows by response surface methodology (RSM):reaction temperature, 84.0 °C;mass ratio of Novozym 435 to CA, 14︰1;and molar ratio of PE to CA, 16︰1. The highest reactive selectivity of CAPE catalyzed by Novozym 435 in [Emim][Tf2N] reached 64.55%(CA conversion 98.76%and CAPE yield 63.75%, respectively). Thus, lipase-catalyzed esterifica-tion in ILs is a promising method suitable for CAPE production.

  7. Modeling of a Pouch Lithium Ion Battery Using a Distributed Parameter Equivalent Circuit for Internal Non-Uniformity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.

  8. Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, S; Sánchez-Blanco, M J

    2014-07-01

    The effect of saline stress on physiological and morphological parameters in Callistemon citrinus plants was studied to evaluate their adaptability to irrigation with saline water. C. citrinus plants, grown under greenhouse conditions, were subjected to two irrigation treatments lasting 56 weeks: control (0.8 dS·m(-1)) and saline (4 dS·m(-1)). The use of saline water in C. citrinus plants decreased aerial growth, increased the root/shoot ratio and improved the root system (increased root diameter and root density), but flowering and leaf colour were not affected. Salinity caused a decrease in stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration, which may prevent toxic levels being reached in the shoot. Net photosynthesis was reduced in plants subjected to salinity, although this response was evident much later than the decrease in stomatal conductance. Stem water potential was a good indicator of salt stress in C. citrinus. The relative salt tolerance of Callistemon was related to storage of higher levels of Na+ and Cl- in the roots compared with the leaves, especially in the case of Na+, which could have helped to maintain the quality of plants. The results show that saline water (around 4 dS·m(-1)) could be used for growing C. citrinus commercially. However, the cumulative effect of irrigating with saline water for 11 months was a decrease in photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency, meaning that the interaction of the salinity level and the time of exposure to the salt stress should be considered important in this species.

  9. Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Tm{sup 3+} ions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, A.S.S. de [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: andreasc@if.sc.usp.br; Oliveira, S.L. de; Sousa, D.F. de; Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Hewak, D.W. [Optoelectronics Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-21

    This work presents the spectroscopic characterization of Tm{sup 3+} doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GaLaS) chalcogenide glass through absorption, fluorescence and lifetime measurements of excited{sup 3}H{sub 4} and{sup 3}F{sub 4} states, and a study of Tm{sup 3+}:Tm{sup 3+} energy transfer. The cross relaxation {sup 3}H{sub 4},{sup 3} H{sub 6}{yields} {sup 3} F{sub 4},{sup 3} F{sub 4} responsible for the pumping of level {sup 3}F{sub 4} and the laser transition at 1800 nm ({sup 3}F{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}), as well as the energy migration {sup 3}H{sub 4},{sup 3}H{sub 6}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 4},{sup 3H}{sub 6} processes are studied in terms of the microscopic parameters of energy transfer C{sub da} and C{sub dd} obtained by the Kushida model of multipolar interactions and by a rate equation treatment of the dynamics of levels {sup 3}F{sub 4} and {sup 3}H{sub 4}. From this treatment it was possible to simulate level {sup 3}F{sub 4} temporal evolution curves for different Tm{sup 3+} concentrations, leading to results that are in excellent agreement with experimental ones. All the samples studied in the work present positive optical gain coefficients for excitation densities higher than 12 kW cm{sup -2} indicating the potentiality of GaLaS:Tm{sup 3+} glass as a mid-infrared laser active medium. (author)

  10. Utilization of Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide as an effective sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution impacted by water quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Linghu, Wensheng; Hu, Jun; Jiang, Gongyi; Sheng, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Recently, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (Mg2Al-LDH) has been extensively studied as promising candidates to trap metal ions due to their high complexation and adsorption capacity. Herein, Mg2Al-LDH was utilized as an effectiveness sequestrator to trap Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by an adsorption process using batch technique under ambient conditions. The results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH increases with pH increasing and maintains a high level at pH>7.0. The adsorption of Cu(II) was obviously affected by ionic strength at low pH, which was not dependent on ionic strength at high pH. The presence of HA or FA promotes the adsorption of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at low pH values, while reduces the adsorption of Cu(II) at high pH values. The adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) on Mg2Al-LDH at three different temperatures were simulated by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) models very well. The thermodynamic parameters were determined from the temperature-dependent adsorption, and the results showed that Cu(II) adsorption on Mg2Al-LDH was exothermic and the process was favored at high temperature. The results suggest that Mg2Al-LDH is suitable as a sorbent material for the recovery and attenuation of Cu(II)-polluted wastewater.

  11. Energy Levels and Intensity Parameters of Ho3(+) Ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Grew, Gary W.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2006-01-01

    The energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide Ho(sup 3+) in Y3Al5O12 (YAG) and Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) have been measured. The Stark split levels for the first nine Ho manifolds in these materials have been measured, and the results have been fit to a free ion plus crystal field Hamiltonian to generate a theoretical set of energy levels. Crystal field parameters were varied to determine the best fit between experimental and theoretical energy levels. The energy levels of Ho:LuAG are seen to be very similar to those in Ho:YAG. However, subtle changes resulting from replacing Y(sup 3+) with Lu(sup 3+) in the garnet crystal Y3Al5O12 result in different transition wavelengths in LuAG. This has implications for Ho (sup 5)I7yields (sup 5)I8 lasers operating at approximately 2.1 micrometers. Although the energy levels have been measured previously in Ho:YAG, they have not been measured in Ho:LuAG. A comparison of the energy levels in Ho:YAG measured here show some discrepancies with previous measurements. The consistency of the energy level placement between Ho:LuAG and Ho:YAG indicate that the earlier studies may have some errors in the assignments. Finally, a Judd-Ofelt analysis is performed on Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG to determine the intensity parameters, and thus, the transition probabilities and branching ratios of the first eight excited manifolds.

  12. Investigations on analytic potential energy function, spectroscopic parameters and vibrational manifolds (J = 0) of the SD+(X3∑-) ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin-Ping; Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Liu Yu-Fang; Zhu Zun-Lue; Ma Heng

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the spectroscopic properties of the SD+(X3∑-) ion by employing the coupled-cluster singles-doublcs-approximate-triples [CCSD(T)] theory combining with the quintuple correlation-consistent basis set augmented with diffuse functions (aug-cc-pV5Z) of Dunning and co-workers. The accurate adiabatic potential energy function is obtained by the least-squares fitting method with the 100 ab initio points, which are calculated at the unrestricted CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z lcvcl of theory over the internuclear separation range from 0.09 to 2.46 nm. Using the potential, it accurately determines the spectroscopic parameters (De, ωeχe, αe and Be). The prcsent De, Re, ωe,ωeχe,αe and Be results are of 3.69119 eV, 0.13644nm, 1834.949cm-1, 25.6208cm-1, 0.1068cm-1 and 4.7778cm-1,respectively, which are in remarkably good agreement with the experimental findings. A total of 29 vibrational states has been predicted by numerically solving the radial Schrodinger equation of nuclear motion when the rotational quantum number J equals zero. The complete vibrational levels, classical turning points, inertial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants are reported when J = 0 for the first time, which are in good accord with the measurements wherever available.

  13. Relation between hard photon production and impact parameter in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Dependance de la production de photons durs avec le parametre d`impact dans les collisions entre ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, G.

    1994-06-01

    Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.

  14. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25%. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (<35%). Hydrolysis of Fe(3+) and CO3 (2-) leading to the generation of Fe(OH)3 and conversion to FeOOH that precipitated on the surface and strongly adsorbed the products of reduction caused the inhibition of CO3 (2-). The 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The operational conditions and common ions affected the 2,4-DNT reduction and its products by enhancing the corrosion of iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites.

  15. Determination of Kinetic Parameters and Metal Ions in Urea-Urease System Based on the Biochemical Reaction Heat Induced Laser Beam Deflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of urea-urease system based on biochemical reaction heat induced laser beam deflection is presented in this paper. With the method, the Michaelis constant (Km) of urease and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of some metal ion inhibitors were measured respectively. This method was also used for the quantitative determination of metal ions with satisfactory result.

  16. Quasirelativistic calculation of 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configuration spectroscopic parameters for the W$^{39+}$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovich, P; Kisielius, R

    2015-01-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions is used to derive spectral data for the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations of the multicharged tungsten ion W$^{39+}$. The relativistic effects are taken into account in the Breit-Pauli approximation for the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock radial orbitals. The configuration interaction method is applied to include the electron correlation effects. Produced data are compared with existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

  17. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  18. Biosorption of copper(II) ions onto powdered waste sludge in a completely mixed fed-batch reactor: estimation of design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoglu, Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-04-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a fed-batch operated completely mixed reactor. Fed-batch adsorption experiments were performed by varying the feed flow rate ( 0.075-0.325 l h(-1)), feed copper (II) ion concentrations (50-300 mg l(-1)) and the amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) using fed-batch operation. Breakthrough curves describing the variations of effluent copper ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent copper ion removals from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) copper ion concentrations increased with increasing the feed flow rate and Cu(II) concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS and the rate constant for Cu(II) ion biosorption. Adsorption rate constant in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations while the biosorption capacity of PWS was comparable with powdered activated (PAC) in column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed reactor operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  19. Experimental investigation of the EPR parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients for VO2+ ion in NaH2PO4·2H2O single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfaoğlu, Emel; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2016-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of VO2+ ions in NaH2PO4·2H2O single crystal have been studied. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated. The angular variation of the EPR spectra shows two different VO2+ complexes. These are located in different chemical environment and each environment contains four magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites. The crystal field around VO2+ ion is approximately axially symmetric since a strong V=O bond distorts the crystal lattice. Spin Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated from the EPR data and the nature of bonding in the complex was discussed together.

  20. Experimental investigation of the EPR parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients for VO{sup 2+} ion in NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfaoğlu, Emel [Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey); Karabulut, Bünyamin, E-mail: bbulut@omu.edu.tr [Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering, 55139 Kurupelit-Samsun (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of VO{sup 2+} ions in NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O single crystal have been studied. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated. The angular variation of the EPR spectra shows two different VO{sup 2+} complexes. These are located in different chemical environment and each environment contains four magnetically inequivalent VO{sup 2+} sites. The crystal field around VO{sup 2+} ion is approximately axially symmetric since a strong V=O bond distorts the crystal lattice. Spin Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital bonding coefficients were calculated from the EPR data and the nature of bonding in the complex was discussed together.

  1. Accurate stopping power measurements for (0.21–2.68) MeV/u {sup 1}H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} ions crossing thin Al foils; extraction of the (I, b) parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, D., E-mail: djamelmoussa@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Damache, S. [Division de Physique, CRNA, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399 Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-01-15

    The stopping powers of thin Al foils for H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} ions have been measured over the energy range E=(206.03–2680.05) keV/amu with an overall relative uncertainty better than 1% using the transmission method. The derived S(E) experimental data are compared to previous ones from the literature, to values derived by the SRIM-2008 code or compiled in the ICRU-49 report, and to the predictions of Sigmund–Schinner binary collision stopping theory. Besides, the S(E) data for H{sup +} ions together with those for He{sup 2+} ions reported by Andersen et al. (1977) have been analyzed over the energy interval E>1.0 MeV using the modified Bethe–Bloch stopping theory. The following sets of values have been inferred for the mean excitation potential, I, and the Barkas–Andersen parameter, b, for H{sup +} and He{sup +} projectiles, respectively: {(I=164±3)) eV, (b=1.40} and {(I=163±2.5)) eV, (b=1.38}. As expected, the I parameter is found to be independent of the projectile electronic structure presumably indicating that the contribution of charge exchange effects becomes negligible as the projectile velocity increases. Therefore, the I parameter must be determined from precise stopping power measurements performed at high projectile energies where the Bethe stopping theory is fully valid.

  2. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel......-Manganese-Cobalt (NMC) based Li-ion battery cell was performed under different operating conditions: state-of-charge (SOC) levels, charge/discharge current rates and operating temperatures. Moreover, by carrying out accelerated cycle ageing tests on a total of nine NMC-based Li-ion battery cells, the effect of ageing...

  3. The study of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and determination of kinetic parameters in aqueous Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.; Mahesh, K.C. [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Suresh, G.S., E-mail: sureshssmrv@yahoo.co.i [Chemistry Research Centre, S.S.M.R.V. Degree College, Jayanagar, Bangalore 560041 (India); Venkatesha, T.V. [Department of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577451 Shimoga (India)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report a basic study on the mechanism of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion process from/into LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode material in aqueous Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An equivalent circuit distinguishing the kinetic parameters of lithium ion de-insertion/insertion is used to simulate the experimental impedance data. The fitting results are in good agreement with the experimental results and the parameters of the kinetic process of Li{sup +} de-insertion and insertion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} at different potentials during charge and discharge are obtained using the same circuit. The results indicate that the de-insertion/insertion behavior of lithium ions at LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode in Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution is similar to that reported in the organic electrolytes. The charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), warburg resistance, double layer capacitance and chemical diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}{sup +}) vary with potentials during de-insertion/insertion processes. R{sub ct} is lowest at the CV peak potentials and the important kinetic parameter, D{sub Li}{sup +} exhibits two distinct minima at potentials corresponding to CV peaks during de-insertion-insertion and it was found to be between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}during lithium de-insertion/insertion processes.

  4. Influence of silver ion reduction on electrical modulus parameters of solid polymer electrolyte based on chitosan-silver triflate electrolyte membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric modulus properties of solid polymer electrolyte based on chitosan: AgCF3SO3 from 303 to 393 K have been investigated by using impedance spectroscopy. The shift of the M'' peak spectra with frequeny depends on the dissociation and association of ions. The lowest conductivity relaxation time τσ, was found for the sample with the highest conductivity. The real part of electrical modulus shows that the material is highly capacitive. The asymmetric peak of the imaginary part of electric modulus M'', predicts a non Debye type relaxation. The distribution of relaxation times was indicated by a deformed arc form of Argand plot. The increase of M' and M'' values above 358 K can be attributed to the transformation of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. The complex impedance plots and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis absorption spectroscopy indicate the temperature dependent of silver nanoparticles in chitosan-silver triflate solid electrolyte. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The scaling behavior of M'' spectra shows that the dynamical relaxation processes is temperature independent for aparticular composition. The β exponent value indicate that the conductivity relaxation is highly non exponential.

  5. Effect of deposition parameters on mechanical properties of TiN films coated on 2A12 aluminum alloys by arc ion plating (AIP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2005-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on 2A12 aluminum alloy by arc ion plating (AIP). The Vickers hardness of the films deposited at different bias voltages and different nitrogen gas pressures, and that of the substrate were measured. The surface roughness of the TiN films diposited at -30 V and -80 V respectively and at different nitrogen gas pressure was measured also. The mass loss of TiN films deposited at 0 V, -30 V and -80 V respectively were analyzed in dry sand rubber wheel abrasive wear tests and wet ones in comparison with uncoated Al alloy and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). It is revealed that the highest hardness of the TiN film is obtained at a bias voltage of -30 V and a N2 gas pressure of 0.5 Pa. The surface roughness of the film is larger at -80 V than that at -30 V and reduces as the increase of the N2 gas pressure. The mass loss of TiN-film coated 2A12 aluminum alloy is remarkably less than that of uncoated Al alloy and also that of AISI 316L, which indicates that the abrasive wear rate is greatly reduced by the application of TiN coating. TiN coating deposited by arc ion plating (AIP) technique on aluminum alloy can be a potential coating for machine parts requiring preciseness and lightness.

  6. 磷酸铁锂锂离子电池EIS参数随SOC变化的规律%Relation between EIS parameters and SOC change of LiFePO4 Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席安静; 田光宇; 白鹏

    2012-01-01

    为准确估计磷酸铁锂(LiFePO4)锂离子电池的荷电状态(SOC),测量了商用18650型电池在不同SOC下的电化学阻抗谱(EIS),对中频区的EIS谱进行研究.分析了电荷转移内阻RCT、双电层电容Cdl、过渡频率f、串联电阻Rs和串联电容Cs随SOC变化的规律.在一定的频率下,Cs随SOC的变化单调递减,可作为估计LiFePO4锂离子电池SOC的参数.%In order to estimate the state of charge(SOC)of lithium iron phosphate(LiFePO4)Li-ion battery with high accuracy, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy( EIS) of commercial 18650 type battery under different SOC was tested, the EIS plots middle frequency range was studied. The relation between SOC changing and the EIS parameters such as charge transfer resistance RCT>double layer capacitor Cdl, transitional frequency f,series resistance RB and series capacitor CB was analyzed. The CB demonstrated the monotonous change with SOC at a certain frequency,could be used as parameter of estimating SOC for LiFePO4 Li-ion battery.

  7. Batteries 2020 – Lithium - ion battery first and second life ageing, validated battery models, lifetime modelling and ageing assessment of thermal parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Nikolian, Alexandros; De Hoog, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The European Project “Batteries 2020” unites nine partners jointly working on research and the development of competitive European automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing both the energy density and lifetime of large format pouch lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries (250 Wh/kg at cell level, over 4000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge). Three parallel strategies are followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC cathode materials allows to improve the performance, stability...... and cyclability of state of the art battery cells. (ii) Better understanding of the ageing phenomena; a robust and realistic testing methodology has been developed and was carried out. Combined accelerated, real driving cycle tests, real field data, post - mortem analysis, modelling and validation with real...

  8. Concentration dependence of intensity parameters and radiative properties of Sm{sup 3+} ions doped in BaO–ZnO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Kirti; Kundu, R.S.; Pal, Inder [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001 (India); Punia, R., E-mail: rajeshpoonia13@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001 (India); Department of Physics, Indira Gandhi University, Mirpur, Rewari 123401 (India); Kishore, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Glass samples with compositions xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3}- (100−x)[0.1BaO–0.4ZnO–0.5B{sub 2}O{sub 3}]; x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 have been prepared using melt quench technique. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded for prepared glass samples at room temperature. The spectral intensities of Sm{sup 3+} transition observed in absorption spectra have been calculated by using Judd–Ofelt theory. The intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4} and Ω{sub 6}) have been estimated by applying least square fit method on the experimental (f{sub exp}) and calculated (f{sub cal}) oscillator strengths. The variation of Ω{sub 2} observed with the increase in Sm{sup 3+} ion concentration, is attributed to decease in covalency of rare earth oxygen bond due to change in optical basicity of host glass matrix. From the fluorescence spectra, four emission spectral lines have been observed that correspond to the transition from {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ground state to lower lying {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} states with an excitation wavelength of 402 nm. The intensity parameters and the emission measurements have been used to estimate the various radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A{sub R}), radiative lifetime (τ{sub R}), branching ratio (β{sub R}) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ{sub e}) of luminescent levels. The value of σ{sub e} is found to decrease with increase in concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions and it possesses higher value for glass sample with x = 0.5 for transition lying in the visible region indicating its importance for photonic applications. - Highlights: • Sm{sup 3+} ions doped BaO–ZnO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. • Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters have been obtained from absorption spectra. • Radiative properties have been estimated from Judd–Ofelt theory.

  9. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC.

  10. A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1 In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2 The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC values. (3 The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC.

  11. Influences of different environmental parameters on the sorption of trivalent metal ions on bentonite: batch sorption, fluorescence, EXAFS and EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P K; Pathak, P N; Mohapatra, P K; Godbole, S V; Kadam, R M; Veligzhanin, A A; Zubavichus, Y V; Kalmykov, S N

    2014-04-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides in natural aquatic systems is of great environmental concern in view of their possible migration into biospheres of mankind. Trivalent actinides such as (241/243)Am can contribute a great deal to radioactivity for several thousand years. This migration is significantly influenced by various factors such as pH, complexing ions present in aquatic environments, and the sorption of species involving radionuclides by sediments around water bodies. Clay minerals such as bentonite are known to be highly efficient in radionuclide retention and hence are suitable candidates for backfill materials. This study presents experimental results on the interaction of Eu(iii) and Gd(iii) (chemical analogs of Am(iii) and Cm(iii)) with bentonite clay under varying experimental conditions of contact time, pH, and the presence of complexing anions such as humic acid (HA) and citric acid (cit). The sorption of HA on bentonite decreased with increasing the pH from 2 to 8, which was attributed to electrostatic interactions between HA and the bentonite surfaces. The sorption of Eu(iii) on bentonite colloids showed marginal variation with pH (>95%). However, a decrease in Eu(iii) sorption was observed in the presence of HA beyond pH 5 due to the increased aqueous complexation of Eu(iii) with deprotonated HA in the aqueous phase. The complexation of Eu(iii) with citrate ions was studied using Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) to explain the sorption data. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations were carried out to understand the local chemical environment surrounding Eu(iii) and Gd(iii) (EPR probe) sorbed on bentonite under different experimental conditions. Surface complexation modelling shows the predominant formation of ≡XOEu(+2) (silanol) up to pH < 7, and beyond which ≡YOEu(OH)(+) (aluminol) is responsible for the quantitative sorption of Eu(iii) onto

  12. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  13. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M S; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 2(2) factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M. S.; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 22 factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal.

  15. Kinetic parameters of the phenomenon of light emission thermally stimulated in CaF{sub 2} doped with Tm{sup 3+} ions; Parametros cineticos del fenomeno de emision de luz termicamente estimulada en CaF{sub 2} dopado con iones de Tm{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C., E-mail: pedro.gonzalez@inin.gob.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The characterization of new thermoluminescent materials used in radiation dosimetry, require the determination of kinetic parameters, which are associated with the number and shape of the peaks representing brightness curves. The most important parameters are: energy or depth of the traps (E), the frequency factor (s) and order kinetics (b). These are necessary to predict the stability of the thermoluminescent information saved after the effect of irradiation on the material. In this paper, the results of the determination of kinetic parameters of CaF{sub 2} doped with Tm{sup 3+} ions are presented, after being irradiated with gamma rays of {sup 60}Co. The methods used for the determination of kinetic parameters were: initial growth of thermoluminescent signal, Chen method of type general order and by deconvolution of the brightness curve. The results showed that the brightness curve of CaF{sub 2} has three peaks, the main peak at 491 K and two smaller peaks, one at 431 and another at 573 K. The dosimetric peak (491 K) has general order kinetics. (Author)

  16. Parameter Analysis Method for Lithium-ion Battery Circuit Model and State of Charge Estimation%锂电池模型参数估计与荷电状态估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东华; 马燕; 陈思琪; 朱国荣; 陈伟

    2015-01-01

    Data of 45Ah LiFePO4 Li-ion battery characteristics was collected and analyzed.The mathematical relationship between battery voltage, current and model parameters under the z domain was established respectively in the Thevenin and PNGV model, which were two kinds of practical circuits.The theory of least square method for the multivariate linear regression was used to estimate parameters of the models in the MATLAB environment.Parameters estimation results of the two models at 25℃temperature were obtained.Finally, the model accuracy was verified; and steps about two models of lithium battery suitable for SOC estimation were designed.The simulation of lithium battery SOC estimation shows that PNGV model accuracy is higher, more suitable for the actual battery modeling system.%采集了一款45Ah磷酸铁锂电池特性数据,分别在戴维南和PNGV两种实用电路模型中推导建立了z域下电池电压、电流,以及模型参数间的数学关系。采用最小二乘法多元线性回归理论,在Matlab环境下对模型参数进行了估算,得到两种模型在25℃温度下的参数估算结果,并对模型精度进行了验证,设计了适用于两种电池模型的锂电池SOC估算步骤,根据仿真得到的锂电池SOC估算情况分析得到PNGV模型精度更高,更适合用于实际电池建模系统中。

  17. Comparison of two ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approaches for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in wastewater using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry: evaluation of green parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; Moreno, A Uclés

    2014-08-22

    Two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) approaches including temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TCIL-DLLME) and ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) were compared for the extraction of six benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) from wastewater samples prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS). Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized and the most significant green parameters were quantified and compared. The best results were obtained using the US-IL-DLLME procedure, which employed the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. US-IL-DLLME procedure was fast, easy, low environmental toxicity and, it was also able to successfully extract all selected benzoylureas. This method was extensively validated with satisfactory results: limits of detection and quantification were in the range 0.5-1.0 ng L(-1) and 1.5-3.5 ng L(-1), respectively, whereas recovery rates ranged from 89 to 103% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 13.4%. The applicability of the method was assessed with the analysis of effluent wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant located in an agricultural zone of Almería (Spain) and the results indicated the presence of teflubenzuron at mean concentration levels of 11.3 ng L(-1). US-IL-DLLME sample treatment in combination with LC-QqLIT-MS/MS has demonstrated to be a sensitive, selective and efficient method to determine benzoylurea insecticides in wastewaters at ultra-trace levels.

  18. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    plasma were identified using a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer. In these experimento it is a simple matter to establish H+(H 2 0):f as the...pressure as predicted by the Thomson t2rnary mechanism whicK hzr been suownr to be valid experimentally at hiTh rrsurs (,han and Peron, 1:EI4 hereafter t...of NO , NO2 ions in various gases and the ternary recombination coefficients of these ions in the higher pres:;ure ( Thomson ) re"ie. Equation (5) cr>n

  19. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  20. Pattern formation with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experiment to study collective behavior in a nonlinear medium of trapped ions. Using laser cooling and heating and an anharmonic trap potential, one can turn an ion into a nonlinear van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. A chain of ions interacting electrostatically has stable plane waves for all parameters. The system also behaves like an excitable medium, since a sufficiently large perturbation generates a travelling pulse. Small chains exhibit multistability and limit cycles. We account for noise from spontaneous emission in the amplitude equation and find that the patterns are observable for realistic experimental parameters. The tunability of ion traps makes them an exciting setting to study nonequilibrium statistical physics.

  1. Conversion and optimization of the parameters from an extended form of the ion-interaction model for Ca(NO3)2(aq) and NaNO3(aq) to those of the standard Pitzer model, and an assessment of the accuracy of the parameter temperature representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A M; Rard, J A

    2004-12-21

    The electrolytes Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and NaNO{sub 3}(aq) are both extremely soluble but differ in several important respects. Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) has complex behavior at low ionic strengths and forms several thermodynamically stable and metastable solid phases, whereas NaNO{sub 3}(aq) forms only an anhydrous solid phase. The thermodynamic properties of both have previously been modeled using extended Pitzer ion-interaction models that include higher-order virial terms, in addition to those of the standard Pitzer model. The parameters of the original Pitzer model, however, are often needed for thermodynamic modeling calculations. In this paper we convert the parameters of the extended ion-interaction models for Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and NaNO{sub 3}(aq) to the standard Pitzer model using an extension of the methodology previously described by Rard and Wijesinghe [J. Chem. Thermodynamics 35 (2003) 439.473]. In this variant, the exponential coefficient {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} of Pitzer's model is also optimized to yield the most accurate overall representation of the osmotic coefficients {phi} over the ionic strength and temperature ranges of interest. The optimal values of {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 0.87 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} for Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 1.43 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} for NaNO{sub 3}(aq) are smaller than the value {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 2.00 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} normally used for electrolytes of these valence types. In both cases, the accuracy of the osmotic coefficients predicted by the standard Pitzer model was nearly equal to that of the extended Pitzer model up to the solubility limit for T = (298.15 to 423.15) K. This result is consistent with the findings of Rard, Wijesinghe, and Wolery [J. Chem. Eng. Data 49 (2004) 1127-1140] who obtained a substantial improvement in model accuracy for Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) at T = 298.15 K by optimizing this parameter

  2. Articulatory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 16 parameters hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for linguistic phonetic specifications. Suggests seven parameters affecting tongue shapes, three determining the positions of the lips, one controlling the position of the velum, four varying laryngeal actions, and one controlling respiratory activity. (RL)

  3. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set...

  4. An ion-optical bench for testing ion source lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    An ion-optical bench has been designed and constructed to obtain experimental data on the focusing properties of ion lenses in three dimensions. The heart of the apparatus is a position-sensitive detector (PSD) that gives output signals proportional to the x and y positions of each ion impact. The position signals can be displayed on an oscilloscope screen and analyzed by a two-parameter pulse-height analyzer, thereby giving a visual picture of the ion beam cross section and intensity distribution. The PSD itself is mounted on a track and is movable during operation from a position immediately following the ion lens to 30 cm away. This enables the rapid collection of accurate data on the intensity distribution and divergence angles of ions leaving the source lens. Examples of ion lens measurements are given.

  5. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  6. Preconcentrative separation of palladium(II) using palladium(II) ion-imprinted polymer particles formed with different quinoline derivatives and evaluation of binding parameters based on adsorption isotherm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sobhi; Babu, Prem E J; Rao, T Prasada

    2005-01-30

    Palladium(II) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) materials were synthesized by thermally polymerizing the ternary complexes of palladium(II) with amino (AQ) or hydroxy (HQ) or mercapto (MQ) derivatives of quinoline and 4-vinyl-pyridine. The functional and crosslinking monomers used during polymerization were 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). 2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and 2-methoxy ethanol were used as the initiator and porogen, respectively. The resulting polymer materials were dried in an oven at 80 degrees C, ground and sieved to obtain IIP particles which were then subjected to leaching with 50% (v/v) HCl to obtain the leached palladium(II) IIP particles. Control polymer (CP) particles were also prepared by following the above procedure described for IIP particles. The CP particles, unleached and leached AQ-based IIP particles were then characterized by IR, XRD and microanalysis studies. Analytical studies such as preconcentration of palladium(II) from dilute aqueous solutions and separation studies in the presence of selected noble and base metals which co-exist with palladium(II) in its ore or mineral deposits were systematically studied using CP and IIP particles and are compared. AQ-based IIP particles gave higher percent extraction and selectivity coefficients compared to HQ- or MQ-based IIP particles. Five replicate determinations of 25mug of palladium(II) present in 500ml of aqueous solution, when subjected to preconcentration and determination by iodide-Rhodamine 6G procedure gave a mean absorbance of 0.104 with a relative standard deviation of 2.25%. The detection limit corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank was found to be 5.0mug of palladium(II) per litre. The rebinding studies using AQ-, HQ- and MQ-based IIPs were carried out and were fitted to the different adsorption isotherm models, viz. Langmuir (L), Freundlich (F) and Langmuir-Freundlich (LF). These adsorption models were

  7. DLTS and in situ C-V analysis of trap parameters in swift 50 MeV Li3+ ion-irradiated Ni/SiO2/Si MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, N.; Singh, Vikram; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Madhu, K. V.; Akhtar, J.; Damle, R.

    2011-04-01

    Ni/SiO2/Si MOS structures were fabricated on n-type Si wafers and were irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ions with fluences ranging from 1×1010 to 1×1012 ions/cm2. High frequency C-V characteristics are studied in situ to estimate the build-up of fixed and oxide charges. The nature of the charge build-up with ion fluence is analyzed. Defect levels in bulk Si and its properties such as activation energy, capture cross-section, trap concentration and carrier lifetimes are studied using deep-level transient spectroscopy. Electron traps with energies ranging from 0.069 to 0.523 eV are observed in Li ion-irradiated devices. The dependence of series resistance, substrate doping and accumulation capacitance on Li ion fluence are clearly explained. The study of dielectric properties (tan δ and quality factor) confirms the degradation of the oxide layer to a greater extent due to ion irradiation.

  8. Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, W

    2014-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  9. Design of Magnetic Field System for Calutron Ion Source Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Xiu-yan; ZENG; Zi-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Calutron ion source is the most important equipment of EMIS,and the structure of the ion source is more complicated.Because the parameter of each part is interrelate,as experiment and test set,It is very convenient to adjust the parameter of ion source and make the ion source get a good quality.Magnetic field system is the leading and necessary auxiliary equipment of the Calutron ion source

  10. Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, S; Kamiyama, D; Nagashima, T; Barada, D; Gu, Y J; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q; Wang, P X

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters and the collimation target sizes. The intense short-pulse lasers are now available, and are used to generate an ion beam. The issues in the laser ion acceleration include an ion beam collimation, ion energy spectrum control, ion production efficiency, ion energy control, ion beam bunching, etc. The laser-produced ion beam tends to expand in the transverse and longitudinal directions during the ion beam propagation. The ion beam collimation is focused in this paper.

  11. Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  12. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  13. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An expression is derived for determining the ion temperature from the values of all extracted ion currents. One aim is to study the ion temperature behavior in argon plasmas without and with mixing different...

  14. Rectangular ion funnel: a new ion funnel interface for structures for lossless ion manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Webb, Ian K; Prost, Spencer A; Harrer, Marques B; Norheim, Randolph V; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-06

    Structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) have recently demonstrated the ability for near lossless ion focusing, transfer, and trapping in subatmospheric pressure regions. While lossless ion manipulations are advantageously applied to the applications of ion mobility separations and gas phase reactions, ion introduction through ring electrode ion funnels or more conventional ion optics to SLIM can involve discontinuities in electric fields or other perturbations that result in ion losses. In this work, we developed and investigated a new funnel design that aims to seamlessly couple to SLIM at the funnel exit. This rectangular ion funnel (RIF) was initially evaluated by ion simulations, fabricated utilizing printed circuit board technology, and tested experimentally. The RIF was integrated to a SLIM-time of flight (TOF) MS system, and the operating parameters, including RF, DC bias of the RIF electrodes, and electric fields for effectively interfacing with a SLIM, were characterized. The RIF provided a 2-fold sensitivity increase without significant discrimination over a wide m/z range and well matched to that of SLIM, along with greatly improved SLIM operational stability.

  15. Supergranular Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  16. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  17. Development of the RF Ion Sources for Focused Ion Beam Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Voznyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of ion sources developed in the IAP of NAS of Ukraine for generation of high brightness ion beams with small energy spread. A series of RF ion sources operated at the frequency of 27.12 MHz were studied: the inductive RF ion source, the helicon ion source, the multi-cusp RF ion source, and the sputter type RF source of metal ions. A global model and transformer model were applied for calculation of RF source plasma parameters. Ion energy spread, ion mass, and ion current density of some sources were measured in the wide range of RF power, extraction voltage and gas pres-sure.

  18. New Developments of a Laser Ion Source for Ion Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrashev, S; Konukov, K; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Camut, O; Chamings, J A; Kugler, H; Scrivens, R; Charushin, A; Makarov, K; Satov, Yu; Smakovskii, Yu

    2004-01-01

    Laser Ion Sources (LIS) are well suited to filling synchrotron rings with highly charged ions of almost any element in a single turn injection mode. We report the first measurements of the LIS output parameters for Pb27+ ions generated by the new 100 J/1 Hz Master Oscillator - Power Amplifier CO2-laser system. A new LIS has been designed, built and tested at CERN, as an ion source for ITEP-TWAC accelerator/accumulator facility, and as a possible future source for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain. The use of the LIS based on 100 J/1 Hz CO2-laser together with the new ion LINAC, as injector for ITEP-TWAC project, is discussed..

  19. Effects of the temperature and beam parameters on depth profiles in X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry under C{sub 60}{sup +}–Ar{sup +} cosputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Hua-Yang [Research Center for Applied Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Meng-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nation Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kao, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Ding-Yuan [Research Center for Applied Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Shyue, Jing-Jong, E-mail: shyue@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Research Center for Applied Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nation Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • XPS and SIMS depth profiles of PMMA were acquired concurrently with C{sub 60}{sup +}–Ar{sup +} cosputtering. • Artificial signal enhancement at the interface was observed in SIMS when using C{sub 60}{sup +} sputtering. • Optimized cosputtering yielded higher SIMS intensities and removed the artificial enhancement. • Increasing or decreasing the temperature further improved the resulting depth profile. - Abstract: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is widely used in various fields, including the semiconductor, biomaterial and microelectronic fields. Obtaining the correct depth profiles of PMMA is essential, especially when it is used as a thin-film. There have been many studies that have used earlier generation of cluster ion (SF{sub 5}{sup +}) as the sputtering source to profile PMMA films, but few reports have discussed the use of the more recently developed C{sub 60}{sup +} in the PMMA sputtering process. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (D-SIMS) were used concurrently to monitor the depth profiles of PMMA under C{sub 60}{sup +} bombardment. Additionally, the cosputtering technique (C{sub 60}{sup +} sputtering with auxiliary, low-kinetic-energy Ar{sup +}) was introduced to improve the analytical results. The proper cosputtering conditions could eliminate the signal enhancement near the interface that occurred with C{sub 60}{sup +} sputtering and enhance the sputtering yield of the characteristic signals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also used to measure the ion-induced topography. Furthermore, the effect of the specimen temperature on the PMMA depth profile was also examined. At higher temperatures (+120 °C), the depolymerization reaction that corresponded to main-chain scission dominated the sputtering process. At lower temperatures (−120 °C), the cross-linking mechanism was retarded significantly due to the immobilization of free radicals. Both the higher and lower

  20. Effects of heavy ions on the visual functions and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE study ALTEA-MICE TEAM 02064 Retrieving of surface parameters over the tibetan plateau with microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, X.

    ALTEA-MICE is a multidisciplinary international project sponsored by NASA and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of mice. Both normal and mutant mice with gene defects affecting photoreceptor or bipolar cell function will be studied, with the scientific focus spanning from in vitro models to in vivo approaches and from cell to system physiology. Experiments are being performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories with application of standardized electrophysiological techniques. The retina and visual cortex of adult mice and in vitro (retinal or cortical) cell preparations are radiated with short (2-5 msec) bursts of heavy (e.g. Silicon) ions, delivered by a collimated 3 mm beam. Mice are anesthetized and implanted with chronic electrodes in the visual cortex during pulsed radiation. Preliminary experiments performed with the GSI accelerator (Darmstadt, FRG) allow to record transient electrophysiological responses of the mouse visual cortex to bursts of particles in an order of magnitude of ~2 GeV, comparable to an energy loss of a bragging Fe in the eye, with 100-350 ms latency from pulsed radiation. The study protocol, experimental set-up, and preliminary results will be presented. Results from the GSI and BNL study will be outlined. The ALTEA -MICE project is expected to provide the scientific background needed to supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and to yield information about the (electrophysiological correlates) of the functional brain impairment eventually induced by heavy ions in specific instances (e.g. during long-term operations in microgravity).

  1. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  2. The Kinetics of Sorption of Lead Ions on Clinoptilolite in the H-Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimbaeva, A. M.; Ergozhin, E. E.

    2008-03-01

    The kinetics of ion exchange of lead ions on clinoptilolite in the H-form was studied experimentally. The kinetic parameters of sorption of lead ions by the natural zeolite were calculated as depending on zeolite dispersity and solution concentration.

  3. Ions Bombardment in Thin Films and Surface Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沭华; 任兆杏

    2003-01-01

    Ions bombardment is very important in thin films and surface processing. The ionenergy and ion flux are two important parameters in ion bombardment. The ion current densitymainly dependent on the plasma density gives the number of energetic ions bombarding thesubstrate. The self-bias voltage in plasma sheath accelerates plasma ions towards the substrate.RF discharge can increase plasma density and RF bias can also provide the insulator substrate witha plasma sheath. In order to choose and control ion energy, ion density, the angle of incidence,and ion species, ion beam sources are used. New types of electrodeless ion sources (RF, MW,ECR-MW) have been introduced in detail. In the last, the effects of ion bombardment on thinfilms and surface processing are presented.

  4. Range Distribution Parameters and Electronic Stopping Power for 19F+ Ions in SnO2, Indium-Tin Oxide, AgGaSe2 and AgGaS2:Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Hui-Hao; LIU Xiang-Dong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Range distributions of fluorine for 19F+- implantation into SnO2, indium-tin oxide, AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 are measured by using the 1gF(p,αγ)16O resonant nuclear reactions. The electronic stopping cross sections for 19F ions in these materials are derived from the measured range distributions. These experimental results are compared with those obtained from the newest version of stopping and range computer code, SRIM2003. The values of projected range predicted by the SRIM2003 agree well with the measured values for AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 substrates. However, the values given by the SRIM2003 substantially deviate from the experimental values for the oxide materials SnO2 and ITO.

  5. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  6. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  7. DECOMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN IN HIGH PARAMETER WATER-STEAM SYSTEM%离子交换树脂在高参数水汽系统中的分解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海军; 韩建伟; 刘小杰; 刘芬芬; 曹顺安

    2012-01-01

    通过高压釜模拟高温高压的水汽环境,研究了离子交换树脂在温度为230℃和300℃下的分解特性,全面检测了离子交换树脂的各种分解产物和树脂分解前后的结构变化,结合树脂的化学结构,分析了离子交换树脂的分解机理,并通过高压釜挂片试验,探究了离子交换树脂的分解产物对TA16合金的影响.试验结果表明,离子交换树脂的分解包括具有离子交换能力的活性基团的脱离和树脂骨架的分解,H型阳树脂分解产生了H2SO4,Na型阳树脂分解生成了NaHSO4,OH型阴树脂分解生成了三甲胺,CI型阴树脂分解产生氯化三甲铵,4种树脂分解都有苯及苯的同系物生成,且分解产物对TA16合金没有明显的腐蚀.%Decomposition characteristics of ion exchange resin have been researched in the water-steam system of 230℃ and 300℃ simulated by autoclave. The decomposition products and the molecular structure change of resin have been detected and researched comprehensively; taking account of the resin's chemical structure, the mechanism of resin's decomposition have been analyzed; and the effects of resin's decomposition products on TA16 alloy have been explored. The results show that the decomposition of resin includes the detachment of ion exchange group and the decomposition of resin framework. Thus, the decomposition of H form cation resin produces H2SO4, the decomposition of Na form cation resin produces NaHSO4, OH form anion resin trimethylamine, Cl form anion resin trimethylamine chloride; The decomposition of the four kinds of resin also produces benzene and homologue of benzene, and the products of the resin have no corrosion to TA16 alloy.

  8. Droplet-free high-density metal ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Keiji [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura@solan.chubu.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Hiroaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on plasma parameters and ion composition of droplet-free Zr ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Zirconium (Zr) ions were obtained by ionizing sputtered Zr atoms in inductively-coupled argon discharge. The characteristics of plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature were typical ones of such a inductive discharge, and the plasma parameters were not significantly influenced by mixing the sputtered Zr atoms into the plasma. Actually, the main ionic component was still Ar{sup +} ions, and the ion density ratio of [Zr{sup +}]/[Ar{sup +}] was as low as {approx}8%. Increase in sputtering rate of the Zr source will be necessary to improve the ion density ratio.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of ion implanted PPV films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, C. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Friend, R.H. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Sarnecki, G.J. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Lucas, B. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Moliton, A. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Ratier, B. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France)); Belorgeot, C. (Lab. de Physique Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences, 87 - Limoges (France))

    1993-03-15

    The main results of the spectroscopic analyses (infrared and ultraviolet - visible - near infrared) carried out on PPV films before and after ion implantation with halogen and alkali ions are presented in this paper. The influence of both ions nature and implantation parameters on optical properties of this polymer have been pointed out and the appearance of a weak band due to doping has been observed by infrared spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. Application of cinchona-sulfonate-based chiral zwitterionic ion exchangers for the separation of proline-containing dipeptide rotamers and determination of on-column isomerization parameters from dynamic elution profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernisch, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.wernisch@univie.ac.at [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 38, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Trapp, Oliver, E-mail: trapp@oci.uni-heidelberg.de [Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 270, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lindner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lindner@univie.ac.at [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 38, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •X-Pro peptides produce interconverting elution profiles on zwitterionic stationary phases. •The cis–trans isomerization rate in solution is lower than in the chromatographic system. •Cinchona-based zwitterionic selectors apparently lower the isomerization barrier. •Rotamer separation is feasible <0 °C, enantiomer separation above room temperature. -- Abstract: The interconversion of cis and trans isomers of dipeptides containing C-terminal proline was studied by dynamic chromatography on zwitterionic chiral stationary phases at temperatures ranging from −15 °C to +45 °C The cis–trans isomers could be separated below 0 °C and above 0–10 °C plateau formation and peak coalescence phenomena occurred, which is characteristic for a dynamic process at the time-scale of partitioning. At and above room temperature, full coalescence was observed, which allowed separations of enantiomers without interference from interconversion effects. Analysis of the dynamic elution profiles of the interconverting peptides allowed the determination of isomerization rate constants and thermodynamic activation parameters (isomerization enthalpy, entropy and activation energy). In accordance with established results, isomerization rates and thermodynamic parameters were found to depend on the nature of the N-terminal amino acid. Isomerization barriers were only slightly lower than values determined with other methods but significant differences in the relative contributions of the activation enthalpy and entropy as well as isomerization rates pointed toward selector-moderated isomerization dynamics.

  11. Application of cinchona-sulfonate-based chiral zwitterionic ion exchangers for the separation of proline-containing dipeptide rotamers and determination of on-column isomerization parameters from dynamic elution profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernisch, Stefanie; Trapp, Oliver; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2013-09-17

    The interconversion of cis and trans isomers of dipeptides containing C-terminal proline was studied by dynamic chromatography on zwitterionic chiral stationary phases at temperatures ranging from -15°C to +45°C The cis-trans isomers could be separated below 0°C and above 0-10°C plateau formation and peak coalescence phenomena occurred, which is characteristic for a dynamic process at the time-scale of partitioning. At and above room temperature, full coalescence was observed, which allowed separations of enantiomers without interference from interconversion effects. Analysis of the dynamic elution profiles of the interconverting peptides allowed the determination of isomerization rate constants and thermodynamic activation parameters (isomerization enthalpy, entropy and activation energy). In accordance with established results, isomerization rates and thermodynamic parameters were found to depend on the nature of the N-terminal amino acid. Isomerization barriers were only slightly lower than values determined with other methods but significant differences in the relative contributions of the activation enthalpy and entropy as well as isomerization rates pointed toward selector-moderated isomerization dynamics.

  12. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  13. 多弧离子镀TiN涂层的N2/Ar流量参数研究%Study on N2/Ar flow parameters of TiN coating deposited by multi-arc ion plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌浩; 金永中; 陈建; 蔡瑜; 余学金; 龙国俊

    2016-01-01

    TiN coating was deposited on the surface of cemented carbide substrate by multi-arc ion plating. The influ-ence of N2/Ar flow rate on the distribution of microparticles (MPs) and mechanical properties of TiN coating was stud-ied. The surface morphologies of TiN film were observed by scanning electron microscope. The amount and size of MPs were analyzed by ImageJ software. Scratch spectrometer and nanoindenter were used to evaluate mechanical properties of TiN coating. The results show that the maximum size and average diameter of MPs decrease with the increase of N2 flow,and the adhesion strength of TiN coating goes up,while the micro-hardness of TiN coating increases firstly and then decreases.%利用多弧离子镀在硬质合金基体上制备TiN涂层,研究了N2/Ar流量比对TiN涂层表面大颗粒分布与力学性能的影响。通过扫描电镜观察TiN涂层的表面形貌,并利用ImageJ图像处理软件对大颗粒的数量和尺寸进行了分析,通过自动划痕仪和纳米压痕仪对涂层的力学性能进行表征。结果表明:随着N2流量的增加,涂层表面沉积颗粒的最大直径和平均直径逐渐减小,涂层的附着力整体呈现增加趋势,显微硬度则先增大后减小。

  14. Numerical calculation of ion runaway distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Embréus, Ola; Stahl, Adam; Hirvijoki, Eero; Fülöp, Tünde

    2015-01-01

    Ions accelerated by electric fields (so-called runaway ions) in plasmas may explain observations in solar flares and fusion experiments, however limitations of previous analytic work have prevented definite conclusions. In this work we describe a numerical solver of the 2D non-relativistic linearized Fokker-Planck equation for ions. It solves the initial value problem in velocity space with a spectral-Eulerian discretization scheme, allowing arbitrary plasma composition and time-varying electric fields and background plasma parameters. The numerical ion distribution function is then used to consider the conditions for runaway ion acceleration in solar flares and tokamak plasmas. Typical time scales and electric fields required for ion acceleration are determined for various plasma compositions, ion species and temperatures, and the potential for excitation of toroidal Alfv\\'en eigenmodes during tokamak disruptions is considered.

  15. ION VATAMANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. Povar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion Vatamanu was a chemist, writer and public figure. He was equally passionate about both his chosen fields of activity: chemistry and poetry. Chemistry, with its perfect equilibrium of logic and precision, provided inspiration for lyrical creativity, whereas poetry writing enlivened his imagination and passion for chemistry. He loved his parents. He adored his wife Elena, whom he often gifted a sea of flowers. He loved his daughters Mihaela, Mariana, and Leontina. He loved life, and he loved people.

  16. Performance of an inverted ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, Sao Paulo S.P. (Brazil); Oks, E. M. [State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an 'inverted ion source.' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

  17. Ion clearing in an ERL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Liepe, Matthias

    2006-02-01

    The rest-gas in the beam-pipe of a particle accelerator is readily ionized by effects like collisions, synchrotron radiation and field emission. Positive ions are attracted to electron beams and create a nonlinear potential in the vicinity of the beam which can lead to beam halo, particle loss, optical errors or transverse and longitudinal instabilities. In an energy recovery linac (ERL) where beam-loss has to be minimal, and where beam positions and emittances have to be very stable in time, these ion effects have to be avoided. Here we investigate three measures of avoiding ion accumulation: (a) A long gap between linac bunch trains that allows ions to drift out of the beam region, a measure regularly applied in linacs; (b) a short ion clearing gap in the beam that leads to a time varying beam potential and produces large excited oscillations of ions around the electron beam, a measure regularly applied in storage rings; (c) Clearing electrodes that create a sufficient voltage to draw ions out of the beam potential, a measure used for DC electron beams and for antiproton beams. For the parameters of the X-ray ERL planned at Cornell University we show that method (a) cannot be applied, method (b) is technically cumbersome, and (c) should be most easily applicable.

  18. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  19. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  20. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  1. Status of Chemical Equilibrium in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cleymans, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on chemical equilibrium in heavy ion collisions is reviewed. The energy dependence of thermal parameters is discussed. The centrality dependence of thermal parameters at SPS energies is presented.

  2. Status of chemical equilibrium in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Cleymans

    2003-04-01

    Recent work on chemical equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. The energy dependence of thermal parameters is discussed. The centrality dependence of thermal parameters at SPS energies is presented.

  3. Ion Collision, Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Anil K.

    2013-09-11

    The outcome of a collision between an ion and neutral species depends on the chemical and physical properties of the two reactants, their relative velocities, and the impact parameter of their trajectories. These include elastic and inelastic scattering of the colliding particles, charge transfer (including dissociative charge transfer), atom abstraction, complex formation and dissociation of the colliding ion. Each of these reactions may be characterized in terms of their energy-dependent rate coefficients, cross sections and reaction kinetics. A theoretical framework that emphasizes simple models and classical mechanics is presented for these processes. Collision processes are addressed in two categories of low-energy and high-energy collisions. Experiments under thermal or quasi-thermal conditions–swarms, drift tubes, chemical ionization and ion cyclotron resonance are strongly influenced by long-range forces and often involve collisions in which atom exchange and extensive energy exchange are common characteristics. High-energy collisions are typically impulsive, involve short-range intermolecular forces and are direct, fast processes.

  4. The DCU laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

    2010-04-01

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  5. CERN PS laser ion source development

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, P; Haseroth, H; Khomenko, S; Kondrashev, S A; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Lombardi, A M; Makarov, K; Meyer, C; Ostroumov, P N; Pirkl, Werner; Rörich, V; Roudskoy, I; Satov, Yu A; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Stepanov, A; Tenishev, V; Varelá-Rodriguez, F

    1999-01-01

    CERN, together with ITEP and TRINITI (Russia), is developing a CO2 laser ion source. The key design parameters are: 1.4 1010 ions of Pb25+ in a pulse of 5.5 ms, with a 4-rms emittance of 0.2 10-6 rad m, working at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This device is considered as one candidate source for LHC heavy ion operation. The status of the laser development, the experimental set-up of the source consisting of the target area and its illumination, the plasma expansion area and extraction, beam transport and ion pre-acceleration by an RFQ, will be given.

  6. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  7. THE KINETICS OF FILM-DIFFUSION-LIMITED ION-EXCHANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAIJEVELD, G; WESSELINGH, JA

    1993-01-01

    The film-diffusion-limited ion exchange kinetics for the HCl-NaCl and HCl-CaCl2 systems on a Lewatit S100 ion exchanger are investigated. The ion exchange processes are modelled using the Maxwell-Stefan transport equations. The model uses only one fitting parameter. the film thickness, the Maxwell-S

  8. Design and Construction of a Microwave Plasma Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Çınar, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the designing and constructing a microwave ion source. The ions are generated in a thermal and dense hydrogen plasma by microwave induction. The plasma is generated by using a microwave source with a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a power of 700 W. The generated microwave is pulsing with a frequency of 50 Hz. The designed and constructed microwave system generates hydrogen plasma in a pyrex plasma chamber. Moreover, an ion extraction unit is designed and constructed in order to extract the ions from the generated hydrogen plasma. The ion beam extraction is achieved and ion currents are measured. The plasma parameters are determined by a double Langmuir probe and the ion current is measured by a Faraday cup. The designed ion extraction unit is simulated by using the dimensions of the designed and constructed ion extraction unit in order to trace out the trajectories of the extracted ions.

  9. ION GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  10. Small cluster ions from source of negative ions by cesium sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X M; Shao, L; Liu, J R; Chu, W K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the delivery of small cluster ions using a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering (SNICS). The negative cluster ions of B sub n , C sub n , Si sub n , Co sub n , Cu sub n , Ge sub n , Au sub n , GeB sub n and SiB sub n have been extracted by SNICS. Adequate beam current of some small clusters was obtained by changing several parameters for cluster ion yield. After a comprehensive study of the operation parameters, such as target material selection, target geometry, sputtering voltage and current, the small cluster ion current can be increased by several orders of magnitude, with little change on the monomer ion yield.

  11. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  12. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A.; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An express

  13. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  14. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW`s low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much_lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW`s that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW`s can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  15. Ion charge neutralization effects in scanning electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, C K

    1980-01-01

    The use of low energy ion charge neutralization to stabilize surface potentials in scanning microscopes leads to the observation of new effects. Among the most important of these, are effects which result from the primary beam being scanned in a raster. A new theory which describes raster charge-up for highly insulating specimens is presented. It is shown that the required neutralizing ion current is a surprisingly strong function of the primary electron current, the raster parameters, specimen parameters, and magnification. Contrary to intuition, the required ion current is not linearly related to the primary electron current. Methods of adjusting parameters to achieve better ion charge neutralization are discussed.

  16. A Plasma Ion Source for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Thomas Guldager

    2016-01-01

    In this report, my work testing the new Penning ion source as a summer student at ISOLTRAP is described. The project was composed of three stages: (1) Setting up a test laboratory in building 275, (2) characterizing the ion source, and (3) implementing and testing the source in the ISOLTRAP setup. After setting up the test laboratory, the ion source was tested in a constant pressure environment with produced ion currents in the range of nA . An extensive scan of the source ion current versus operating parameters (pressure, voltage) was performed. A setup with pulsed gas flow was also tested, allowing a reduction of the gas load on the vacuum system. The behavior of the ion source together with the ISOLTRAP setup was also investigated, allowing to understand current limitations and future directions of improvement.

  17. Ring Current Ion Coupling with Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2002-01-01

    A new ring current global model has been developed for the first time that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes wave evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (EMIC). The coupled model is able to simulate, for the first time self-consistently calculated RC ion kinetic and evolution of EMIC waves that propagate along geomagnetic field lines and reflect from the ionosphere. Ionospheric properties affect the reflection index through the integral Pedersen and Hall coductivities. The structure and dynamics of the ring current proton precipitating flux regions, intensities of EMIC, global RC energy balance, and some other parameters will be studied in detail for the selected geomagnetic storms. The space whether aspects of RC modelling and comparison with the data will also be discussed.

  18. Sources and detectors of fast ions for basic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Furno, Ivo; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Plyushchev, Gennady

    2009-01-01

    The physics of supra thermal test ions in turbulent plasmas can be conveniently studied in basic plasma physics devices, which allow high-resolution measurements of plasma and fast ion parameters and wave fields throughout the whole plasma cross-section. We describe recent advances in the development of an experimental setup consisting of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and drift/interchange–dr...

  19. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Deng, Liulin; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A; Prost, Spencer A; Norheim, Randolph V; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Smith, Richard D

    2015-11-17

    We report on the development and characterization of a traveling wave (TW)-based Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses parallel arrays of rf electrodes on two closely spaced surfaces for ion confinement, where the rf electrodes are separated by arrays of short electrodes, and using these TWs can be created to drive ion motion. In this initial work, TWs are created by the dynamic application of dc potentials. The capabilities of the TW-SLIM module for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different rf and TW parameters are reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to transmit a wide mass range of ions (m/z 200-2500) utilizing a confining rf waveform (∼1 MHz and ∼300 Vp-p) and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Additionally, the short TW-SLIM module achieved resolutions comparable to existing commercially available low pressure IMS platforms and an ion mobility peak capacity of ∼32 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of rf and TW parameters and demonstrated robust performance. The combined attributes of the flexible design and low voltage requirements for the TW-SLIM module provide a basis for devices capable of much higher resolution and more complex ion manipulations.

  20. Micron-focused ion beamlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-01

    A multiple beam electrode system (MBES) is used to provide focused ion beamlets of elements from a compact microwave plasma. In this study, a honeycomb patterned plasma electrode with micron size apertures for extracting ion beamlets is investigated. The performance of the MBES is evaluated with the help of two widely adopted and commercially available beam simulation tools, AXCEL-INP and SIMION, where the input parameters are obtained from our experiments. A simple theoretical model based upon electrostatic ray optics is employed to compare the results of the simulations. It is found that the results for the beam focal length agree reasonably well. Different geometries are used to optimize the beam spot size and a beam spot ˜5-10 μm is obtained. The multiple ion beamlets will be used to produce microfunctional surfaces on soft matter like polymers. Additionally, the experimental set-up and plans are presented in the light of above applications.

  1. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  2. The Frankfurt RF-driven ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Beller, Peter; Klein, H; Maaser, A; Volk, K; Weber, M

    2000-01-01

    An RF-driven volume ion source based on the high efficiency ion source (HIEFS) has been developed at the Institut fuer Angewandte Physik in Frankfurt. The RF-driven ion source operates at a frequency of 3.5 MHz with a maximum duty factor of 10%. Using an 11 kW RF-amplifier a He sup + -beam with a current of 82 mA as well as an oxygen beam with a current of 39 mA and an O sup + -fraction of 90% could be extracted. Experiments were done to study the operating conditions of the ion source. For the working gases helium and oxygen the emission current density in dependence on several ion source parameters was investigated. Furthermore, the energy distribution of the electrons and ions in the plasma as well as the beam composition for several working gases were studied. This article will give a detailed description of the ion source and the experimental setup. In addition, various dependencies between the plasma parameters and the emission current density, the energy distribution of electrons and ions and the beam ...

  3. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, K L

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long-established. A recent development is the computerised aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the novel voltage decay inversion, and an established volt...

  4. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  5. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  6. Nonplanar ion-acoustic shocks in electron–positron–ion plasmas: Effect of superthermal electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deb Kumar Ghosh; Prasantha Chatterjee; Pankaj Kumar Mandal; Biswajit Sahu

    2013-09-01

    Ion-acoustic shock waves (IASWs) in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma, comprising superthermal electrons, positrons, and singly charged adiabatically hot positive ions are investigated via two-dimensional nonplanar Kadomstev–Petviashvili–Burgers (KPB) equation. It is found that the profiles of the nonlinear shock structures depend on the superthermality of electrons. The influence of other plasma parameters such as, ion kinematic viscosity and ion temperature, is discussed in the presence of superthermal electrons in nonplanar geometry. It is also seen that the IASWs propagating in cylindrical/spherical geometry with transverse perturbation will be deformed as time goes on.

  7. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  8. Microscopic mechanism of the zero-field splitting parameters for 6S(3d5 ) state ions at trigonal symmetry crystal filed%三角对称晶场中6S(3d5)态离子零场分裂参量的微观起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子元

    2011-01-01

    基于完全对角化方法(complete diagonalization method,CDM),研究了6S(3d5)态离子在三角晶场(包括C3v,D3,D3d点群对称晶场)中零场分裂(zero-field splitting,ZFS)参量D和(a-F)的微观起源.研究中除了考虑研究者通常考虑的SO(spin-orbit)磁相互作用外,同时考虑了SS(spin-spin),SOO(spin-other-orbit),OO(orbit-orbit)磁相互作用.研究表明:在三角对称晶场中,6S(3d5)态离子的ZFS参量在所选晶场的大多部分区域主要起源于SO机理,但SS机理、SOO机理、OO机理对ZFS参量的贡献不能被忽略.此外研究表明:ZFS参量D和(a-f)主要来自纯自旋四重态及自旋二重态与自旋四重态联合作用的贡献,纯自旋二重态对ZFS参量D和(a-F)的贡献为零.我们发现二阶ZFS参量D与四阶ZFS参量(a-f)有不同的微观起源.二阶ZFS参量D主要来自自旋四重态的贡献,而四阶ZFS参量(a-f)主要来自自旋二重态与自旋四重态联合作用的贡献.作为本文理论的应用,研究了掺杂晶体材料Fe3+:Al2O3,理论与实验测量符合很好.%The microscopic mechanism of the zero-field splitting parameters (ZFS) including D and (a - F) for 6S(3d5) state ion in trigonal-symmetry crystal field have been investigated using the complete diagonaliztion method (CDM) by taking into account the spin-spin (SS) , the spin-other-orbit (SOO) and the orbit-orbit (OO) magnetic interactions besides the well-known spin-orbit (SO) magnetic interaction.It was found that the contribution to the ZFS parameters D and (a -F)arising from the spin-orbit (SO) magnetic interaction is the most important in most of the crystal field (CF) ranges, but the contribution to the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter D and ( a - F) from the other three mechanisms, including the SS mechanism, SOO mechanism and OO mechanism, can't be ignored.The ZFS parameters D and (a - F) arise from the net spin quartet states as well as the combined effects of the spin doublet states and the spin quartets

  9. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  10. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D

    2017-10-06

    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm(2), paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  11. Ion Sources for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility; such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize ECR ions beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating...

  12. Ion Correlations at Electrified Soft Matter Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanait, Nouamane

    2011-07-01

    Ion correlations have been suggested as the underlying mechanism of a number of counterintuitive phenomena in soft condensed-matter, such as like-charge attraction. Recently, several theoretical models have emerged, attempting to address these electrostatic correlations, beyond the mean field description of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The central prediction of these theories, the ion density profile, has remained untested by measurements with microscopic resolution. In this work, we present the first molecular-level tests of an ion correlations model. Analysis of synchrotron x-ray reflectivity using a phenomenological model reveals ion condensation at the liquid/liquid interface, when polarized with an electric field. Tuning the density of this ionic layer allows for a detailed study of ion correlations as a function of the Coulomb coupling strength in the system. We propose a density functional theory that aims to describe electrostatic ion correlations and explicitly includes solvent effects through an ion-solvent interaction potential, mapped out using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The proposed model predicts global electrostatic properties of the system that are in excellent agreement with thermodynamic measurements of the interfacial excess charge, with no adjustable parameters. Comparison of the density profiles to the x-ray data indicates that a nonlocal free functional based on the Debye-Hückel-Hole theory of a one-component plasma, adequately describes ion-ion interactions up to a correlation strength of 4 kBT. We anticipate this result to be of relevance in other strongly correlated soft matter systems.

  13. Ion-gap sensing for engine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This article reports that in addition to detecting misfire to conform with California onboard diagnostic (OBD II) regulations, Delco Electronics and Mecel AB engineers are looking at ion-gap sensing to control knock, A/F ratio, and other possible engine control parameters. The combustion of fuel in an engine cylinder produces ions. Detection of those ions by the spark plug (ion-gap sensing), and use of the resulting ion currents, has been employed in engine management systems since 1988. Saab introduced the first application, for cam-phase sensing. The main driving force for ion-gap sensing is OBD II requirements for 100% misfire detection at all speeds and loads. The technique has been expanded in subsequent applications to include misfire, knock, and pre-ignition detection and control, and more recently in combustion-ion detection using a capacitance-type, ion-current measurement method. Use of the ion current`s wave shape to control knock allows elimination of the separate piezoelectric type (PZT) sensor. Future applications could provide additional engine-control features including air/fuel ratio measurement and control.

  14. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  15. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  16. Surface modification of sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The range of microstructures and properties of sapphire (single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that are produced by ion implantation are discussed with respect to the implantation parameters of ion species, fluence, irradiation temperature and the orientation of the ion beam relative to crystallographic axes. The microstructure of implanted sapphire may be crystalline with varying concentrations of defects or it may be amorphous perhaps with short-range order. At moderate to high fluences, implanted metallic ions often coalesce into pure metallic colloids and gas ions form bubbles. Many of the implanted microstructural features have been identified from studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties reflect the microstructures.

  17. Measurement of ion swarm distribution functions in miniature low-temperature co-fired ceramic ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N

    2005-08-15

    Measurements of the performance of a miniature, portable 12-mm-diameter, 57-mm-length low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) ion mobility spectrometer drift tube were undertaken to verify models of ion transport and determine the physical shape of the ion "swarms" in the LTCC tube. Simplified two-dimensional Gaussian models of ion swarm shape were fit to measured data to extract geometrical shape parameters. Results indicate that tube-transfer function effects that produce asymmetric ion swarms are minimized in the tube reducing temporal dispersion. Data are presented that illustrate the swarm shape as a function of gate time, electric field magnitude, and total charge in the ion swarm. Characterization and understanding of the ion transport mechanisms and effects that limit the resolution and other performance parameters of miniature IMS drift tubes is essential to the development of practical, robust, portable systems for "first responder" and homeland security missions.

  18. New Parameter of Geoecological Protective Ability of Construction Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatovskaya Larisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New parameter of geoecological protective ability of construction materials and articles is suggested. Effect is based on the fact that any solid surface possess centers of adsorption. It is shown that Broensted basic surface centers are active in adsorption of heavy metal ions from water solutions and materials having such centers on their surface are able to remove heavy metal ions from water and thus to protect soil from contamination with such ions. For example, foam concrete with ability to adsorb heavy metal ions may be used to protect soil near railway tracks.

  19. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  20. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  1. Beam investigations at a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H. (Institut fuer Angewandte Physik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Robert-Mayer-Strasse 2-4, D-6000 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Leung, K.N. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1992-04-01

    In cooperation with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a multicusp ion source has been investigated. The goal of these investigations is to generate a nearly pure atomic nitrogen (N{sup +}) ion beam. To achieve this, the discharge chamber is divided into two parts of different plasma parameters by means of a filter magnetic field. As beam diagnostics, a bending magnet and a faraday cup have been used. Measurements of the beam current density and the ion composition for a wide range of discharge conditions have been performed. By using a Langmuir probe, we have performed measurements of electron temperature and electron density.

  2. The production and destruction of negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  3. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  4. Multicusp ion sources (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1994-04-01

    During the last decade, different types of multicusp ion sources, such as high current, high concentration H[sup +], H[sup +][sub 2], or N[sup +] ion sources, negative ion sources, radio-frequency-driven sources, and high charge state ion sources have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This article reviews the history of the research and development of these ion sources and their applications.

  5. Modelling spin Hamiltonian parameters of molecular nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tulika; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-07-12

    Molecular nanomagnets encompass a wide range of coordination complexes possessing several potential applications. A formidable challenge in realizing these potential applications lies in controlling the magnetic properties of these clusters. Microscopic spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters describe the magnetic properties of these clusters, and viable ways to control these SH parameters are highly desirable. Computational tools play a proactive role in this area, where SH parameters such as isotropic exchange interaction (J), anisotropic exchange interaction (Jx, Jy, Jz), double exchange interaction (B), zero-field splitting parameters (D, E) and g-tensors can be computed reliably using X-ray structures. In this feature article, we have attempted to provide a holistic view of the modelling of these SH parameters of molecular magnets. The determination of J includes various class of molecules, from di- and polynuclear Mn complexes to the {3d-Gd}, {Gd-Gd} and {Gd-2p} class of complexes. The estimation of anisotropic exchange coupling includes the exchange between an isotropic metal ion and an orbitally degenerate 3d/4d/5d metal ion. The double-exchange section contains some illustrative examples of mixed valance systems, and the section on the estimation of zfs parameters covers some mononuclear transition metal complexes possessing very large axial zfs parameters. The section on the computation of g-anisotropy exclusively covers studies on mononuclear Dy(III) and Er(III) single-ion magnets. The examples depicted in this article clearly illustrate that computational tools not only aid in interpreting and rationalizing the observed magnetic properties but possess the potential to predict new generation MNMs.

  6. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  7. Incoherent vertical ion losses during multiturn stacking cooling beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syresin, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of the multiturn ion injection with electron cooling depends on two parameters, namely, cooling efficiency and ion lifetime. The lifetime of freshly injected ions is usually shorter than the lifetime of strongly cooled stacked ions. Freshly injected ions are lost in the vertical direction because the vertical acceptance of the synchrotron is usually a few times smaller than the horizontal acceptance. Incoherent vertical losses of freshly injected ions arise from their multiple scattering by residual gas atoms and transverse diffusion caused by stack noise. Reduced ion lifetime limits the multiturn injection efficiency. Analytical estimations and BETACOOL-based numerical evaluations of the vertical ion losses during multiturn injection are presented in comparison with the experimental data obtained at the HIMAC synchrotron and the S-LSR storage ring.

  8. Stability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a multi-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Kurian; S Jyothi; S K Leju; Molly Isaac; Chandu Venugopal; G Renuka

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the stability of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in a plasma consisting of isotropic hydrogen ions (+) and temperature-anisotropic positively (+) and negatively (−) charged oxygen ions, with the electrons drifting parallel to the magnetic field. Analytical expressions have been derived for the frequency and growth/damping rate of ion cyclotron waves around the first harmonic of both hydrogen and oxygen ion gyrofrequencies. We find that the frequencies and growth/damping rates are dependent on the densities and temperatures of all species of ions. A detailed numerical study, for parameters relevant to comet Halley, shows that the growth rate is dependent on the magnitude of the frequency. The ion cyclotron waves are driven by the electron drift parallel to the magnetic field; the temperature anisotropy of the oxygen ions only slightly enhance the growth rates for small values of temperature anisotropies. A simple explanation, in terms of wave exponentiation times, is offered for the absence of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in the multi-ion plasma of comet Halley.

  9. Erosion yield of metal surface under ion pulsed irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivobokov, Valery; Stepanova, Olga, E-mail: omsa@tpu.ru; Yuryeva, Alena

    2013-11-15

    The paper is devoted to the study of erosion processes on a metal surface (Ag, Ni, Cu, W) under argon ion bombardment. The erosion yields including the sputtered and evaporated particles have been calculated for a wide range of the initial ion energy (1–1000 keV). They are revealed to reach the values from units to 10{sup 4} atom/ion under a pulsed ion beam with the power density of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}. The ion beam and target parameters are shown to influence on the erosion intensity.

  10. Ion dynamics in plasma compensation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, I.V.; Lotov, K.V. E-mail: lotov@inp.nsk.su

    2002-06-11

    In this paper the ability of a plasma to compensate beam-induced fields at the interaction point of muon colliders is discussed. Among numerous factors that limit beam and plasma parameters for which a given compensation degree can be achieved, one of the most important limitations (the motion of plasma ions) is analyzed in details. It is found that this limitation is determined by an instability of the relative motion of plasma electrons and ions. It is shown that discussed parameters of ultimate muon colliders fall outside the applicability area of plasma compensation.

  11. Compressive and Rarefactive Waves in Dust Plasma with Non-thermal Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wen-Shan; WANG Hong-Yan; John Parkes

    2006-01-01

    The governing equation of the dust fluid with non-thermal ions and variable dust charge on dust particles in hot dust plasmas is obtained. Both the compressive and rarefactive waves in this system are investigated. They can be determined by plasma parameters including the temperatures of dust fluid, ions and electrons, as well as the non-thermal parameter of ions, and the number densities of the dust particles, the ions and the electrons, etc.

  12. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  13. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  14. Measuring the seeds of thermal ion outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip A.

    The ionosphere is the primary source for heavy ions which are ubiquitous in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Low-altitude energization in the auroral ionosphere results in bulk heating and transverse acceleration of ions, which begin to upwell and/or be accelerated upward by the mirror force, starting upflow and leading to the outflow process. The details of the processes that seed ion outflow at low altitudes are difficult to measure in situ and thus remain an open question. We examine the observational parameter regime in which ion upflow/outflow initiates. Emphasis is placed on making measurements of the thermal ion kinetic distribution function, allowing for accounting of processes which affect in situ plasma measurements. We consider an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) instrument capable of making the measurements necessary to quantify the roles of various heating mechanisms in initiating ion upflow in the low-altitude auroral ionosphere. We present the difficulties associated with making these measurements and identify instrument design choices that mitigate some of these measurement challenges. Analysis of ESA measurements of the thermal ion distribution function taken on the MICA auroral sounding rocket is presented. Using a Maxwellian model to replicate possible measured spectra, we calculate integrated parameters from the model and compare with equivalent parameters calculated from the in situ data. Through Liouville's theorem and the thin-sheath approximation we couple the measured and forward-modeled parameters such that measurements inside the sheath provide information about the state of the plasma outside the sheath. Throughout the MICA flight, ion upflow is observed and attributed to ambipolar electric fields and/or ion-neutral interactions. Late in the flight we observe quasi-static frictional process driving the ion temperature. Early in the flight we observe ion heating weakly correlated with ELF wave activity; our analysis suggests we must consider

  15. Ions and light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 3: Ions and Light discusses how ions are formed by electron impact, ion-molecule reactions, or electrical discharge. This book discusses the use of light emitted by excited molecules to characterize either the chemistry that formed the excited ion, the structure of the excited ion, or both.Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the extension of the classical flowing afterglow technique to include infrared and chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection. This text then examines the experiments involving molecules that ar

  16. In situ ion-beam analysis and modification of sol-gel zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, T.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Yu, Ning; Kodali, P.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Tesmer, J.R.; Maggiore, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mayer, J.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical, Bio and Materials Science Engineering

    1995-05-01

    We report the investigation of ion-beam-induced densification of sol-gel zirconia thin films via in situ ion backscattering spectrometry. We have irradiated three regions of a sample with neon, argon, and krypton ions. For each ion species, a series of irradiation and analysis steps were performed using an interconnected 3 MV tandem accelerator. The technique offers the advantages of minimizing the variation of experimental parameters and sequentially monitoring the densification phenomenon with increasing ion dose.

  17. Cathodic delamination of seawater-immersed anticorrosive coatings: Mapping of parameters affecting the rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    -steel interface, where solid iron is oxidized to ferrous ions and oxygen is reduced to hydroxyl ions. In this work, the effects of various parameters on cathodic delamination have been investigated. The parameters are: permeability of the coating, concentration of dissolved oxygen and cations, polarization...

  18. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  19. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  20. Heavy Ion Physics in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G; Chatrchyan, Serguei; Contardo, Didier; Damgov, Jordan; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Drapier, Olivier; Geist, Walter; Genchev, Vladimir; Haroutunian, Roger; Hayrapetyan, M G; Hencken, K; Jenkovszky, L L; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Kharlov, Yuri; Kodolova, Olga; Kotlinski, Danek; Kruglov, Nikolai A; Kva, R

    2000-01-01

    This note summarizes the CMS potential for Heavy Ions Collisions studies. The main physics topic is the study of Y to muon pair decays in view of Y family supression studies, with a detailed discussion of muon reconstruction efficiencies and purities in conditions of central Pb-Pb collisions. We also discuss energy flow and impact parameter measurements, the observability of continuum muon pairs and of Z to mu + mu decays, and of jets and hard direct photons as a means to study jet quenching. We also discuss pA interactions as well as gamma-gamma physics. The instrumental specificities of CMS for heavy ion running are discussed, including trigger and data acquisition aspects.

  1. Linear and nonlinear obliquely propagating ion-acoustic waves in magnetized negative ion plasma with non-thermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Jain, S. K.; Jain

    2013-10-01

    Ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized low-β plasma consisting of warm adiabatic positive and negative ions and non-thermal electrons have been studied. The reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that due to the presence of finite ion temperature there exist two modes of propagation, namely fast and slow ion-acoustic modes. In the case of slow-mode if the ratio of temperature to mass of positive ion species is lower (higher) than the negative ion species, then there exist compressive (rarefactive) ion-acoustic solitons. It is also found that in the case of slow mode, on increasing the non-thermal parameter (γ) the amplitude of the compressive (rarefactive) soliton decreases (increases). In fast ion-acoustic mode the nature and characteristics of solitons depend on negative ion concentration. Numerical investigation in case of fast mode reveals that on increasing γ, the amplitude of compressive (rarefactive) soliton increases (decreases). The width of solitons increases with an increase in non-thermal parameters in both the modes for compressive as well as rarefactive solitons. There exists a value of critical negative ion concentration (α c ), at which both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitons appear as described by modified KdV soliton. The value of α c decreases with increase in γ.

  2. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  3. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  4. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  5. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  6. Influence of primary ion bombardment conditions on the emission of molecular secondary ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, R.; Hagenhoff, B.; Kollmer, F.; Moellers, R.; Niehuis, E

    2004-06-15

    In order to further our understanding of the secondary ion emission behavior from organic surfaces, we have performed a systematic study on the influence of the primary ion parameters. As model sample Irganox 1010 on low density polyethylene (LDPE) was used. Both monoatomic (Ga, Cs, Au) and polyatomic (Au{sub 2}, Au{sub 3}, SF{sub 5}, C{sub 60}) primary ions were used. Additionally, the primary ion energy was varied. The data were evaluated by calculating secondary ion yields, disappearance cross sections and ion formation efficiencies (yield/damage cross section). The results show that heavier monoatomic ions are more efficient than lighter ones and that polyatomic primary ions are more efficient than monoatomic ones. Highest efficiency values are found for C{sub 60} bombardment at 20 keV. Compared to Ga bombardment the efficiency gain in this case is more than 2000-fold. Additionally it can be shown that the higher efficiency is correlated with a softer ionization, i.e. less fragmentation. The results suggest a much more homogeneous energy distribution in the sample surface by polyatomic primary ions compared to monoatomic ones.

  7. Influence of primary ion bombardment conditions on the emission of molecular secondary ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, R.; Hagenhoff, B.; Kollmer, F.; Möllers, R.; Niehuis, E.

    2004-06-01

    In order to further our understanding of the secondary ion emission behavior from organic surfaces, we have performed a systematic study on the influence of the primary ion parameters. As model sample Irganox 1010 on low density polyethylene (LDPE) was used. Both monoatomic (Ga, Cs, Au) and polyatomic (Au 2, Au 3, SF 5, C 60) primary ions were used. Additionally, the primary ion energy was varied. The data were evaluated by calculating secondary ion yields, disappearance cross sections and ion formation efficiencies (yield/damage cross section). The results show that heavier monoatomic ions are more efficient than lighter ones and that polyatomic primary ions are more efficient than monoatomic ones. Highest efficiency values are found for C 60 bombardment at 20 keV. Compared to Ga bombardment the efficiency gain in this case is more than 2000-fold. Additionally it can be shown that the higher efficiency is correlated with a softer ionization, i.e. less fragmentation. The results suggest a much more homogeneous energy distribution in the sample surface by polyatomic primary ions compared to monoatomic ones.

  8. Variables Affecting the Internal Energy of Peptide Ions During Separation by Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Brandon G.; Campbell, Matthew T.; Glish, Gary L.

    2017-10-01

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) devices separate ions on the basis of differences in ion mobility in low and high electric fields, and can be used as a stand-alone analytical method or as a separation step before further analysis. As with other ion mobility separation techniques, the ability of DIMS separations to retain the structural characteristics of analytes has been of concern. For DIMS separations, this potential loss of ion structure originates from the fact that the separations occur at atmospheric pressure and the ions, during their transit through the device, undergo repeated collisions with the DIMS carrier gas while being accelerated by the electric field. These collisions have the ability to increase the internal energy distribution of the ions, which can cause isomerization or fragmentation. The increase in internal energy of the ions is based on a number of variables, including the dispersion field and characteristics of the carrier gas such as temperature and composition. The effects of these parameters on the intra-DIMS fragmentation of multiply charged ions of the peptides bradykinin (RPPGFSPFR) and GLISH are discussed herein. Furthermore, similarities and differences in the internal energy deposition that occur during collisional activation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments are discussed, as the fragmentation pathways accessed by both are similar. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  10. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  11. Isotope effects in a multicusp tandem ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, W.G. (Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (Northern Ireland))

    1992-10-05

    Measurements of plasma parameters, including electron density, electron energy distribution function (eedf), and negative ion density, have been made in the driver and extractor regions of a multicusp tandem ion source. Here results which focus on comparing operation in hydrogen and deuterium are presented. Several isotope effects are evident. In particular, for the same operating conditions, the electron density is found to be higher in deuterium than in hydrogen while the negative ion density is consistently lower.

  12. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  13. Estimating Cosmological Parameter Covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bias and error in estimates of the cosmological parameter covariance matrix, due to sampling or modelling the data covariance matrix, for likelihood width and peak scatter estimators. We show that these estimators do not coincide unless the data covariance is exactly known. For sampled data covariances, with Gaussian distributed data and parameters, the parameter covariance matrix estimated from the width of the likelihood has a Wishart distribution, from which we derive the mean and covariance. This mean is biased and we propose an unbiased estimator of the parameter covariance matrix. Comparing our analytic results to a numerical Wishart sampler of the data covariance matrix we find excellent agreement. An accurate ansatz for the mean parameter covariance for the peak scatter estimator is found, and we fit its covariance to our numerical analysis. The mean is again biased and we propose an unbiased estimator for the peak parameter covariance. For sampled data covariances the width estimat...

  14. Hot pressed K+ ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes: synthesis, ion conduction and polymeric battery fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis and ion transport studies of hot pressed K+ ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs): (1 - x) PEO: x KBr, where 0 polymer-salt complexation in SPE composition: (70:30) with conductivity ( σ) 5.01 × 10-7 S cm-1 from the room temperature conductivity measurements. Materials characterization and polymer-salt complexations of present SPEs have been explained with the help of various techniques viz. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy technique. To explain the ion conduction in the present SPEs, temperature dependent ionic conductivity ( σ), ionic mobility ( μ), mobile ion concentration ( n), ionic transference number ( t ion ) and ionic drift velocity ( v d ) have been calculated with the help of various experimental techniques. A solid state polymer battery is also fabricated by using the present SPE as an electrolyte and have been calculated their important cell parameters at room temperature.

  15. Traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry of protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salbo, Rune; Bush, Matthew F; Naver, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The collision cross-section (Ω) of a protein or protein complex ion can be measured using traveling-wave (T-wave) ion mobility (IM) mass spectrometry (MS) via calibration with compounds of known Ω. The T-wave Ω-values depend strongly on instrument parameters and calibrant selection. Optimization...

  16. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  17. Cluster ions and van der Waals molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    1992-01-01

    This review discusses current ideas in the physics and chemistry of cluster ions and Van der Waals molecules as well as presenting numerical data on their parameters and the processes involving them. It is also a detailed reference on basic data relating to many species.

  18. Optimization of the ion implantation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maczka, D.; Latuszynski, A.; Kuduk, R.; Partyka, J.

    This work is devoted to the optimization of the ion implantation process in the implanter Unimas of the Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin. The results obtained during several years of operation allow us to determine the optimal work parameters of the device [1-3].

  19. Collisions of antiprotons with hydrogen molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent close-coupling calculations of the ionization and excitation cross section for antiproton collisions with molecular hydrogen ions are performed in an impact energy range from 0.5 keV to 10 MeV. The Born-Oppenheimer and Franck-Condon approximations as well as the impact parameter...

  20. [Development of metal ions analysis by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Wang, Yuxin

    2007-05-01

    Analysis of metal ions by ion chromatography, including cation-exchange ion chromatography, anion-exchange ion chromatography and chelation ion chromatography, is reviewed. The cation-exchange ion chromatography is a main method for the determination of metal ions. Stationary phases in cation-exchange ion chromatography are strong acid cation exchanger (sulfonic) and weak acid cation exchanger (carboxylic). Alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions, transition metal ions, rare earth metal ions, ammonium ions and amines can be analyzed by cation-exchange ion chromatography with a suitable detector. The anion-exchange ion chromatography is suitable for the separation and analysis of alkaline earth metal ions, transition metal ions and rare earth metal ions. The selectivity for analysis of metal ions with anion-exchange ion chromatography is good. Simultaneous determination of metal ions and inorganic anions can be achieved using anion-exchange ion chromatography. Chelation ion chromatography is suitable for the determination of trace metal ions in complex matrices. A total of 125 references are cited.

  1. Method for Continuous Monitoring of Electrospray Ion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Guille; Crathern, Susan; Bachmann, Lorin; Fernández-Metzler, Carmen; King, Richard

    2017-10-01

    A method for continuously monitoring the performance of electrospray ionization without the addition of hardware or chemistry to the system is demonstrated. In the method, which we refer to as SprayDx, cluster ions with solvent vapor natively formed by electrospray are followed throughout the collection of liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring data. The cluster ion extracted ion chromatograms report on the consistency of the ion formation and detection system. The data collected by the SprayDx method resemble the data collected for postcolumn infusion of analyte. The response of the cluster ions monitored reports on changes in the physical parameters of the ion source such as voltage and gas flow. SprayDx is also observed to report on ion suppression in a fashion very similar to a postcolumn infusion of analyte. We anticipate the method finding utility as a continuous readout on the performance of electrospray and other atmospheric pressure ionization processes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. The influence of ions on atmospheric aerosol processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Ice Age, the Medieval Warmth, and other climate phenomena going further back in time, is that of Ion Induced Nucleation { the ability of ions to enhance the formation of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Several nucleation events that cannot be explained with the standard theory of homogeneous...... nucleation have been speculated to be caused by ions. Correlations between ionisation sources and climate parameters have been put forth, and experiments with extreme gas or ion concentrations have shown an eect of the ions. The relevance of Ion Induced Nucleation is, however, still undergoing debate [1, p....... 188]. In this study 3 dierent experimental setups were employed to investigate the eect of ions on aerosol processes under atmospheric conditions. 1...

  3. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga+ ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga+ ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga+ ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm2. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm2 is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  4. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xin; Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhao@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yan, Dong; Pei, Jiayun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. Chinaand Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga{sup +}) ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga{sup +} ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2} is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  5. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  6. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  7. Ion-acoustic solitons in negative ion plasma with two-electron temperature distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Chawla, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a warm positive and negative ion species with different masses, concentrations, and charge states with two electron temperature distributions are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) and modified-KdV (m-KdV) equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the KdV and m-KdV equations is discussed in detail. It is found that if the ions have finite temperatures, then there exist two types of modes, namely slow and fast ion-acoustic modes. It is also investigated that the parameter determining the nature of soliton (i.e., whether the system will support compressive or rarefactive solitons) is different for slow and fast modes. For the slow mode, the parameter is the relative temperature of the two ion species; whereas for the fast mode, it is the relative concentration of the two ion species. At a critical concentration of negative ions, both compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist. The amplitude and width of the solitons are discussed in detail at critical concentration for m-KdV solitons. The effect of the relative temperature of the two-electron and cold-electron concentration on the characteristics of the solitons are also discussed.

  8. Ion-acoustic double layers in magnetized positive-negative ion plasmas with nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Elghmaz, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nonlinear ion-acoustic double layers (IADLs) in a warm magnetoplasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (MZK) equation, in the small amplitude regime. It is found that compressive and rarefactive IADLs strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the negative-to-positive ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Also, it is shown that there are one critical value for the density ratio of the negative-to-positive ions ( ν), the ratio between unperturbed electron-to-positive ion density ( μ), and the nonthermal electron parameter ( β), which decide the existence of positive and negative IADLs. The present study is applied to examine the small amplitude nonlinear IADL excitations for the (H+, O2-) and (H+,H-) plasmas, where they are found in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the nonlinear IADLs in either space or laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.

  9. Headgroup interactions and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, and divalent metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanedal, Ida; Boija, Susanne; Norgren, Magnus; Edlund, Håkan

    2014-06-10

    The correlation between interaction parameters and ion flotation efficiency in mixtures of chelating surfactant metal complexes and different foaming agents was investigated. We have recently shown that chelating surfactant 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4-C12-DTPA) forms strong coordination complexes with divalent metal ions, and this can be utilized in ion flotation. Interaction parameters for mixed micelles and mixed monolayer formation for Mg(2+) and Ni(2+) complexes with the chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated by Rubingh's regular solution theory. Parameters for the calculations were extracted from surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry. The effects of metal ion coordination on the interactions between 4-C12-DTPA and the foaming agents could be linked to a previously established difference in coordination chemistry between the examined metal ions. As can be expected from mixtures of amphoteric surfactants, the interactions were strongly pH-dependent. Strong correlation was found between interaction parameter β(σ) for mixed monolayer formation and the phase-transfer efficiency of Ni(2+) complexes with 4-C12-DTPA during flotation in a customized flotation cell. In a mixture of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), the significant difference in conditional stability constants (log K) between the metal complexes was utilized to selectively recover the metal complex with the highest log K (Cu(2+)) by ion flotation. Flotation experiments in an excess concentration of metal ions confirmed the coordination of more than one metal ion to the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA.

  10. Conditions for the Observation of Two Ion-Acoustic Waves via Thomson Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑坚; 胡广月; 王哲斌; 俞昌旋; 刘万东

    2003-01-01

    Observation of two ion-acoustic waves via Thomson scattering can provide precise measurements of plasma parameters. The conditions for the observation of two ion-acoustic modes in a two-ion plasmaare discussed.The ratio of electron temperature Te to ion temperature Ti is the critical parameter for the presence of two ion-acoustic modes, which should be in the range of 4/ZL(<~)Te/Ti(<~)2AH/ZHAL, where ZL,H are the charge states of light and heavy ions, and AL,H are the atomic numbers of light and heavy ions, respectively. As the temperature ratio varies in this range, the concentration of heavy ions must increase with the ratio Te/Ti so that the two ion-acoustic modes can have the same fluctuation levels.

  11. Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...

  12. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  13. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  14. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Tauschwitz, A.; Grote, D.; Deadrick, F.

    1996-03-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K+ ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 in. curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 μs. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm mrad is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  15. Lumped-parameter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. The lumped-parameter model development have been reported by (Wolf 1991b; Wolf 1991a; Wolf and Paronesso 1991; Wolf and Paronesso 19...

  16. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-10-18

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source, and limited to injected ion populations of ~106 charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods (e.g. in extended pulses). In this work a new SLIM ‘flat funnel’ (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ~3.2×108 charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing e.g. efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, RF, and DC confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission and separation in the FF IM module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in signal to noise (S/N) ratios due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  17. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Hamid, Ahmed M; Norheim, Randolph V; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-10-07

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source and was limited to injected ion populations of ∼10(6) charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods, such as in extended pulses. In this work a new SLIM "flat funnel" (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ∼3.2 × 10(8) charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than that of the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, rf, and dc confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission, and IM separation in the FF module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  18. Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry Studies of Proteins: Dipole Alignment in Ion Mobility Spectrometry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Bryskiewicz, Tadeusz; Purves, Randy; Tang, Keqi; Guevremont, Roger; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-11-02

    Approaches to characterization and separation of ions involving their mobilities in gases were developed since 1960-s. Conventional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measures the absolute mobility and the field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS) exploits the difference between mobilities at high and low electric fields. However, all previous work was based on the orientationally averaged cross-sections Ωavg between ions and buffer gas molecules. Virtually all large ions are electric dipoles that will be oriented by a sufficiently strong electric field. At typical FAIMS conditions, that must happen for dipole moments > ~400 Debye, found for many macroions including most proteins above ~30 kDa. Mobilities of aligned dipoles depend on directional cross-sections Ωdir (rather than Ωavg), which should have a major effect on FAIMS separation parameters. Here we study the FAIMS behavior of ESI-generated ions for ten proteins up to ~70 kDa. Those above 29 kDa exhibit a strong increase of mobility at high field, which is consistent with predicted ion dipole alignment. This effect expands the FAIMS peak capacity by an order of magnitude, allowing separation of up to ~102 distinct protein conformers and revealing information about Ωdir and ion dipole moment that is of potential utility for structural characterization. Possible means to extend the dipole alignment to smaller ions are discussed.

  19. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morales, G. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  20. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Dudnikova, G. I.; Liseykina, T. V.; Diamond, P. H.; Papadopoulos, K.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    An analytic solution describing an ion-acoustic collisionless shock, self-consistently with the evolution of shock-reflected ions, is obtained. The solution extends the classic soliton solution beyond a critical Mach number, where the soliton ceases to exist because of the upstream ion reflection. The reflection transforms the soliton into a shock with a trailing wave and a foot populated by the reflected ions. The solution relates parameters of the entire shock structure, such as the maximum and minimum of the potential in the trailing wave, the height of the foot, as well as the shock Mach number, to the number of reflected ions. This relation is resolvable for any given distribution of the upstream ions. In this paper, we have resolved it for a simple "box" distribution. Two separate models of electron interaction with the shock are considered. The first model corresponds to the standard Boltzmannian electron distribution in which case the critical shock Mach number only insignificantly increases from M ≈1.6 (no ion reflection) to M ≈1.8 (substantial reflection). The second model corresponds to adiabatically trapped electrons. They produce a stronger increase, from M ≈3.1 to M ≈4.5 . The shock foot that is supported by the reflected ions also accelerates them somewhat further. A self-similar foot expansion into the upstream medium is described analytically.

  1. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  2. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinowski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Supersymmetric particles can be produced copiously at future colliders. From the high-precision data taken at e+e- linear colliders, TESLA in particular, and combined with results from LHC, and CLIC later, the low-energy parameters of the supersymmetric model can be determined. Evolving the parameters from the low-energy scale to the high-scale by means of renormalization group techniques the fundamental supersymmetry parameters at the high scale, GUT or Planck, can be reconstructed to reveal the origin of supersymmetry breaking.

  3. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...

  4. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  5. Beam quality requirements for the Ion-Channel Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Davoine, X; Fonseca, R A; Mori, W B; Silva, L O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we determine the electron beam quality requirements to obtain exponential radiation amplification in the ion-channel laser, where a relativistic electron beam wiggles in a focusing ion-channel that can be created in a wakefield accelerator. The beam energy and wiggler parameter spreads should be limited. Those spread limits are functions of the Pierce parameter, which is calculated here without neglecting the radiation diffraction. Two dimensional and three dimensional simulations of the self-consistent ion-channel laser confirm our theoretical predictions.

  6. Negative ions in liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  7. Modification of semiconductor materials using laser-produced ion streams additionally accelerated in the electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, B.; Parys, P.; Wołowski, J.; Pisarek, M.

    2009-03-01

    The laser-produced ion stream may be attractive for direct ultra-low-energy ion implantation in thin layer of semiconductor for modification of electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices. Application of electrostatic fields for acceleration and formation of laser-generated ion stream enables to control the ion stream parameters in broad energy and current density ranges. It also permits to remove the useless laser-produced ions from the ion stream designed for implantation. For acceleration of ions produced with the use of a low fluence repetitive laser system (Nd:glass: 2 Hz, pulse duration: 3.5 ns, pulse energy:˜0.5 J, power density: 10 10 W/cm 2) in IPPLM the special electrostatic system has been prepared. The laser-produced ions passing through the diaphragm (a ring-shaped slit in the HV box) have been accelerated in the system of electrodes. The accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, the distance of the diaphragm from the target, the diaphragm diameter and the gap width were changed for choosing the desired parameters (namely the energy band of the implanted ions) of the ion stream. The characteristics of laser-produced Ge ion streams were determined with the use of precise ion diagnostic methods, namely: electrostatic ion energy analyser and various ion collectors. The laser-produced and post-accelerated Ge ions have been used for implantation into semiconductor materials for nanocrystal fabrication. The characteristics of implanted samples were measured using AES.

  8. Ion acoustic shocks in magneto rotating Lorentzian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); DPAM, PIEAS, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hasnain, H. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-12-15

    Ion acoustic shock structures in magnetized homogeneous dissipative Lorentzian plasma under the effects of Coriolis force are investigated. The dissipation in the plasma system is introduced via dynamic viscosity of inertial ions. The electrons are following the kappa distribution function. Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral index, magnetic field, kinematic viscosity of ions, rotational frequency, and effective frequency have significant impact on the propagation characteristic of ion acoustic shocks in such plasma system. The numerical solution of KdVB equation is also discussed and transition from oscillatory profile to monotonic shock for different plasma parameters is investigated.

  9. Ion Conduction in Superionic Glassy Electrolytes: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angesh Chandra; Alok Bhatt; Archana Chandra

    2013-01-01

    The various theoretical and experimental models for ion conduction mechanism of fast ion conducting (FIC) glass electrolytes have been reported in the present review paper.Some characterization techniques of FIC glasses are presented.The experimental methods for determination of some ion transport parameters viz ionic conductivity (σ),ionic mobility (μ),mobile ion concentration (n),ionic drift velocity (Vd),ionic transference number (tion) and activation energies of FIC glasses are explained.The solid state battery fabrication by using some FIC glasses is also reported.

  10. An EBIS-based heavy ion injector for the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Raparia, D.

    1994-09-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS), followed by a heavy ion RFQ and superconducting linac, can be considered as a heavy ion injector for high energy accelerators, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A test EBIS, on long term loan from Sandia National Laboratory, is presently being commissioned at BNL. Experiments on this source will be used in evaluating the parameters for an EBIS-based RHIC injector. Some results of this commissioning, as well as the conceptual designs of the RFQ and linac, are presented.

  11. Exact Quantum Logic Gates with a Single Trapped Cold Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦联福; 刘世勇; 雷啸霖

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative scheme to exactly implement one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates with a single trapped cold ion driven by a travelling laser field. The internal degree of freedom of the ion acts as the target qubit and the control qubit is encoded by two Fock states of the external vibration of the ion. The conditions to realize these operations, including the duration of each applied laser pulse and Lamb-Dicke parameter, are derived. In our scheme neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation is required. The multiquantum transition between the internal and external degrees of freedom of the ion is considered.

  12. The acrylonitrile dimer ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Henri K.; Jobst, Karl J.; Burgers, Peter C.; Ruttink, Paul J. Ae; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2007-04-01

    Large energy barriers prohibit the rearrangement of solitary acrylonitrile ions, CH2CHCN+, into their more stable hydrogen-shift isomers CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+. This prompted us to examine if these isomerizations occur by self-catalysis in acrylonitrile dimer ions. Such ions, generated by chemical ionization experiments of acrylonitrile with an excess of carbon dioxide, undergo five dissociations in the [mu]s time frame, as witnessed by peaks at m/z 53, 54, 79, 80 and 105 in their metastable ion mass spectrum. Collision experiments on these product ions, deuterium labeling, and a detailed computational analysis using the CBS-QB3 model chemistry lead to the following conclusions: (i) the m/z 54 ions are ions CH2CHCNH+ generated by self-protonation in ion-dipole stabilized hydrogen-bridged dimer ions [CH2CHCN...H-C(CN)CH2]+ and [CH2CHCN...H-C(H)C(H)CN]+; the proton shifts in these ions are associated with a small reverse barrier; (ii) dissociation of the H-bridged ions into CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+ by self-catalysis is energetically feasible but kinetically improbable: experiment shows that the m/z 53 ions are CH2CHCN+ ions, generated by back dissociation; (iii) the peaks at m/z 79, 80 and 105 correspond with the losses of HCN, C2H2 and H, respectively. The calculations indicate that these ions are generated from dimer ions that have adopted the (much more stable) covalently bound "head-to-tail" structure [CH2CHCN-C(H2)C(H)CN]+; experiments indicate that the m/z 79 (C5H5N) and m/z 105 (C6H6N2) ions have linear structures but the m/z 80 (C4H4N2) ions consist of ionized pyrimidine in admixture with its stable pyrimidine-2-ylidene isomer. Acrylonitrile is a confirmed species in interstellar space and our study provides experimental and computational evidence that its dimer radical cation yields the ionized prebiotic pyrimidine molecule.

  13. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner;

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion device...

  14. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner

    2016-01-01

    Sawtooth instabilities can modify heating and current-drive profiles and potentially increase fast-ion losses. Understanding how sawteeth redistribute fast ions as a function of sawtooth parameters and of fast-ion energy and pitch is hence a subject of particular interest for future fusion devices...

  15. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  16. [Optical parameters of Er3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen-juan; Chen, Luan; Meng, Chao; Song, Zeng-fu; Wang, Zhi-guang; Meng, Guang-zheng

    2002-08-01

    Recently, in virtue of the develop of the semiconductor laser and the doped laser materials with rare-earth ions, the up-conversion laser with resonant pump has became a scientific subject in great demand. The doped oxyfluoride glass ceramic with rare-earth ions is a very excellent material, its optical property and chemical stability are outstanding. So, absorption spectrum of Er3+ in Fluoroxide glass ceramic was measured, and intensity parameters omega lambda were calculated using Judd-Oflet theory. Some predicted spectroscopic parameters of the excited states, like the spontaneous radiative transition rate, branching ratio and integrated emission cross section were given.

  17. Investigation of Ion Backflow in Bulk Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, Sandip; Colas, Paul; Attie, David

    2016-01-01

    The operation of gas detectors is often limited by secondary effects, originating from avalanche-induced photons and ions. Ion backflow is one of the effects limiting the operation of a gas detector at high flux, by giving rise to space charge which disturbs the electric field locally. For the Micromegas detector, a large fraction of the secondary positive ions created in the avalanche can be stopped at the micro-mesh. The present work involves measurements of the ion backflow fraction (using an experimental setup comprising of two drift planes) in bulk Micromegas detectors as a function of detector design parameters. These measured characteristics have also been compared in detail to numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed. Further, the effect of using a second micro-mesh on ion backflow and other parameters has been studied numerically.

  18. Development of a four-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer for continuous separation of copper ions from manganese ions, cobalt ions, and the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution used as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se-Hee; Park, Chanhun; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2011-08-19

    A three-zone carousel process, in which Cu(II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) and a buffer solution were employed as adsorbent and eluent respectively, has been developed previously for continuous separation of Cu²⁺ (product) from Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ (impurities). Although this process was reported to be successful in the aforementioned separation task, the way of using a buffer solution as eluent made it inevitable that the product stream included the buffer-related metal ions (i.e., the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution) as well as copper ions. For a more perfect recovery of copper ions, it would be necessary to improve the previous carousel process such that it can remove the buffer-related metal ions from copper ions while maintaining the previous function of separating copper ions from the other 2 impure heavy-metal ions. This improvement was made in this study by proposing a four-zone carousel process based on the following strategy: (1) the addition of one more zone for performing the two-step re-equilibration tasks and (2) the use of water as the eluent of the washing step in the separation zone. The operating conditions of such a proposed process were determined on the basis of the data from a series of single-column experiments. Under the determined operating conditions, 3 runs of carousel experiments were carried out. The results of these experiments revealed that the feed-loading time was a key parameter affecting the performance of the proposed process. Consequently, the continuous separation of copper ions from both the impure heavy-metal ions and the buffer-related metal ions could be achieved with a purity of 91.9% and a yield of 92.8% by using the proposed carousel process based on a properly chosen feed-loading time.

  19. Fundamentals of traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Smith, Richard D

    2008-12-15

    Traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TW IMS) is a new IMS method implemented in the Synapt IMS/mass spectrometry system (Waters). Despite its wide adoption, the foundations of TW IMS were only qualitatively understood and factors governing the ion transit time (the separation parameter) and resolution remained murky. Here we develop the theory of TW IMS using derivations and ion dynamics simulations. The key parameter is the ratio (c) of ion drift velocity at the steepest wave slope to wave speed. At low c, the ion transit velocity is proportional to the squares of mobility (K) and electric field intensity (E), as opposed to linear scaling in drift tube (DT) IMS and differential mobility analyzers. At higher c, the scaling deviates from quadratic in a way controlled by the waveform profile, becoming more gradual with the ideal triangular profile but first steeper and then more gradual for realistic profiles with variable E. At highest c, the transit velocity asymptotically approaches the wave speed. Unlike with DT IMS, the resolving power of TW IMS depends on mobility, scaling as K(1/2) in the low-c limit and less at higher c. A nonlinear dependence of the transit time on mobility means that the true resolving power of TW IMS differs from that indicated by the spectrum. A near-optimum resolution is achievable over an approximately 300-400% range of mobilities. The major predicted trends are in agreement with TW IMS measurements for peptide ions as a function of mobility, wave amplitude, and gas pressure. The issues of proper TW IMS calibration and ion distortion by field heating are also discussed. The new quantitative understanding of TW IMS separations allows rational optimization of instrument design and operation and improved spectral calibration.

  20. A novel method for measuring the concentration of chloroform based on kinetic parameters at atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguo; Han, Haiyan; Chang, Tao; Liu, Xiuhong; Zhu, Qiaofen; Liu, Feng; Yan, Yongliang; Shen, Chengyin; Chu, Yannan

    2016-06-01

    A novel method is proposed to detect chloroform concentrations based on the kinetic parameters using ion mobility spectrometer with a negative corona discharge ion source operating at atmospheric pressure. Unlike conventional sample introduction mode, in this technique, CHCl3 enters into the drift tube from the end of drift region carried by the drift gas. There are two tails before Cl- and (CHCl3)·Cl- ion peaks, which fit to the ions formed in the drift region. Utilizing the kinetic parameters, concentration for CHCl3 can be calculated. This method not only offers a new way to get concentrations of CHCl3 under atmospheric pressure.

  1. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  2. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  3. Peristaltic ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional ion sources generate energetic ion beams by accelerating the plasma-produced ions through a voltage drop at the extractor, and since it is usual that the ion beam is to propagate in a space which is at ground potential, the plasma source is biased at extractor voltage. For high ion beam energy the plasma source and electrical systems need to be raised to high voltage, a task that adds considerable complexity and expense to the total ion source system. The authors have developed a system which though forming energetic ion beams at ground potential as usual, operates with the plasma source and electronics at ground potential also. Plasma produced by a nearby source streams into a grided chamber that is repetitively pulsed from ground to high positive potential, sequentially accepting plasma into its interior region and ejecting it energetically. They call the device a peristaltic ion source. In preliminary tests they`ve produced nitrogen and titanium ion beams at energies from 1 to 40 keV. Here they describe the philosophy behind the approach, the test embodiment that they have made, and some preliminary results.

  4. Ion Source DECRIS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Lebedev, A N; Loginov, V N; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    1999-01-01

    The ECR ion source DECRIS-3 is the copy of the mVINIS ion source which was designed and built in Dubna for the TESLA Accelerator Installation (Belgrade, Yugoslavia) in 1997. The assembly of the source was completely finished in the end of 1998 and then it was installed at the FLNR ECR test bench. The source was successfully tested with some gases and metals by using the MIVOC technique. In nearest future the source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously. We are also going to use the DECRIS-3 ion source to design 1+ -> n+ technique for the DRIBs (Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams) project.

  5. Heavy ion storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Trajectories of Reacting Chemical Systems: Mobility of Small Water Clusters in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissdorf, Walter; Seifert, Luzia; Derpmann, Valerie; Klee, Sonja; Vautz, Wolfgang; Benter, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    For the comprehensive simulation of ion trajectories including reactive collisions at elevated pressure conditions, a chemical reaction simulation (RS) extension to the popular SIMION software package was developed, which is based on the Monte Carlo statistical approach. The RS extension is of particular interest to SIMION users who wish to simulate ion trajectories in collision dominated environments such as atmospheric pressure ion sources, ion guides (e.g., funnels, transfer multi poles), chemical reaction chambers (e.g., proton transfer tubes), and/or ion mobility analyzers. It is well known that ion molecule reaction rate constants frequently reach or exceed the collision limit obtained from kinetic gas theory. Thus with a typical dwell time of ions within the above mentioned devices in the ms range, chemical transformation reactions are likely to occur. In other words, individual ions change critical parameters such as mass, mobility, and chemical reactivity en passage to the analyzer, which naturally strongly affects their trajectories. The RS method simulates elementary reaction events of individual ions reflecting the behavior of a large ensemble by a representative set of simulated reacting particles. The simulation of the proton bound water cluster reactant ion peak (RIP) in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was chosen as a benchmark problem. For this purpose, the RIP was experimentally determined as a function of the background water concentration present in the IMS drift tube. It is shown that simulation and experimental data are in very good agreement, demonstrating the validity of the method.

  7. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer.

  8. Ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnes, Alexandre; Nicolis, Stamatios; Carré, Bernard; Willmann, Patrick; Lemordant, Daniel

    2003-06-16

    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the energy of ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes. The ion-dipole interactions increase with increasing salt concentration and must be taken into account when the activation energy for the conductivity is calculated. In this case, the contribution of ion-dipole interactions to the activation energy for this transport process is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of ion-ion interactions. The ion-dipole interaction energy was calculated for a cell of eight ions, alternatingly anions and cations, placed on the vertices of an expanded cubic lattice whose parameter is related to the mean interionic distance (pseudolattice theory). The solvent dipoles were introduced randomly into the cell by assuming a randomness compacity of 0.58. The energy of the dipole assembly in the cell was minimized by using a Newton-Raphson numerical method. The dielectric field gradient around ions was taken into account by a distance parameter and a dielectric constant of epsilon = 3 at the surfaces of the ions. A fair agreement between experimental and calculated activation energy has been found for systems composed of gamma-butyrolactone (BL) as solvent and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as salts.

  9. A single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Akerman, Nitzan; Glickamn, Yinnon; Dallal, Yehonatan; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser-cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate a unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the cooling laser parameters. Our observations open a way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  10. Quantum computation with ions in microscopic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašura, Marek; Steane, Andrew M.

    2002-12-01

    We discuss a possible experimental realization of fast quantum gates with high fidelity with ions confined in microscopic traps. The original proposal of this physical system for quantum computation comes from Cirac and Zoller (Nature 404, 579 (2000)). In this paper we analyse a sensitivity of the ion-trap quantum gate on various experimental parameters which was omitted in the original proposal. We address imprecision of laser pulses, impact of photon scattering, nonzero temperature effects and influence of laser intensity fluctuations on the total fidelity of the two-qubit phase gate.

  11. Particle radiotherapy with carbon ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tatsuya

    2013-03-04

    Carbon ion radiotherapy offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated malignant tumours compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. The algorithm of treatment planning and beam delivery system is tailored to the individual parameters of the patient. The present article reviews the available literatures for various disease sites including the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer as well as physical and biological properties.

  12. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.; Wang, G. C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  13. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  14. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  15. Binary ion exchange of metal ions in Y and X zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.D. Barros

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ion exchange of Na for Cr/K, Cr/Mg and Cr/Ca in Y and X zeolites was studied using breakthrough curves. It was observed that Cr3+ ions were able to remove some competitive ions that had already been exchanged at the zeolitic sites, producing a sequential ion exchange. Some mass transfer parameters such as length of unused bed, overall mass transfer coefficient, operational ratio and dimensionless variance were studied. Chromium uptake was influenced much more by the competing ion in the NaX zeolite columns. The dimensionless variance indicated that Cr/K solution produced a greater axial dispersion than the Cr/Mg and Cr/Ca systems, probably due to some interaction between Cr3+ and K+ ions. The order of dynamic selectivity, provided by the cation uptake, was Cr3+ > Ca2+, Cr3+ > Mg2+ and Cr3+ > K+ for NaY zeolite and Ca2+ ~Cr3+, Mg2+ > Cr3+ and Cr3+ > K+ for NaX zeolite. Due to the more favorable mass transfer parameters and higher affinity for Cr3+, it was concluded that NaY zeolite was more efficient at chromium uptake in competitive systems.

  16. Effect of initial ion positions on the interactions of monovalent and divalent ions with a DNA duplex as revealed with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Timothy J; Wang, Yongmei

    2013-01-01

    Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) ion distributions around the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer were studied by atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with AMBER molecular modeling software. Different initial placements of ions were tried and the resulting effects on the ion distributions around DNA were investigated. For monovalent ions, results were found to be nearly independent of initial cation coordinates. However, Mg(2+) ions demonstrated a strong initial coordinate dependent behavior. While some divalent ions initially placed near the DNA formed essentially permanent direct coordination complexes with electronegative DNA atoms, Mg(2+) ions initially placed further away from the duplex formed a full, nonexchanging, octahedral first solvation shell. These fully solvated cations were still capable of binding with DNA with events lasting up to 20 ns, and in comparison were bound much longer than Na(+) ions. Force field parameters were also investigated with modest and little differences arising from ion (ions94 and ions08) and nucleic acid description (ff99, ff99bsc0, and ff10), respectively. Based on known Mg(2+) ion solvation structure, we conclude that in most cases Mg(2+) ions retain their first solvation shell, making only solvent-mediated contacts with DNA duplex. The proper way to simulate Mg(2+) ions around DNA duplex, therefore, should begin with ions placed in the bulk water.

  17. Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects.

  18. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  19. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Ion-bombardment induced morphology change of device related SiGe multilayer heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, C., E-mail: Christian.Hofer@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Teichert, C., E-mail: Christian.Teichert@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Oehme, M.; Werner, J.; Lyutovich, K.; Kasper, E. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy bears the potential to tune morphological and structural parameters of semiconductor heterolayers for opto- and nanoelectronic applications. The morphology evolution and the degree of relaxation are influenced by the ion beam parameters and the strain of the heteroepitaxial film. In this work, the morphology of silicon germanium (SiGe) layers due to Si{sup +}-ion beam treatment during growth is investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a function of ion energy and ion flux density. Ion energies range from 100 eV to 1000 eV. The AFM measurements are used to determine the roughness distribution across the wafers. A regular pattern of SiGe crystallites is found, where the damage due to low ion energy Si{sup +}-ion bombardment is medium and the degree of relaxation, determined by Raman spectroscopy, is below 25%.

  1. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  2. Trapped Ion Chain Thermometry and Mass Analysis Through Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, V; Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature measurement of individual laser cooled ions in a linear Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatial extent along the linear Paul trap axis to the normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of `bright' ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the secular resonance frequency of vibration of the center-of-mass mode of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped `dark' ions. These techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains and under conditions of non-uniform heat load, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and making in-situ temperature measurements of individual trapped ions without requiring a scan over the Doppler cooling parameters.

  3. Weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, H.; Mahdavi, M.; Shahmansouri, M.

    2016-02-01

    The modulational instability of dust-ion acoustic (DIA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is investigated in the presence of weak dissipations arising due to the low rates (compared to the ion oscillation frequency) of ionization recombination and ion loss. Based on the multiple space and time scales perturbation, a new modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the evolution of modulated DIA waves is derived with a linear damping term. It is shown that the combined action of all dissipative mechanisms due to collisions between particles reveals the permitted maximum time for the occurrence of the modulational instability. The influence on the modulational instability regions of relevant physical parameters such as ion temperature, dust concentration, ionization, recombination and ion loss is numerically examined. It is also found that the recombination frequency controls the instability growth rate, whereas recombination and ion loss make the instability regions wider.

  4. Pre-formed plasma channels for ion beam fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. R.; Olson, C. L.

    1997-04-01

    The transport of driver ions to the target in an IFE power plant is an important consideration in IFE target chamber design. Pre-formed laser-guided plasma discharge channels have been considered for light ions because they reduce the beam microdivergence constraints, allow long transport lengths, and require a target chamber fill gas that can help protect the target chamber from the target explosion. Here, pre-formed plasma discharge channels are considered for heavy ion transport. The channel formation parameters are similar to those for light ions. The allowable ion power per channel is limited by the onset of plasma instabilities and energy loss due to a reverse emf from the rapid channel expansion driven by the ion beam.

  5. Revisiting Cosmological parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    Constraining theoretical models with measuring the parameters of those from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data is one of the most active areas in cosmology. WMAP, Planck and other recent experiments have shown that the six parameters standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model still best fits the data. Bayesian methods based on Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling have been playing leading role in parameter estimation from CMB data. In one of the recent studies \\cite{2012PhRvD..85l3008P} we have shown that particle swarm optimization (PSO) which is a population based search procedure can also be effectively used to find the cosmological parameters which are best fit to the WMAP seven year data. In the present work we show that PSO not only can find the best-fit point, it can also sample the parameter space quite effectively, to the extent that we can use the same analysis pipeline to process PSO sampled points which is used to process the points sampled by Markov Chains, and get consistent res...

  6. Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alter...

  7. MSSM without free parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Motono, Ryuji; Nagai, Minoru

    2016-12-01

    It is often argued that the minimal supersymmetric standard model has O (100 ) free parameters, and the generic parameter region is already excluded by the null observation of the flavor and C P -violating processes as well as the constraints from the LHC experiments. This situation naturally leads us to consider the case where all the dangerous soft supersymmetry breaking terms, such as the scalar masses and scalar couplings, are absent, while only the unified gaugino mass term and the μ term are nonvanishing at the grand unification scale. We revisit this simple situation taking into account the observed Higgs boson mass, 125 GeV. Since the gaugino mass and the μ term are fixed in order to explain the Higgs boson and the Z boson masses, there is no free parameter left in this scenario. We find that there are three independent parameter sets that exist including ones which have not been discussed in the literature. We also find that the abundance of the dark matter can be explained by relic gravitinos which are nonthermally produced as decay products of the supersymmetry particles while satisfying constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis. We discuss the effects of the gravity mediation which generically gives a contribution to the soft terms of the order of the gravitino mass. It turns out that a newly found parameter set is preferable to explain the Higgs boson mass as well as the gravitino dark matter while satisfying the constraints from the electric dipole moments of the electron and the nucleon.

  8. Ionic force field optimization based on single-ion and ion-pair solvation properties: going beyond standard mixing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyta, Maria; Netz, Roland R

    2012-03-28

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the SPC/E water model, we optimize ionic force-field parameters for seven different halide and alkali ions, considering a total of eight ion-pairs. Our strategy is based on simultaneous optimizing single-ion and ion-pair properties, i.e., we first fix ion-water parameters based on single-ion solvation free energies, and in a second step determine the cation-anion interaction parameters (traditionally given by mixing or combination rules) based on the Kirkwood-Buff theory without modification of the ion-water interaction parameters. In doing so, we have introduced scaling factors for the cation-anion Lennard-Jones (LJ) interaction that quantify deviations from the standard mixing rules. For the rather size-symmetric salt solutions involving bromide and chloride ions, the standard mixing rules work fine. On the other hand, for the iodide and fluoride solutions, corresponding to the largest and smallest anion considered in this work, a rescaling of the mixing rules was necessary. For iodide, the experimental activities suggest more tightly bound ion pairing than given by the standard mixing rules, which is achieved in simulations by reducing the scaling factor of the cation-anion LJ energy. For fluoride, the situation is different and the simulations show too large attraction between fluoride and cations when compared with experimental data. For NaF, the situation can be rectified by increasing the cation-anion LJ energy. For KF, it proves necessary to increase the effective cation-anion Lennard-Jones diameter. The optimization strategy outlined in this work can be easily adapted to different kinds of ions.

  9. Hofmeister effects: interplay of hydration, nonelectrostatic potentials, and ion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Drew F; Boström, Mathias; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W

    2011-07-21

    The classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloids, and corresponding theories of electrolytes, are unable to explain ion specific forces between colloidal particles quantitatively. The same is true generally, for surfactant aggregates, lipids, proteins, for zeta and membrane potentials and in adsorption phenomena. Even with fitting parameters the theory is not predictive. The classical theories of interactions begin with continuum solvent electrostatic (double layer) forces. Extensions to include surface hydration are taken care of with concepts like inner and outer Helmholtz planes, and "dressed" ion sizes. The opposing quantum mechanical attractive forces (variously termed van der Waals, Hamaker, Lifshitz, dispersion, nonelectrostatic forces) are treated separately from electrostatic forces. The ansatz that separates electrostatic and quantum forces can be shown to be thermodynamically inconsistent. Hofmeister or specific ion effects usually show up above ≈10(-2) molar salt. Parameters to accommodate these in terms of hydration and ion size had to be invoked, specific to each case. Ionic dispersion forces, between ions and solvent, for ion-ion and ion-surface interactions are not explicit in classical theories that use "effective" potentials. It can be shown that the missing ionic quantum fluctuation forces have a large role to play in specific ion effects, and in hydration. In a consistent predictive theory they have to be included at the same level as the nonlinear electrostatic forces that form the skeletal framework of standard theory. This poses a challenge. The challenges go further than academic theory and have implications for the interpretation and meaning of concepts like pH, buffers and membrane potentials, and for their experimental interpretation. In this article we overview recent quantitative developments in our evolving understanding of the theoretical origins of specific ion, or Hofmeister effects. These are demonstrated

  10. Ejection of Coulomb Crystals from a Linear Paul Ion Trap for Ion-Molecule Reaction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K A E; Pollum, L L; Petralia, L S; Tauschinsky, A; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P; Heazlewood, B R

    2015-12-17

    Coulomb crystals are being increasingly employed as a highly localized source of cold ions for the study of ion-molecule chemical reactions. To extend the scope of reactions that can be studied in Coulomb crystals-from simple reactions involving laser-cooled atomic ions, to more complex systems where molecular reactants give rise to multiple product channels-sensitive product detection methodologies are required. The use of a digital ion trap (DIT) and a new damped cosine trap (DCT) are described, which facilitate the ejection of Coulomb-crystallized ions onto an external detector for the recording of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra. This enables the examination of reaction dynamics and kinetics between Coulomb-crystallized ions and neutral molecules: ionic products are typically cotrapped, thus ejecting the crystal onto an external detector reveals the masses, identities, and quantities of all ionic species at a selected point in the reaction. Two reaction systems are examined: the reaction of Ca(+) with deuterated isotopologues of water, and the charge exchange between cotrapped Xe(+) with deuterated isotopologues of ammonia. These reactions are examples of two distinct types of experiment, the first involving direct reaction of the laser-cooled ions, and the second involving reaction of sympathetically-cooled heavy ions to form a mixture of light product ions. Extensive simulations are conducted to interpret experimental results and calculate optimal operating parameters, facilitating a comparison between the DIT and DCT approaches. The simulations also demonstrate a correlation between crystal shape and image shape on the detector, suggesting a possible means for determining crystal geometry for nonfluorescing ions.

  11. Metal Ions in Unusual Valency States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Robin M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses reactivity of metal ions with the primary products of water radiolysis, hyper-reduced metal ions, zero-valent metal ions, unstable divalent ions from the reduction of bivalent ions, hyper-oxidized metal ions, and metal complexes. (CS)

  12. Fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    I present a discussion of fundamental stellar parameters and their observational determination in the context of interferometric measurements with current and future optical/infrared interferometric facilities. Stellar parameters and the importance of their determination for stellar physics are discussed. One of the primary uses of interferometry in the field of stellar physics is the measurement of the intensity profile across the stellar disk, both as a function of position angle and of wavelength. High-precision fundamental stellar parameters are also derived by characterizations of binary and multiple system using interferometric observations. This topic is discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. Comparison of observed spectrally dispersed center-to-limb intensity variations with models of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution may result in an improved understanding of key phenomena in stellar astrophysics such as the precise evolutionary effects on the main sequence, the evolution of meta...

  13. Variations on tremor parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, A.; Jentgens, Ch.; Spieker, S.; Dichgans, J.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes our analysis procedure for long-term tremor EMG recordings, as well as three examples of applications. The description of the method focuses on how characteristics of the tremor (e.g. frequency, intensity, agonist-antagonist interaction) can be defined and calculated based on surface EMG data. The resulting quantitative characteristics are called ``tremor parameters.'' We discuss sinusoidally modulated, band-limited white noise as a model for pathological tremor-EMG, and show how the basic parameters can be extracted from this class of signals. The method is then applied to (1) estimate tremor severity in clinical studies, (2) quantify agonist-antagonist interaction, and (3) investigate the variations of the tremor parameters using simple methods from time-series analysis.

  14. The Characteristics Of The Direct Metal Ion Beam Source And Its Applications (indium Tin Oxide)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that thin film properties depends on its microstructures and the surface mobility is most important parameters to consider microstructures and to obtain high quality thin films. Thus, currently ion beam based deposition which can control surface mobility with kinetic energy of auxiliary gas ion investigated intensively. Recently we developed the DMIBD system which can control ion beam energy precisely under 500Ev and also ion beam flux, independently. In this work, the optimum process parameters of DMIBD such as secondary ion yields, ion/atom arrival ratios, ion energy spread, and deposition rates for various metal targets were measured as functions of Cs+ ion bombarding energy, Cs+ ion dose, and secondary ion beam energy, respectively. From the results, the secondary ion yields for C,Al,Si,Cu,Ta, and W were about 20% and the ion energy spread also less than 10% regardless of the ion beam energy. In order to investigated the effect of secondary ion beam energy on the thin film properties such...

  15. Ion-acoustic solitary waves in ion-beam plasma with multiple-electron-temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, B.; Das, G.C.; Singh, Kh.I.

    1988-08-01

    The solitary wave solution has been studied in an ion-beam plasma with multiple-electron-temperatures stemmed through the derivation of a modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The evolution of solitons shows that the existence and the behaviour depend effectively on the ion-beam as well as on the multiple-electron-temperatures. It has been shown that the solitons might be large amplitude waves with the addition of a small percentage of ion-beam concentration or by the increase of electron-temperatures. The present investigators believe and conclude that the solitons should also show experimentally these fascinating properties but one has to be careful about the range of the physical parameters in ion-beam plasma.

  16. Ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic thermal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the theoretical and numerical studies on nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic thermal ions. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived by using the well known reductive perturbation method. This equation admits the soliton like solitary wave solution. The effects of phase velocity, amplitude of soliton, width of soliton and electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic solitary waves have been discussed with graphical representation found in the variation of the plasma parameters. The obtained results can be helpful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized relativistic ion-acoustic waves for an unmagnetized three component plasma system in astrophysical compact objects.

  17. Conductivity kinetics and conductivity levels of ion implanted poly(paraphenylene) pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Huee, C. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 Limoges (France)); Moreau, C. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 Limoges (France)); Moliton, A. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 Limoges (France)); Guille, B. (LEPOFI, Faculte des Sciences, 87 Limoges (France)); Froyer, G. (Lab OCM, CNET, 22 Lannion (France))

    1993-04-19

    We have studied the kinetics of the dc conductivity [sigma][sub dc] of PPP pellets after ion implantation versus implantation parameters (size of ions, current density, fluence). The main process occurs during the vacuum - open air transition: the higher the implantation parameters are, the larger the [sigma][sub dc] decrease is. Finally, the conductivity level is all the higher as the implanted ion is heavy. (orig.)

  18. Where do ions solvate?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Levin

    2005-06-01

    We study a simple model of ionic solvation inside a water cluster. The cluster is modeled as a spherical dielectric continuum. It is found that unpolarizable ions always prefer the bulk solvation. On the other hand, for polarizable ions, there exists a critical value of polarization above which surface solvation becomes energetically favorable for large enough water clusters.

  19. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  20. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  1. Development of yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Neumann, Ronna; Mazarov, Swetlana; Wieck, Andreas D. [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Bushev, Pavel [Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Mazarov, Paul [Raith GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS) generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged yttrium ions. Influence of yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions. (orig.)

  2. Development of yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Neumann, Ronna; Mazarov, Swetlana; Bushev, Pavel; Wieck, Andreas D.; Mazarov, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS) generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged yttrium ions. Influence of yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions.

  3. Development of Yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Mazarov, Swetlana; Bushev, Pavel; Wieck, Andreas; Mazarov, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS), generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged Yttrium ions. Influence of Yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions.

  4. Simulation of Heavy-Ion Beam Losses with the SixTrack-FLUKA Active Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Jowett, John; Lechner, Anton; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Ortega, Pablo; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Skordis, Eleftherios; Valentino, Gianluca; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    The LHC heavy-ion program aims to further increase the stored ion beam energy, putting high demands on the LHC collimation system. Accurate simulations of the ion collimation efficiency are crucial to validate the feasibility of new proposed configurations and beam parameters. In this paper we present a generalized framework of the SixTrack-FLUKA coupling to simulate the fragmentation of heavy-ions in the collimators and their motion in the LHC lattice. We compare heavy-ion loss maps simulated on the basis of this framework with the loss distributions measured during heavy-ion operation in 2011 and 2015.

  5. Optomechanical parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Shan Zheng; Bowen, Warwick P; Tsang, Mankei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cram\\'er-Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cram\\'er-Rao bound most closely. With its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, the EM algorithm is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical or quantum system identification applications in general.

  6. Ion-acoustic double layers in a five component cometary plasma with kappa described electrons and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Manesh; Venugopal, C.; Sreekala, G.; Willington, Neethu Theresa; Sebastian, Sijo

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of Ion-acoustic solitons and double layers in a five component cometary plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, kappa described hydrogen ions, hot solar electrons, and slightly colder cometary electrons. The KdV and modified KdV equations are derived for the system and its solution is plotted for different kappa values and negatively charged oxygen ion densities. It is found that the strength of double layer increases with increasing spectral indices. It, however, decreases with increasing negatively charged oxygen ion densities. The parameter for the transition from compressive to rarefactive soliton is also specified. The presence of negatively charged oxygen ions can significantly affect the nonlinearity coefficients (both quadratic and cubic) of a double layer.

  7. Tungstate and Carbonate Ions Sorption Using Anion Exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegrintsev S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper shows the results of tungstate and carbonate ion sorption using strongly basic anion exchangers AV-17-8 and Purolite A400. It has been established that anion exchanger AV-17-8 in the chloride form with parameters of 168 g of tungstate ion and 157 g of carbonate ion per 1 kg of anion exchanger has the maximum capacity for the tungstate and carbonate ions.

  8. A novel rice transformation method mediated by low energy ion beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Transfer the foreign DNA into rice via ion beam was first reported in 1994 in our lab. In this study, we aimed to establish an efficient transformation system mediated by low energy ion beam. Factors influenced the transformation were carefully investigated, including type of ion, parameters of ion energy, dose and dose rate, and plant genotype and receptors. Molecular and genetic characterization of a large number of these plants (more than 250 independent transgenic plants) provided the basis information of this system.

  9. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  10. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  11. Ion-by-ion Cooling efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Gnat, Orly

    2011-01-01

    We present ion-by-ion cooling efficiencies for low-density gas. We use Cloudy (ver. 08.00) to estimate the cooling efficiencies for each ion of the first 30 elements (H-Zn) individually. We present results for gas temperatures between 1e4 and 1e8K, assuming low densities and optically thin conditions. When nonequilibrium ionization plays a significant role the ionization states deviate from those that obtain in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), and the local cooling efficiency at any given temperature depends on specific non-equilibrium ion fractions. The results presented here allow for an efficient estimate of the total cooling efficiency for any ionic composition. We also list the elemental cooling efficiencies assuming CIE conditions. These can be used to construct CIE cooling efficiencies for non-solar abundance ratios, or to estimate the cooling due to elements not explicitly included in any nonequilibrium computation. All the computational results are listed in convenient online tables.

  12. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.

  13. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...

  14. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  15. Response model parameter linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, Michelle Derbenwick

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of equating observed scores on different test forms. This thesis argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require

  16. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  17. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  18. Ion channels in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  19. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  20. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the quinary {l_brace}Na + K + Mg + Cl + SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{r_brace} system at T=298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Christomir E-mail: hhristov@chem.ucsd.edu

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeSO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), and {l_brace}m{sub 1}MgCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq) systems, where m denotes molality at T=298.15 K. The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for thermodynamic analysis of the experimental activity data in binary FeCl{sub 2}(aq) and FeCl{sub 3}(aq) solutions, and ternary solubility data, presented in the literature. The thermodynamic functions needed (binary and ternary parameters of ionic interaction, thermodynamic solubility products) have been calculated and the theoretical solubility isotherms have been plotted. The mixed solution model parameters {l_brace}{theta}(MN) and {psi}(MNX){r_brace} have been chosen on the basis of the compositions of saturated ternary solutions and data on the pure water solubility of the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O double salt. The standard chemical potentials of four ferrous {l_brace}FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and MgCl{sub 2} {center_dot} FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O{r_brace} and three ferric {l_brace}FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, 2KCl {center_dot} FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, and 2K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Fe{sub 2}(SO

  1. Thermal assisted ion shrinkage (TAIS) of fluorinated polyimide for optical telecommunication devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigaud, T.; Moliton, J. P.; Quillat, M.; Chiron, D.

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of the development of low cost optical devices for telecommunications, here is studied the shrinkage of 6FDA-ODA polyimide films by ion irradiation as a function of five parameters: the ion fluence, the ion fluence rate, the ion energy, the ion nature and the target temperature. In the 30-350 keV energy range for impinging ions, the shrinkage remains constant whatever the tested fluence rate is. An upper limit appears for fluences above 10 16 ions cm -2. The etching is linearly dependent on the ion beam energy and reaches a maximum around 1 μm by thermal assisted ion shrinkage (TAIS) with Na + irradiations.

  2. Optimization of a hot-cavity type resonant ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henares, J. L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr; Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Vignet, J. L. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T.; Naubereit, P.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Le Blanc, F. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France)

    2016-02-15

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented.

  3. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  4. IN MEMORIAM ION VATAMANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Palii

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dreamer in his creative solitude, an objective and lucid analyst of history and contemporaneity, an energetic and decisive leader with an uncanny ability for crisis management – all these describe Ion Vatamanu. His wife Elena and daughters Mihaela, Mariana, Leontina treasure a personal universe in which the magical spark of Ion Vatamanu’s love and joy of life meld the everyday in and out of poetry. Ion Vatamanu’s instantaneous connection to the audiences and deeply felt words still touch the hearts of his many colleagues and friends. Downloads: 2

  5. Collective Ion Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Bostick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 296 (1979). 3. S. Humphries, R.N. Sudan, and IV. Condit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 667 (1975). 4. D.S. Prono , J.M. Creedon, I...and to provide a good ion depenently by Creedon, Smith, and Prono ." In both source at the second anode A2. The ion flux from the of these approaches...and Ion Beam Research and Technology, (Ith- Let. 37, 1236 (1977). ac, New York,1977), Vol. 11, p. 819. 72. D. S. Prono , J. W. Shearer, and X J. Briggs

  6. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  7. The influence of primary ion bombardment conditions on the secondary ion emission behavior of polymer additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, R.; Hagenhoff, B.; Pijpers, P.; Verlaek, R

    2003-01-15

    The secondary ion (SI) emission behavior of pure polymer systems is meanwhile well understood. However, common plastics not only consist of the polymer host material but also contain a variety of additives normally present in low concentrations only. In order to better understand the parameters governing the SI emission of these trace compounds we performed a systematic study on the influence of the analysis parameters (primary ion (PI) type, PI energy, electron bombardment for charge compensation, etc.) using model systems. Samples were prepared by spin coating (sub)monolayers of Irganox 1010 onto additive-free low density polyethylene (LDPE). The SI parameters yield, disappearance cross-section and efficiency (yield per damaged area) were determined for PI bombardment with Ga{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and SF{sub 5}{sup +}. Furthermore the damaging influence of electron bombardment for charge compensation on the organic surface layers was investigated.

  8. The influence of primary ion bombardment conditions on the secondary ion emission behavior of polymer additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, R.; Hagenhoff, B.; Pijpers, P.; Verlaek, R.

    2003-01-01

    The secondary ion (SI) emission behavior of pure polymer systems is meanwhile well understood. However, common plastics not only consist of the polymer host material but also contain a variety of additives normally present in low concentrations only. In order to better understand the parameters governing the SI emission of these trace compounds we performed a systematic study on the influence of the analysis parameters (primary ion (PI) type, PI energy, electron bombardment for charge compensation, etc.) using model systems. Samples were prepared by spin coating (sub)monolayers of Irganox 1010 onto additive-free low density polyethylene (LDPE). The SI parameters yield, disappearance cross-section and efficiency (yield per damaged area) were determined for PI bombardment with Ga +, Cs +, and SF 5+. Furthermore the damaging influence of electron bombardment for charge compensation on the organic surface layers was investigated.

  9. Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)

  10. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers and the d......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers...... sands processing. The fertilizer granulation model considers the dynamics of MAP-DAP (mono and diammonium phosphates) production within an industrial granulator, that involves complex crystallisation, chemical reaction and particle growth, captured through population balances. A final example considers...

  11. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S

    2000-01-01

    The tomographic method "Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping" is a tool to reconstruct spatial distributions of physical parameters (like temperatures and surface densities) in accretion discs of cataclysmic variables. After summarizing the method, we apply it to multi-colour eclipse light curves of various dwarf novae and nova-likes like VZ Scl, IP Peg in outburst, UU Aqr, V2051 Oph and HT Cas in order to derive the temperatures (and surface densities) in the disc, the white dwarf temperature, the disc size, the effective temperatures and the viscosities. The results allows us to establish or refine a physical model for the accretion disc. Our maps of HT Cas and V2051 Oph, for example, indicate that the (quiescent) disc must be structured into a cool, optically thick inner disc sandwiched by hot, optically thin chromospheres. In addition, the disc of HT Cas must be patchy with a covering factor of about 40% caused by magnetic activity in the disc.

  12. Setting Parameters by Example

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a class of "inverse parametric optimization" problems, in which one is given both a parametric optimization problem and a desired optimal solution; the task is to determine parameter values that lead to the given solution. We describe algorithms for solving such problems for minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, and other "optimal subgraph" problems, and discuss applications in multicast routing, vehicle path planning, resource allocation, and board game programming.

  13. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  14. Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Holland, Charles E.; White, Ralph E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Two parameter estimation methods are presented for online determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery. Loss of capacity and resistance increase are both included in the model. The first method is a hybrid combination of batch data reconciliation and moving-horizon parameter estimation. A discussion on the selection of tuning parameters for this method based on confidence intervals is included. The second method uses batch data reconciliation followed by application of discrete filtering of the resulting parameters. These methods are demonstrated using cycling data from an experimental cell with over 1600 charge-discharge cycles.

  15. Polarized ion source operation at IUCF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenchuk, V. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312, Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Brown, R.; Collins, J.; Sowinski, J.; Stephenson, E.; Wedekind, M. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    1995-07-15

    The IUCF high intensity polarized ion source (HIPIOS), based on the source in operation at TUNL (1) and employing cold ({similar_to}30 K) atomic beam technology with an electron cyclotron resonance ionizer, has recently delivered beam to the first users. The results of the development work required to make the source operate reliably, with reasonable beam parameters are described. Methods used to measure the polarization and possible sources of unpolarized background are also discussed.

  16. ESR investigations on ion beam irradiated polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipara, M.I. (Institute for Physics and Technology of Materials, P.O. Box MG-7, Magurele, Bucharest, R-76900 (Romania)); Grecu, V.V. (University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, Magurele, Bucharest, R-76900 (Romania)); Notingher, P.V. (University Politehnica of Bucharest, Electrotechnical Faculty, 313, Splaiul Independentei, Str., 77206 Bucharest (Romania)); Romero, J.R. (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingineria, Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, Ciudad Universitaria, Chaguaramos, Caracas (Venezuela)); Chipara, M.D. (Research Institute for Electrotechnics, 45-47 Tudor Vladimirescu, Bd., Bucharest, R-79623 (Romania))

    1994-06-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations with a polycarbonate solid state nuclear detector, irradiated with oxygen ions, are reported. The nature of the paramagnetic defects induced by irradiation is discussed. The temperature dependence of resonance line parameters is studied. From the experimental data, obtained by ESR, spectroscopy, the activation energy for defect recombination, the average isotropic exchange integral between paramagnetic defects as well as the average distance between defects, are estimated. Correlations with latent tracks structure are discussed. ((orig.))

  17. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.] [and others

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K{sup +}, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than {+-} 0.2% over the 1 {micro}s pulse.

  18. Ion sound instability driven by ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarov, O; Kaganovich, I D; Ilgisonis, V I

    2014-01-01

    In many natural and laboratory conditions, plasmas are often in the non-equilibrium state due to presence of stationary flows, when one particle species (or a special group, such as group of high energy particles, i.e. beam) is mowing with respect to the other plasma components. Such situations are common for a number of different plasma application such as diagnostics with emissive plasma probes, plasma electronics devices and electric propulsion devices. The presence of plasma flows often lead to the instabilities in such systems and subsequent development of large amplitude perturbations. The goal of this work is to develop physical insights and numerical tools for studies of stability of the excitation of the ion sound waves by the ion beam in the configuration similar to the plasma Pierce diode. This systems, in some limiting cases, reduce to mathematically similar equations originally proposed for Pierce instability. The finite length effect are crucial for this instability which generally belong to the...

  19. Many-Body Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Schaetz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. We report on the progress in experimentally simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions.

  20. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Independent control of ion current and ion impact energy onto electrodes in dual frequency plasma devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, P C; Ellingboe, A R; Turner, M M [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2004-03-07

    Dual frequency capacitive discharges are designed to offer independent control of the flux and energy of ions impacting on an object immersed in a plasma. This is desirable in applications such as the processing of silicon wafers for microelectronics manufacturing. In such discharges, a low frequency component couples predominantly to the ions, while a high frequency component couples predominantly to electrons. Thus, the low frequency component controls the ion energy, while the high frequency component controls the plasma density. Clearly, this desired behaviour is not achieved for arbitrary configurations of the discharge, and in general one expects some unwanted coupling of ion flux and energy. In this paper we use computer simulations with the particle-in-cell method to show that the most important governing parameter is the ratio of the driving frequencies. If the ratio of the high and low frequencies is great enough, essentially independent control of the ion energy and flux is possible by manipulation of the high and low frequency power sources. Other operating parameters, such as pressure, discharge geometry, and absolute power, are of much less significance.

  2. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  3. Optical Potential Parameters of Weakly Bound Nuclear System 17F+13C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is well known that optical potential is a basic ingredient in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. With the application of radioactive ion beams (RIB), extracting the optical potential parameters for the

  4. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  5. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  6. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  7. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  8. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  9. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  10. Development of heating device / development of the high current ion source for neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon Ju; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kyong Jin; Ko Tae Kyong [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The design and fabrication of a high current ion source for NBI was carried out. The scale of an ion source was reduced for mock-up test. To develop the high current ion source with the high operational stability and the long lifetime, the parameters including an arc current, gas pressure and extraction voltage should be optimized. If fabricated ion source would be tested, its parameters could be optimized experimentally. Through the optimization of the ion source parameter, the core technology for NBI is established and the experiment of current drive in the fusion device can be performed. This technology also can be applied to the ion beam technology in the field of new material synthesis and semiconductor industry. 24 refs., 22 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  11. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  12. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  13. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  14. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  15. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter $H_{e}$ which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.

  16. 2010 ion run: completed!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After a very fast switchover from protons to lead ions, the LHC has achieved performances that allowed the machine to exceed both peak and integrated luminosity by a factor of three. Thanks to this, experiments have been able to produce high-profile results on ion physics almost immediately, confirming that the LHC was able to keep its promises for ions as well as for protons.   First direct observation of jet quenching. A seminar on 2 December was the opportunity for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations to present their first results on ion physics in front of a packed auditorium. These results are important and are already having a major impact on the understanding of the physics processes that involve the basic constituents of matter at high energies. In the ion-ion collisions, the temperature is so high that partons (quarks and gluons), which are usually constrained inside the nucleons, are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup known as quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The existence of ...

  17. Time fractional effect on ion acoustic shock waves in ion-pair plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@hotmail.com [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); El-Shewy, E. K.; Mahmoud, A. A. [Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The nonlinear properties of ion acoustic shock waves are studied. The Burgers equation is derived and converted into the time fractional Burgers equation by Agrawal’s method. Using the Adomian decomposition method, shock wave solutions of the time fractional Burgers equation are constructed. The effect of the time fractional parameter on the shock wave properties in ion-pair plasma is investigated. The results obtained may be important in investigating the broadband electrostatic shock noise in D- and F-regions of Earth’s ionosphere.

  18. The effect of plasma operating parameters on analyte signals in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, G.; Tan, S. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    Utilizing the SCIEX ICP-MS an extensive study of the effects that plasma operating parameters have on analyte ion signals in ICP-MS has been carried out. Parameters studied included aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure), auxiliary flow rate, power and sampling depth (sampling position from the load coil). The two key parameters are aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure) and power. Elements can be grouped into characteristic behaviour patterns based on the overall dependence of their ion count signal on these two parameters. The nebulizer pressure-power behavior patterns allow a sensible selection of compromise operating conditions and significantly clarify single parameter observations which often indicate confusing trends in behavior. In addition to characterizing analyte ion signals the parameter behavior plots have also been used to study oxide species and plus two ions in ICP-MS. While aerosol flow rate and power appear to be the key ICP parameters in ICP-MS, ion signals are dependent on sampling depth and auxiliary flow rate and some data are also presented illustrating the signal dependence on these two parameters.

  19. Evaluation of ion current density distribution on an extraction electrode of a radio frequency ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masherov, P.; Riaby, V.; Abgaryan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The radial distributions of ion current density on an ion extracting electrode of a radio frequency (RF) ion thruster (RIT) with an inductive plasma source were obtained using probe diagnostics of the RF xenon plasma. Measurements were carried out using a plane wall probe simulator and the VGPS-12 Probe System of Plasma Sensors Co. At xenon flow rate q  =  2 sccm plasma pressure was 2 · 10-3 Torr, incident RF generator power varied in the range P g  =  50-250 W with RF power absorbed by plasma up to P p  =  220 W. Ion current densities were determined using semi- and double-logarithmic probe characteristics by linear extrapolations of their ion branches to probe floating potentials. The same parameters were also measured in undisturbed plasma by a classic cylindrical probe. They exceeded plane probe data by more than two times, showing the effectiveness of plasma sheath reproduction of the RIT ion extracting electrode by the plane wall probe simulator. Slight non-uniformity of the resulting plasma distributions and simplified RIT model design showed that the studied device with flat antenna coil and ferrite core could be considered as a promising prospect for RITs of new generation.

  20. Ion-acoustic Shocks with Self-Regulated Ion Reflection and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Malkov, M A; Dudnikova, G I; Liseykina, T V; Diamond, P H; Papadopoulos, K; Liu, C-S; Su, J-J

    2015-01-01

    An analytic solution describing an ion-acoustic collisionless shock, self-consistently with the evolution of shock-reflected ions, is obtained. The solution extends the classic soliton solution beyond a critical Mach number, where the soliton ceases to exist because of the upstream ion reflection. The reflection transforms the soliton into a shock with a trailing wave and a foot populated by the reflected ions. The solution relates parameters of the entire shock structure, such as the maximum and minimum of the potential in the trailing wave, the height of the foot, as well as the shock Mach number, to the number of reflected ions. This relation is resolvable for any given distribution of the upstream ions. In this paper, we have resolved it for a simple "box" distribution. Two separate models of electron interaction with the shock are considered. The first model corresponds to the standard Boltzmannian electron distribution in which case the critical shock Mach number only insignificantly increases from M=1....

  1. Ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with nonextensive distributed electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Sakthivel, R.

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical and numerical studies have been investigated on nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of nonextensive electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions. To study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of the three-component plasma system, the reductive perturbation technique has been applied to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation, which divulges the soliton-like solitary wave solution. The ansatz method is employed to carry out the integration of this equation. The effects of nonextensive electrons, positrons and relativistic thermal ions on phase velocity, amplitude and width of soliton and electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves have been discussed taking different plasma parameters into consideration. The obtained results can be useful in understanding the features of small amplitude localized relativistic ion acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized three-component plasma system for hard thermal photon production with relativistic heavy ions collision in quark-gluon plasma as well as for astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  3. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kalinowski

    2000-07-01

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider experiments: $\\tilde{X}^{+}_{i}\\tilde{X}^{-}_{j}[i,j=1,2]$. The closure of the two-chargino system can be investigated by analysing sum rules for the production cross-sections.

  4. Trapping ions from a fast beam in a radio-frequency ion trap: The relaxation of the ion cloud and its resulting column density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Annette; Nielsen, Kristian M. E.; Pedersen, Henrik B.

    2014-06-01

    The relaxation of trapped Cl2- ions and their resulting column density in a multipole radio-frequency (RF) ion trap have been investigated after loading the trap from an initial fast-moving beam exploiting a mechanism described recently [A. Svendsen et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 043410 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043410] where the injection is mediated through the exchange of energy between ions and the oscillating RF field. The temporal relaxation of the energy distribution of the trapped ion cloud was probed by observing the evolution of the resulting time-of-flight distribution of ions after extraction and fragment mass analysis in a quadrupole mass filter. The ion energy distribution was found to be essentially stationary after ˜20 ms. The resulting column density of trapped ions after relaxation was probed by two-dimensional position-resolved photodissociation of the trapped Cl2- ions. A detailed statistical analysis of the ion column density in the ring-electrode trap is given, and by comparison to the experimental data, a value of the maximum adiabaticity parameter of ηmax≃0.28 is inferred. It is further demonstrated how the present experimental system allows for time-resolved mass spectrometry by probing explicitly the populations of both parent (Cl2-) and daughter (Cl-) ions as a function of time after closing the trap and after laser irradiation. Finally, it is discussed how the setup can be used to obtain absolute photodissociation cross sections via a tomographic method without assumptions on the decay law for the trapped ions.

  5. Ion implantation in crystalline and amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasch, Al F.

    1998-05-01

    Ion implantation continues to be the selective doping technique of choice in silicon integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing, and its applications continue to grow in doping, damage gettering, and process simplification. However, in both technology and manufacturing equipment development there is a rapidly increasing need to understand in detail the dependence of implanted impurity profiles and implant-induced damage profiles in silicon on all key implant parameters. These reasons include largely reduced thermal budgets in IC processing, heavy emphasis on control of equipment and process costs, and the need for rigid manufacturing control. Towards this end, accurate, comprehensive, and computationally efficient models for ion implanted profiles (impurity and damage) in silicon are indispensable. These models greatly facilitate more timely technology development and implementation in manufacturing, improved manufacturing process control; and the development of new ion implantation tools can be executed more efficiently. This talk describes ion implant models and simulators developed in the ion implant modeling research/education project at the University of Texas at Austin. Physically based models for ion implantation into single-crystal Si have been developed for the commonly used implant species B, BF(2), As, P, and Si for the most commonly used implant energy ranges. These models have explicit dependence on the major implant parameters (energy, dose, tilt angle and rotation angle). In addition, the models have been extensively verified by the vast amount of experimental data which has been obtained in the experimental part of this project. The models have been extended down to ultra-low implant energies (model has been developed which accurately predicts as-implanted profiles for B and P up to at least 2.5 and 5 MeV, respectively. In addition, for energies below 200keV (the most commonly used energies), a rigorous physically based implant-induced damage model has

  6. Mineral Separation in a CELSS by Ion-exchange Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Operational parameters pertinent to ion exchange chromatography separation were identified. The experiments were performed with 9 mm diameter ion exchange columns and conventional column accessories. The cation separation beds were packed with AG 50W-X2 strong acid cation exchange resin in H(+) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size. The stripper beds used in some experiments were packed with AG 1-XB strong base cation exchange resin in OH(-) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size.

  7. Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation Effects on NPN rf Power Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Gupta, S. K.; Revannasiddaiah, D.

    2011-07-01

    The dc characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied systematically before and after irradiation by 50 MeV Li3+ ions, 100 MeV F8+ ions and 140 MeV Si10+ ions in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The transistor parameters such as excess base current (ΔIB = IBpost-IBpre), dc current gain (hFE), and collector-saturation current (ICSat) were determined before and after irradiation. The base current (IB) was found to increase significantly after ion irradiation and this in turn decreases the hFE of the transistors. Further, the output characteristics of the irradiated devices exhibit the decrease in the collector current at the saturation region (ICSat) with increase of ion dose.

  8. ECR-Driven Multicusp Volume H- Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Svarnas, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-04-01

    We studied the negative ion current extracted from the plasma created by seven elementary ECR sources, operating at 2.45 GHz, placed in the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III". We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, with a maximum power of 1 kW and studied the plasma created in this system by measuring the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions. We found that the electron temperature is optimal for negative hydrogen ion production at 9.5 cm from the ECR sources. The tantalum-covered wall surface pollution reduces the extracted negative ion current and enhances the electron current. Tantalum evaporation has a positive effect. The use of a grid and of a collar in front of the plasma electrode did not lead to any enhancement of the extracted negative ion current.

  9. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, A; Singer, K; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  10. Transverse emittance investigation of the ISOLDE target ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Wenander, F

    2003-01-01

    In order to produce target-ion sources allowing for a high isotopic resolution in the separator, CERN/ISOLDE (Isotope Separator On Line) has purchased a commercial emittance metre, capable of measuring transverse phase-space emittances for ion-beam intensities down to approximately 1 nA. It was installed at the ISOLDE off-line separator where targets are tested with respect to material purity and the ion-source efficiencies are determined. Now, also the emittance and brightness are measured for different stable elements. An extensive programme has been launched aiming at a complete survey of the emittance dependence on the various ion-source parameters. Results from the measurements on the different ISOLDE ion-source types, with associated analysis, are presented.

  11. Application of Ion Beam Processing Technology in Production of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola G. Bannikov, Javed A. Chattha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the applicability of Ion Beam Processing Technology for making catalysts has been inves-tigated. Ceramic substrates of different shapes and metal fibre tablets were implanted by platinum ions and tested in nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon monoxide (CO conversion reactions. Effectiveness of the implanted catalysts was compared to that of the commercially produced platinum catalysts made by impregnation. Platinum-implanted catalyst having fifteen times less platinum content showed the same CO conversion efficiency as the commercially pro-duced catalyst. It was revealed that the effectiveness of the platinum-implanted catalyst has complex dependence on the process parameters and the optimum can be achieved by varying the ions energy and the duration of implantation. Investigation of the pore structure showed that ion implantation did not decrease the specific surface area of the catalyst.Key Words: Catalyst, Ion Implantation, Noble metals.

  12. Achieving High Resolution Ion Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Compact Multiturn Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Deng, Liulin; Zheng, Xueyun; Webb, Ian K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-09-20

    We report on ion mobility separations (IMS) achievable using traveling waves in a Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module having a 44-cm path length and sixteen 90º turns. The performance of the TW-SLIM module was evaluated for ion transmission, and ion mobility separations with different RF, TW parameters and SLIM surface gaps in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In this work TWs were created by the transient and dynamic application of DC potentials. The TW-SLIM module demonstrated highly robust performance and the ion mobility resolution achieved even with sixteen close spaced turns was comparable to a similar straight path TW-SLIM module. We found an ion mobility peak capacity of ~ 31 and peak generation rate of 780 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s using the current multi-turn TW-SLIM module. The separations achieved for isomers of peptides and tetrasaccharides were found to be comparable to those from a ~ 0.9-m drift tube-based IMS-MS platform operated at the same pressure (4 torr). The combined attributes of flexible design, low voltage requirements and lossless ion transmission through multiple turns for the present TW-SLIM module provides a basis for SLIM devices capable of achieving much greater ion mobility resolutions via greatly extended ion path lengths and compact serpentine designs that do not significantly impact the instrumentation profile, a direction described in a companion manuscript.

  13. MCPB.py: A Python Based Metal Center Parameter Builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Merz, Kenneth M

    2016-04-25

    MCPB.py, a python based metal center parameter builder, has been developed to build force fields for the simulation of metal complexes employing the bonded model approach. It has an optimized code structure, with far fewer required steps than the previous developed MCPB program. It supports various AMBER force fields and more than 80 metal ions. A series of parametrization schemes to derive force constants and charge parameters are available within the program. We give two examples (one metalloprotein example and one organometallic compound example), indicating the program's ability to build reliable force fields for different metal ion containing complexes. The original version was released with AmberTools15. It is provided via the GNU General Public License v3.0 (GNU_GPL_v3) agreement and is free to download and distribute. MCPB.py provides a bridge between quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics simulation software packages thereby enabling the modeling of metal ion centers. It offers an entry into simulating metal ions in a number of situations by providing an efficient way for researchers to handle the vagaries and difficulties associated with metal ion modeling.

  14. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  15. Protecting entangled states of two ions by engineering reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Dong; Zou Jian; Yang Linguang; Li Jungang; Shao Bin, E-mail: zoujian@bit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-09-14

    We present a proposal for realizing local decoherence-free evolution of given entangled states of two two-level (TL) ions. For two TL ions coupled to a single heavily damped cavity, we can use an engineering reservoir scheme to obtain a decoherence-free subspace which can be nonadiabatically controlled by the system and reservoir parameters. Then the local decoherence-free evolution of the entangled states is achieved. And we also discuss the relation between the geometric phases and the entanglement of the two ions under the nonadiabatic coherent evolution.

  16. Trapped ions in optical lattices for probing oscillator chain models

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Talukdar, Ishan; Kreuter, Axel; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    We show that a chain of trapped ions embedded in microtraps generated by an optical lattice can be used to study oscillator models related to dry friction and energy transport. Numerical calculations with realistic experimental parameters demonstrate that both static and dynamic properties of the ion chain change significantly as the optical lattice power is varied. Finally, we lay out an experimental scheme to use the spin degree of freedom to probe the phase space structure and quantum critical behavior of the ion chain.

  17. Parametric instabilities in magnetized bi-ion and dusty plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N F Cramer; M P Hertzberg; S V Vladimirov

    2003-12-01

    The excitation of low frequency modes of oscillations in a magnetized bi-ion or dusty plasma with parametric pumping of the magnetic field is analysed. The equation of motion governing the perturbed plasma is derived and parametrically excited transverse modes propagating along the magnetic field are found. With multiple ion species or charged dust present, a number of different circularly polarized modes can be excited. The stability of these modes is investigated as a function of the plasma parameters. The modulational instabilities of large amplitude normal modes, modified by the extra ion species or dust and propagating along the magnetic field, are also investigated.

  18. Ecton mechanism for the generation of ion flows in a vacuum arc

    CERN Document Server

    Mesyats, G A

    2001-01-01

    Physical substantiation of the parameters of the ion flow, generated by the vacuum arc cathode spots is given for the first time in this work. The main characteristics of the vacuum arc cathode plasma generation process (the ion erosion, the ions average charge) are considered within the frames, of the ecton model of the vacuum arc cathode spot. According to this model the vacuum arc cathode spot consists of separate cells, emitting ectons. The ions parameter evaluations, obtained within the frames of the ecton model, qualitatively and quantitatively agree with the experimental data

  19. Dipole moments of ligands and Stark splitting of rare earth ion levels

    CERN Document Server

    Chumachkova, M M

    2001-01-01

    A model for description the polarization and relaxation of ions-ligands at impurity defects in crystals is proposed and tested. The approach is based on introduction of effective electrical dipole moments, taken into consideration as fundamental parameters of crystals and determined from experimental data on the energy structure of impurity ions. Calculations show that the rare-earth ion energy structure essentially depends on the value of effective electric dipole moments of surrounding matrix ions. Parameters of the theory are found. The calculation results coincide with experimental data available. Possibilities of the approach proposed in investigating crystals containing impurities (dielectrics and semiconductors) are discussed

  20. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  1. Operation of ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, ECR ion source was operated for HIRFL about 5138 hours and 8 species of ion beams, such as ~(12)C~(4+), ~(12)C~(5+), ~(36)Ar~(11+),~(13)C~(4+),~(40)Ca~(11+),~(40)Ar~(11+),~(56)Fe~(10+) and ~(18)O~(6+) were provided. Among these ions,~(56)Fe~(10+)is a new ion beam. In this period, 14 experiments of heavy ion physics application and nuclear research were finished.

  2. New Inorganic Ion-exchange Material for the Selective Removal of Fluoride from Potable Water Using Ion-selective Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed M.A.Q. Jamhour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An ion-exchange procedure involving the selective retention of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions containing 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg F- L-1 using a new inorganic ion exchanger zirconium(IV oxide-ethanolamine ZrO-EA and its application to fluoride removal from potable water has been described. A column equilibrium studies, batch process and different analytical parameters such as concentration, pH and temperature for the quantitative recoveries of F- ion using ZrO-EA exchanger were investigated and determined by an ion selective electrode. The effect of some other anions that might be present with the analyte was also examined. The column experiments showed a quantitative collection of fluoride at low concentration in water samples with more than 96% recovery.

  3. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  4. Clues From Pluto's Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Nearly a year ago, in July 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft passed by the Pluto system. The wealth of data amassed from that flyby is still being analyzed including data from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument. Recent examination of this data has revealedinteresting new information about Plutos atmosphere and how the solar wind interacts with it.A Heavy Ion TailThe solar wind is a constant stream of charged particles released by the Sun at speeds of around 400 km/s (thats 1 million mph!). This wind travels out to the far reaches of the solar system, interacting with the bodies it encounters along the way.By modeling the SWAP detections, the authors determine the directions of the IMF that could produce the heavy ions detected. Red pixels represent IMF directions permitted. No possible IMF could reproduce the detections if the ions are nitrogen (bottom panels), and only retrograde IMF directions can produce the detections if the ions are methane. [Adapted from Zirnstein et al. 2016]New Horizons data has revealed that Plutos atmosphere leaks neutral nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide molecules that sometimes escape its weak gravitational pull. These molecules become ionized and are subsequently picked up by the passing solar wind, forming a tail of heavy ions behind Pluto. The details of the geometry and composition of this tail, however, had not yet been determined.Escaping MethaneIn a recent study led by Eric Zirnstein (Southwest Research Institute), the latest analysis of data from the SWAP instrument on board New Horizons is reported. The team used SWAPs ion detections from just after New Horizons closest approach to Pluto to better understand how the heavy ions around Pluto behave, and how the solar wind interacts with Plutos atmosphere.In the process of analyzing the SWAP data, Zirnstein and collaborators first establish what the majority of the heavy ions picked up by the solar wind are. Models of the SWAP detections indicate they are unlikely

  5. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  6. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O/sub 2//sup +/(/sup 4/..pi../sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the /sup 4/..pi../sub 5/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the /sup 4/..pi../sub 3/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms).

  7. A Multicusp Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutte, D.; Freedman, S.; Gough, R.; Lee, Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K. N.; Lyneis, C.; Picard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Williams, M. D.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1997-05-01

    In order to produce a radioactive ion beam of (14)O+, a 10-cm-diameter, 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion source is now being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this paper we describe the specific ion source design and the basic ion source characteristics using Ar, Xe and a 90types of measurements have been performed: extractable ion current, ion species distributions, gas efficiency, axial energy spread and ion beam emittance measurements. The source can generate ion current densities of approximately 60 mA/cm2 . In addition the design of the ion beam extraction/transport system for the actual experimental setup for the radioactive beam line will be presented.

  8. Cassini observations of ion cyclotron waves and ions anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F. J.; Dols, V. J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Tokar, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    In Saturn's equatorial, inner magnetosphere, the production of fresh ions in a pick-up distribution generates ion cyclotron waves. These waves are a sensitive indicator of fresh plasma production, but the quantitative relation between wave properties and ionization rates is nontrivial. We present a combined analysis of Cassini MAG and CAPS data, from a variety of equatorial orbits between 2005 and 2012. Using the MAG data, we determine the amplitude and peak frequency of ion cyclotron waves. From the CAPS data we extract the parallel and perpendicular velocity distribution of water group ions. We compare these results with hybrid simulations of the ion cyclotron instability and relate the observed wave amplitudes and ion velocity distributions to the production rate of pickup ions. The resulting relation between wave and plasma properties will allow us to infer ion production rates even at times when no direct ion measurements are available.

  9. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  10. [Ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium in natural clinoptilolite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun-Hua; Li, Hang; Liu, Xin-Min; Xiong, Hai-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Zeolites have been widely applied in soil improvement and environment protection. The study on ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium is of important significance for better use of zeolites. The maximum adsorption capacities of alkali ions during ion exchange equilibrium in the clinoptilolite showed obvious specificity. For alkali metal ions with equivalent valence, the differences in adsorption capacity increased with the decrease of ionic concentration. These results cannot be well explained by the classical theories including coulomb force, ionic size, hydration, dispersion force, classic induction force and surface complexation. We found that the coupling of polarization effects resulted from the quantum fluctuation of diverse alkali metal ions and electric field near the zeolite surface should be the primary reason for specific ion effect during ion exchange in zeolite. The result of this coupling effect was that the difference in the ion dipole moment increased with the increase of surface potential, which further expanded the difference in the adsorption ability between zeolite surface and ions, resulting in different ion exchange adsorption ability at the solid/liquid interface. Due to the high surface charge density of zeolite, ionic size also played an important role in the distribution of ions in the double diffuse layer, which led to an interesting result that distinct differences in exchange adsorption ability of various alkali metal ions were only detected at high surface potential (the absolute value was greater than 0.2 V), which was different from the ion exchange equilibrium result on the surface with low charge density.

  11. Experimental study of particle formation by ion-ion recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagato, Kenkichi; Nakauchi, Masataka

    2014-10-01

    Particle formation by ion-ion recombination has been studied using an ion-ion recombination drift tube (IIR-DT). IIR-DT uses two DC corona ionizers to produce positive and negative ions at the ends of the drift tube. The ions of different polarity move in opposite directions along the electric field in the drift tube. We observed significant particle formation using ions generated in purified air containing H2O, SO2, and NH3. Particle formation was suppressed when no drift field was applied. We also observed few particles when we used a single discharge (positive or negative only). These results clearly show that particle formation observed in the IIR-DT was caused by nucleation by ion-ion recombination. Positive and negative ion species produced by corona ionizers were investigated using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. The ions involved in the particle formation were suggested to include H3O+(H2O)n and NH4+(H2O)n for positive ions and sulfur-based ions such as SO5-, SO5-NO2, and HSO4- for negative ions.

  12. Investigation of critical parameters controlling the efficiency of associative ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Padellec, A.; Launoy, T.; Dochain, A.; Urbain, X.

    2017-05-01

    This paper compiles our merged-beam experimental findings for the associative ionization (AI) process from charged reactants, with the aim of guiding future investigations with e.g. the double electrostatic ion storage ring DESIREE in Stockholm. A reinvestigation of the isotopic effect in H-(D-) + He+ collisions is presented, along with a review of {{{H}}}3+ and NO+ production by AI involving ion pairs or excited neutrals, and put in perspective with the mutual neutralization and radiative association reactions. Critical parameters are identified and evaluated for their systematic role in controlling the magnitude of the cross section: isotopic substitution, exothermicity, electronic state density, and spin statistics.

  13. Titratable Macroions in Multivalent Electrolyte Solutions: Strong Coupling Dressed Ion Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical description of the effect of polyvalent ions on the interaction between titratable macro-ions. The model system consists of two point-like macro-ions with dissociable sites, immersed in an asymmetric ionic mixture of monovalent and polyvalent salts. We formulate a {\\em dressed ion strong coupling theory}, based on the decomposition of the asymmetric ionic mixture into a weakly electrostatically coupled monovalent salt, and into polyvalent ions that are strongly electrostatically coupled to the titratable macro-ions. The charge of the macroions is not considered as fixed, but is allowed to respond to local bathing solution parameters (electrostatic potential, $pH$ of the solution, salt concentration) through a simple {\\em charge regulation} model. The approach presented, yielding an effective polyvalent-ion mediated interaction between charge-regulated macro-ions at various solution conditions, describes the strong coupling equivalent of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

  14. Synthesis of titanium sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpeth, L.D.; McCallum, J.C.; Nugent, K.W. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1998-06-01

    Since laser action was first demonstrated in titanium sapphire (Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in 1982, it has become the most widely used tunable solid state laser source. The development of a titanium sapphire laser in a waveguide geometry would yield an elegant, compact, versatile and highly tunable light source useful for applications in many areas including optical telecommunications. We are investigating whether ion implantation techniques can be utilised to produce suitable crystal quality and waveguide geometry for fabrication of a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide laser. The implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by subsequent thermal annealing under various conditions has been investigated as a means of forming the waveguide and optimising the fraction of Ti ions that have the correct oxidation state required for laser operation. A Raman Microprobe is being used to investigate the photo-luminescence associated with Ti{sup 3+} ion. Initial photoluminescence measurements of ion implanted samples are encouraging and reveal a broad luminescence profile over a range of {approx} .6 to .9 {mu}m, similar to that expected from Ti{sup 3+}. Rutherford Backscattering and Ion Channelling analysis have been used to study the crystal structure of the samples following implantation and annealing. This enables optimisation of the implantation parameters and annealing conditions to minimise defect levels which would otherwise limit the ability of light to propagate in the Ti:Al{sub 2O}3 waveguide. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Performance optimization of H(-) multicusp ion source for KIRAMS-30 cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun Uk; An, Dong Hyun; Chang, Hong Suk; Chai, Jong Seo

    2008-02-01

    KIRAMS-30 cyclotron has been developed and implemented for radio isotope production. For the purpose of producing negative hydrogen ions and low energy beam injection to the central region of KIRAMS-30, 10 mA H(-) multicusp ion source with beam kinetic energies in the 20-30 keV range and the normalized 4 rms emittance less than 1 mm mrad was installed. The optimized ion source operating condition is presented and the correlation between the extracted beam current and ion source parameters is described for the performance enhancement of the ion source.

  16. Performance optimization of H- multicusp ion source for KIRAMS-30 cyclotrona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun Uk; An, Dong Hyun; Chang, Hong Suk; Chai, Jong Seo

    2008-02-01

    KIRAMS-30 cyclotron has been developed and implemented for radio isotope production. For the purpose of producing negative hydrogen ions and low energy beam injection to the central region of KIRAMS-30, 10mA H- multicusp ion source with beam kinetic energies in the 20-30keV range and the normalized 4rms emittance less than 1mm mrad was installed. The optimized ion source operating condition is presented and the correlation between the extracted beam current and ion source parameters is described for the performance enhancement of the ion source.

  17. Ion-wake-mediated particle interaction in a magnetized-plasma flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jan; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander

    2012-09-28

    The interaction forces between dust grains in a flowing plasma are strongly modified by the formation of ion wakes. Here, we study the interparticle forces mediated by ion wakes in the presence of a strong magnetic field parallel to the ion flow. For increasing magnetic flux densities a continuous decay of the interaction force is observed. This transition occurs at parameters, where the ion cyclotron frequency starts to exceed the ion plasma frequency, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions. The modification of the interparticle forces is important for the understanding of the structure and dynamics of magnetized dusty plasmas.

  18. Nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G HAFEZ; M R TALUKDER; M HOSSAIN ALI

    2016-11-01

    This work presents theoretical and numerical discussion on the dynamics of ion-acoustic solitary wave for weakly relativistic regime in unmagnetized plasma comprising non-extensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic ions. In order to analyse the nonlinear propagation phenomena, the Korteweg–de Vries(KdV) equation is derived using the well-known reductive perturbation method. The integration of the derived equation is carried out using the ansatz method and the generalized Riccati equation mapping method. The influenceof plasma parameters on the amplitude and width of the soliton and the electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic solitary waves are described. The obtained results of the nonlinear low-frequencywaves in such plasmas may be helpful to understand various phenomena in astrophysical compact object and space physics.

  19. Ion-acoustic shocks with reflected ions: modeling and PIC simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Liseykina, T; Vshivkov, V; Malkov, M

    2015-01-01

    Non-relativistic collisionless shock waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless shocks, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modeling of an ion-acoustic collisionless shock based on one-dimensional (1D) kinetic approximation both for electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is made on the shock-reflected ions as the main driver of shock dissipation. The reflection efficiency, velocity distribution of reflected particles and the shock electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the shock parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed.

  20. Optical characterization of ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Y. K., E-mail: dryksharma@yahoo.com; Bind, Umesh Chandra [Department of Physics, Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee (India); Pal, Sudha, E-mail: namansingh91@gmail.com; Goyal, Priyanka, E-mail: namansingh91@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions was prepared by chemical synthesis method. The ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Their absorption in UV-VIS/NIR regions was measured at room temperature. The experimental oscillator strengths were calculated from the areas under the absorption bands. Eight absorption bands have been observed. From these spectral data various energy interaction parameters like Slater–Condon, Lande, Racah, Nephelauxetic ratio and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been carried out using the absorption spectra to evaluate the radiative properties for luminescent levels of the praseodymium ion and discussed. The observed nano particle size is 2nm.

  1. Optical characterization of ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.; Pal, Sudha; Goyal, Priyanka; Bind, Umesh Chandra

    2016-05-01

    ZnO nanomaterial with praseodymium ions was prepared by chemical synthesis method. The ZnO nanomaterial was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Their absorption in UV-VIS/NIR regions was measured at room temperature. The experimental oscillator strengths were calculated from the areas under the absorption bands. Eight absorption bands have been observed. From these spectral data various energy interaction parameters like Slater-Condon, Lande, Racah, Nephelauxetic ratio and bonding parameters have been computed. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been carried out using the absorption spectra to evaluate the radiative properties for luminescent levels of the praseodymium ion and discussed. The observed nano particle size is 2nm.

  2. Optimization of ion exchange in polishers at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.D. [Pedro Point Technology, Inc., Pacifica, CA (United States); Fruzzetti, K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Blowdown polishers are indispensable components in the secondary systems of pressurized water reactors. The application of advanced amines to reduce iron levels in final steam generator feedwater influences the resin selection for and operation of condensate polishers. There are many opportunities to optimize blowdown polisher performance. This paper summarizes the work currently underway to optimally use resin properties such as ion selectivity and capacity and operational parameters to maximize water quality while minimizing cost. It is shown that the best amine for a given power plant is a complex function of amine properties, ion exchange resin choice, purification systems and other plant design and operational parameters. (orig.)

  3. ION-1 technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbig, J.K.; Caine, J.C.

    1985-07-01

    The portable gamma-ray and neutron detector electronics (ION-1) gives a digital readout of the current-mode response produced by gamma rays in an ion chamber and of amplification and scaling of pulses received from a neutron detector. The primary application is the measurement of gamma-ray and neutron activity of irradiated reactor fuels stored at a reactor or at a storage pond away from a reactor. ION-1 is the first such instrument to use a design that allows communication of procedures, response, and results between instrument and inspector. It prompts the inspector through procedures, carries out programmed measurement steps, calculates results and error estimates, and performs internal diagnostic checks. This Technical Manual describes adjustment procedures and limited technical information that enable the inspector to troubleshoot at the board level. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  5. Investigation of fluorescence radiation following radiative recombination of ions and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kupliauskiene, A

    2005-01-01

    A general expression for the double differential cross section of fluorescence radiation following photorecombination (PRF) of polarized electrons and polarized ions is derived by using usual atomic theory methods and is represented in the form of multiple expansions over spherical tensors. The ways of the application of the general expression suitable for the specific experimental conditions are outlined by deriving the asymmetry parameter of angular distribution of PRF radiation in the case of nonpolarized ions and electrons. This parameter is calculated for neon-like ions and bare nuclei. A very strong dependence of the asymmetry parameter of PRF radiation angular distribution on free electron energy is obtained.

  6. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  7. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  8. Microwave Discharge Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, L

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic principles, design features and characteristics of microwave discharge ion sources. A suitable source for the production of intense beams for high-power accelerators must satisfy the requirements of high brightness, stability and reliability. The 2.45 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge sources are ideal devices to generate the required beams, as they produce multimilliampere beams of protons, deuterons and singly charged ions. A description of different technical designs will be given, analysing their performance, with particular attention being paid to the quality of the beam, especially in terms of its emittance.

  9. Advanced penning ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Sy, Amy V.

    2016-11-01

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for ion generation. In one aspect, an apparatus includes an anode, a first cathode, a second cathode, and a plurality of cusp magnets. The anode has a first open end and a second open end. The first cathode is associated with the first open end of the anode. The second cathode is associated with the second open end of the anode. The anode, the first cathode, and the second cathode define a chamber. The second cathode has an open region configured for the passage of ions from the chamber. Each cusp magnet of the plurality of cusp magnets is disposed along a length of the anode.

  10. Uranyl ion coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.

    1963-01-01

    A review of the known crystal structures containing the uranyl ion shows that plane-pentagon coordination is equally as prevalent as plane-square or plane-hexagon. It is suggested that puckered-hexagon configurations of OH - or H2O about the uranyl group will tend to revert to plane-pentagon coordination. The concept of pentagonal coordination is invoked for possible explanations of the complex crystallography of the natural uranyl hydroxides and the unusual behavior of polynuclear ions in hydrolyzed uranyl solutions.

  11. Interferometry with Strontium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom; Lambert, Enoch; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin

    2014-05-01

    We describe progress on a cold ion matter-wave interferometer. Cold Strontium atoms are extracted from an LVIS. The atoms will be photo-ionized with a two-photon transition to an auto-ionizing state in the continuum. The ions will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions from a pair of diode lasers injection locked to two beams from a master laser which have been shifted up and down by half the hyperfine splitting. We are developing laser instrumentation for this project including a method to prevent mode-hopping by analyzing laser frequency noise, and an inexpensive, robust wavelength meter. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  12. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizek, H.M. [comp.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system`s parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler.

  13. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, A. P. [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India); Adhikary, N. C. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati-781035, Assam (India)

    2013-10-15

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.

  14. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R

    1979-07-01

    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  15. Observations of transverse ion acceleration in the topside auroral ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbe, G.P.; Arnoldy, R.L. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States)); Moore, T.E. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)); Kintner, P.M.; Vago, J.L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Data obtained from a sounding rocket flight which reached an apogee of 927 km and passed through several auroral arcs are reported. During portions of the flight when the rocket was not in an energetic auroral structure, the ion data are fit to a Maxwellian function which yields the plasma parameters. Throughout the middle portion of the flight when above 700 km altitude, ion distributions having a superthermal tail were measured. These ion distributions generally coexisted with a cold thermal core distribution and peaked at pitch angles slightly greater than 90{degree}, which identifies them as conic distributions. These ions can be modeled using a bi-Maxwellian distribution function with a perpendicular (to B) temperature about 10 times greater than the parallel temperature of 0.15 eV. When the rocket was immersed in energetic auroral electron precipitation, two other ion distributions were observed. Transversely accelerated ions which represented bulk heating of the ambient population were observed. Transversely accelerated ions which represented bulk heating of the ambient population were observed continuously in these arcs. The characteristic perpendicular energy of the transversely bulk heated ions reached as high as 3 eV compared to typically less than 0.4 eV during nonauroral times. Cold ions flowing down the magnetic field were also continuously observed when the rocket was immersed in auroral electron precipitation and had downward speeds between 3 and 5 km/s. If one balances electric and collisional forces, these speeds translate to an electric field pointing into the atmosphere of magnitude 0.01 mV/m. A close correlation between auroral electron precipitation, measured electrostatic oxygen cyclotron waves, cold downflowing ions and transversely bulk heated ions will be shown.

  16. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  17. Actuation and ion transportation of polyelectrolyte gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2010-04-01

    Consisting of charged network swollen with ionic solution, polyelectrolyte gels are known for their salient characters including ion exchange and stimuli responsiveness. The active properties of polyelectrolyte gels are mostly due to the migration of solvent molecules and solute ions, and their interactions with the fixed charges on the network. In this paper, we extend the recently developed nonlinear field theory of polyelectrolyte gels by assuming that the kinetic process is limited by the rate of the transportation of mobile species. To study the coupled mechanical deformation, ion migration, and electric field, we further specialize the model to the case of a laterally constrained gel sheet. By solving the field equations in two limiting cases: the equilibrium state and the steady state, we calculate the mechanical responses of the gel to the applied electric field, and study the dependency on various parameters. The results recover the behavior observed in experiments in which polyelectrolyte gels are used as actuators, such as the ionic polymer metal composite. In addition, the model reveals the mechanism of the selectivity in ion transportation. Although by assuming specific material laws, the reduced system resembles those in most existing models in the literature, the theory can be easily generalized by using more realistic free-energy functions and kinetic laws. The adaptability of the theory makes it suitable for studying many similar material systems and phenomena.

  18. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Joy, David C; Rondinone, Adam J; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-03-29

    Achieving the ultimate limits of lithographic resolution and material performance necessitates engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. With the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He(+) and Ne(+) beam lithography of 2D materials, such as graphene-based nanoelectronics, is coming to the forefront as a tool for fabrication and surface manipulation. However, the effects of using a Ne focused-ion-beam on the fidelity of structures created out of 2D materials have yet to be explored. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene nanostructures and explore their mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we are able to ascertain changes in the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of Ne(+) beam milled graphene nanostructures and surrounding regions. Additionally, we are able to link localized defects around the milled graphene to ion milling parameters such as dwell time and number of beam passes in order to characterize the induced changes in mechanical and electromechanical properties of the graphene surface.

  19. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  20. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th