Sample records for water-gas shift membrane

  1. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan


    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  2. Simulation of Water Gas Shift Zeolite Membrane Reactor (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, Megawati; Dharmawijaya, P. T.


    The search of alternative energy sources keeps growing from time to time. Various alternatives have been introduced to reduce the use of fossil fuel, including hydrogen. Many pathways can be used to produce hydrogen. Among all of those, the Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction is the most common pathway to produce high purity hydrogen. The WGS technique faces a downstream processing challenge due to the removal hydrogen from the product stream itself since it contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and also the excess reactants. An integrated process using zeolite membrane reactor has been introduced to improve the performance of the process by selectively separate the hydrogen whilst boosting the conversion. Furthermore, the zeolite membrane reactor can be further improved via optimizing the process condition. This paper discusses the simulation of Zeolite Membrane Water Gas Shift Reactor (ZMWGSR) with variation of process condition to achieve an optimum performance. The simulation can be simulated into two consecutive mechanisms, the reaction prior to the permeation of gases through the zeolite membrane. This paper is focused on the optimization of the process parameters (e.g. temperature, initial concentration) and also membrane properties (e.g. pore size) to achieve an optimum product specification (concentration, purity).

  3. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)


    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  4. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.


    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  5. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, John P. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H2/CO2 selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO2-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H2/CO2 selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H2/CO2 selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux and selectivity at 300 °C, which is comparable to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  6. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

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    Barton, Tom [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)


    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  7. A Two‐Fluid model study of hydrogen production via water gas shift in fluidized bed membrane reactors


    J.W. Voncken, Ramon; Roghair, Ivo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin


    Fluidized bed membrane reactors have been proposed as a promising reactor concept for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen via Water Gas Shift (WGS). High-flux thin-film dense palladium-based membranes are used to selectively extract hydrogen from the reaction medium, which shifts the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the products’ side, increasing the conversion. A Two-Fluid Model (TFM) has been used to investigate the effect of hydrogen extraction via perm-selective membranes on the WGS re...

  8. The production of hydrogen through the use of a 77 wt% Pd 23 wt% Ag membrane water gas shift reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Liberty N


    Full Text Available stainless steel (PSS) is evaluated for the production of hydrogen and the potential replacement of the current two-stage Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction by a single stage reaction. The permeability of a 20 µm Pd–Ag membrane reactor was examined at 320 °C, 380...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. During Year I, we have successfully fabricated SiC macro porous membranes via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder, which were then deposited with thin, micro-porous (6 to 40{angstrom} in pore size) films via sol-gel technique as intermediate layers. Finally, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was deposited on this substrate via our CVD/I technique. The composite membrane thus prepared demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers. Building upon the positive progress made in the Year I preliminary study, we will conduct an optimization study in Year II to develop an optimized H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu


    A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. SiC macro-porous membranes have been successfully fabricated via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder. Also, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was prepared via our CVD/I technique. This composite membrane demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers and sol-gel techniques. Building upon the positive progress made in the membrane development study, we conducted an optimization study to develop an H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment. In addition, mathematical simulation has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed reactor for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the

  11. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miller, Scott [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ku, Anthony [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Polishchuk, Kimberly [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wei, Wei [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shisler, Roger [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wickersham, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McEvoy, Kevin [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Alberts, William [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Barton, Thomas [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States)


    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K. T. Liu


    Two process schemes have been investigated by us for the use of hydrotalcites we prepared as CO{sub 2} adsorbents to enhance water gas shift (WGS) reaction: Case I involves the adsorption enhanced WGS packed bed reactor and Case II involves the adsorption enhanced WGS membrane reactor. Both cases will achieve the same objective as the hydrotalcite membrane reactor: i.e., improving the WGS reactor efficiency via the concomitant removal of CO{sub 2} for sequestration. In this report a detailed investigation of the design characteristics and performance of Case II, termed the Hybrid Adsorbent-Membrane Reactor (HAMR), is presented. The HAMR system includes a packed-bed catalytic membrane reactor (hydrogen selective) coupling the WGS reaction (in a porous hydrogen selective membrane) with CO{sub 2} removal with an adsorbent in the permeate side. The reactor characteristics have been investigated for a range of permeance and selectivity relevant to the aforementioned application. The HAMR system shows enhanced CO conversion, hydrogen yield, and product purity, and provides good promise for reducing the hostile operating conditions of conventional WGS reactors, and for meeting the CO{sub 2} sequestration objective. In the next quarterly report we will present the simulation result for Case I as well as the progress on hydrotalcite membrane synthesis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu


    A high temperature membrane reactor (MR) has been developed to enhance the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction efficiency with concomitant CO{sub 2} removal for sequestration. This improved WGS-MR with CO{sub 2} recovery capability is ideally suitable for integration into the Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power generation system. Two different CO{sub 2}-affinity materials were selected in this study. The Mg-Al-CO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated as an adsorbent or a membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. The adsorption isotherm and intraparticle diffusivity for the LDH-based adsorbent were experimentally determined, and suitable for low temperature shift (LTS) of WGS. The LDH-based membranes were synthesized using our commercial ceramic membranes as substrate. These experimental membranes were characterized comprehensively in terms of their morphology, and CO{sub 2} permeance and selectivity to demonstrate the technical feasibility. In parallel, an alternative material-base membrane, carbonaceous membrane developed by us, was characterized, which also demonstrated enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity at the LTS-WGS condition. With optimization on membrane defect reduction, these two types of membrane could be used commercially as CO{sub 2}-affinity membranes for the proposed application. Based upon the unique CO{sub 2} affinity of the LDHs at the LTS/WGS environment, we developed an innovative membrane reactor, Hybrid Adsorption and Membrane Reactor (HAMR), to achieve {approx}100% CO conversion, produce a high purity hydrogen product and deliver a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream for disposal. A mathematical model was developed to simulate this unique one -step process. Finally a benchtop reactor was employed to generate experimental data, which were consistent with the prediction from the HAMR mathematical model. In summary, the project objective, enhancing WGS efficiency for hydrogen production with concomitant CO{sub 2} removal for

  14. Water Gas Shift Reaction with A Single Stage Low Temperature Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciora, Richard J [Media and Process Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Paul KT [Media and Process Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Palladium membrane and Palladium membrane reactor were developed under this project for hydrogen separation and purification for fuel cell applications. A full-scale membrane reactor was designed, constructed and evaluated for the reformate produced from a commercial scale methanol reformer. In addition, the Pd membrane and module developed from this project was successfully evaluated in the field for hydrogen purification for commercial fuel cell applications.

  15. CHRISGAS Project. WP13: Ancillary and Novel Processes. Final Report: Separation of Hydrogen with Membranes Combined with Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Hervas, J. M.; Marono, M.; Barreiro, M. M.


    Oxygen pressurized gasification of biomass out stands as a very promising approach to obtain energy or hydrogen from renewable sources. The technical feasibility of this technology has been investigated under the scope of the VI FP CHRISGAS project, which started in September 2004 and had a duration of five and a half years. The Division of Combustion and Gasification of CIEMAT participated in this project in Work Package 13: Ancillary and novel processes, studying innovative gas separation and gas upgrading systems. Such systems include novel or available high temperature water gas shift catalysts and commercially available membranes not yet tried in this type of atmosphere. This report describes the activities carried out during the project regarding the performance of high temperature water gas shift catalysts for upgrading of synthesis gas obtained from biomass gasification, the separation of H2 with selective membranes and the combination of both processes in one by means of a catalytic membrane reactor. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Computation and comparison of Pd-based membrane reactor performances for water gas shift reaction and isotope swamping in view of highly tritiated water decontamination

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    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy)


    Highlights: • A dedicated detritiation process for highly tritiated water (HTW) has to be identified. • Water gas shift and isotopic swamping via Pd–Ag membrane reactor are possible processes. • A parametric analysis through two simulation codes is performed. • A comparison in terms of the decontamination factor is provided. -- Abstract: In a D–T fusion machine, due to the possible reaction between tritium and oxygen, some potential sources of highly tritiated water (HTW) can be identified. Therefore, a dedicated detritiation process has to be assessed either for economic and safety reasons. In this view, the use of a Pd-based membrane reactor performing isotopic exchange reactions can be considered since hydrogen isotopes exclusively permeate the Pd–Ag membrane and their exchange over the catalyst realizes the water detritiation. In this activity, the treatment of highly tritiated water, generated by an ITER-like machine (i.e. 2 kg of stoichiometric HTO containing up to 300 g of tritium), via a Pd-membrane reactor is studied in terms of decontamination capability. Especially, a parametric analysis of two processes (water gas shift and isotopic swamping) performed in a Pd-based membrane reactor is carried out by using two mathematical models previously developed and experimentally verified. Particularly, the effect of the reactor temperature, the membrane thickness, the reaction pressure and the protium sweep flow-rate is investigated. Moreover, a comparison in terms of the decontamination factor and the number of reactors necessary to detritiate the HTW are provided. Generally, the results reveal a higher decontamination capability of the WGS reaction respect with the IS (maximum DF values of about 120 and 1.6 in the case of WGS and IS, respectively). However some drawbacks, mainly related with the formation of tritiated species, can occur by performing the WGS.

  17. The production of hydrogen through the use of a 77 wt% Pd 23 wt% Ag membrane water gas shift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberty N. Baloyi


    Full Text Available Hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decarbonize the energy sector. This work presents the application of a palladium-silver (Pd–Ag membrane-based reactor. The membrane reactor which is made from Pd–Ag film supported by porous stainless steel (PSS is evaluated for the production of hydrogen and the potential replacement of the current two-stage Water-Gas Shift (WGS reaction by a single stage reaction. The permeability of a 20 μm Pd–Ag membrane reactor was examined at 320 °C, 380 °C and 430 °C. The effect of continuous hydrogen exposure on the Pd–Ag membrane at high temperature and low temperature was examined to investigate the thermal stability and durability of the membrane. During continuous operation to determine thermal stability, the membrane reactor exhibited stable hydrogen permeation at 320 °C for 120 h and unstable hydrogen permeation at 430 °C was observed. For the WGS reaction, the reactor was loaded with Ferrochrome catalyst. The membrane showed the ability to produce high purity hydrogen, with a CO conversion and an H2 recovery of 84% and 88%, respectively. The membrane suffered from hydrogen embrittlement due to desorption and adsorption of hydrogen on the membrane surface. SEM analysis revealed cracks that occurred on the surface of the membrane after hydrogen exposure. XRD analysis revealed lattice expansion after hydrogen loading which suggests the occurrence of phase change from α-phase to the more brittle β-phase.

  18. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification. (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua


    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  19. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification (United States)

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua


    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  20. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

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    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu


    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a

  1. Biological Water-Gas Shift Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen: Milestone Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, W. A.


    This report summarizes the results of research and economic analysis on a biological water-gas shift process for the production of hydrogen. The organism Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS is a photosynthetic bacteria which can perform the water-gas shift reaction under anaerobic conditions. The report describes some of the technical issues regarding the process, addresses some claimed benefits of the process and presents some results from economic studies of different process configurations.

  2. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.


    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  3. Development of active, and stable water-gas-shift reaction catalysts for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babich, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, Leon


    Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, is a key step in the generation of H2 for fuel cells. Noble metal-based catalysts are promising single stage WGS catalysts because they less sensitive than LTS catalysts (Cu based) and more active than the HTS (Ni) catalysts. High activity in CO

  4. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.


    Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

  5. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C


    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  6. Sulfur Poisoning of the Water Gas Shift Reaction on Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke


    resistance increased both in the high and low frequency region, which indicates a strong poisoning of the water gas shift reaction and thus a lack of hydrogen fuel in addition to the poisoning of the electrochemical hydrogen oxidation. All poisoning effects are reversible under the applied operating......Investigation of fuels containing sulfur impurities is important regarding durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) because they are present in various potential fuels for SOFC applications. The effect of H2S in the ppm range on the performance of state-of-the-art anode supported SOFC at 850...

  7. Qualification of the ALKASORB sorbent for the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Dijk, Van H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Jansen, D.


    For the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process, a new sorbent material has been qualified in a reactor of 2 m length under conditions close to industrial designs. The sorbent ALKASORB is a potassium-carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based compound. ALKASORB is shown to have many favourable properties in comparison to the reference sorbent, in particular with respect to mechanical stability. The cyclic capacity of the new compound is substantially higher than the cyclic capacity of the reference sorbent, and it allows a reduction of the steam requirement of 50%. The sorbent has demonstrated catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that is sufficient to omit a separate catalyst. It is demonstrated that the sorbent remains chemically and mechanically stable during operation of at least 2000 adsorption-desorption cycles, even in the presence of H2S in the feed. H2S is shown not to influence CO2 adsorption capacity and is co-captured with the CO2. In contrast to the reference material that showed mechanical degradation during extended adsorption-desorption cycles, the new material is stable and allows to obtain carbon capture levels exceeding 95% more efficiently and more economically since the required size of the vessels will be smaller.

  8. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.


    A Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240[degrees]C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H[sub 2]/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/ The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO[sub 2] catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO[sub 2] operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts's operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  9. Water-Gas Shift and Methane Reactivity on Reducible Perovskite-Type Oxides (United States)


    Comparative (electro)catalytic, structural, and spectroscopic studies in hydrogen electro-oxidation, the (inverse) water-gas shift reaction, and methane conversion on two representative mixed ionic–electronic conducting perovskite-type materials La0.6Sr0.4FeO3−δ (LSF) and SrTi0.7Fe0.3O3−δ (STF) were performed with the aim of eventually correlating (electro)catalytic activity and associated structural changes and to highlight intrinsic reactivity characteristics as a function of the reduction state. Starting from a strongly prereduced (vacancy-rich) initial state, only (inverse) water-gas shift activity has been observed on both materials beyond ca. 450 °C but no catalytic methane reforming or methane decomposition reactivity up to 600 °C. In contrast, when starting from the fully oxidized state, total methane oxidation to CO2 was observed on both materials. The catalytic performance of both perovskite-type oxides is thus strongly dependent on the degree/depth of reduction, on the associated reactivity of the remaining lattice oxygen, and on the reduction-induced oxygen vacancies. The latter are clearly more reactive toward water on LSF, and this higher reactivity is linked to the superior electrocatalytic performance of LSF in hydrogen oxidation. Combined electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman measurements in turn also revealed altered surface and bulk structures and reactivities. PMID:26045733

  10. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang; Hu, J.


    species HCOO formation is the surface CO2 reaction with H as a side reaction of CO2 desorption on S-termination with 50% S coverage. The formed HCOO species will react further with adsorbed hydrogen yielding H2COO followed by breaking its C-O bond to form the surface CH2O and O species.......Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs....... The pathway for water-gas-shift reaction on both terminations has been carefully studied where the most favorable reaction path precedes the redox mechanism, namely the reaction takes place as follows: CO + H2O --> CO + OH + H --> CO + O + 2H --> CO2 + H-2. The most likely reaction candidates for the formate...

  11. Catalysts synthesized by selective deposition of Fe onto Pt for the water-gas shift reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Isaias Barbosa; Ro, Insoo; Liu, Yifei; Ball, Madelyn; Huber, George W.; Zanchet, Daniela; Dumesic, James A.


    FePt bimetallic catalysts with intimate contact between the two metals were synthesized by controlled surface reactions (CSR) of (cyclohexadiene)iron tricarbonyl with hydrogen-treated supported Pt nanoparticles. Adsorption of the iron precursor on a Pt/SiO2 catalyst was studied, showing that the Fe loading could be increased by performing multiple CSR cycles, and the efficiency of this process was linked to the renewal of adsorption sites by a reducing pretreatment. The catalytic activity of these bimetallic catalysts for the water gas shift reaction was improved due to promotion by iron, likely linked to H2O activation on FeOx species at or near the Pt surface, mostly in the (II) oxidation state.

  12. Stable and efficient Pt–Re/TiO2 catalysts for water-gas-shift: on the effect of Rhenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus


    The catalytic performance of Pt–Re/TiO2 catalysts, that is, activity and stability, in single-stage water gas shift reactions was investigated by studying the influence of preparation strategies, Pt/Re molar ratios, and metals contents. Results show that sequential impregnation of Re precursor prior

  13. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.


    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and

  14. Ambient temperature aqueous synthesis of ultrasmall copper doped ceria nanocrystals for the water gas shift and carbon monoxide oxidation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, Christopher D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Lehigh University; Bethlehem; USA; Lu, Li [Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Lehigh University; Bethlehem; USA; Kiely, Christopher J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Lehigh University; Bethlehem; USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering; McIntosh, Steven [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Lehigh University; Bethlehem; USA


    Ultra-small CuxCe1-xO2-δnanocrystals were prepared through a room temperature, aqueous synthesis method, achieving high copper doping and low water gas shift activation energy.

  15. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  16. Harnessing the Power of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction for Organic Synthesis. (United States)

    Ambrosi, Andrea; Denmark, Scott E


    Since its original discovery over a century ago, the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) has played a crucial role in industrial chemistry, providing a source of H2 to feed fundamental industrial transformations such as the Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia. Although the production of hydrogen remains nowadays the major application of the WGSR, the advent of homogeneous catalysis in the 1970s marked the beginning of a synergy between WGSR and organic chemistry. Thus, the reducing power provided by the CO/H2 O couple has been exploited in the synthesis of fine chemicals; not only hydrogenation-type reactions, but also catalytic processes that require a reductive step for the turnover of the catalytic cycle. Despite the potential and unique features of the WGSR, its applications in organic synthesis remain largely underdeveloped. The topic will be critically reviewed herein, with the expectation that an increased awareness may stimulate new, creative work in the area. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A mini review on the chemistry and catalysis of the water gas shift reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhun


    Water gas shift (WGS) reaction is a chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide reacts with water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen. It is an important reaction industrially used in conjunction with steam reforming of hydrocarbons for the production of high purity hydrogen. Grenoble et al examined the roles of both active metals and metal oxide support on the kinetics of the WGS reaction. They found out that the turn over numbers of various Al2O3 supported transition metals decreased in the trend of Cu, Re, Co, Ru, Ni, Pt, Os, Au, Fe, Pd, Rh, and Ir, which corresponds nicely to the observed volcano shaped correlation between catalytic activities and respective CO adsorption heat. This is a strong indication that CO gets activated on the metal surface during the reaction and different metals have different activation energies. The authors also observed that the turn over number of Pt/Al2O3 was one order of magnitude higher than that of Pt/SiO2, indicating a strong support effect, which the authors ascri...

  18. Simulation and control of water-gas shift packed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling (United States)

    Saw, S. Z.; Nandong, J.


    Water-Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) has become one of the well-known pathways for H2 production in industries. The issue with WGSR is that it is kinetically favored at high temperatures but thermodynamically favored at low temperatures, thus requiring careful consideration in the control design in order to ensure that the temperature used does not deactivate the catalyst. This paper studies the effect of a reactor arrangement with an inter-stage cooling implemented in the packed bed reactor to look at its effect on outlet temperature. A mathematical model is developed based on one-dimensional heat and mass transfers which incorporate the intra-particle effects. It is shown that the placement of the inter-stage cooling and the outlet temperature exiting the inter-stage cooling have strong influence on the reaction conversion. Several control strategies are explored for the process. It is shown that a feedback- feedforward control strategy using Multi-scale Control (MSC) is effective to regulate the reactor temperature profile which is critical to maintaining the catalysts activity.

  19. A further step toward H2 in automobile : development of an efficient bi-functional catalyst for single stage water gas shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.


    The suitability of polymer electrolyte fuel (PEM) cells for stationary and vehicular applications initiated research in all areas of fuel processor (i.e. reformer, water-gas-shift, preferential oxidation of CO (PROX)) catalysts for hydrogen generation. Water gas shift (WGS) reaction is an essential

  20. Hydrodesulphurization of Light Gas Oil using hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz


    The production of clean fuel faces the challenges of high production cost and complying with stricter environmental regulations. In this research, the ability of using a novel technology of upgrading heavy oil to treat Light Gas Oil (LGO) will be investigated. The target of this project is to produce cleaner transportation fuel with much lower cost of production. Recently, a novel process for upgrading of heavy oil has been developed at University of Waterloo. It is combining the two essential processes in bitumen upgrading; emulsion breaking and hydroprocessing into one process. The water in the emulsion is used to generate in situ hydrogen from the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). This hydrogen can be used for the hydrogenation and hydrotreating reaction which includes sulfur removal instead of the expensive molecular hydrogen. This process can be carried out for the upgrading of the bitumen emulsion which would improve its quality. In this study, the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) of LGO was conducted using in situ hydrogen produced via the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR). The main objective of this experimental study is to evaluate the possibility of producing clean LGO over dispersed molybdenum sulphide catalyst and to evaluate the effect of different promoters and syn-gas on the activity of the dispersed Mo catalyst. Experiments were carried out in a 300 ml Autoclave batch reactor under 600 psi (initially) at 391°C for 1 to 3 hours and different amounts of water. After the hydrotreating reaction, the gas samples were collected and the conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen via WGSR was determined using a refinery gas analyzer. The sulphur content in liquid sample was analyzed via X-Ray Fluorescence. Experimental results showed that using more water will enhance WGSR but at the same time inhibits the HDS reaction. It was also shown that the amount of sulfur removed depends on the reaction time. The plan is to investigate the effect of synthesis gas (syngas

  1. Kinetic and spectroscopic study of catalysts for water-gas shift and nitrogen oxide removal (United States)

    Kispersky, Vincent Frederick

    Hy variants modeled on Cu. The redox nature of the Cu active site was further investigated in a follow up study isolating the reducing portion of the SCR by removing O 2 from the reaction feed. Cutting off O2 drove the catalyst into a highly reduced state dominated by Cu(I) while removing a reductant drove the Cu into the fully oxidized state. Our research shows that not only is redox a vital part of the SCR reaction on Cu/zeolites, but that the oxidation state of the active site is highly sensitive to the gas environment. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is an industrially important step in H2 generation from steam reforming. I have had the opportunity to contribute to a number of studies in WGS by studying the catalysts in FTIR. We studied numerous catalytic formulations including Fe promoted Pd/Al 2O3 and Au/TiO2. We found that the Fe promoted the WGS rate of the catalyst by a factor of 160 compared to the Fe free Pd/Al 2O3. The reduced Fe promoter efficiently split H2O, typically the role performed by reducible supports, and the nearby noble metal particles provided spillover H2 to maintain the reduced Fe phase necessary to split H2O. Our study of Au/TiO2 involved the development of a modified operando transmission IR cell with ultra-low dead volume allowing for fast switching isotope experiments over the catalyst. The isotope switching experiments showed that only CO adsorbed on Au0 sites was an active surface intermediate at 120°C. Counting the amount of active surface Au atoms for the reaction ruled out the Au particle surface and perimeter atoms as the dominant active sites and confirmed our previous finding that the active site was composed mostly of low coordinated corner Au atoms.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C catalytical coatings for the water-gas shift reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Dubrovskiy, A.R. [Inst. of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity, Murmansk Region (Russian Federation); Rebrov, E.V.; Schouten, J.C. [Lab. of Chemical Reactor Engineering, Eindhoven Univ. of Tech., Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    The electroreduction of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions on a molybdenum cathode in a NaCl-KCl-Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C on molybdenum substrates has been performed at 1123 K for 7 h with a cathodic current density of 5 mA cm{sup -2}. If molybdenum carbide is present as a thin (ca. 500 nm) film on a molybdenum substrate (Mo{sub 2}C/Mo), its catalytic activity in the water gas-shift reaction is enhanced by at least an order of magnitude compared to that of the bulk Mo{sub 2}C phase. (orig.)

  3. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.


    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  4. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.


    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  5. Role of Re in Pt-Re/TiO2 catalyst for water gas shift reaction: A mechanistic and kinetic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus


    Transient kinetic studies and in situ FTIR spectroscopy were used to follow the reaction sequences that occur during water gas shift (WGS) reaction over Pt–Re/TiO2 catalyst. Results pointed to contributions of an associative formate route with redox regeneration and two classical redox routes

  6. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts. (United States)

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Herein, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240 h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5 wt %.

  7. Simulation of a low temperature water gas shift reactor using the heterogeneous model/application to a pem fuel cell (United States)

    Giunta, Pablo; Amadeo, Norma; Laborde, Miguel

    In the last few years, a renewed interest in the water gas shift (WGS) reaction at low temperature has arisen due to its application to fuel cells. In this work, a simulation of a fixed bed reactor for this reaction, which forms part of a hydrogen production-purification train for a 10 kW PEM fuel cell using ethanol as the raw material, was carried out. A commercial Cu/Zn/Ba/Al 2O 3 catalyst was employed and a one-dimensional heterogeneous model was applied for the simulation. The catalyst deactivation due to thermal factors (sintering) was taken into account in the model. Isothermal and adiabatic regimes were analyzed as well. Results of the simulation indicate that the pellet can be considered isothermal but temperature gradients in the film cannot be disregarded. On the other hand, concentration gradients in the film can be ignored but CO profiles are established inside the pellet. Adiabatic operation can be recommended because of its simplicity of operation and construction. The reactor volume is strongly sensitive to the CO outlet concentration at CO levels lower than 6000 ppm. For a 10 kW PEM fuel cell, using adequate pellet size and taking into account the catalyst deactivation, a reactor volume of 0.64 l would be enough to obtain an outlet CO concentration of about 7160 ppm. This concentration value can be handled by the next purification stage, COPROX.

  8. Nano-Scale Au Supported on Carbon Materials for the Low Temperature Water Gas Shift (WGS Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sánchez


    Full Text Available Au-based catalysts supported on carbon materials with different structures such as graphite (G and fishbone type carbon nanofibers (CNF-F were prepared using two different methods (impregnation and gold-sol to be tested in the water gas shift (WGS reaction. Atomic absorption spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses (CNH, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR and temperature-programmed decomposition were employed to characterize both the supports and catalysts. Both the crystalline nature of the carbon supports and the method of gold incorporation had a strong influence on the way in which Au particles were deposited on the carbon surface. The higher crystallinity and the smaller and well dispersed Au particle size were, the higher activity of the catalysts in the WGS reaction was noted. Finally, catalytic activity showed an important dependence on the reaction temperature and steam-to-CO molar ratio.

  9. Hydrogen production by the high temperature combination of the water gas shift and CO{sub 2} absorption reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretado, M.A.E.; Vigil, M.D.D.; Gutierrez, J.S.; Ortiz, A.L.; Collins-Martinez, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chih (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica de Materiales


    Hydrogen is an important raw material for the chemical and petroleum industry. An important research field has surfaced, dealing with the production of high purity hydrogen for power generation purposes through fuel cells. Industrial technologies for hydrogen production are based on the use of fossil fuels, with catalytic steam methane reforming being the most important process together with partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and the integrated combined coal gasification cycle. Hydrogen production through the water gas shift (WGS) reaction requires two consecutive catalytic steps followed by carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) separation. However, combination of the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent opens the opportunity to produce high purity hydrogen in one single step called absorption enhanced WGS or AEWGS. In theory, this process would not require a catalyst. This paper presented an experimental study of AEWGS using a quartz-made fixed bed reactor. The CO{sub 2} absorbents tested in this study were calcined dolomite, (CaOMgO) and sodium zirconate (Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}). The paper described the experimental study, with particular reference to the thermodynamic analysis that determined the equilibrium conditions of the systems CO/H{sub 2}O (WGS) and CO/absorbent/H{sub 2} (AEWGS); synthesis and characterization; and the fixed bed reaction system. Results were determined by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area and crystallite size, and reaction evaluation. It was concluded that at reaction conditions, dolomite can efficiently remove CO{sub 2} at partial pressures three times lower than with the use of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as absorbent. 24 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  10. Water-Gas Shift and CO Methanation Reactions over Ni-CeO2(111) Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Senanayake; J Evans; S Agnoli; L Barrio; T Chen; J Hrbek; J Rodriguez


    X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies were used to study the interaction of Ni atoms with CeO{sub 2}(111) surfaces. Upon adsorption on CeO{sub 2}(111) at 300 K, nickel remains in a metallic state. Heating to elevated temperatures (500-800 K) leads to partial reduction of the ceria substrate with the formation of Ni{sup 2+} species that exists as NiO and/or Ce{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 2-y}. Interactions of nickel with the oxide substrate significantly reduce the density of occupied Ni 3d states near the Fermi level. The results of core-level photoemission and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure point to weakly bound CO species on CeO{sub 2}(111) which are clearly distinguishable from the formation of chemisorbed carbonates. In the presence of Ni, a stronger interaction is observed with chemisorption of CO on the admetal. When the Ni is in contact with Ce{sup +3} cations, CO dissociates on the surface at 300 K forming NiC{sub x} compounds that may be involved in the formation of CH{sub 4} at higher temperatures. At medium and large Ni coverages (>0.3 ML), the Ni/CeO{sub 2}(111) surfaces are able to catalyze the production of methane from CO and H{sub 2}, with an activity slightly higher than that of Ni(100) or Ni(111). On the other hand, at small coverages of Ni (<0.3 ML), the Ni/CeO{sub 2}(111) surfaces exhibit a very low activity for CO methanation but are very good catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction.

  11. Redox cycle stability of mixed oxides used for hydrogen generation in the cyclic water gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Pradyot, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in cyclic water gas shift reactor. • For the first time stability of such oxides were tested for 100 redox cycles. • Optimally added oxides significantly improved the activity and the stability of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Increased stability was attributed to the impediment of neck formation. - Abstract: Repeated cycles of the reduction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with reductive gas, e.g. hydrogen and subsequent oxidation of the reduced iron material with water vapor can be harnessed as a process for the production of pure hydrogen. The redox behavior of iron oxide modified with various amounts of SiO{sub 2}, CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in the present study. The total amount of the additional metal oxides was always below 15 wt%. The samples were prepared by co-precipitation using urea hydrolysis method. The influence of various metal oxides on the hydrogen production capacity and the material stability was studied in detail in terms of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis. Furthermore, the activity and the stability of the samples were tested in repeated reduction with diluted H{sub 2} and re-oxidation cycles with H{sub 2}O. The results indicate that combination of several oxides as promoter increases the stability of the iron oxide material by mitigating the sintering process. The positive influence of the oxides in stabilizing the iron oxide material is attributed to the impediment of neck formation responsible for sintering.

  12. Morphology-Dependent Properties of Cu/CeO2 Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Ren


    Full Text Available CeO2 nanooctahedrons, nanorods, and nanocubes were prepared by the hydrothermal method and were then used as supports of Cu-based catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS reaction. The chemical and physical properties of these catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR and in situ diffuse reflectance infra-red fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS techniques. Characterization results indicate that the morphology of the CeO2 supports, originating from the selective exposure of different crystal planes, has a distinct impact on the dispersion of Cu and the catalytic properties. The nanooctahedron CeO2 catalyst (Cu-CeO2-O showed the best dispersion of Cu, the largest amount of moderate copper oxide, and the strongest Cu-support interaction. Consequently, the Cu-CeO2-O catalyst exhibited the highest CO conversion at the temperature range of 150–250 °C when compared with the nanocube and nanorod Cu-CeO2 catalysts. The optimized Cu content of the Cu-CeO2-O catalysts is 10 wt % and the CO conversion reaches 91.3% at 300 °C. A distinctive profile assigned to the evolution of different types of carbonate species was observed in the 1000–1800 cm−1 region of the in situ DRIFTS spectra and a particular type of carbonate species was identified as a potential key reaction intermediate at low temperature.

  13. Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.; Richards-Babb, M.; Carr, T.


    The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having H{sub 2}/CO {le} 1 into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on their surfaces. The modes of activation of H{sub 2} and CO on MoS{sub 2} and alkali-doped MoS{sub 2} were considered, and computational analyses of the thermodynamic stability of transition metal sulfides and of the electronic structure of these sulfide catalysts were carried out. In the preparation of the cesium-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts, a variety of preparation methods using CsOOCH were examined. In all cases, doping with CsOOCH led to a lost of surface area. The undoped molybdenum disulfide catalyst only produced hydrocarbons. Cs-doped MoS{sub 2} catalysts all produced linear alcohols, along with smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. With a 20 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. It was shown that with a carefully prepared 10 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, reproducible and high alcohol synthesis activity could be obtained. For example, at 295 C with H{sub 2}/CO = 1 synthesis gas at 8.3 MPa and with GHSV = 7,760 l/kg cat/hr, the total alcohol space time yield was ca 300 g/kg cat/hr (accompanied with a hydrocarbon space time yield of ca 60 g/kg cat/hr). Over a testing period of ca 130 hr, no net deactivation of the catalyst was observed. 90 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Membrane contactors in the beverage industry for controlling the water gas composition. (United States)

    Criscuoli, Alessandra; Drioli, Enrico; Moretti, Ugo


    In the work described here, membrane contactors are used for coupling the removal of species (oxygen and hydrogen sulfide) present in the water with the water carbonation process. We include both experiments and a theoretical study devoted to the analysis of the transport phenomena that occur in the membrane contactor. The main resistance to mass transport was located at the liquid side. Correlations between Sherwood and Reynolds numbers on the shell side that are suitable for the membrane contactor used to carry out our experiments have been determined. In particular, for Re > 1.6, the expression proposed by Yang and Cussler in 1986: Sh = 0.90 Re(0.40) Sc(0.33) describes the behavior of the system; whereas, for Re between 0.03 and 0.3, a new expression is proposed: Sh = 0.435 Re(1.2)Sc(0.33). A comparison with traditional equipment is also furnished. Membrane contactors offer reduced size, CO(2) consumption, and capital costs.

  15. In Situ UV-Visible Assessment of Iron-Based High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Promoted with Lanthana: An Extent of Reduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basseem B. Hallac


    Full Text Available The extent of reduction of unsupported iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysts with small (<5 wt % lanthana contents was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Temperature- programmed reduction measurements showed that lanthana content higher than 0.5 wt % increased the extent of reduction to metallic Fe, while 0.5 wt % of lanthana facilitated the reduction to Fe3O4. In situ measurements on the iron oxide catalysts using mass and UV-visible spectroscopies permitted the quantification of the extent of reduction under temperature-programmed reduction and high-temperature water-gas shift conditions. The oxidation states were successfully calibrated against normalized absorbance spectra of visible light using the Kubelka-Munk theory. The normalized absorbance relative to the fully oxidized Fe2O3 increased as the extent of reduction increased. XANES suggested that the average bulk iron oxidation state during the water-gas shift reaction was Fe+2.57 for the catalyst with no lanthana and Fe+2.54 for the catalysts with 1 wt % lanthana. However, the UV-vis spectra suggest that the surface oxidation state of iron would be Fe+2.31 for the catalyst with 1 wt % lanthana if the oxidation state of iron in the catalyst with 0 wt % lanthana were Fe+2.57. The findings of this paper emphasize the importance of surface sensitive UV-visible spectroscopy for determining the extent of catalyst reduction during operation. The paper highlights the potential to use bench-scale UV-visible spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry of catalysts instead of less-available synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities.

  16. The development and evaluation of microstructured reactors for the water gas shift and preferential oxidation reactions in the 5 kW range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Martin; Kolb, Gunther; Schelhaas, Karl-Peter; Schuerer, Jochen; Tiemann, David; Ziogas, Athanassios [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 18-20, 55129 Mainz (Germany); Hessel, Volker [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 18-20, 55129 Mainz (Germany); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Den Dolech 2, Postbus 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    5 kW{sub el} One-Stage Water Gas Shift (WGS) and Preferential Oxidation (PROx) reactors were designed and evaluated for the clean-up of surrogate diesel reformate. For the WGS reactor, CO conversions of up to 95% were attained using typical surrogate synthetic diesel reformate. The PROx reactor was capable of converting a feed concentration of 1.0 mol% CO to 20 ppm. Load changes for both reactors could be carried out without significant overshoots of carbon monoxide. (author)

  17. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanenchuk, C.A.; Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.


    A Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was operated simultaneously with a Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift catalyst in a slurry reactor for over 400 hours. The process conditions were held constant at a temperature of 240{degrees}C, a pressure of 0.79 MPa, and a 1.1 H{sub 2}/CO feed of 0.065 Nl/ The Fischer-Tropsch activity remained constant at the level predicted by the operation of the Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} catalyst alone. The water-gas-shift reaction was near equilibrium. The hydrocarbon product distribution of the combined catalyst system was stable and matched that of the CO/MgO/SiO{sub 2} operating alone under similar conditions. The combined catalyst system exhibited a high selectivity to n-alkanes. Neither catalysts`s operation appeared to have a detrimental effect on that of the other, showing promise for future option.

  18. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.


    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  19. Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir


    Today, nearly all liquid fuels and commodity chemicals are produced from non-renewable resources such as crude oil and natural gas. Because of increasing scrutiny of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced using traditional fossil-fuel resources, the utilization of alternative feedstocks for the production of power, hydrogen, value-added chemicals, and high-quality hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and substitute natural gas (SNG) is critical to meeting the rapidly growing energy needs of modern society. Coal and biomass are particularly attractive as alternative feedstocks because of the abundant reserves of these resources worldwide. The strategy of co-gasification of coal/biomass (CB) mixtures to produce syngas for synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels offers distinct advantages over gasification of either coal or biomass alone. Co-feeding coal with biomass offers the opportunity to exploit economies of scale that are difficult to achieve in biomass gasification, while the addition of biomass to the coal gasifier feed leverages proven coal gasification technology and allows CO{sub 2} credit benefits. Syngas generated from CB mixtures will have a unique contaminant composition because coal and biomass possess different concentrations and types of contaminants, and the final syngas composition is also strongly influenced by the gasification technology used. Syngas cleanup for gasification of CB mixtures will need to address this unique contaminant composition to support downstream processing and equipment. To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants

  20. Supercritical Antisolvent Precipitation of Amorphous Copper-Zinc Georgeite and Acetate Precursors for the Preparation of Ambient-Pressure Water-Gas-Shift Copper/Zinc Oxide Catalysts. (United States)

    Smith, Paul J; Kondrat, Simon A; Carter, James H; Chater, Philip A; Bartley, Jonathan K; Taylor, Stuart H; Spencer, Michael S; Hutchings, Graham J


    A series of copper-zinc acetate and zincian georgeite precursors have been produced by supercritical CO2 antisolvent (SAS) precipitation as precursors to Cu/ZnO catalysts for the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. The amorphous materials were prepared by varying the water/ethanol volumetric ratio in the initial metal acetate solutions. Water addition promoted georgeite formation at the expense of mixed metal acetates, which are formed in the absence of the water co-solvent. Optimum SAS precipitation occurs without water to give high surface areas, whereas high water content gives inferior surface areas and copper-zinc segregation. Calcination of the acetates is exothermic, producing a mixture of metal oxides with high crystallinity. However, thermal decomposition of zincian georgeite resulted in highly dispersed CuO and ZnO crystallites with poor structural order. The georgeite-derived catalysts give superior WGS performance to the acetate-derived catalysts, which is attributed to enhanced copper-zinc interactions that originate from the precursor.

  1. Stochastic surface walking reaction sampling for resolving heterogeneous catalytic reaction network: A revisit to the mechanism of water-gas shift reaction on Cu (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shang, Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Pan


    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions on surface and interfaces are renowned for ample intermediate adsorbates and complex reaction networks. The common practice to reveal the reaction mechanism is via theoretical computation, which locates all likely transition states based on the pre-guessed reaction mechanism. Here we develop a new theoretical method, namely, stochastic surface walking (SSW)-Cat method, to resolve the lowest energy reaction pathway of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, which combines our recently developed SSW global structure optimization and SSW reaction sampling. The SSW-Cat is automated and massively parallel, taking a rough reaction pattern as input to guide reaction search. We present the detailed algorithm, discuss the key features, and demonstrate the efficiency in a model catalytic reaction, water-gas shift reaction on Cu(111) (CO + H2O → CO2 + H2). The SSW-Cat simulation shows that water dissociation is the rate-determining step and formic acid (HCOOH) is the kinetically favorable product, instead of the observed final products, CO2 and H2. It implies that CO2 and H2 are secondary products from further decomposition of HCOOH at high temperatures. Being a general purpose tool for reaction prediction, the SSW-Cat may be utilized for rational catalyst design via large-scale computations.

  2. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)


    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H2S, NH3, HCN, AsH3, PH3, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS3, NH4NO3, NH4OH, KNO3, HBr, HF, and HNO3) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts.

  3. Pre-Reduction of Au/Iron Oxide Catalyst for Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction Below 150 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fukuda


    Full Text Available Low-temperature water-gas shift reaction (WGS using gold catalyst is expected to be an attractive technique to realize an efficient on-site hydrogen production process. In this paper, Au/Fe3O4 catalysts for promoting the WGS below 150 °C were developed by a preliminary reduction of Au/iron oxide (Fe3+ catalyst utilizing high reactivity of Au nano-particles. The reduction was conducted under a CO, H2, or CO/H2O stream at either 140 or 200 °C, and the effect of reduction conditions on the characteristics of the Au/Fe3O4 catalyst and on the catalytic activity in WGS at 80 °C was investigated. The reaction progress during the pre-reduction treatment was qualitatively analyzed, and it was found that the iron oxide in Au/Fe2O3 calcined at 200 °C was easily reduced to Fe3O4 phase in all reduction conditions. The reduction conditions affected the characteristics of both Au and iron oxide, but all of the reduced catalysts had small Fe3O4 particles of less than 20 nm with Au particles on the surface. The surface area and content of cationic Au were high in the order of CO, H2, CO/H2O, and 140, 200 °C. In the WGS test at 80 °C using the developed catalysts, the activities of the catalysts pre-reduced by CO at 140 or 200 °C and by H2 at 140 °C were very high with 100% CO conversion even at such a low temperature. These results indicated that factors such as higher surface area, crystallized Fe3O4, and cationic Au content contributed to the catalytic activity.

  4. Study of the water-gas shift reaction on Mo{sub 2}C/Mo catalytic coatings for application in microstructured fuel processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebrov, E.V.; De Croon, M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C. [Laboratory of Chemical Reactor Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kuznetsov, S.A. [Institute of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS, 14 Fersman Str., 184209 Apatity, Murmansk Region (Russian Federation)


    The activity and stability of two types of molybdenum carbide coatings deposited on molybdenum substrates (Mo{sub 2}C/Mo) were compared in the water-gas shift reaction at 513-631 K. The activity of the Mo{sub 2}C/Mo coatings obtained by carburization of preoxidized molybdenum substrates in a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixture at 973 K decreased to 20% of the initial value after 23 h on stream at 631 K in a mixture containing 0.5 vol.% CO, 1.5 vol.% H{sub 2}O and 40 vol.% H{sub 2} balanced by helium. The activity of the Mo{sub 2}C/Mo coatings obtained by molten salt synthesis in a melt containing 5 wt.% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in an equimolar NaCl-KCl mixture at 1123 K for 7 h, was stable for more than 500 h on stream at similar reaction conditions. There was no evidence of methanation activity on both Mo{sub 2}C/Mo coatings below 621 K. The kinetics of the WGS and reverse WGS reactions was measured on Mo{sub 2}C/Mo coatings obtained by molten salt synthesis in a microstructured reactor operating in a differential mode. A combined power-law Eley-Rideal kinetic model is proposed to describe the reaction in the 531-631 K range. It was shown that, if molybdenum carbide is present as a thin layer over a molybdenum substrate (Mo{sub 2}C/Mo), the catalytic activity is enhanced compared to that of the pure Mo{sub 2}C phase. (author)

  5. Confronting the Role of Ni/Al2O3 Interfaces in Water-Gas Shift and Dry Reforming of Methane. (United States)

    Foppa, Lucas; Margossian, Tigran; Kim, Sung Min; Mueller, Christoph; Copéret, Christophe; Larmier, Kim; Comas-Vives, Aleix


    Transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) are typically supported on oxides to ensure their stability, which may result in modification of the original NP catalyst reactivity. In a number of cases, this is related to the formation of NP/support interface sites, which play a role in catalysis. The metal/support interface effect verified experimentally is commonly ascribed to stronger reactant adsorption or their facile activation on such sites compared to bare NPs, as indicated by DFT-derived Potential Energy Surfaces (PESs). However, the relevance of specific reaction elementary steps to the overall reaction rate depends on the preferred reaction pathways at reaction conditions, which usually cannot be inferred based solely on PES. Hereby, we use a multi-scale (DFT/microkinetic) modeling approach and experiments to investigate the reactivity of the Ni/Al2O3 interface towards Water-Gas Shift (WGS) and Dry Reforming of Methane (DRM), two key industrial reactions with common elementary steps and intermediates, but held at significantly different temperatures: 300 vs. 650 °C, respectively. Our model shows that despite the more energetically favorable reaction pathways provided by the Ni/Al2O3 interface, such sites may or may not impact the overall reaction rate depending on reaction conditions: the metal/support interface provides the active site for WGS reaction, acting as a reservoir for oxygenated species, while all Ni surface atoms are active for DRM. This is in contrast to what PESs alone indicate. The different active site requirement for WGS and DRM is confirmed by the experimental evaluation of the activity of a series of Al2O3-supported Ni NP catalysts with different NP sizes (2-15 nm) towards both reactions.

  6. Flame synthesis of nanosized Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. (United States)

    Pati, Ranjan K; Lee, Ivan C; Hou, Sicong; Akhuemonkhan, Osifo; Gaskell, Karen J; Wang, Qi; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Chu, Deryn; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G; Ehrman, Sheryl H


    A flame synthesis method has been used to prepare nanosized, high-surface-area Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O catalysts from aqueous solutions of metal acetate precursors. The particles were formed by vaporization of the precursors followed by reaction and then gas to particle conversion. The specific surface areas of the synthesized powders ranged from 127 to 163 m(2)/g. High-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging showed that the particle diameters for the ceria materials are in the range of 3-10 nm, and a thin layer of amorphous material was observed on the surface of the particles. The presence and surface enrichment of the transition-metal oxides (CuO, NiO, and Fe(2)O(3)) on the ceria particles were detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopic studies suggest the formation of a core-shell structure in the as-prepared particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies suggest that the dopants in all M-Ce-O systems are almost isostructural with their oxide counterparts, indicating the doping materials form separate oxide phases (CuO, Fe(2)O(3), NiO) within the host matrix (CeO(2)). Etching results confirm that most of the transition-metal oxides are present on the surface of CeO(2), easily dissolved by nitric acid. The performance of the flame-synthesized catalysts was examined toward water-gas shift (WGS) activity for fuel processing applications. The WGS activity of metal ceria catalysts decreases in the order Cu-Ce-O > Ni-Ce-O > Fe-Ce-O > CeO(2) with a feed mixture having a hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H(2)/CO) ratio of 1. There was no methane formation for these catalysts under the tested conditions.

  7. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  8. Integral membrane protein structure determination using pseudocontact shifts. (United States)

    Crick, Duncan J; Wang, Jue X; Graham, Bim; Swarbrick, James D; Mott, Helen R; Nietlispach, Daniel


    Obtaining enough experimental restraints can be a limiting factor in the NMR structure determination of larger proteins. This is particularly the case for large assemblies such as membrane proteins that have been solubilized in a membrane-mimicking environment. Whilst in such cases extensive deuteration strategies are regularly utilised with the aim to improve the spectral quality, these schemes often limit the number of NOEs obtainable, making complementary strategies highly beneficial for successful structure elucidation. Recently, lanthanide-induced pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) have been established as a structural tool for globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a PCS-based approach can be successfully applied for the structure determination of integral membrane proteins. Using the 7TM α-helical microbial receptor pSRII, we show that PCS-derived restraints from lanthanide binding tags attached to four different positions of the protein facilitate the backbone structure determination when combined with a limited set of NOEs. In contrast, the same set of NOEs fails to determine the correct 3D fold. The latter situation is frequently encountered in polytopical α-helical membrane proteins and a PCS approach is thus suitable even for this particularly challenging class of membrane proteins. The ease of measuring PCSs makes this an attractive route for structure determination of large membrane proteins in general.

  9. Integral membrane protein structure determination using pseudocontact shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Duncan J.; Wang, Jue X. [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Graham, Bim; Swarbrick, James D. [Monash University, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Australia); Mott, Helen R.; Nietlispach, Daniel, E-mail: [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom)


    Obtaining enough experimental restraints can be a limiting factor in the NMR structure determination of larger proteins. This is particularly the case for large assemblies such as membrane proteins that have been solubilized in a membrane-mimicking environment. Whilst in such cases extensive deuteration strategies are regularly utilised with the aim to improve the spectral quality, these schemes often limit the number of NOEs obtainable, making complementary strategies highly beneficial for successful structure elucidation. Recently, lanthanide-induced pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) have been established as a structural tool for globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a PCS-based approach can be successfully applied for the structure determination of integral membrane proteins. Using the 7TM α-helical microbial receptor pSRII, we show that PCS-derived restraints from lanthanide binding tags attached to four different positions of the protein facilitate the backbone structure determination when combined with a limited set of NOEs. In contrast, the same set of NOEs fails to determine the correct 3D fold. The latter situation is frequently encountered in polytopical α-helical membrane proteins and a PCS approach is thus suitable even for this particularly challenging class of membrane proteins. The ease of measuring PCSs makes this an attractive route for structure determination of large membrane proteins in general.

  10. Bifunctional catalysts for single-stage water-gas shift reaction in fuel cell applications. Part 1. Effect of the support on the reaction sequence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus


    Oxide support plays a significant role in the mechanistic reaction sequence for the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction over Pt-based catalysts. In situ FTIR spectroscopic and transient kinetic studies have been used to follow the reactions that occur. CeO2-, TiO2-, and ZrO2-supported Pt catalysts have

  11. Flame Synthesis of Nanosized Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reaction (United States)


    by the flame synthesis method using cerium acetate dissolved in a mixture of acetic acid, 2- butanol , and isooctane (40). In this process, the...gas shift reaction over the Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O catalysts to elu- cidate the catalytic properties of these flame-made ceria- based materials...driven by the system minimizing its surface energy, to form a thermodynamically more stable nanoparticle (42). Therefore, drawing an analogy between

  12. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala


    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  13. The Synergy Effect of Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr Bicomponent Catalysts on Partial Methanation Coupling with Water Gas Shift under Low H2/CO Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Dong


    Full Text Available Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr bicomponent catalysts were prepared through the co-impregnation method for upgrading low H2/CO ratio biomass gas into urban gas through partial methanation coupling with water gas shift (WGS. The catalysts were characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, H2 temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetry (TG. The catalytic performances demonstrated that Mn and Cr were superior to the other three elements due to the increased fraction of reducible NiO particles, promoted dispersion of Ni nanoparticles and enhanced H2 chemisorption ability. The comparative study on Mn and Cr showed that Mn was more suitable due to its smaller carbon deposition rate and wider adaptability to various H2/CO and H2O/CO conditions, indicating its better synergy effect with Ni. A nearly 100 h, the lifetime test and start/stop cycle test further implied that 15Ni-3Mn was stable for industrial application.

  14. Ceria-based model catalysts: fundamental studies on the importance of the metal-ceria interface in CO oxidation, the water-gas shift, CO2 hydrogenation, and methane and alcohol reforming. (United States)

    Rodriguez, José A; Grinter, David C; Liu, Zongyuan; Palomino, Robert M; Senanayake, Sanjaya D


    Model metal/ceria and ceria/metal catalysts have been shown to be excellent systems for studying fundamental phenomena linked to the operation of technical catalysts. In the last fifteen years, many combinations of well-defined systems involving different kinds of metals and ceria have been prepared and characterized using the modern techniques of surface science. So far most of the catalytic studies have been centered on a few reactions: CO oxidation, the hydrogenation of CO2, and the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction and the reforming of methane or alcohols. Using model catalysts it has been possible to examine in detail correlations between the structural, electronic and catalytic properties of ceria-metal interfaces. In situ techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy) have been combined to study the morphological changes under reaction conditions and investigate the evolution of active phases involved in the cleavage of C-O, C-H and C-C bonds. Several studies with model ceria catalysts have shown the importance of strong metal-support interactions. In general, a substantial body of knowledge has been acquired and concepts have been developed for a more rational approach to the design of novel technical catalysts containing ceria.

  15. Synthesis of Hydrocarbons from H2-Deficient Syngas in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Co-Based Catalyst Coupled with Fe-Based Catalyst as Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma


    Full Text Available The effects of metal species in an Fe-based catalyst on structural properties were investigated through the synthesis of Fe-based catalysts containing various metal species such, as Mn, Zr, and Ce. The addition of the metal species to the Fe-based catalyst resulted in high dispersions of the Fe species and high surface areas due to the formation of mesoporous voids about 2–4 nm surrounded by the catalyst particles. The metal-added Fe-based catalysts were employed together with Co-loaded beta zeolite for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from syngas with a lower H2/CO ratio of 1 than the stoichiometric H2/CO ratio of 2 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS. Among the catalysts, the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst exhibited a high activity for the water-gas shift (WGS reaction with a comparative durability, leading to the enhancement of the CO hydrogenation in the FTS in comparison with Co-loaded beta zeolite alone. Furthermore, the loading of Pd on the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst enhanced the catalytic durability due to the hydrogenation of carbonaceous species by the hydrogen activated over Pd.

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer


    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  17. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute


    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  18. Dynamics of CrO 3 –Fe 2 O 3 Catalysts during the High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction: Molecular Structures and Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Zhu, Minghui; Gibson, Emma K.; Daturi, Marco; Tao, Franklin; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Wachs, Israel E.


    A series of supported CrO3/Fe2O3 catalysts were investigated for the high-temperature water-gas shift (WGS) and reverse-WGS reactions and extensively characterized using in situ and operando IR, Raman, and XAS spectroscopy during the high-temperature WGS/RWGS reactions. The in situ spectroscopy examinations reveal that the initial oxidized catalysts contain surface dioxo (O=)2Cr6+O2 species and a bulk Fe2O3 phase containing some Cr3+ substituted into the iron oxide bulk lattice. Operando spectroscopy studies during the high-temperature WGS/RWGS reactions show that the catalyst transforms during the reaction. The crystalline Fe2O3 bulk phase becomes Fe3O4 ,and surface dioxo (O=)2Cr6+O2 species are reduced and mostly dissolve into the iron oxide bulk lattice. Consequently, the chromium–iron oxide catalyst surface is dominated by FeOx sites, but some minor reduced surface chromia sites are also retained. The Fe3–-xCrxO4 solid solution stabilizes the iron oxide phase from reducing to metallic Fe0 and imparts an enhanced surface area to the catalyst. Isotopic exchange studies with C16O2/H2 → C18O2/H2 isotopic switch directly show that the RWGS reaction proceeds via the redox mechanism and only O* sites from the surface region of the chromium–iron oxide catalysts are involved in the RWGS reaction. The number of redox O* sites was quantitatively determined with the isotope exchange measurements under appropriate WGS conditions and demonstrated that previous methods have undercounted the number of sites by nearly 1 order of magnitude. The TOF values suggest that only the redox O* sites affiliated with iron oxide are catalytic active sites for WGS/RWGS, though a carbonate oxygen

  19. Ring current shifts in {sup 19}F-NMR of membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dongsheng, E-mail:; Wüthrich, Kurt, E-mail: [ShanghaiTech University, iHuman Institute (China)


    Fluorine-19 NMR markers are attractive reporter groups for use in studies of complex biomacromolecular systems, in particular also for studies of function-related conformational equilibria and rate processes in membrane proteins. Advantages of {sup 19}F-NMR probes include high sensitivity of the {sup 19}F chemical shifts to variations in the non-covalent environment. Nonetheless, in studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) we encountered situations where {sup 19}F chemical shifts were not responsive to conformational changes that had been implicated by other methods. This prompted us to examine possible effects of aromatic ring current fields on the chemical shifts of {sup 19}F-NMR probes used in GPCRs. Analysis of previously reported {sup 19}F-NMR data on the β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor and mammalian rhodopsin showed that all {sup 19}F-labeling sites which manifested conformational changes are located near aromatic residues. Although ring current effects are small when compared to other known non-covalent effects on {sup 19}F chemical shifts, there is thus an indication that their contributions are significant when studying activation processes in GPCRs, since the observed activation-related {sup 19}F-NMR chemical shifts are comparable in size to the calculated ring current shifts. Considering the impact of ring current shifts may thus be helpful in identifying promising indigenous or engineered labeling sites for future {sup 19}F-NMR studies of GPCR activation, and novel information may be obtained on the nature of conformational rearrangements near the {sup 19}F-labels. It will then also be interesting to see if the presently indicated role of ring current shifts in membrane protein studies with {sup 19}F-NMR markers can be substantiated by a more extensive data base resulting from future studies.

  20. Xenon NMR: Chemical Shifts of a General Anesthetic in Common Solvents, Proteins, and Membranes (United States)

    Miller, Keith W.; Reo, Nicholas V.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Antonius J. M.; Stengle, Diane P.; Stengle, Thomas R.; Williamson, Kenneth L.


    The rare gas xenon contains two NMR-sensitive isotopes in high natural abundance. The nuclide 129Xe has a spin of {textstyle1/2}; 131Xe is quadrupolar with a spin of {textstyle3/2}. The complementary NMR characteristics of these nuclei provide a unique opportunity for probing their environment. The method is widely applicable because xenon interacts with a useful range of condensed phases including pure liquids, protein solutions, and suspensions of lipid and biological membranes. Although xenon is chemically inert, it does interact with living systems; it is an effective general anesthetic. We have found that the range of chemical shifts of 129Xe dissolved in common solvents is ca. 200 ppm, which is 30 times larger than that found for 13C in methane dissolved in various solvents. Resonances were also observed for 131Xe in some systems; they were broader and exhibited much greater relaxation rates than did 129Xe. The use of 129Xe NMR as a probe of biological systems was investigated. Spectra were obtained from solutions of myoglobin, from suspensions of various lipid bilayers, and from suspensions of the membranes of erythrocytes and of the acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes of Torpedo californica. These systems exhibited a smaller range of chemical shifts. In most cases there was evidence of a fast exchange of xenon between the aqueous and organic environments, but the exchange was slow in suspensions of dimyristoyl lecithin vesicles.

  1. Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H2/CO2 Separation in WGS Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala, Naidu [Grambling State Univ., LA (United States); Siriwardane, Upali [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States)


    The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H2 separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO2 separation. .

  2. Production of hydrogen using the combination of water-gas shift and carbonatation reaction of a CO{sub 2} absorbent; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante la combinacion de las reacciones de desplazamiento de agua y carbonatacion de un absorbente de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo-Bretado, M. A.; Ponce-Pena, P. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UJED, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Delgado-Vigil, M. D.; Salinas-Gutierrez, J. M.; Lopez Ortiz, A.; Collins-Martinez, V.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)


    The production of hydrogen by the water-gas shift (WGS) normally requires multiple catalytic reactions followed by the separation of CO{sub 2} to obtain highly pure H{sub 2}. Nevertheless, using the combination of the WGS reaction and the solid-gas reaction between CO{sub 2} and an absorbent, the production of H{sub 2} and the separation of CO{sub 2} can be accomplished in a single step AEWGS (Absorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift). This combination of reactions was studied at the laboratory scale using a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The absorbents tested were calcined dolomite (CaO*MgO) and sodium zirconate (Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) in catalyst/absorbent mixtures (cat/abs) with weight ratios of 1/1, 1/2 and 2/1, using a high-temperature catalyst from the WGS reaction, synthesized in the laboratory (Fe-Cr). All the tests used 3cm{sup 3} of cat/abs, composed of 5% CO, 15% H{sub 2}O, 10.5% He and 69.5% N{sub 2}, with a spatial velocity (SV) of 1500h-1, 600 degrees Celsius and atmospheric pressure. The catalyst presented 100% conversion of CO to CO{sub 2}, maintaining its surface area after the reaction (12 m{sup 2}/g). The results with a dry base using the cat/abs mixture of 1/2 and CaO*MgO generated 95% H{sub 2} with 5% CO-free CO{sub 2}, while with Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, the maximum concentration of H{sub 2} was 70%, with 29% CO{sub 2} and 1% of CO without reacting. The results using only CaO*MgO (as a bifunctional material) presented a maximum H{sub 2} concentration of 96% and a minimum of 4% CO{sub 2}, as well as 7% CO without reaction, which was attributed to kinetic effects. [Spanish] La produccion de hidrogeno mediante la reaccion de desplazamiento de agua WGS (Water Gas Shift), normalmente requiere de multiples reacciones cataliticas seguidas por la separacion de CO{sub 2} para obtener H{sub 2} de alta pureza. Sin embargo mediante la combinacion de la reaccion WGS con la reaccion solido-gas entre el CO{sub 2} y un absorbente provee la oportunidad de producir H2 y

  3. A combined experimental and computational study of water-gas shift reaction over rod-shaped Ce0.75 M0.25O2 (M=Ti, Zr, and Mn) supported Cu catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhibo; Peng, Fei; Chen, Biaohua; Mei, Donghai; Li, Jianwei


    Water-gas shift (WGS) reaction over a series of ceria-based mixed oxides supported Cu catalysts was investigated using a combined experimental and theoretical method. The mixed rod-shaped Ce0.75M0.25O2 (M = Ti4+, Zr4+, Mn4+) solid solutions, which majorly expose the (110) and (100) facets, are synthesized by hydrothermal method and used to prepare supported Cu catalysts. We found that the Cu/Ce0.75Ti0.25O2 (Cu-CT) exhibits the highest CO conversion in the temperature range of 150-250 °C among all supported Cu catalysts. This is mainly attributed to (i) good dispersion of Cu; (ii) largest amount of moderate copper oxide; and (iii) strongest Cu-support interaction of Cu-CT. And compared to other mixed metals, periodic density functional theory calculations performed, this work further suggest that the introduction of Ti into CeO2 not only promotes oxygen vacancy formation and CO adsorption, but also facilitates the carboxyl (COOH) formation at the interface of the Cu cluster and the support, which leads to the enhanced catalytic activity of the Cu-CT toward WGS reaction.

  4. Catalysis by Single Atoms: Water Gas Shift and Ethylene Hydrogenation (United States)


    2007). DOI: 10.1021/jp0744811 16 Oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde by isolated vanadium, molybdenum , and chromium oxide clusters...composite Some ZrB2-metal composites can form new boride phases during laser processing, especially when binder materials possess similar to Zr. We have observed the formation of new boride phases when Ti and Ta binder materials are used. Figure 8 shows TiB fibers spread

  5. Hydrogen production by absorption enhanced water gas shift (AEWGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Bretado, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Ave. Veterinaria s/n, Circuito Universitario, Durango 34120 (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico); Delgado Vigil, Manuel D.; Gutierrez, Jesus Salinas; Lopez Ortiz, Alejandro; Collins-Martinez, Virginia [Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico)


    AEWGS is a reaction that combines the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent to produce high purity H{sub 2} from synthesis gas in one single step at 600-800 C. This reactor system, if homogeneous, would not require a catalyst. However, previous research on this concept was not conclusive, since a steel reactor was used and reactor walls were suspected to act as catalyst. Therefore, there is a need to address this issue and to select and evaluate suitable CO{sub 2} absorbents for this concept. AEWGS was studied using a quartz-made fixed-bed reactor at; SV = 3000 h{sup -1}, feed; 5% CO, 15% H{sub 2}O, balance He-N{sub 2} at 600 C, 1 atm. CO{sub 2} absorbents tested were CaO*MgO, and Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Empty quartz-reactor tests leaded to conclude that a catalyst is needed for the WGS at temperatures of interest. A 97% H{sub 2} product was obtained with calcined dolomite suggesting this last to act as a WGS catalyst. (author)

  6. Novel silica membranes for high temperature gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bighane, Neha


    This article describes fabrication of novel silica membranes derived via controlled oxidative thermolysis of polydimethylsiloxane and their gas separation performance. The optimized protocol for fabrication of the silica membranes is described and pure gas separation performance in the temperature range 35-80°C is presented. It is observed that the membranes exhibit activated transport for small gas penetrants such as He, H 2 and CO 2. The membranes can withstand temperatures up to 350°C in air and may ultimately find use in H 2/CO 2 separations to improve efficiency in the water-gas shift reactor process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Shifts in the antioxidant activity in the membrane structures of virus-infected cells]. (United States)

    Petrenko, Iu M; Anan'ev, V A; Konstantinova, L A; Vladimirov, Iu A


    It is assumed that the process of virus infection of cells causes significant changes in the conditions of lipid peroxidation in membrane structures of such cells. Experiments with virus-infected HeLa cells demonstrated noticeable decrease in the capacity of membrane lipids for peroxidation induced by ultraviolet irradiation and iron monoxide ions. Similar changes were also observed in membranes of chick embryo liver cells infected with viruses. The established reduced capacity of lipids in membranes of virus-infected cells to induced peroxidation (interpreted as the increase of their antioxidant activity) is characteristic of whole membranes only, because the lipids extracted from infected and control cells showed no differences in their capacity to peroxidation in liposomal membranes when oxidation was induced by iron monoxide.

  8. Peripheral and integral membrane binding of peptides characterized by time-dependent fluorescence shifts: focus on antimicrobial peptide LAH₄. (United States)

    Macháň, Radek; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Olšinová, Marie; Cebecauer, Marek; Marquette, Arnaud; Bechinger, Burkhard; Hof, Martin


    Positioning of peptides with respect to membranes is an important parameter for biological and biophysical studies using model systems. Our experiments using five different membrane peptides suggest that the time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) of Laurdan can help when distinguishing between peripheral and integral membrane binding and can be a useful, novel tool for studying the impact of transmembrane peptides (TMP) on membrane organization under near-physiological conditions. This article focuses on LAH4, a model α-helical peptide with high antimicrobial and nucleic acid transfection efficiencies. The predominantly helical peptide has been shown to orient in supported model membranes parallel to the membrane surface at acidic and, in a transmembrane manner, at basic pH. Here we investigate its interaction with fully hydrated large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) by TDFS and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). TDFS shows that at acidic pH LAH4 does not influence the glycerol region while at basic pH it makes acyl groups at the glycerol level of the membrane less mobile. TDFS experiments with antimicrobial peptides alamethicin and magainin 2, which are known to assume transmembrane and peripheral orientations, respectively, prove that changes in acyl group mobility at the glycerol level correlate with the orientation of membrane-associated peptide molecules. Analogous experiments with the TMPs LW21 and LAT show similar effects on the mobility of those acyl groups as alamethicin and LAH4 at basic pH. FCS, on the same neutral lipid bilayer vesicles, shows that the peripheral binding mode of LAH4 is more efficient in bilayer permeation than the transmembrane mode. In both cases, the addition of LAH4 does not lead to vesicle disintegration. The influence of negatively charged lipids on the bilayer permeation is also addressed.

  9. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry Y. S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)


    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900°C and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a

  10. Water Gas and Ice in Protostellar Envelopes (United States)

    Schmalzl, Markus; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Mottram, Joseph; Visser, Ruud; Kristensen, Lars; Albertsson, Tobias; Walsh, Catherine


    Infrared-bright protostars form a unique class of sources for which both water gas and ice can be observed. We introduce a Simplified Water Network (SWaN) to model the data and test it against full gas-grain models as well as Herschel-HIFI spectra of a Class 0 protostar. The combined Herschel-HIFI and Spitzer/VLT data on nine sources are then compared and analysed using SWaN, giving typical ice/gas ratios of 1e3 at the core edge and up to 1e7 deeper into the core. A quantification of the oxygen budget reveals that a large fraction of the oxygen is still unidentified.

  11. n-Alcohol Length Governs Shift in Lo-Ld Mixing Temperatures in Synthetic and Cell-Derived Membranes. (United States)

    Cornell, Caitlin E; McCarthy, Nicola L C; Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya; Brooks, Nicholas J; Keller, Sarah L


    A persistent challenge in membrane biophysics has been to quantitatively predict how membrane physical properties change upon addition of new amphiphiles (e.g., lipids, alcohols, peptides, or proteins) in order to assess whether the changes are large enough to plausibly result in biological ramifications. Because of their roles as general anesthetics, n-alcohols are perhaps the best-studied amphiphiles of this class. When n-alcohols are added to model and cell membranes, changes in membrane parameters tend to be modest. One striking exception is found in the large decrease in liquid-liquid miscibility transition temperatures (Tmix) observed when short-chain n-alcohols are incorporated into giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases are observed at temperatures below Tmix in GPMVs as well as in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of ternary mixtures of a lipid with a low melting temperature, a lipid with a high melting temperature, and cholesterol. Here, we find that when GUVs of canonical ternary mixtures are formed in aqueous solutions of short-chain n-alcohols (n ≤ 10), Tmix increases relative to GUVs in water. This shift is in the opposite direction from that reported for cell-derived GPMVs. The increase in Tmix is robust across GUVs of several types of lipids, ratios of lipids, types of short-chain n-alcohols, and concentrations of n-alcohols. However, as chain lengths of n-alcohols increase, nonmonotonic shifts in Tmix are observed. Alcohols with chain lengths of 10-14 carbons decrease Tmix in ternary GUVs of dioleoyl-PC/dipalmitoyl-PC/cholesterol, whereas 16 carbons increase Tmix again. Gray et al. observed a similar influence of the length of n-alcohols on the direction of the shift in Tmix. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the relative partitioning of n-alcohols between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases evolves as the chain length of the n-alcohol increases

  12. Membrane proteins involved in potassium shifts during muscle activity and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Hansen, T.; Juel, C.


    Muscle activity is associated with potassium displacements, which may cause fatigue. It was reported previously that the density of the large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (BKCa) channel is higher in the T tubule membrane than in the sarcolemmal membrane and that the opposite is the case...... for the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel. In the present experiments, we investigated the subcellular localizations of the strong inward rectifier 2.1 K+ (Kir2.1) channel and the Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC)1 cotransporter with Western blot analysis of different muscle fractions. Furthermore, muscle function was studied...... while trying to manipulate the opening probability or transport capacity of these proteins during electrical stimulation of isolated soleus muscles. All experiments were made with excised muscle from male Wistar rats. Kir2.1 channels were almost undetectable in the sarcolemmal membrane but present...

  13. Application of a commercially-manufactured Doppler-shift laser velocimeter to the measurement of basilar-membrane vibration* (United States)

    Ruggero, Mario A.; Rich, Nola C.


    A commercially-available laser Doppler-shift velocimeter has been coupled to a compound microscope equipped with ultra-long-working-distance objectives for the purpose of measuring basilar membrane vibrations in the chinchilla. The animal preparation is nearly identical to that used in our laboratory for similar measurements using the Mössbauer technique. The vibrometer head is mounted on the third tube of the microscope’s trinocular head and its laser beam is focused on high-refractive-index glass microbeads (10–30 µm) previously dropped, through the perilymph of Scala tympani, on the basilar membrane. For equal sampling times, overall sensitivity of the laser velocimetry system is at least one order of magnitude greater than usually attained using the Mössbauer technique. However, the most important advantage of laser velocimetry vis-à-vis the Mössbauer technique is its linearity, which permits undistorted recording of signals over a wide velocity range. Thus, for example, we have measured basilar-membrane responses to clicks whose waveforms have dynamic ranges exceeding 60 dB. PMID:1827787

  14. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico


    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  15. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn


    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  16. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science


    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  17. Calculation of fluorine chemical shift tensors for the interpretation of oriented (19)F-NMR spectra of gramicidin A in membranes. (United States)

    Sternberg, Ulrich; Klipfel, Marco; Grage, Stephan L; Witter, Raiker; Ulrich, Anne S


    A semi-empirical method for the prediction of chemical shifts, based on bond polarization theory, has recently been introduced for (13)C. Here, we extended this approach to calculate the (19)F chemical shift tensors of fluorine bound to aromatic rings and in aliphatic CF(3) groups. For the necessary parametrization, ab initio chemical shift calculations were performed at the MP2 level for a set of fluorinated molecules including tryptophan. The bond polarization parameters obtained were used to calculate the (19)F chemical shift tensors for several crystalline molecules, and to reference the calculated values on a chemical shift scale relative to CFCl(3). As a first biophysical application, we examined the distribution of conformations of a (19)F-labeled tryptophan side chain in the membrane-bound ion channel peptide, gramicidin A. The fluorine chemical shift tensors were calculated from snapshots of a molecular dynamics simulation employing the (19)F-parametrized bond polarization theory. In this MD simulation, published (2)H quadrupolar and (15)N-(1)H dipolar couplings of the indole ring were used as orientational constraints to determine the conformational distribution of the 5F-Trp(13) side chain. These conformations were then used to interpret the spectra of (19)F-labeled gramicidin A in fluid and gel phase lipid bilayers.

  18. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)


    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. These membranes will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2010.

  19. Membranes


    Junbo Hou; Min Yang


    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separa...

  20. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction: I. Preparation, activity and stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR


    Full Text Available disper- sion is expressed in terms of the ratio of the total number of surface atoms to the total number of metal atoms present. Copper particle volume-area mean diameter (dvA) was calculated according to the pro- cedure outlined by Anderson et al...

  1. Studies of Hydrogen Production by the Water Gas Shift Reaction and Related Chemistry (United States)


    electricity conversion. Thermodynamically , reaction (1) is favored under ambie.nt conditions (AHOg8 = +0.68 kcal/mole; AGOg8 = -4.76 kcal/mole; E...investigated. Based on cyclic voltammetry in HOAc/ HClO4 /H20,the addition of SnCl - or SnCl4 and PtCl- to an Ar purged solution resulted only in a weak cathodic...electroinactive at either surface. At a Pt electrode in HOAc/ HClO4 /H20 two irreversible oxidation waves for CO were observed at approximately +1.30 and

  2. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction - II. Initial catalyst optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR


    Full Text Available -Zn-A1 catalyst. During the controlled passivation Table 2 Crystalline phase of alloys B, C and D and their product Raney copper catalysts before and after reaction Alloy Precursor alloy phases Cat. phases before reaction a Cat. phases after reaction a... L; dry gas composition=10% CO/90% N2; CO : H20=I : 22.5; catalyst volume=2i0.1 ml): (O)=Cat. A Cu(69.3)Zn(6.9)Al( 19.5); (~)=cat. B Cu(73.6)Zn(10.9)AI(14.8); (W1)=cat. C Cu(72.4)Zn(13.3)Al(12.9); ({))=cat. D Cu(61.5)Zn(15.1)AI(19.1). It can...

  3. Support effects and catalytic trends for water gas shift activity of transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Astrid; Janssens, T.V.W.; Schumacher, Nana Maria Pii


    CO and atomic oxygen on the metal; the latter is a good measure for the reactivity of the metal towards H2O. Generally, the activity of the catalysts with the Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support is higher, compared to the corresponding MgAl2O4-supported catalysts. Exceptions are Cu and Au, which have a higher...

  4. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.


    The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240[degrees]C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H[sub 2]/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R[sub H[sub 2+Co

  5. Process Intensification via Membrane Reactors, the DEMCAMER Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gallucci


    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a FP7 project (DEMCAMER that developed materials (catalysts and membranes and new processes for four industrially relevant reaction processes. In this project, active, stable, and selective catalysts were developed for the reaction systems of interest and their production scaled up to kg scale (TRL5 (TRL: Technology Readiness Level. Simultaneously, new membranes for gas separation were developed; in particular, dense supported thin palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation from reactive mixtures. These membranes were successfully scaled up to TRL4 and used in various lab-scale reactors for water gas shift (WGS, using both packed bed and fluidized bed reactors, and Fischer-Tropsch (FTS using packed bed reactors and in prototype reactors for WGS and FTS. Mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes in capillary form were also developed for high temperature oxygen separation from air. These membranes can be used for both Autothermal Reforming (ATR and Oxidative Coupling of Methane (OCM reaction systems to increase the efficiency and the yield of the processes. The production of these membranes was scaled up to TRL3–4. The project also developed adequate sealing techniques to be able to integrate the different membranes in lab-scale and prototype reactors.

  6. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.


    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  7. Catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction system from He purge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Incelli, Marco [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); DEIM, University of Tuscia, Via del Paradiso 47, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Sansovini, Mirko; Tosti, Silvano [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy)


    Highlights: • In the HCBB blanket, the produced tritium is recovered by purging with helium; membrane technologies are able to separate tritium from helium. • The paper presents the results of two experimental campaigns. • In the first, a Pd–Ag diffuser for hydrogen separation is tested at several operating conditions. • In the second, the ability of a Pd–Ag membrane reactor for water decontamination is assessed by performing isotopic swamping and water gas shift reactions. - Abstract: In the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept, the produced tritium is recovered purging the breeder with helium at low pressure, thus a tritium extraction system (TES) is foreseen to separate the produced tritium (which contains impurities like water) from the helium gas purge. Several R&D activities are running in parallel to experimentally identify most promising TES technologies: particularly, Pd-based membrane reactors (MR) are under investigation because of their large hydrogen selectivity, continuous operation capability, reliability and compactness. The construction and operation under DEMO relevant conditions (that presently foresee a He purge flow rate of about 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h and a H{sub 2}/He ratio of 0.1%) of a medium scale MR is scheduled for next year, while presently preliminary experiments on a small scale reactor are performed to identify most suitable operative conditions and catalyst materials. This work presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Pd-based membrane aimed at measuring the capability of this device in separating hydrogen from the helium. Many operative conditions have been investigated by considering different He/H{sub 2} feed flow ratios, several lumen pressures and reactor temperatures. Moreover, the performances of a membrane reactor (composed of a Pd–Ag tube having a wall thickness of about 113 μm, length 500 mm and diameter 10 mm) in processing the water contained in the purge gas have been

  8. Advanced metal-membrane technology-commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, D.J.


    The gasification of coal offers a potentially significant source of hydrogen for use in clean power generation and as a primary chemical feedstock. However, hydrogen derived from coal continues to be more expensive than hydrogen derived from natural gas or petroleum, due in large part to the expense of separating hydrogen from the mixture of gases produced during gasification. At Bend Research, we have been developing a novel hydrogen-permeable metal membrane that promises to be economical for hydrogen separation and purification, including the purification of hydrogen derived from gasifying coal. Furthermore, the membrane is ideally suited for use at high temperatures (200{degrees} to 500{degrees}C), making it feasible to produce pure hydrogen directly from hot gas streams. Through a partnership with Teledyne Wah Chang, we are proceeding with scale-up of prototype membrane modules and field tests to demonstrate the technology to potential users. Additionally, we are working with potential customers to estimate capital savings and operating costs for integrated systems. In this paper, we present some of the operating characteristics of the metal membrane, including its use to drive equilibrium-limited reactions toward complete conversion (e.g., the water-gas-shift reaction). We also describe our activities for commercializing this technology for a variety of applications.

  9. Hydrogen Production via a Commercially Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu


    Single stage low-temperature-shift water-gas-shift (WGS-LTS) via a membrane reactor (MR) process was studied through both mathematical simulation and experimental verification in this quarter. Our proposed MR yields a reactor size that is 10 to >55% smaller than the comparable conventional reactor for a CO conversion of 80 to 90%. In addition, the CO contaminant level in the hydrogen produced via MR ranges from 1,000 to 4,000 ppm vs 40,000 to >70,000 ppm via the conventional reactor. The advantages of the reduced WGS reactor size and the reduced CO contaminant level provide an excellent opportunity for intensification of the hydrogen production process by the proposed MR. To prepare for the field test planned in Yr III, a significant number (i.e., 98) of full-scale membrane tubes have been produced with an on-spec ratio of >76% during this first production trial. In addition, an innovative full-scale membrane module has been designed, which can potentially deliver >20 to 30 m{sup 2}/module making it suitable for large-scale applications, such as power generation. Finally, we have verified our membrane performance and stability in a refinery pilot testing facility on a hydrocracker purge gas. No change in membrane performance was noted over the >100 hrs of testing conducted in the presence of >30% H{sub 2}S, >5,000 ppm NH{sub 3} (estimated), and heavy hydrocarbons on the order of 25%. The high stability of these membranes opens the door for the use of our membrane in the WGS environment with significantly reduced pretreatment burden.

  10. Distributional shift of urea production site from the extraembryonic yolk sac membrane to the embryonic liver during the development of cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame). (United States)

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Ogawa, Shuntaro; Hyodo, Susumu


    Urea is an essential osmolyte for marine cartilaginous fishes. Adult elasmobranchs and holocephalans are known to actively produce urea in the liver, muscle and other extrahepatic organs; however, osmoregulatory mechanisms in the developing cartilaginous fish embryo with an undeveloped urea-producing organ are poorly understood. We recently described the contribution of extraembryonic yolk sac membranes (YSM) to embryonic urea synthesis during the early developmental period of the oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii). In the present study, to test whether urea production in the YSM is a general phenomenon among oviparous Chondrichthyes, we investigated gene expression and activities of ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes together with urea concentrations in embryos of the elasmobranch cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame). The intracapsular fluid, in which the catshark embryo develops, had a similar osmolality to seawater, and embryos maintained a high concentration of urea at levels similar to that of adult plasma throughout development. Relative mRNA expressions and activities of catshark OUC enzymes were significantly higher in YSM than in embryos until stage 32. Concomitant with the development of the embryonic liver, the expression levels and activities of OUC enzymes were markedly increased in the embryo from stage 33, while those of the YSM decreased from stage 32. The present study provides further evidence that the YSM contributes to embryonic urea homeostasis until the liver and other extrahepatic organs become fully functional, and that urea-producing tissue shifts from the YSM to the embryonic liver in the late developmental period of oviparous marine cartilaginous fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast complex domain-matching pursuit algorithm and its application to deep-water gas reservoir detection (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Huang, Handong; Li, Huijie; Miao, Yuxin; Wen, Junxiang; Zhou, Fei


    The main emphasis of exploration and development is shifting from simple structural reservoirs to complex reservoirs, which all have the characteristics of complex structure, thin reservoir thickness and large buried depth. Faced with these complex geological features, hydrocarbon detection technology is a direct indication of changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs and a good approach for delimiting the distribution of underground reservoirs. It is common to utilize the time-frequency (TF) features of seismic data in detecting hydrocarbon reservoirs. Therefore, we research the complex domain-matching pursuit (CDMP) method and propose some improvements. First is the introduction of a scale parameter, which corrects the defect that atomic waveforms only change with the frequency parameter. Its introduction not only decomposes seismic signal with high accuracy and high efficiency but also reduces iterations. We also integrate jumping search with ergodic search to improve computational efficiency while maintaining the reasonable accuracy. Then we combine the improved CDMP with the Wigner-Ville distribution to obtain a high-resolution TF spectrum. A one-dimensional modeling experiment has proved the validity of our method. Basing on the low-frequency domain reflection coefficient in fluid-saturated porous media, we finally get an approximation formula for the mobility attributes of reservoir fluid. This approximation formula is used as a hydrocarbon identification factor to predict deep-water gas-bearing sand of the M oil field in the South China Sea. The results are consistent with the actual well test results and our method can help inform the future exploration of deep-water gas reservoirs.

  12. Fluid Shifts (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide


    pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography; intraocular pressure; 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness; Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas lower body negative pressure will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. Discussion. Ten subjects have consented to participate in this experiment, including the recent One-Year Mission crewmembers, who have recently completed R plus180 testing; all other subjects have completed pre-flight testing. Preliminary results from the One-Year Mission crewmembers will be presented, including measures of ocular structure and function, vascular dimensions, fluid distribution, and non-invasive estimates of intracranial pressure.

  13. Combined Effects of Wind and Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange (United States)

    Eggleston, S.; Harrison, E.; Ho, D. T.; Veron, F.


    In constraining local and global carbon cycle budgets, it is important to know the air-water gas transfer velocity (k). Historically, k has been parameterized by wind speed or rain rate separately, and pilot experiments in the laboratory with wind and rain suggested that these parameterizations may be linearly additive (Ho et al., 2007). Here we present results from a series of experiments completed at the University of Delaware’s Air-Sea Interaction Laboratory (ASIL) that aim to study the combined effect of wind and rain on air-water gas exchange. Experimental conditions included 11 wind speeds and 6 rain rates, where gas transfer velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, and bubble size and density were measured. Our results indicate that these effects are not linearly additive, particularly at higher wind speeds (approximately 19 m/s). At these higher wind speeds wind contributes significantly more to the total kinetic energy flux than the rain. These results corroborate findings at the ASIL from 2008 (Harrison et al., in prep). Here, we further examine changes in turbulence due to wind and rain and bubble production due to rain at the air-water interface to elucidate the nonlinear effects of wind and rain on air-water gas exchange. References Harrison, E., et al. (in prep), The combined effect of rain and wind on air-water gas exchange. Ho, D. T., et al. (2007), The combined effect of rain and wind on air-water gas exchange: A feasibility study, Journal of Marine Systems, 66(1-4), 150-160.

  14. Investigation of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction for Production of Oxygen From Mars Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Meyer, Tom; Zubrin, Robert


    The first phase of the research includes a comprehensive analytical study examining the potential applications for engineering subsystems and mission strategies made possible by such RWGS based subsystems, and will include an actual experimental demonstration and performance characterization of a full-scale brassboard RWGS working unit. By the time of this presentation the laboratory demonstration unit will not yet be operational but we will present the results of our analytical studies to date and plans for the ongoing work.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Label-free surface-enhanced infrared spectro-electro-chemical analysis of the Redox potential shift of cytochrome c complexed with a cardiolipin-containing lipid membrane of varied composition (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wu, Lie; Zeng, Li; Jiang, Xiu-E.


    In this study, a lipid membrane was fabricated by fusing cardiolipin-phosphatidylcholine (CL_PC, 1:4) vesicles onto a hydrophobic surface of 1-dodecanethiol (DT) preadsorbed on a nanostructured gold film. By changing the concentration of the DT adsorption solution, we constructed a series of CL_PC-DT bilayers with different hydrophobicity to study the effects of lipid membrane characteristics on the adsorption conformation of cytochrome c (Cyt c). Electrochemical analysis showed that the formal potential is 0.24 V for Cyt c-CL_PC-DT(10), 0.2 V for Cyt c-CL_PC-DT(20), and 0.16 V for Cyt c-CL_PC-DT(40) — a gradual positive shift with the decreasing DT concentration — relative to the potential of native cyt c (0.02 V). Potential-induced surface-enhanced infrared adsorption difference spectroscopy revealed that the gradual positive shift of the formal potential of CL-bound cyt c is determined by the environment with the gradually lowered dielectric constant for the heme cofactor in CL-bound cyt c (Fe3+). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91227114, 21322510, and 21105097), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530998), the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 201215092), and the President Funds of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Composite Pd and Pd Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Hua Ma; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Ivan Mardilovich; Federico Guazzone; Alexander Augustine; Reyyan Koc


    The synthesis of composite Pd membranes has been modified by the addition of a Al(OH){sub 3} graded layer and sequential annealing at high temperatures to obtain membranes with high permeance and outstanding selectivity stability for over 4000 hours at 450°C. Most of the membranes achieved in this work showed H{sub 2} flux well above 2010 DOE targets and in some case, also above 2015 DOE targets. Similar composite membranes were tested in water gas shift reaction atmospheres and showed to be stable with high CO conversion and high hydrogen recovery for over 1000 hours. The H{sub 2} permeance of composite Pd-Au membranes was studied as well as its resistance in H{sub 2}S containing atmospheres. H{sub 2}S poisoning of Pd-based membranes was reduced by the addition of Au and the loss undergone by membranes was found to be almost totally recoverable with 10-30 wt%Au. PSA technique was studied to test the possibility of H{sub 2}S and COS removal from feed stream with limited success since the removal of H{sub 2}S also led to the removal of a large fraction of the CO{sub 2}. The economics of a WGS bundle reactor, using the information of the membranes fabricated under this project and integrated into an IGCC plant were studied based on a 2D reactor modeling. The calculations showed that without a government incentive to impose a CO{sub 2} tax, application of WGS membrane reactors in IGCC would be not as economically attractive as regular pulverized coal plants.

  19. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas


    in a student dormitory and found that players did not shift their electricity use, because they were unwilling to change their schedules and found it easier to focus on reducing electricity use. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for encouraging shifting, and also the challenges of integrating......Modern electrical grids are increasingly reliant on generation from renewable sources that can vary from hour to hour. This variability has led to the desire to shift the times of the day when electricity is consumed to better match generation. One way to achieve these shifts is by encouraging...... people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...

  20. Shifting the paradigm: the putative mitochondrial protein ABCB6 resides in the lysosomes of cells and in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Kiss

    Full Text Available ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticulocytes during the final steps of erythroid maturation. Consistent with its presence in exosomes, endogenous ABCB6 is localized to the endo/lysosomal compartment, and is absent from the mitochondria of cells. Knock-down studies demonstrate that ABCB6 function is not required for de novo heme biosynthesis in differentiating K562 cells, excluding this ABC transporter as a key regulator of porphyrin synthesis. We confirm the mitochondrial localization of ABCB7, ABCB8 and ABCB10, suggesting that only three ABC transporters should be classified as mitochondrial proteins. Taken together, our results challenge the current paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria.

  1. A New Concept for the Fabrication of Hydrogen Selective Silica Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tsapatsis


    It was proposed to investigate a new concept for the synthesis of molecular sieve hydrogen selective membranes. This concept is based on the use of exfoliated layered zeolite precursors in coating processes to make nanocomposite films with inorganic or polymeric matrices. We discovered that creating exfoliated zeolite layers was much more difficult than anticipated because the methods originally proposed (based on existing literature reports) were not successful in providing exfoliated layers while preserving their porous structure. Although the original goals of fabricating high-selectivity-high-flux membranes that are stable under conditions present in a water-gas-shift reactor and that are able to selectively permeate hydrogen over all other components of the mixtures present in these reactors were not accomplished fully, significant progress has been made as follows: (1) Proof-of-concept hydrogen-selective nanocomposite membranes have been fabricated; (2) Methods to exfoliate layered zeolite precursors preserving the layer structure were identified; and (3) Unexpectedly, membranes exhibiting high ideal selectivity for carbon dioxide over nitrogen at room temperature were produced. The findings listed above provide confidence that the proposed novel concept can eventually be realized.

  2. The role of the coprecipitation sequence of salt precursors on the genesis of Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts. synthesis, characterization and activity for low temperature shift reaction


    Figueiredo,R. T.; Andrade, Heloysa Martins Carvalho; Fierro, J. L. G.


    Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts for the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction were prepared using methods of direct and reverse coprecipitation. The catalysts obtained were characterized by DRX, TPR, XPS, N2O chemisorption, Hg-Porosimetry and BET surface area. It was observed that the precipitation sequence of the precursors led to significant differences in values of copper dispersion and consequently in the activity of the catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction.

  3. Shifting Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette


    within journalistic practice of keeping up the idea as well as the practice of journalistic objectivity. Working on from Schudson (2003), Schudson and Anderson (2009) and Tumber and Prentoulis’ (2003) analyses of journalistic professionalism, the article develops the idea of journalistic objectivity...... further on the question of how the students address and react to this paradigmatic shift....

  4. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.


    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard; Zhou, S James; Ding, Yong; Bikson, Ben


    solvents. GTI and PGC have developed a nanoporous and superhydrophobic PEEK-based hollow fiber membrane contactor tailored for the membrane contactor/solvent absorption application for syngas cleanup. The membrane contactor modules were scaled up to 8-inch diameter commercial size modules. We have performing extensive laboratory and bench testing using pure gases, simulated water-gas-shifted (WGS) syngas stream, and a slipstream from a gasification derived syngas from GTI's Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) gasification plant under commercially relevant conditions. The team have also carried out an engineering and economic analysis of the membrane contactor process to evaluate the economics of this technology and its commercial potential. Our test results have shown that 90% CO{sub 2} capture can be achieved with several physical solvents such as water and chilled methanol. The rate of CO{sub 2} removal by the membrane contactor is in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 kg/m{sup 2}/hr depending on the operating pressures and temperatures and depending on the solvents used. The final economic analysis has shown that the membrane contactor process will cause the cost of electricity to increase by 21% from the base plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The goal of 10% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from base DOE Case 1(base plant without capture) is not achieved by using the membrane contactor. However, the 21% increase in LCOE is a substantial improvement as compared with the 31.6% increase in LCOE as in DOE Case 2(state of art capture technology using 2-stages of Selexol{TM}).

  6. Salinity independent volume fraction prediction in water-gas-oil multiphase flows using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, C.M.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos


    This work investigates the response of a volume fraction prediction system for water-gas-oil multiphase flows considering variations on water salinity. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The detection system uses appropriate fan beam geometry, comprised of a dual-energy gamma-ray source and two NaI(Tl) detectors adequately positioned outside the pipe in order measure transmitted and scattered beams. An ideal and static theoretical model for annular flow regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the ANN. More than 500 simulations have been done, in which water salinity have been ranged from 0 to 16% in order to cover a most practical situations. Validation tests have included values of volume fractions and water salinity different from those used in ANN training phase. The results presented here show that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to material volume fraction prediction on watergas- oil multiphase flows considering practical (real) levels of variations in water salinity. (author)

  7. Existence for a global pressure formulation of water-gas flow in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Amaziane


    Full Text Available We consider a model of water-gas flow in porous media with an incompressible water phase and a compressible gas phase. Such models appear in gas migration through engineered and geological barriers for a deep repository for radioactive waste. The main feature of this model is the introduction of a new global pressure and it is fully equivalent to the original equations. The system is written in a fractional flow formulation as a degenerate parabolic system with the global pressure and the saturation potential as the main unknowns. The major difficulties related to this model are in the nonlinear degenerate structure of the equations, as well as in the coupling in the system. Under some realistic assumptions on the data, including unbounded capillary pressure function and non-homogeneous boundary conditions, we prove the existence of weak solutions of the system. Furthermore, it is shown that the weak solution has certain desired properties, such as positivity of the saturation. The result is proved with the help of an appropriate regularization and a time discretization of the coupled system. We use suitable test functions to obtain a priori estimates and a compactness result in order to pass to the limit in nonlinear terms.

  8. In-water gas combustion in linear and annular gas bubbles (United States)

    Teslenko, V. S.; Drozhzhin, A. P.; Medvedev, R. N.; Batraev, I. S.


    A new pulsed-cyclic method of in-water gas combustion was developed with separate feed of fuel gas and oxygen with the focus on development of new technologies for heat generators and submerged propellers. The results of calorimetric and hydrodynamic measurements are presented. In-water combustion of acetylene, hydrogen, and propane was tested with the operation frequency of 2-2.5 Hz and with a linear injector. The combustion dynamics of combustion of stoichiometric mixture with propane (C3H8+5O2) was studied for a bubble near a solid wall; the produced gas bubble continues expansion and oscillations (for the case of linear and annular bubbles). It was demonstrated that gas combustion in annular bubbles produces two same-magnitude pulses of force acting on the wall. The first pulse is produced due to expansion of combustion products, and the second pulse is produced due to axial cumulative processes after bubble collapse. This process shapes an annular vortex which facilitates high-speed convective processes between combustion products and liquid; and this convection produces small-size bubbles.

  9. Shifting Blame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garofalo, Orsola; Rott, Christina


    by the spokesperson if there is room for shifting blame. The increased punishment results from the messenger’s style of delivery: spokespersons are more likely than decision makers to express emotional regret instead of rational need. Receivers seem to punish the former style of communication because they view......Decision makers frequently have a spokesperson communicate their decisions. In this paper, we address two questions. First, does it matter who communicates an unfair decision? Second, does it matter how the unfair decision is communicated? We conduct a modified dictator game experiment in which...... either the decision maker or a spokesperson communicates the decided allocation to recipients, who then determine whether to punish either of them. We find that receivers punish both the decision maker and the spokesperson more often, and more heavily, for unfair allocations communicated...

  10. On factors influencing air-water gas exchange in emergent wetlands (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Engel, Victor C.; Ferron, Sara; Hickman, Benjamin; Choi, Jay; Harvey, Judson W.


    Knowledge of gas exchange in wetlands is important in order to determine fluxes of climatically and biogeochemically important trace gases and to conduct mass balances for metabolism studies. Very few studies have been conducted to quantify gas transfer velocities in wetlands, and many wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations used in oceanographic or limnological settings are inappropriate under conditions found in wetlands. Here six measurements of gas transfer velocities are made with SF6 tracer release experiments in three different years in the Everglades, a subtropical peatland with surface water flowing through emergent vegetation. The experiments were conducted under different flow conditions and with different amounts of emergent vegetation to determine the influence of wind, rain, water flow, waterside thermal convection, and vegetation on air-water gas exchange in wetlands. Measured gas transfer velocities under the different conditions ranged from 1.1 cm h−1 during baseline conditions to 3.2 cm h−1 when rain and water flow rates were high. Commonly used wind speed/gas exchange relationships would overestimate the gas transfer velocity by a factor of 1.2 to 6.8. Gas exchange due to thermal convection was relatively constant and accounted for 14 to 51% of the total measured gas exchange. Differences in rain and water flow among the different years were responsible for the variability in gas exchange, with flow accounting for 37 to 77% of the gas exchange, and rain responsible for up to 40%.

  11. Oxygen transport membrane reactor based method and system for generating electric power (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Chakravarti, Shrikar; Li, Juan


    A carbon capture enabled system and method for generating electric power and/or fuel from methane containing sources using oxygen transport membranes by first converting the methane containing feed gas into a high pressure synthesis gas. Then, in one configuration the synthesis gas is combusted in oxy-combustion mode in oxygen transport membranes based boiler reactor operating at a pressure at least twice that of ambient pressure and the heat generated heats steam in thermally coupled steam generation tubes within the boiler reactor; the steam is expanded in steam turbine to generate power; and the carbon dioxide rich effluent leaving the boiler reactor is processed to isolate carbon. In another configuration the synthesis gas is further treated in a gas conditioning system configured for carbon capture in a pre-combustion mode using water gas shift reactors and acid gas removal units to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich fuel gas that fuels an integrated gas turbine and steam turbine system to generate power. The disclosed method and system can also be adapted to integrate with coal gasification systems to produce power from both coal and methane containing sources with greater than 90% carbon isolation.

  12. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  13. Continuous measurement of air-water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Pace, Michael L.


    mixing. This effect is unaccounted for in widely used empirical correlations for gas exchange coefficients and is another source of uncertainty in gas exchange estimates. The aquatic eddy covariance technique allows studies of air-water gas exchange processes and their controls at an unparalleled level of detail. A finding related to the new approach is that heat fluxes at the air-water interface can, contrary to those typically found in the benthic environment, be substantial and require correction of O2 sensor readings using high-speed parallel temperature measurements. Fast-responding O2 sensors are inherently sensitive to temperature changes, and if this correction is omitted, temperature fluctuations associated with the turbulent heat flux will mistakenly be recorded as O2 fluctuations and bias the O2 eddy flux calculation.

  14. Continuous measurement of air–water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Berg


    out of the river that affected the turbulent mixing. This effect is unaccounted for in widely used empirical correlations for gas exchange coefficients and is another source of uncertainty in gas exchange estimates. The aquatic eddy covariance technique allows studies of air–water gas exchange processes and their controls at an unparalleled level of detail. A finding related to the new approach is that heat fluxes at the air–water interface can, contrary to those typically found in the benthic environment, be substantial and require correction of O2 sensor readings using high-speed parallel temperature measurements. Fast-responding O2 sensors are inherently sensitive to temperature changes, and if this correction is omitted, temperature fluctuations associated with the turbulent heat flux will mistakenly be recorded as O2 fluctuations and bias the O2 eddy flux calculation.

  15. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.


    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  16. The energies of formation and mobilities of Cu surface species on Cu and ZnO in methanol and water gas shift atmospheres studied by DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Temel, Burcin


    through CuCO species, which indicates that CuCO is an important species for Ostwald ripening in a Cu/ZnO catalyst. These results provide atomistic perspective on the diffusion of the species that may contribute to catalyst sintering, therefore lending a valuable foundation for future investigations...

  17. Diseño y caracterización de catalizadores en oro para la reacción de water gas shift reaction


    Ramírez Reina, Tomás


    Tesis descargada desde TESEO 1. Introducción y Objetivo La protección del medio ambiente es uno de los principales problemas a los que se enfrenta el mundo actual. El creciente calentamiento global del planeta ha potenciado el interés científico en la búsqueda de nuevas fuentes de energía más respetuosas con objeto de reducir la emisión de gases y sustancias nocivas al medio ambiente. De entre todas las alternativas viables, el hidrógeno se posiciona como uno de los combustibles más pr...

  18. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas shift catalyst. [Quarterly] report, October 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, I.C.; Satterfield, C.N.


    The rate of synthesis gas consumption over a cobalt FischerTropsch catalyst was measured in a well-mixed, continuous-flow, slurry reactor at 220 to 240{degrees}C, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO feed ratios of 1.5 to 3.5 and conversions of 7 to 68% of hydrogen and 11 to 73% of carbon monoxide. The inhibiting effect of carbon monoxide was determined quantitatively and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type equation of the following form was found to best represent the results: -R{sub H{sub 2+Co}} = (a P{sub CO}P{sub H{sub 2}})/(1 + b P{sub CO}){sup 2}. The apparent activation energy was 93 to 95 kJ/mol. Data from previous studies on cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are also well correlated with this rate expression.

  19. Numerical modelling of methane oxidation efficiency and coupled water-gas-heat reactive transfer in a sloping landfill cover. (United States)

    Feng, S; Ng, C W W; Leung, A K; Liu, H W


    Microbial aerobic methane oxidation in unsaturated landfill cover involves coupled water, gas and heat reactive transfer. The coupled process is complex and its influence on methane oxidation efficiency is not clear, especially in steep covers where spatial variations of water, gas and heat are significant. In this study, two-dimensional finite element numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of unsaturated sloping cover. The numerical model was calibrated using a set of flume model test data, and was then subsequently used for parametric study. A new method that considers transient changes of methane concentration during the estimation of the methane oxidation efficiency was proposed and compared against existing methods. It was found that a steeper cover had a lower oxidation efficiency due to enhanced downslope water flow, during which desaturation of soil promoted gas transport and hence landfill gas emission. This effect was magnified as the cover angle and landfill gas generation rate at the bottom of the cover increased. Assuming the steady-state methane concentration in a cover would result in a non-conservative overestimation of oxidation efficiency, especially when a steep cover was subjected to rainfall infiltration. By considering the transient methane concentration, the newly-modified method can give a more accurate oxidation efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Role of the Coprecipitation Sequence of Salt Precursors on the Genesis of Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity for Low Temperature Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts for the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction were prepared using methods of direct and reverse coprecipitation. The catalysts obtained were characterized by DRX, TPR, XPS, N2O chemisorption, Hg-Porosimetry and BET surface area. It was observed that the precipitation sequence of the precursors led to significant differences in values of copper dispersion and consequently in the activity of the catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction.

  1. A Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Study on Nickel-based Binary-Ternary Amorphous and Crystalline Membranes (United States)

    Adibhatla, Anasuya

    Hydrogen is a major role player in current global sustainable energy scenario. Research around the world is carried out to harness hydrogen from all possible sources. One of these sources is water gas shift reaction after the coal gasification process. Sustainable infrastructure can be viable in countries like USA and Australia, making this process viable. Various methods are used to harness this hydrogen from the water gas. One of these methods is the use of inorganic membranes based on Pd, Ag, Ni, Zr and other transition metals. Pd addition to the membranes makes the membranes more expensive for commercial use. Various bulk properties like hydrogen permeation and absorption are studied on Pd and Pd-based alloys. Alternate alloys based on Ni, V, Ta etc are being studied to substitute the use of Pd making this technology more cost efficient. A current balance in research in this area is fund to exist by coating the non-precious metal membranes with Pd to improve the surface interaction with hydrogen. The nature of membranes used for hydrogen separation is important aspect for the overall performance. Crystalline materials provide better bulk properties, however, are not durable under high temperature and hydrogen pressure. In this research, non-Pd coated Ni-based amorphous membranes were made by melt spin technique, which have been studied for their surface properties. Gas phase H2-D2 exchange reaction has been carried out on the membrane surface. This provides a measure of catalytic activity of the above mentioned membranes. More studies included the crystallographic phase change determination, bulk hydrogen solubility measurements, surface conduction measurements and surface morphological studies. During this research, it has been observed that crystalline materials provide more surface activity for hydrogen than their amorphous counterparts. Ni64Zr36 alloy has been shown to exhibit similar kinetic rates as metallic Ni. Also, microkinetic analysis was performed

  2. Membrane tension and membrane fusion


    Kozlov, Michael M.; Chernomordik, Leonid V.


    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually la...

  3. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  4. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto


    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  5. The origin of the "snap-in" in the force curve between AFM probe and the water/gas interface of nanobubbles. (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zhao, Binyu; Zhang, Lijuan; Lü, Junhong; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yaming; Hu, Jun


    The long-range attractive force or "snap-in" is an important phenomenon usually occurring when a solid particle interacts with a water/gas interface. By using PeakForce quantitative nanomechanics the origin of snap-in in the force curve between the atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe and the water/gas interface of nanobubbles has been investigated. The snap-in frequently happened when the probe was preserved for a certain time or after being used for imaging solid surfaces under atmospheric conditions. In contrast, imaging in liquids rarely induced a snap-in. After a series of control experiments, it was found that the snap-in can be attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the water/gas interface and the AFM probe, which was either modified or contaminated with hydrophobic material. The hydrophobic contamination could be efficiently removed by a conventional plasma-cleaning treatment, which prevents the occurring of the snap-in. In addition, the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate onto the nanobubble surface changed the water/gas interface into hydrophilic, which also eliminated the snap-in phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad


    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  7. Insomnia in shift work. (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M


    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam


    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  9. Cell membrane permeability coefficients determined by single-step osmotic shift are not applicable for optimization of multi-step addition of cryoprotective agents: As revealed by HepG2 cells. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Chen, Zhongrong; Zhang, Mingke; Panhwar, Fazil; Gao, Cai; Zhao, Gang; Jin, Bo; Ye, Bin


    HepG2 cells have a number of research applications and cryopreservation of these cells would improve supply and thus facilitate the study. Development of effective cryopreservation protocols relies on knowledges of the fundamental mass transport characteristics of HepG2 cell membrane. Currently, the permeability parameters estimated from single-step addition are routinely used to predict the osmotic responses of the cells in multistep protocols, as well as used for prediction of optimal cooling rates. However, the reasonability of this approach has not been rigorously studied. Here we measured the hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and the permeability coefficient (Ps) of HepG2 cells in the absence/presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) at various temperatures with single and multistep addition of Me2SO. We found that the permeability yielded via one-step addition of the Me2SO cannot exactly predict the volume change of the cells when the CPA was added in multiple steps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia


    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared

  11. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai


    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  12. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar


    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  13. Multicomponent membranes (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.


    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  14. Instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry. (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook


    An instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry measurement method is presented and implemented by measuring a time varying deformable mirror with an iPhone ® 6. The instantaneous method is based on multiplexing phase shifted fringe patterns with color, and decomposing them in x and y using Fourier techniques. Along with experimental data showing the capabilities of the instantaneous deflectometry system, a quantitative comparison with the Fourier transform profilometry method, which is a distinct phase measuring method from the phase shifting approach, is presented. Sources of error, nonlinear color-multiplexing induced error correction, and hardware limitations are discussed.

  15. Membrane processes (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna


    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  16. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  17. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain


    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  18. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S


    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  19. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth


    practices were described as highly conventionalised and locally situated, but with occasional opportunities for improvisation and negotiation between nurses. Finally, shift reports were described as multifunctional meetings, with individual and social effects for nurses and teams. CONCLUSION: Innovations...... in between-shift communications can benefit from this analysis, by providing for the many functions of handovers that are revealed in field studies. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Leaders and practising nurses may consider what are the best opportunities for nurses to work up clinical knowledge......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...

  20. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora


    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  1. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Gramuglia, A.


    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction, gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activities with one of the

  2. Shifting tasks in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    with focus on shifting tasks was undertaken. Furthermore, the method of ‘Interview to double’ was used the analytical ambition being to explore the becoming of tasks and relations. Analytically the study draws predominantly on Stars notion of ‘infrastructure’. Infrastructure is seen as human and non...

  3. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD


    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  4. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Paul


    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  5. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette


    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  6. The shifting beverage landscape. (United States)

    Storey, Maureen


    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian


    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  8. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta]. (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin


    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  9. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan


    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  10. Relativistic membranes (United States)

    Hoppe, Jens


    The classical dynamics of M-dimensional extended objects arising from stationary points of the world volume swept out in space time is discussed from various points of view. A introduction to the Hamiltonian mechanics of bosonic compact M(em)branes is given, emphasing the diversity of the different formulations and gauge choices. For moving hypersurfaces, a graph description—including its nonlinear realization of Lorentz invariance—and hydrodynamic formulations (in light-cone coordinates as well as when choosing the time coordinate of a Lorentz observer as the dependent variable) are presented. A matrix regularization for M = 2 (existing for all topologies) is explained in detail for the 2-sphere, as well as multilinear formulations for M > 2. The recently found dynamical symmetry that exists for all M and related reconstruction algebras are covered, just as some explicit solutions of the level-set equations.

  11. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.


    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  12. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  13. Optimisation and characterisation of parabolic membrane mirrors (United States)

    Hellmuth, T.; Khrennikov, K.; Kronast, W.; Huster, R.; Mescheder, U.


    MOEMS-based thin silicon membrane mirrors with a useable diameter of 5mm and fast (up to 1kHz) tunable focal length (80 mm to 1m) have been realized. A ring shaped counter electrode is used to achieve a parabolic membrane deformation by electrostatic forces. A circular kerf at the outer perimeter of the membrane provides a soft suspension to the rim and thus reduces the needed driving voltage. FEM has been used for optimisation of the design, especially of the soft suspension, which is realized by a controlled thinning of the outer rim of the Si-membrane. A critical issue for demanding applications is the membrane distortion induced by material stress and the fabrication process. Membrane residual stress reduction has been obtained by using SOI-technology (c-silicon) and by optimisation of the Al deposition process (Al-coated Si-membrane). For dynamic tests of the optical mirror properties a stroboscopic interferometer has been realized. A pulsed laser diode with a pulse duration of 10μs is used as a light source which is synchronized with the modulated electrical field driving the membrane mirror. The interference pattern is recorded with a CCD and evaluated with conventional phaseshift techniques. The geometry is similar to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The reference path length can be varied with a piezoceramic to induce the phase shift.

  14. Synthesis of Hydrocarbons from H2-Deficient Syngas in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Co-Based Catalyst Coupled with Fe-Based Catalyst as Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Ting; Imai, Hiroyuki; Shige, Tomohiro; Sugio, Taisuke; Li, Xiaohong


    ... by the catalyst particles. The metal-added Fe-based catalysts were employed together with Co-loaded beta zeolite for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from syngas with a lower H2/CO ratio of 1 than the stoichiometric H2/CO ratio...

  15. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero


    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  16. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.


    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  17. Mechanosensitive membrane probes. (United States)

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan


    This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization contributes to various, usually more complex processes in nature. Examples include the color change of crabs or lobsters during cooking or the chemistry of vision, particularly color vision. The summary of lessons from nature is followed by an overview of mechanosensitive organic materials. Although often twisted and sometimes also polarized, their change of color under pressure usually originates from changes in their crystal packing. Intriguing exceptions include the planarization of several elegantly twisted phenylethynyl oligomers and polymers. Also mechanosensitive probes in plastics usually respond to stretching by disassembly. True ground-state planarization in response to molecular recognition is best exemplified with the binding of thoughtfully twisted cationic polythiophenes to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Molecular rotors, en vogue as viscosity sensors in cells, operate by deplanarization of the first excited state. Pertinent recent examples are described, focusing on λ-ratiometry and intracellular targeting. Complementary to planarization of the ground state with twisted push-pull probes, molecular rotors report on environmental changes with quenching or shifts in emission rather than absorption. The labeling of mechanosensitive channels is discussed as a bioengineering approach to bypass the challenge to create molecular mechanosensitivity and use biological systems instead to sense membrane tension. With planarizable push-pull probes, this challenge is met not with twistome screening, but with "fluorescent flippers," a new concept to insert large and bright monomers into oligomeric

  18. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui


    Full Text Available We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Susatyo


    showed a different behavior in terms of mechanical properties and structure. The membrane of pure nata had strong mechanical properties, while the membrane of activated nata tended to be fragile, while the nata-en membrane was loamy. The infrared spectra of the three types of membranes (from pure nata, activated nata , and nata-en generally did not change significantly, there was only a shift of the wavelength of each membrane. Based on the infrared spectra, it can be seen that each membrane has a hydroxyl group, but there was widened absorption for each membrane. Alkyl and carboxyl groups are still visible, although the activated nata membrane absorption is reduced, while in the nata-en membrane it was founded a new peak that indicated the presence of amine groups. This proves that there has been a bond between nata with ethylenediamine.

  20. Stress shift in rhythmical speech (United States)

    Quené, Hugo; Port, Robert


    In phrases like thirteen men, stress in thirteen is often shifted forward from its canonical final position. Presumably, the occurrence of this optional stress shift may be partly controlled by the rhythm of speech. Work on rhythmic speech production has demonstrated that given a repetition cycle, T, its harmonic fractions like T/2 attract stressed vowel onsets. Comparing phrases like ceMENT thirTEEN and GALaxy thirTEEN, differing in the number of weak syllables between strong ones, it was predicted that, during rhythmic production, the harmonic locations would attract shifted stress. Since shifting stress results in more even distribution of syllables through the cycle, we expected that faster repetition rates would also result in more stress shift. Dependent variables were the relative stress in the second word of each pair, and the location of onset of the nuclear vowel of the stressed syllable. Results confirmed the predictions, first, that with more intermediate unstressed syllables, stress was shifted forward more often (thereby locating the stressed vowel onset closer to T/2) and, second, that stress shifted forward more often at faster speaking rates. [Work supported by Fulbright Visiting Scholar program and by Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

  1. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  2. Membrane protein structure determination in membrana. (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M


    and the orientation of the protein within the membrane. When combined with dihedral angle restraints derived from analysis of isotropic chemical shifts, molecular fragment replacement, and de novo structure prediction, orientation restraints can yield high-quality three-dimensional structures with few or no distance restraints. Using complementary solid-state NMR methods based on oriented sample (OS) and magic angle spinning (MAS) approaches, one can resolve and assign multiple peaks through the use of (15)N/(13)C labeled samples and measure precise restraints to determine structures.

  3. Composite sensor membrane (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA; Satyanarayana, Srinath [Berkeley, CA; Yue, Min [Albany, CA


    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  4. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen


    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  5. Composite Membranes Based on Polyether Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroush


    Full Text Available The role of polymeric additives such as PVP and PEG is studied with respect to the morphology of PES porous layer as a sublayer of nanofiltration composite membranes based on PES/PA. Results show that by phase inversionprocess of quaternary systems comprised of four components of polymer/solvent/non-solvent/additive and the diffusion of intertwined polymers some changes occur in membrane morphology with changes in their concentration. With addition of PVP, tear-like pores, finger-like and channel-like morphology change to enlarged channel cavities and by adding more PVP, membrane morphology changes further and spongy regions are extended in the membrane. Presence of PEG in casting solution delayed the precipitation time. By adding PEG, the solution viscosity is increased which is followed by decreases in diffusion rates of solvent/non-solvent in coagulation bath.Therefore, membrane morphology shifts to small pores and spongier region. Another effect of increased PEG content would be deformed PA layer formation in PES sublayer which affects membrane performance. However, PVP as an additive does not change membrane salt rejection very much while it leads to higher fluxes. A membrane with 2.5 percent PVP would perform by 40 percent flux increases, while a membrane with 5% PVP shows flux reductions even below the initial value. Contrary to PVP, the PEG content of 20 percent leads to 4 folds flux increases and in a membrane with 50 percent PEG, there is a flux increase by 7 folds and drop in salt rejection occurs by 50 percent and 70 percent, respectively.

  6. Effect of the kind of fuel in the synthesis of the catalyzer NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to displacement reaction of water gas (WGRS); Efeito do tipo de combustivel na sintese do catalisador NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} para reacao de deslocamento do gas agua (WGRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Barros, B.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail:; Jesus, A.A.; Andrade, H.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    This work has as objective synthesizes and to characterize the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst by combustion reaction using different fuels: urea and glycine seeking your application in the water gas shift reaction (WGSR), promoting the purification of the methane for the elimination of the carbon monoxide. The powders were prepared in agreement with the chemistry of the propellants using as recipient a vitreous silica crucible; the maximum temperature and the medium time of flame were verified. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX), Scanning electronic microscopy and catalytic tests. The results show that the catalysts presented inverse spinel structure as majority phase for the two types of fuels. However, it was observed that using the urea, there was the presence of a second phase of NiO and when the glycine was used, there was the presence of lines of Ni. The catalyst NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using urea as fuel, presented better catalytic acting. (author)

  7. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang


    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton

  8. A Theoretical Study of the Hydration of Methane, from the Aqueous Solution to the sI Hydrate-Liquid Water-Gas Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Porfirio Luis


    Full Text Available Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were done with three recent water models TIP4P/2005 (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/2005, TIP4P/Ice (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/ Ice and TIP4Q (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 charges combined with two models for methane: an all-atom one OPLS-AA (Optimal Parametrization for the Liquid State and a united-atom one (UA; a correction for the C–O interaction was applied to the latter and used in a third set of simulations. The models were validated by comparison to experimental values of the free energy of hydration at 280, 300, 330 and 370 K, all under a pressure of 1 bar, and to the experimental radial distribution functions at 277, 283 and 291 K, under a pressure of 145 bar. Regardless of the combination rules used for σC,O, good agreement was found, except when the correction to the UA model was applied. Thus, further simulations of the sI hydrate were performed with the united-atom model to compare the thermal expansivity to the experiment. A final set of simulations was done with the UA methane model and the three water models, to study the sI hydrate-liquid water-gas coexistence at 80, 230 and 400 bar. The melting temperatures were compared to the experimental values. The results show the need to perform simulations with various different models to attain a reliable and robust molecular image of the systems of interest.

  9. A Theoretical Study of the Hydration of Methane, from the Aqueous Solution to the sI Hydrate-Liquid Water-Gas Coexistence. (United States)

    Luis, Daniel Porfirio; García-González, Alcione; Saint-Martin, Humberto


    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were done with three recent water models TIP4P/2005 (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/2005), TIP4P/Ice (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 Points/ Ice) and TIP4Q (Transferable Intermolecular Potential with 4 charges) combined with two models for methane: an all-atom one OPLS-AA (Optimal Parametrization for the Liquid State) and a united-atom one (UA); a correction for the C-O interaction was applied to the latter and used in a third set of simulations. The models were validated by comparison to experimental values of the free energy of hydration at 280, 300, 330 and 370 K, all under a pressure of 1 bar, and to the experimental radial distribution functions at 277, 283 and 291 K, under a pressure of 145 bar. Regardless of the combination rules used for σC,O, good agreement was found, except when the correction to the UA model was applied. Thus, further simulations of the sI hydrate were performed with the united-atom model to compare the thermal expansivity to the experiment. A final set of simulations was done with the UA methane model and the three water models, to study the sI hydrate-liquid water-gas coexistence at 80, 230 and 400 bar. The melting temperatures were compared to the experimental values. The results show the need to perform simulations with various different models to attain a reliable and robust molecular image of the systems of interest.

  10. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis


    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  11. Methanotroph outer membrane preparation. (United States)

    Karlsen, Odd A; Berven, Frode S; Jensen, Harald B; Fjellbirkeland, Anne


    All presently known methanotrophs are gram-negative bacteria suggesting that they are surrounded by a two-layered membrane: an inner or cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane. In the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), separation of the two membranes has allowed studies on protein and lipid composition of the outer membrane. Its outer membrane can be isolated from purified cell envelopes by selective solubilization of the inner membranes with the detergent Triton X-100. The proteins associated with the outer membrane can further be fractionated into integral and tightly associated proteins and peripheral loosely associated proteins. We present here protocols for this fractionation and show how the proteins associated with the outer leaflet of the outer membrane can be isolated and identified by whole-cell biotin surface labeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program: Lessons Learned by Pairing Scientists and Teachers to Develop Curriculum on Global Climate Change and Regional Unconventional Oil and Gas Development (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Rogers, J. D.; Casey, J. G.; Lackey, G.; Birdsell, D.; Brown, K.; Polmear, M.; Capps, S.; Rosenblum, J.; Sitterley, K.; Hafich, K. A.; Hannigan, M.; Knight, D.


    The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program, run by the UCAR Center for Science Education, brought together scientists and secondary science teachers in a yearlong program culminating in the development of curriculum related to the impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Graduate students and research scientists taught about their research area and its relationship to oil and gas throughout three online courses during the 2015-16 school year, during which teachers and scientists engaged in active online discussions. Topics covered included climate change, oil and gas infrastructure, air quality, water quality, public health, and practices and policies relating to oil and gas development. Building upon their initial online interactions and a face-to-face meeting in March, teachers were paired with appropriate AirWaterGas team members as science advisors during a month-long residency in Boulder, Colorado. During the residency, graduate student scientists provided resources and feedback as teachers developed curriculum projects in collaboration with each other and UCAR science educators. Additionally, teachers and AirWaterGas researchers shared experiences on an oil and gas well site tour, and a short course on drilling methods with a drilling rig simulator. Here, we share lessons learned from both sides of the aisle, including initial results from program assessment conducted with the participating teachers.

  13. Membrane Domains and Their Relevance to the Organization of Biological Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis


    The aim of this chapter is to provide a succinct update about research focused on membrane domains, particularly summarizing new information obtained using imaging techniques. This is presented and discussed in the context of the vast information previously reported using classical biophysical...... approaches. Thus, a section containing a historical perspective of lipid domains has been added as an introduction, recapitulating how lipid domains came into view and discussing how this phenomenon influenced different models of biological membranes. General but important aspects of the physical basis...... of lateral heterogeneity in lipid bilayers are discussed, including a synopsis of classical biophysical techniques used to study membrane lateral structure. Later in the chapter the focus shifts to giant vesicles and planar membranes recapitulating information on lipid domains obtained using imaging...

  14. shift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during the course of an academic year at the University of Witwatersrand following recent reforms in training and assessment methods Method: All fifth ... Assessment of Psychiatry in medical education at the. University of Witwatersrand ... or two examiners, to assess mainly clinical competence; multiple-choice questions ...

  15. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics. (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A


    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  16. Evolution and accumulation of organic foulants on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald


    Membrane surface modification is attracting more attention to mitigate biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Five membranes differing in chemistry and hydrophobic/hydrophilic potential were run in parallel in a lab-scale MBR under the same conditions. Membranes were sampled after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation with synthetic wastewater. Subsequently, accumulated organic foulants were characterised using several chemical analytical tools. Results showed similar development of organic foulants with time, illustrating that membrane surface chemistry did not affect the selection of specific organic foulants. Multivariate analysis showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the day of sampling. The composition of organic foulants shifted from protein-like substances towards humics and polysaccharides-like substances. We propose that to control biofouling in MBRs, one should focus less on the membrane surface chemistry.

  17. The shifting foundations of nursing. (United States)

    Law, Kate; Aranda, Kay


    In this paper we argue that the concerns generated by the development of Foundation Degrees and the Assistant and Associate Practitioner roles have rekindled some of the unresolved debates regarding the status and identity of nursing and nurses. Through the application of the sociological theories of professionalisation and nostalgia we have identified the shifting and unresolved nature of nursing. We argue that these theories continue to have resonance in the current climate of change and 'upskilling' of the health care workforce and argue, that the shifts illuminated are perhaps so significant as to demonstrate that we have entered a post-nursing era. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.


    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  19. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  20. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  1. Membrane Innovation in Dialysis. (United States)

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Beck, Werner; Hildwein, Helmut; Krause, Bernd; Storr, Markus; Zweigart, Carina


    Despite advances in renal replacement therapy, the adequate removal of uremic toxins over a broad molecular weight range remains one of the unmet needs in hemodialysis. Therefore, membrane innovation is currently directed towards enhanced removal of uremic toxins and increased membrane permeability. This chapter presents a variety of opportunities where innovation is brought into dialysis membranes. It covers the membrane formation from solution, describing different approaches to control the phase inversion process through additives that either swell in the polymer solution or influence the pore shrinkage during the membrane drying process. Additionally, large-scale manufacturing is described, and the influence of raw materials, spinning, and drying processes on membrane selectivity are presented. Finally, new characterization methods developed for the latest innovations around the application of membranes in dialysis are discussed, which allow the membrane performance for removal of a broad range of uremic toxins and the expected albumin loss in clinical use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Composite zeolite membranes (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.


    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  3. Supported inorganic membranes (United States)

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey


    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  4. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    Biological membranes are essential and complex structures in every living cell consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer sheet and membrane proteins. Its significance makes biological membranes not only interesting for medical research, but also has made it a target for toxins in the course of evolution...... mechanisms of membrane compounds, including compounds associated with membranes, are still unknown due to the challenges that arise when probing the hydrophobic nature of the membrane's interior. For integral membrane proteins that span through the entire membrane, the amphiphilic environment is essential...... to retain their native structure. This creates a challenge for studying the true structures of such proteins. Here, we present an approach via the immobilization of the transmembrane leucine transporter protein (LeuT) to a functionalized surface. Moreover, we created a native-like lipid environment post...

  5. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel. The link between water gas and ice in protostellar envelopes (United States)

    Schmalzl, M.; Visser, R.; Walsh, C.; Albertsson, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.


    Aims: Our aim is to determine the critical parameters in water chemistry and the contribution of water to the oxygen budget by observing and modelling water gas and ice for a sample of eleven low-mass protostars, for which both forms of water have been observed. Methods: A simplified chemistry network, which is benchmarked against more sophisticated chemical networks, is developed that includes the necessary ingredients to determine the water vapour and ice abundance profiles in the cold, outer envelope in which the temperature increases towards the protostar. Comparing the results from this chemical network to observations of water emission lines and previously published water ice column densities, allows us to probe the influence of various agents (e.g., far-ultraviolet (FUV) field, initial abundances, timescales, and kinematics). Results: The observed water ice abundances with respect to hydrogen nuclei in our sample are 30-80 ppm, and therefore contain only 10-30% of the volatile oxygen budget of 320 ppm. The keys to reproduce this result are a low initial water ice abundance after the pre-collapse phase together with the fact that atomic oxygen cannot freeze-out and form water ice in regions with Tdust ≳ 15 K. This requires short prestellar core lifetimes ≲0.1 Myr. The water vapour profile is shaped through the interplay of FUV photodesorption, photodissociation, and freeze-out. The water vapour line profiles are an invaluable tracer for the FUV photon flux and envelope kinematics. Conclusions: The finding that only a fraction of the oxygen budget is locked in water ice can be explained either by a short pre-collapse time of ≲0.1 Myr at densities of nH ~ 104 cm-3, or by some other process that resets the initial water ice abundance for the post-collapse phase. A key for the understanding of the water ice abundance is the binding energy of atomic oxygen on ice. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  6. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian


    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  7. Composite fuel cell membranes (United States)

    Plowman, Keith R.; Rehg, Timothy J.; Davis, Larry W.; Carl, William P.; Cisar, Alan J.; Eastland, Charles S.


    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  8. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.


    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently

  9. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite


    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  10. Cadmium sulfide membranes (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.


    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  11. Meniscus Membranes For Separation (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.


    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  12. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de


    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  13. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar


    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  14. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.


    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  15. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...

  16. The Shift Needed for Sustainability (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol


    Purpose: The purpose of this action research is to begin to assess to what extent organizations have in practice begun to make the shift towards triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, and key elements of TBL sustainability considered necessary to success are identified…

  17. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep (United States)

    ... Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. To promote better sleep during the day: ... Take naps. Napping late in the day before work might help you make up your sleep debt. ...

  18. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura


    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma...... membrane include ABC transporters, vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps, and P-type pumps. These pumps all utilize ATP as a fuel for energizing pumping. This review focuses on the physiological roles of plasma membrane P-type pumps, as they represent the major ATP hydrolytic activity in this membrane....

  19. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  20. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  1. Water Membrane Evaporator (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.


    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  2. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  3. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.


    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  4. VP Anaphors and Object Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne


    The article discusses the placement of the VP anaphor det ‘it’ as a complement of verbs selecting VP complements in Danish. With verbs that only allow a VP complement, the VP anaphor must be in SpecCP regardless of its information structure properties. If SpecCP is occupied by an operator......, the anaphor can be in situ, but it cannot shift. With verbs that allow its VP complement to alternate with an NP complement, the VP anaphor can be in SpecCP, shifted or in situ according to the information structural properties of the anaphor. Only if SpecCP is occupied by an operator, must a topical anaphor...

  5. Hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebach, M.; Gotta, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Anagnostopoulos, D.F. [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ioannina (Greece); Dax, A.; Liu, Y.W.; Markushin, V.E.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Zmeskal, J. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Vienna (Austria); Indelicato, P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Departement de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris (France); Manil, B. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Sorbonne Universites, Paris (France); Rusi el Hassani, A.J. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Tanger (Morocco); Trassinelli, M. [Sorbonne Universites, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France); CNRS, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris (France)


    The hadronic shift in pionic hydrogen has been redetermined to be ε {sub 1s} = 7.086 ± 0.007(stat) ± 0.006(sys) eV by X-ray spectroscopy of ground-state transitions applying various energy calibration schemes. The experiment was performed at the high-intensity low-energy pion beam of the Paul Scherrer Institut by using the cyclotron trap and an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer with bent crystals. (orig.)

  6. Into the Era of shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencik, Lars


    Globalization and new communication technologies shape new increasingly unpredictable living conditions. Societies as individuals face a world og growing predictive impotence. Traditions loose their power as guides for maneuvering - where traditions was reflection will be. At the same time peoples......, life styles, experiences and sexuality. Even thougts and feelings.In the era of shifts we shall be living with ever more design in an ever less designed world....

  7. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa


    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  8. Noble gases in crude oils from the Paris Basin, France: Implications for the origin of fluids and constraints on oil-water-gas interactions (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Marty, Bernard


    groundwaters are known. Oil-water-gas partitioning processes are well recorded in the fractionation of noble gas elemental abundance. Two distinct processes have been identified: (1) accumulation of atmosphere-derived (ANG) and radiogenic noble gases both initially dissolved in groundwaters, resulting in a positive correlation between absolute amount of ANG and the extent of heavy noble gas fractionation and (2) subsequent fractional degassing, resulting in a negative correlation between ANG abundance and heavy noble gas fractionation. Degassing is particularly evident for the Keuper oils and might have occurred in the reservoirs following hydrodynamic gas stripping. The ANG abundance in the Dogger reservoirs requires that about one order of magnitude more water than presently observed has interacted with the oil. Given current estimates of the residence time for groundwaters in the Dogger aquifer, the duration of oil-water interaction is in qualitative agreement with a Palaeocene-Oligocene age for the major episode of secondary oil migration in the Paris Basin. High xenon contents in Keuper reservoirs suggest that they have experienced hydrodynamic interactions between flowing waters and oils for long time, and that the Trias might have reached hydrostatic condition only recently.

  9. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević


    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  10. [Erythrocyte membrane proteins]. (United States)

    Delaunay, J


    Proteins are important constituents of the red blood cell plasma membrane. Several important breakthroughs have occurred in their analysis over the past few years. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis lead to the separation of the major proteins and glycoproteins. Location of most of these proteins -- either on the external, the internal or both surfaces of the membrane -- was determined. The strenght of the binding of the protein to the membrane was established. Hydrophobicity of membrane proteins has so far hindered their purification. However, the major glycoprotein (glycophorin A) was isolated and recently sequenced. The description of several membrane-associated enzyme activities has been followed by some understanding of their specific role in the red blood cell physiology. Abnormalities of glycoproteins, Ca2+-ATPase and of membrane protein phosphorylation have been reported under various conditions: sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytoses, progressive muscular dystrophy.

  11. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei


    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  12. Temporal Changes in Extracellular Polymeric Substances on Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Membrane Surfaces in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil


    Membrane surface hydrophilic modification has always been considered to mitigating biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Four hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes (pore sizes ∼0.1 μm) differing only in hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface characteristics were operated at a permeate flux of 10 L/m2.h in the same lab-scale MBR fed with synthetic wastewater. In addition, identical membrane modules without permeate production (0 L/m2.h) were operated in the same lab-scale MBR. Membrane modules were autopsied after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation, and total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) accumulated on the membranes were extracted and characterized in detail using several analytical tools, including conventional colorimetric tests (Lowry and Dubois), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (FEEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The transmembrane pressure (TMP) quickly stabilized with higher values for the hydrophobic membranes than hydrophilic ones. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membrane had the highest negatively charged membrane surface, accumulated the least amount of foulants and displayed the lowest TMP. The same type of organic foulants developed with time on the four membranes and the composition of biopolymers shifted from protein dominance at early stages of filtration (day 1) towards polysaccharides dominance during later stages of MBR filtration. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest that EPS composition may not be the dominant parameter for evaluating membrane performance and possibly other parameters such as biofilm thickness, porosity, compactness and structure should be considered

  13. Polyarylether composition and membrane (United States)

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony


    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  14. Porous ceramic membranes


    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten


    Synthetic membranes are increasingly used for energy-efficient separation of liquid and gaseous mixtures in household applications, environmental technology and the chemical and energy industry. Besides, membranes are used in component-specific sensors in gas and liquid streams, preferably combined with micro-electronic devices. Ceramic membranes have a large potential over their polymer counterparts for applications at high temperature, pressure and in aggressive environments. Ceramic membra...

  15. Applications of membrane computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; Păun, Gheorghe


    Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing which investigates computing models abstracted from the structure and functioning of living cells and from their interactions in tissues or higher-order biological structures. The models considered, called membrane systems (P systems), are parallel, distributed computing models, processing multisets of symbols in cell-like compartmental architectures. In many applications membrane systems have considerable advantages - among these are their inherently discrete nature, parallelism, transparency, scalability and nondeterminism. In dedicated cha

  16. Nanoporous Membrane Immunosensor (United States)


    incubated for 5-10 minutes. The analyte solution was then filtered using a water aspirator for 5 minutes. Unbound analyte was removed by washing the...membrane 3 times with PBST. A sandwiching antibody, rabbit-antibody- 5 ovalbumin (affinity purified), was then added to the membrane (200 /xl) at 2 jug /ml...cfu/ml) for 5-10 minutes and then filtered using a water aspirator for 5 minutes. Unbound analyte was removed by washing the membrane 3 times with

  17. Siloxane-grafted membranes (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Obligin, Alan S.


    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  18. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  19. Gas separation membranes (United States)

    Schell, William J.


    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  20. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima


    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Membrane reactors at Degussa. (United States)

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz


    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  2. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  3. Long term storage stabilizes human erythrocyte membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osmotic fragility (OF) test was conducted in Nigerian human black male erythrocytes stored for Oh, 12h, 24h and 48h. Storage of these human erythrocytes for up to 24h failed to alter significantly their membrane characteristics. A leftward shift in osmotic fragiligrams was noted suggestive of storage-time (age) dependent ...

  4. Geometric phase shifting digital holography. (United States)

    Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Narayanamurthy, C S; Yatagai, Toyohiko


    A new phase shifting digital holographic technique using a purely geometric phase in Michelson interferometric geometry is proposed. The geometric phase in the system does not depend upon either optical path length or wavelength, unlike dynamic phase. The amount of geometric phase generated is controllable through a rotating wave plate. The new approach has unique features and major advantages in holographic measurement of transparent and reflecting three-dimensional (3D) objects. Experimental results on surface shape measurement and imaging of 3D objects are presented using the proposed method.

  5. Cell locomotion: new research tests old ideas on membrane and cytoskeletal flow. (United States)

    Heath, J P; Holifield, B F


    Recent studies on the mobility of membrane markers on crawling cells indicate that there is no long-range centripetal flow of membrane proteins or lipids during cell locomotion. In this article we reflect on the history of ideas about membrane flow in cells, and we discuss how these new findings will shift the focus of research in cell locomotion away from the cell surface to the molecular interactions and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.

  6. Paradigm shifts in corneal transplantation. (United States)

    Tan, Donald T H; Anshu, Arundhati; Mehta, Jodhbir S


    Conventional corneal transplantation, in the form of penetrating keratoplasty (PK), involves full-thickness replacement of the cornea, and is a highly successful procedure. However, the cornea is anatomically a multi-layered structure. Pathology may only affect individual layers of the cornea, hence selective lamellar surgical replacement of only the diseased corneal layers whilst retaining unaffected layers represents a new paradigm shift in the field. Recent advancements in surgical techniques and instrumentation have resulted in several forms of manual, microkeratome and femto-second laser-assisted lamellar transplantation procedures. Anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) aims at replacing only diseased or scarred corneal stroma, whilst retaining the unaffected corneal endothelial layer, thus obviating the risk of endothelial allograft rejection. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty/endothelial keratoplasty (PLK/EK) involves the replacement of the dysfunctional endothelial cell layer only. Whilst significant technical and surgical challenges are involved in performing lamellar micro-dissection of a tissue which is only 0.5 mm thick, the benefits of a more controlled surgical procedure and improved graft survival rates have resulted in a shift away from conventional PK. This review details the current advances in emerging lamellar corneal surgical procedures and highlights the main advantages and disadvantages of these new lamellar corneal procedures.

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John


    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences. (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John


    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  9. Role of Alcohols in Growth, Lipid Composition, and Membrane Fluidity of Yeasts, Bacteria, and Archaea ▿ (United States)

    Huffer, Sarah; Clark, Melinda E.; Ning, Jonathan C.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.


    Increased membrane fluidity, which causes cofactor leakage and loss of membrane potential, has long been documented as a cause for decreased cell growth during exposure to ethanol, butanol, and other alcohols. Reinforcement of the membrane with more complex lipid components is thus thought to be beneficial for the generation of more tolerant organisms. In this study, organisms with more complex membranes, namely, archaea, did not maintain high growth rates upon exposure to alcohols, indicating that more complex lipids do not necessarily fortify the membrane against the fluidizing effects of alcohols. In the presence of alcohols, shifts in lipid composition to more saturated and unbranched lipids were observed in most of the organisms tested, including archaea, yeasts, and bacteria. However, these shifts did not always result in a decrease in membrane fluidity or in greater tolerance of the organism to alcohol exposure. In general, organisms tolerating the highest concentrations of alcohols maintained membrane fluidity after alcohol exposure, whereas organisms that increased membrane rigidity were less tolerant. Altered lipid composition was a common response to alcohol exposure, with the most tolerant organisms maintaining a modestly fluid membrane. Our results demonstrate that increased membrane fluidity is not the sole cause of growth inhibition and that alcohols may also denature proteins within the membrane and cytosol, adversely affecting metabolism and decreasing cell growth. PMID:21784917

  10. The spectral shift function and spectral flow


    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A.L.; Sukochev, F. A.


    This paper extends Krein's spectral shift function theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples. We define the spectral shift function under these hypotheses via Birman-Solomyak spectral averaging formula and show that it computes spectral flow.

  11. Stabilization of supported liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Antonius Josephus Bernardus


    Membrane processes provide a relatively new and economically attractive separation technique. One type of membrane processes, i.e. the use of facilitated transport in liquid membranes, is particularly attractive. Compared to other membrane processes, liquid membranes show high selectivities, high

  12. Membrane Gas Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.


    Membrane gas absorption processes are absorption processes utilising hollow fibre membranes as contacting media for gas and liquid flows. The principle of operation and engineering aspects are discussed, followed by discussion of a number of typical applications. Benefits in terms of operation,

  13. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo


    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  14. Porous ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten


    Synthetic membranes are increasingly used for energy-efficient separation of liquid and gaseous mixtures in household applications, environmental technology and the chemical and energy industry. Besides, membranes are used in component-specific sensors in gas and liquid streams, preferably combined

  15. Premature rupture of membranes (United States)

    ... this page: // Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go into labor on ...

  16. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao


    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  17. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.


    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  18. Polymide gas separation membranes (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz


    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  19. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.


    performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely

  20. Individual differences in shift work tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers-van der Holst, H.M.


    Shift work is a key feature of our contemporary 24/7 society, employing several successive work teams to sustain around-the-clock operations. However, numerous studies imply that frequently shifting the periods of sleep and wakefulness poses a serious threat to the shift worker’s physical, mental

  1. Elastic membranes in confinement. (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H


    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Membrane projection lithography (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L


    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  3. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert


    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  4. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert


    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  5. MAL Is a Regulator of the Recruitment of Myelin Protein PLP to Membrane Microdomains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Bijlard

    Full Text Available In oligodendrocytes (OLGs, an indirect, transcytotic pathway is mediating transport of de novo synthesized PLP, a major myelin specific protein, from the apical-like plasma membrane to the specialized basolateral-like myelin membrane to prevent its premature compaction. MAL is a well-known regulator of polarized trafficking in epithelial cells, and given its presence in OLGs it was therefore of interest to investigate whether MAL played a similar role in PLP transport in OLGs, taking into account its timely expression in these cells. Our data revealed that premature expression of mCherry-MAL in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells interfered with terminal OLG differentiation, although myelin membrane formation per se was not impaired. In fact, also PLP transport to myelin membranes via the cell body plasma membrane was unaffected. However, the typical shift of PLP from TX-100-insoluble membrane domains to CHAPS-resistant, but TX-100-soluble membrane domains, seen in the absence of MAL expression, is substantially reduced upon expression of the MAL protein. Interestingly, not only in vitro, but also in developing brain a strongly diminished shift from TX-100 resistant to TX-100 soluble domains was observed. Consistently, the MAL-expression mediated annihilation of the typical membrane microdomain shift of PLP is also reflected by a loss of the characteristic surface expression profile of conformation-sensitive anti-PLP antibodies. Hence, these findings suggest that MAL is not involved in vesicular PLP trafficking to either the plasma membrane and/or the myelin membrane as such. Rather, we propose that MAL may regulate PLP's distribution into distinct membrane microdomains that allow for lateral diffusion of PLP, directly from the plasma membrane to the myelin membrane once the myelin sheath has been assembled.

  6. Amplitude dependent shift of betatron oscillation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Shoji


    Full Text Available We have analytically calculated and measured the amplitude-dependent shift of the betatron oscillation center at the electron storage ring, NewSUBARU. The shift is due to nonzero average horizontal deflections at the normal sextupole magnets. The shifted center forms a displaced closed orbit and is measured by a closed orbit distortion measurement system, although no single electron runs on this orbit. The measured shifts by betatron oscillations agreed with the theoretical calculation except the variation of data points, which did not obey the ring symmetry. Additional measurements, whose results included the effect of the circumference shift, experimentally proved the amplitude dependent circumference shift for the first time. We also discuss some applications of the shift, which has never been previously analyzed.

  7. Ordered ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.


    Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.


    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A


    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  10. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  11. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens


    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  12. Neural Membrane Signaling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wallace


    Full Text Available Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling. This article reviews the history of membrane studies and the current state of the art. Emphasis is placed on natural and artificial membrane studies of electric field effects on molecular organization, especially as these may relate to impulse propagation in neurons. Implications of these studies for new designs in artificial intelligence are briefly examined.

  13. Neural membrane signaling platforms. (United States)

    Wallace, Ron


    Throughout much of the history of biology, the cell membrane was functionally defined as a semi-permeable barrier separating aqueous compartments, and an anchoring site for proteins. Little attention was devoted to its possible regulatory role in intracellular molecular processes and neuron electrical signaling. This article reviews the history of membrane studies and the current state of the art. Emphasis is placed on natural and artificial membrane studies of electric field effects on molecular organization, especially as these may relate to impulse propagation in neurons. Implications of these studies for new designs in artificial intelligence are briefly examined.

  14. Smectic elastomer membranes


    Stenull, Olaf


    We present a model for smectic elastomer membranes which includes elastic and liquid crystalline degrees of freedom. Based on our model, we determined the qualitative phase diagram of a smectic elastomer membrane using mean-field theory. This phase diagram is found to comprise five phases, viz. smectic-A--flat, smectic-A--crumpled, smectic-C--flat, smectic-C--crumpled and smectic-C--tubule, where in the latter phase, the membrane is flat in the direction of mesogenic tilt and crumpled in the ...

  15. Metal-organic frameworks for membrane-based separations (United States)

    Denny, Michael S.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Benz, Lauren; Cohen, Seth M.


    As research into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enters its third decade, efforts are naturally shifting from fundamental studies to applications, utilizing the unique features of these materials. Engineered forms of MOFs, such as membranes and films, are being investigated to transform laboratory-synthesized MOF powders to industrially viable products for separations, chemical sensors and catalysts. Following encouraging demonstrations of gas separations using MOF-based membranes, liquid-phase separations are now being explored in an effort to build effective membranes for these settings. In this Review, we highlight MOF applications that are in their nascent stages, specifically liquid-phase separations using MOF-based mixed-matrix membranes. We also highlight the analytical techniques that provide important insights into these materials, particularly at surfaces and interfaces, to better understand MOFs and their interactions with other materials, which will ultimately lead to their use in advanced technologies.

  16. Dry Reforming of Methane Using a Nickel Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M. Leimert


    Full Text Available Dry reforming is a very interesting process for synthesis gas generation from CH 4 and CO 2 but suffers from low hydrogen yields due to the reverse water–gas shift reaction (WGS. For this reason, membranes are often used for hydrogen separation, which in turn leads to coke formation at the process temperatures suitable for the membranes. To avoid these problems, this work shows the possibility of using nickel self-supported membranes for hydrogen separation at a temperature of 800 ∘ C. The higher temperature effectively suppresses coke formation. The paper features the analysis of the dry reforming reaction in a nickel membrane reactor without additional catalyst. The measurement campaign targeted coke formation and conversion of the methane feedstock. The nickel approximately 50% without hydrogen separation. The hydrogen removal led to an increase in methane conversion to 60–90%.

  17. Probing Peptide and Protein Insertion in a Biomimetic S-Layer Supported Lipid Membrane Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Damiati


    Full Text Available The most important aspect of synthetic lipid membrane architectures is their ability to study functional membrane-active peptides and membrane proteins in an environment close to nature. Here, we report on the generation and performance of a biomimetic platform, the S-layer supported lipid membrane (SsLM, to investigate the structural and electrical characteristics of the membrane-active peptide gramicidin and the transmembrane protein α-hemolysin in real-time using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A shift in membrane resistance is caused by the interaction of α-hemolysin and gramicidin with SsLMs, even if only an attachment onto, or functional channels through the lipid membrane, respectively, are formed. Moreover, the obtained results did not indicate the formation of functional α-hemolysin pores, but evidence for functional incorporation of gramicidin into this biomimetic architecture is provided.

  18. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (United States)

    ECMO; Heart-lung bypass - infants; Bypass - infants; Neonatal hypoxia - ECMO; PPHN - ECMO; Meconium aspiration - ECMO; MAS - ECMO ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back ...

  19. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  20. Fuel cell membrane humidification (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.


    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  1. Hydrogen transport membranes (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael V.


    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  2. Dealing with a Paradigm Shift (United States)

    Pack, Allan I.


    Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918

  3. Core shift effect in blazars (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.


    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  5. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo


    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo


    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  7. Study of a three-phase flow metering process for oil-water-gas flows; Etude d`un procede de mesure des debits d`un ecoulement triphasique de type eau-huile-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Ch.


    We propose a theoretical and experimental study of a three-phase flow metering process for oil-water-gas flows. The selected process is based on a combination of a mixer, a Venturi and ultrasonic methods. To perform an experimental validation of this process an instrumented set-up for three-phase air-oil-water flows has been designed, conceived and adjusted. An original theoretical model have been built to predict three-phase dispersed flows across a contraction. Once validated with two-phase air-water, oil-water and air-oil-water flows data, this model has been used to solve the Venturi metering problems. After a critical review of the available techniques, the ultrasonic propagation velocity has been selected to determine two-phase liquid-liquid flow composition. Two original models have been developed to describe the ultrasonic propagation with the dispersed phase fraction. The comparison with experimental data in oil-water flows show the superiority of one of the two models, the scattering model. For the void fraction determination in air-water flows, the work of Bensler (1990) based on the ultrasonic attenuation measurement has been extended to take into account the multiple scattering effects. Finally these techniques have been combined to determine the different flow rates in air-water, oil-water flows. For two-phase air-water and oil-water flows the problem is solved and the flow rates are measured with a very good accuracy ({+-} 3%). The results quality obtained with three-phase oil-water-gas flows and the secure theoretical bases allowing their interpretation give us the opportunity to strongly recommend the development of an industrial prototype based on the process we studied. (author) 183 refs.

  8. Fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Zhang, Meijia; Chen, Jianrong; Ma, Yuanjun; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun


    In this paper, fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface with a modified Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function was conducted. The topography of rough membrane surface was measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the results showed that the membrane surface was isotropous. Accordingly, the fractal dimension and roughness of membrane surface were calculated by the power spectrum method. The rough membrane surface was reconstructed on the MATLAB platform with the parameter values acquired from raw AFM data. The reconstructed membrane was much similar to the real membrane morphology measured by AFM. The parameters (including average roughness and root mean square (RMS) roughness) associated with membrane morphology for the model and real membrane were calculated, and a good match of roughness parameters between the reconstructed surface and real membrane was found, indicating the feasibility of the new developed method. The reconstructed membrane surface can be potentially used for interaction energy evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong


    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  10. [Occupational diseases and night-shift work]. (United States)

    Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien


    Shift and night work concern every year more and more workers, specifically women. Recent recommendations on good practice for the medical surveillance of shift and night workers have been edited in France. They confirmed that this kind of organisation, unavoidable in some economical sectors is associated with a significant higher risk of sleep and wake disorders, cardiovascular disorders, overweight and obesity, breath cancer. Specific surveillance of shift and night workers is recommended in occupational health.

  11. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska


    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  12. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations. (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael


    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.


    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  14. Shift work disorder: overview and diagnosis. (United States)

    Roth, Thomas


    Shift work disorder is a type of sleep disorder that occurs when an individual is unable to successfully synchronize his or her internal clock with a work schedule that requires staying awake and working when it is dark and sleeping when it is light. Approximately 10% of shift workers suffer from this disorder, which seriously impairs their ability to function. Shift work disorder is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal problems, cancer, depression, heart disease, excessive sleepiness and accidents, and decreased productivity. This report describes the prevalence, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and clinical consequences of shift work disorder to help clinicians recognize this impairing condition. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Vulnerability of Codes Using Frequency Shift Keying. (United States)


  16. Lipid Membranes in Poxvirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Laliberte


    Full Text Available Poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, where they acquire multiple lipoprotein membranes. Although a proposal that the initial membrane arises de novo has not been substantiated, there is no accepted explanation for its formation from cellular membranes. A subsequent membrane-wrapping step involving modified trans-Golgi or endosomal cisternae results in a particle with three membranes. These wrapped virions traverse the cytoplasm on microtubules; the outermost membrane is lost during exocytosis, the middle one is lost just prior to cell entry, and the remaining membrane fuses with the cell to allow the virus core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate a new infection.

  17. Fluorescent flippers for mechanosensitive membrane probes. (United States)

    Dal Molin, Marta; Verolet, Quentin; Colom, Adai; Letrun, Romain; Derivery, Emmanuel; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos; Vauthey, Eric; Roux, Aurélien; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan


    In this report, "fluorescent flippers" are introduced to create planarizable push-pull probes with the mechanosensitivity and fluorescence lifetime needed for practical use in biology. Twisted push-pull scaffolds with large and bright dithienothiophenes and their S,S-dioxides as the first "fluorescent flippers" are shown to report on the lateral organization of lipid bilayers with quantum yields above 80% and lifetimes above 4 ns. Their planarization in liquid-ordered (Lo) and solid-ordered (So) membranes results in red shifts in excitation of up to +80 nm that can be transcribed into red shifts in emission of up to +140 nm by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). These unique properties are compatible with multidomain imaging in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and cells by confocal laser scanning or fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Controls indicate that strong push-pull macrodipoles are important, operational probes do not relocate in response to lateral membrane reorganization, and two flippers are indeed needed to "really swim," i.e., achieve high mechanosensitivity.

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley


    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and

  20. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem


    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  1. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček


    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  2. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.


    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Advances in Pd-Based Membranes for Membrane Reactors. (United States)

    Arratibel Plazaola, Alba; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto


    Palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation have been studied by several research groups during the last 40 years. Much effort has been dedicated to improving the hydrogen flux of these membranes employing different alloys, supports, deposition/production techniques, etc. High flux and cheap membranes, yet stable at different operating conditions are required for their exploitation at industrial scale. The integration of membranes in multifunctional reactors (membrane reactors) poses additional demands on the membranes as interactions at different levels between the catalyst and the membrane surface can occur. Particularly, when employing the membranes in fluidized bed reactors, the selective layer should be resistant to or protected against erosion. In this review we will also describe a novel kind of membranes, the pore-filled type membranes prepared by Pacheco Tanaka and coworkers that represent a possible solution to integrate thin selective membranes into membrane reactors while protecting the selective layer. This work is focused on recent advances on metallic supports, materials used as an intermetallic diffusion layer when metallic supports are used and the most recent advances on Pd-based composite membranes. Particular attention is paid to improvements on sulfur resistance of Pd based membranes, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and stability at high temperature.

  4. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health. (United States)

    Keller, Simone M


    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Biopores/membrane proteins in synthetic polymer membranes. (United States)

    Garni, Martina; Thamboo, Sagana; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Palivan, Cornelia G


    Mimicking cell membranes by simple models based on the reconstitution of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers represents a straightforward approach to understand biological function of these proteins. This biomimetic strategy has been extended to synthetic membranes that have advantages in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, thus providing more robust hybrid membranes. We present here how membrane proteins and biopores have been inserted both in the membrane of nanosized and microsized compartments, and in planar membranes under various conditions. Such bio-hybrid membranes have new properties (as for example, permeability to ions/molecules), and functionality depending on the specificity of the inserted biomolecules. Interestingly, membrane proteins can be functionally inserted in synthetic membranes provided these have appropriate properties to overcome the high hydrophobic mismatch between the size of the biomolecule and the membrane thickness. Functional insertion of membrane proteins and biopores in synthetic membranes of compartments or in planar membranes is possible by an appropriate selection of the amphiphilic copolymers, and conditions of the self-assembly process. These hybrid membranes have new properties and functionality based on the specificity of the biomolecules and the nature of the synthetic membranes. Bio-hybrid membranes represent new solutions for the development of nanoreactors, artificial organelles or active surfaces/membranes that, by further gaining in complexity and functionality, will promote translational applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Phase shift of sinusoidally alternating colored stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, P.L.; Leebeek, H.J.


    In order to avoid luminance flicker at equal luminance of two alternating colored stimuli de Lange found that a phase shift of the stimuli with respect to each other has to be introduced. This compensation for the phase shift occurring in the retina-cortex system has been measured for a large number

  7. Large species shifts triggered by small forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.


    Changes in species composition of communities seem to proceed gradually at first sight, but remarkably rapid shifts are known to occur. Although disrupting disturbances seem an obvious explanation for such shifts, evidence for large disturbances is not always apparent. Here we show that complex

  8. Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle in Shift Workers (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Darkhi, Hamidreza; Kashanian, Maryam; khodarahmian, Mahshad; Dolati, Mandana; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Mohammadi, Saber


    Background: In this study, the characteristics of menstrual cycle in shift workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry are investigated. Method: This study was conducted in a pharmaceutical industrial complex in Tehran in 2012. 406 female workers in packaging units were studied on the menstrual cycle characteristics. The studied workers were divided into two groups of shift workers and non-shift workers and were compared in terms of the frequency of menstrual disorder (short-term cycle, long-term cycle, irregular cycle and bleeding during menstrual cycle) as well as hormonal values (FSH, LH, TSH, and Prolactin). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for menstrual disorder in the shift workers was 5.54 (95% CI=2.78-11.02) compared to the non-shift workers. The mean difference of hormonal values (except prolactin) between shift workers and non-shift workers was not significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that shift work may disrupt the menstrual cycle. PMID:23618486

  9. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara


    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of 1...

  10. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  11. Multiband echo-shifted echo planar imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyacioǧlu, R.; Schulz, J.; Norris, David Gordon


    Purpose To propose the technique multiband echo-shifted (MESH) echo planar imaging (EPI), which combines the principles of echo-shifted acquisition for two-dimensional multislice EPI, with both in-plane and multiband acceleration by means of partial parallel imaging techniques. Methods MESH EPI is

  12. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  13. Obesity and shift work: chronobiological aspects. (United States)

    Antunes, L C; Levandovski, R; Dantas, G; Caumo, W; Hidalgo, M P


    The present review has the objective of summarising chronobiological aspects of shift work and obesity. There was a systematic search in PubMed databases, using the following descriptors: shift work; obesity; biological clock. Shift work is extremely frequent in several services and industries, in order to systematise the needs for flexibility of the workforce, necessary to optimise productivity and business competitiveness. In developing countries, this population represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies showed that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, the literature shows that shift workers seem to gain weight more often than those workers submitted to a usual work day. In conclusion, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that shift work is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes and CVD, perhaps as a result of physiological maladaptation to chronically sleeping and eating at abnormal circadian times. The impact of shift work on metabolism supports a possible pathway to the development of obesity and its co-morbities. The present review demonstrated the adverse cardiometabolic implications of circadian misalignment, as occurs chronically with shift workers.

  14. Feminist Research and Paradigm Shift in Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Rajivan Edward


    Full Text Available In her paper ‘An Awkward Relationship: the Case of Feminism and Anthropology’, Marilyn Strathern argues that feminist research cannot produce a paradigm shift in social anthropology. I present an argument for thinking that, on the relevant understanding of paradigm shift, it is possible for this to happen. I then object to Strathern’s arguments against the possibility.

  15. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.


    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  16. Shift work influences multiple sclerosis risk. (United States)

    Hedström, A K; Åkerstedt, T; Olsson, T; Alfredsson, L


    An association between working shift at a young age and subsequent risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) has been observed. To investigate whether this finding could be replicated, and to further explore the influence of age at first exposure to shift work. Using a Swedish population-based, case-control study (2337 cases and 4904 controls), the incidence of MS among subjects whom had worked shifts was compared with that of those whom had not, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression. The OR of developing MS was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.8) among those whom started working shifts before age 20, whereas a less pronounced association was observed among those whom started working shifts at age 20 or later (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4). The effect of shift work was more pronounced among subjects whom had been exposed at a young age, regardless of the duration between the start of shift work and disease onset. Some aspects of adolescence seem to be of great importance, regarding the impact of shift work on MS risk. Circadian disruption and sleep deprivation may contribute towards explaining the association; however, the exact mechanisms behind our observations remain to be elucidated. © The Author(s), 2015.

  17. Nonradioactive RNA mobility shift with chemiluminescent detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    RNA mobility shift is one among many procedures used to study RNA-protein interaction. Yet, there are some limitations for the radioactive RNA mobility shift including; 1) the risk of using radiolabeled nucleotides, 2) the long time to get the results; this could range from days to weeks, and 3) its high cost as compared to ...

  18. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander


    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  19. Liver plasma membranes: an effective method to analyze membrane proteome. (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Liang, Songping


    Plasma membrane proteins are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of plasma membrane proteins make them difficult to analyze. The protocols given here are the efficient isolation/digestion procedures for liver plasma membrane proteomic analysis. Both protocol for the isolation of plasma membranes and protocol for the in-gel digestion of gel-embedded plasma membrane proteins are presented. The later method allows the use of a high detergent concentration to achieve efficient solubilization of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins while avoiding interference with the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis.

  20. Effect of membrane curvature on lateral distribution of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Several membrane proteins exhibit interesting shapes that increases their preference for certain membrane curvatures. Both peripheral and transmembrane proteins are tested with respect to their affinity for a spectrum of high membrane curvatures. We generate high membrane curvatures by pulling...... membrane tubes out of Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). The tube diameter can be tuned by aspirating the GUV into a micropipette for controlling the membrane tension. By using fluorescently labled proteins we have shown that sorting of proteins like e.g. FBAR onto tubes is significantly increased...

  1. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics. (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E


    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  2. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.


    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  3. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  4. Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor. (United States)

    Dubé, M A; Tremblay, A Y; Liu, J


    The immiscibility of canola oil in methanol provides a mass-transfer challenge in the early stages of the transesterification of canola oil in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). To overcome or rather, exploit this situation, a two-phase membrane reactor was developed to produce FAME from canola oil and methanol. The transesterification of canola oil was performed via both acid- or base-catalysis. Runs were performed in the membrane reactor in semi-batch mode at 60, 65 and 70 degrees C and at different catalyst concentrations and feed flow rates. Increases in temperature, catalyst concentration and feedstock (methanol/oil) flow rate significantly increased the conversion of oil to biodiesel. The novel reactor enabled the separation of reaction products (FAME/glycerol in methanol) from the original canola oil feed. The two-phase membrane reactor was particularly useful in removing unreacted canola oil from the FAME product yielding high purity biodiesel and shifting the reaction equilibrium to the product side.

  5. Hybrid Filter Membrane (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary


    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  6. The role of cell-surface interactions in bacterial initial adhesion and consequent biofilm formation on nanofiltrationfreverse osmosis membranes


    Habimana, O.; Semião, A.J.C.; Casey, E.


    Until recently, the realization that membrane biofouling during nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes is an unavoidable occurrence, has led to a paradigm shift in which biofouling management approaches rather than biofouling prevention are now being considered. To implement this new concept, it is crucial to understand the fundamentals of cell-surface interactions during bacterial adhesion, a prerequisite to biofouling of membranes. As such, with membrane biofouling already b...

  7. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  8. Phospholipid Nonwoven Electrospun Membranes (United States)

    McKee, Matthew G.; Layman, John M.; Cashion, Matthew P.; Long, Timothy E.


    Nonwoven fibrous membranes were formed from electrospinning lecithin solutions in a single processing step. As the concentration of lecithin increased, the micellar morphology evolved from spherical to cylindrical, and at higher concentrations the cylindrical micelles overlapped and entangled in a fashion similar to polymers in semi-dilute or concentrated solutions. At concentrations above the onset of entanglements of the wormlike micelles, electrospun fibers were fabricated with diameters on the order of 1 to 5 micrometers. The electrospun phospholipid fibers offer the potential for direct fabrication of biologically based, high-surface-area membranes without the use of multiple synthetic steps, complicated electrospinning designs, or postprocessing surface treatments.

  9. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  10. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon


    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  11. Supported microporous ceramic membranes (United States)

    Webster, Elizabeth; Anderson, Marc


    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  12. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  13. NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training - a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction (United States)


    Background NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model. A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. Results In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction. In addition to this main result – the NightShift framework itself – we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. Conclusion By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators. The framework can be downloaded from It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via PMID:23496927

  14. NightShift: NMR shift inference by general hybrid model training--a framework for NMR chemical shift prediction. (United States)

    Dehof, Anna Katharina; Loew, Simon; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Hildebrandt, Andreas


    NMR chemical shift prediction plays an important role in various applications in computational biology. Among others, structure determination, structure optimization, and the scoring of docking results can profit from efficient and accurate chemical shift estimation from a three-dimensional model.A variety of NMR chemical shift prediction approaches have been presented in the past, but nearly all of these rely on laborious manual data set preparation and the training itself is not automatized, making retraining the model, e.g., if new data is made available, or testing new models a time-consuming manual chore. In this work, we present the framework NightShift (NMR Shift Inference by General Hybrid Model Training), which enables automated data set generation as well as model training and evaluation of protein NMR chemical shift prediction.In addition to this main result - the NightShift framework itself - we describe the resulting, automatically generated, data set and, as a proof-of-concept, a random forest model called Spinster that was built using the pipeline. By demonstrating that the performance of the automatically generated predictors is at least en par with the state of the art, we conclude that automated data set and predictor generation is well-suited for the design of NMR chemical shift estimators.The framework can be downloaded from It requires the open source Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL), and is available under the conditions of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). We additionally offer a browser-based user interface to our NightShift instance employing the Galaxy framework via

  15. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R


    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  16. Computational Design of Membrane Proteins using RosettaMembrane. (United States)

    Duran, Amanda M; Meiler, Jens


    Computational membrane protein design is challenging due to the small number of high-resolution structures available to elucidate the physical basis of membrane protein structure, multiple functionally important conformational states, and a limited number of high-throughput biophysical assays to monitor function. However, structural determination of membrane proteins has made tremendous progress in the past years. Concurrently the field of soluble computational design has made impressive inroads. These developments allow us to tackle the formidable challenge of designing functional membrane proteins. Herein, Rosetta is benchmarked for membrane protein design. We evaluate strategies to cope with the often reduced quality of experimental membrane protein structures. Further, we test the usage of symmetry in design protocols, which is particularly important as many membrane proteins exist as homo-oligomers. We compare a soluble scoring function with a scoring function optimized for membrane proteins, RosettaMembrane. Both scoring functions recovered around half of the native sequence when completely redesigning membrane proteins. However, RosettaMembrane recovered the most native-like amino acid property composition. While Leucine was overrepresented in the inner and outer-hydrophobic regions of RosettaMembrane designs, it resulted in a native-like surface hydrophobicity indicating that it is currently the best option for designing membrane proteins with Rosetta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Dimensional analysis of membrane distillation flux through fibrous membranes (United States)

    Mauter, Meagan

    We developed a dimensional-analysis-based empirical modeling method for membrane distillation (MD) flux that is adaptable for novel membrane structures. The method makes fewer simplifying assumptions about membrane pore geometry than existing theoretical (i.e. mechanistic) models, and allows selection of simple, easily-measureable membrane characteristics as structural parameters. Furthermore, the model does not require estimation of membrane surface temperatures; it accounts for convective heat transfer to the membrane surface without iterative fitting of mass and heat transfer equations. The Buckingham-Pi dimensional analysis method is tested for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) using non-woven/fibrous structures as the model membrane material. Twelve easily-measured variables to describe DCMD operating conditions, fluid properties, membrane structures, and flux were identified and combined into eight dimensionless parameters. These parameters were regressed using experimentally-collected data for multiple electrospun membrane types and DCMD system conditions, achieving R2 values >95%. We found that vapor flux through isotropic fibrous membranes can be estimated using only membrane thickness, solid fraction, and fiber diameter as structural parameters. Buckingham-Pi model DCMD flux predictions compare favorably with previously-developed empirical and theoretical models, and suggest this simple yet theoretically-grounded empirical modeling method can be used practically for predicting MD vapor flux from membrane structural parameters.

  18. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi


    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  19. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire]. (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András


    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  20. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent


    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  1. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization. (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya


    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A


    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  5. Composite oxygen transport membrane (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.


    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x) and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2) for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2) for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  6. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis


    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  7. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This may be one of the reasons that lipid composition of membranes is tightly regulated. The free energy of stalk-like structures for a given architecture, f = 0.35, for different tensions is shown in figure 4b. Tensions there, are in units of that of the bare hydrophilic, hydrophobic interface, γint. One sees that the low free energy.

  8. membrane. PM6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 7, 2003 ... Objectives: To examine erythrocyte membrane functions in mood disorder patients and to establish possible diagnostic marker parameter(s). Design: Collection of blood samples from mood disorder patients and age-matched control volunteers.Preparation of erythrocyte mem- branes for the proposed ...

  9. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M


    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  10. Buckled membranes for microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, D.O.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Based on energy variation methods we calculated the deflection of membranes under the combined load of an external pressure and an internal lateral stress. A lateral load gives rise to buckling once a critical load is exceeded. The combination of transversal loads and lateral loads changes the

  11. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent ...

  12. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation


    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q.; Kentish, Sandra E.


    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This...

  13. Colloid Adsorption onto Responsive Membranes (United States)

    Dias, Rita S.; Linse, Per


    The adsorption of colloids of varying sizes and charges onto a surface that carries both negative and positive charges, representing a membrane, has been investigated using a simple model employing Monte Carlo simulations. The membrane is made of positive and negative charges (headgroups) that are allowed to move along the membrane, simulating the translational diffusion of the lipids, and are also allowed to protrude into the solution, giving rise to a fluid and soft membrane. When an uncharged colloid is placed in the vicinity of the membrane, a short-range repulsion between the colloid and the membrane is observed and the membrane will deflect to avoid coming into contact with the colloid. When the colloid is charged, the membrane response is twofold: the headgroups of the membrane move toward the colloid, as if to partly embrace it, and the positive headgroups of the membrane approach the oppositely charged colloid, inducing the demixing of the membrane lipids (polarization). The presence of protrusions enhances the polarization of the membrane. Potential of mean force calculations show that protrusions give rise to a more long-range attractive colloid-membrane potential which has a smaller magnitude at short separations. PMID:18234818


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman


    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes of pyrrole and the usage of polypyrrole membrane as lysine and alanine deliverance have been studied by cyclic voltammetry technique. Polypyrrole membrane was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole in water based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte. Electropolymerization processes were carried out within potential range of 0-1100 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode and at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s. In this study, lysine and alanine have been used as molecules which could easily be loaded on and released from polypyrrole membrane. The presence of lysine or alanine during electropolymerization process reduced the rate of electropolymerization of polypyrrole. In lysine or alanine transfer processes into polypyrrole membrane, the interaction between polypyrrole and lysine or alanine showed by the curve of E½ oxidation in respect of - log C. It proved that the E½ oxidation shifted to more positive potential showed by the increasing of concentration of lysine or alanine. Beside that, voltammetric responses of lysine and alanine transfered into polypyrrole membrane were found to be Nernstian. The results indicated that polypyrrole could be used as a sensor of lysine and alanine.   Keywords: Electropolymerization, polypyrrole membrane, voltammetry technique

  15. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  16. Examining the Conservative Shift from Harsh Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Pollock


    Full Text Available Recently, a political shift has been observed, in that some political conservatives are now advocating, adjusting, or abandoning draconian drug laws, including mandatory minimums, and funding diversion, re-entry, and drug programs. Vocal proponents of this movement include Grover Norquist, Rand Paul, Edwin Meese, and Mark Levin, from the Texas Public Policy Council. Any movement away from the mass incarceration that has characterized the U.S. correctional policy for the last 30 years is welcomed; however, it is important to note carefully the philosophical foundation of the conservative’s interest in shifting correctional policy. This paper explores the potential factors contributing to this philosophical shift.

  17. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der


    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  18. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  19. Autophagosomal membranes assemble at ER-plasma membrane contact sites. (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne


    The biogenesis of autophagosome, the double membrane bound organelle related to macro-autophagy, is a complex event requiring numerous key-proteins and membrane remodeling events. Our recent findings identify the extended synaptotagmins, crucial tethers of Endoplasmic Reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, as key-regulators of this molecular sequence.

  20. Influence of membrane properties on fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; Temmink, Hardy; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph


    Polymeric flat-sheet membranes with different properties were used in filtration experiments with activated sludge from a pilot-scale MBR to investigate the influence of membrane pore size, surface porosity, pore morphology, and hydrophobicity on membrane fouling. An improved flux-step method was

  1. Phase- and tilt-shift determinations by analysis of spectra sidebands for phase-shift interferometers. (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; Ji, Fang; He, Jianguo


    A spatial frequency domain method is presented to deal with tilt-shift errors and random phase shift in temporal phase-shift interferometry. The proposed method determines tilt shift and phase shift by analyzing positions and phase variances of sidebands in spatial frequency domain. The method is computationally fast for it is noniterative and needs only one 2D Fourier transform for each spatial carrier interferogram. No initial estimations are required and no ambiguous results are generated with the proposed method. Simulations indicate that the proposed method could detect tilt shift and piston phase shift with high accuracy. Results of experiments conducted in the presence of vibration demonstrate that the proposed method could alleviate fluctuations in the retrieved phase map. The method could be applied to interferometers that are uncalibrated or with an unbalanced piezoelectric transducer, besides interferometers in unsteady conditions.

  2. Quarter-lambda-shifted photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    A new design for photonic crystal lasers is proposed and realised. It allows an intuitive design for ultralow mode volume and high Q cavities which can be realized in a connected membrane structure.......A new design for photonic crystal lasers is proposed and realised. It allows an intuitive design for ultralow mode volume and high Q cavities which can be realized in a connected membrane structure....

  3. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.


    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  4. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis. (United States)

    Tingle, M.


    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  5. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.


    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  6. Shift work and age in petroleum offshore industry. (United States)

    Waage, Siri; Pallesen, Stĺle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bjorvatn, Bjørn


    Shift work is associated with sleep and health problems. Tolerance to shift work is reported to decrease with age. Shift work tolerance should be considered in different shift work populations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between age, shift work exposure, shift type, and morningness and sleep/health problems in oil rig shift workers. A total of 199 workers participated. They worked either two weeks of 12-h day shifts (n = 96) or two weeks of swing shifts (n = 103) (one week of 12-h night shifts followed by one week of 12-h day shifts), followed by four weeks off work. The workers filled out questionnaires on demographics, work, sleep, and health. We found no significant associations between age or years of shift work exposure and any of the sleep, sleepiness, or health parameters. There was a significant association between shift type and sleep duration, showing that swing shift workers had longer sleep duration than day shift workers. In addition, we found a significant association between the interaction age*, shift type, and sleep duration, where sleep duration was negatively associated with age for the swing shift workers and positively associated with age for the day shift workers. There were significant associations between morningness and sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and insomnia. Older workers may tolerate shift work well. Age, shift work exposure time, and shift type seemed not to affect shift work tolerance in this population. However, this may be due to a healthy worker effect and/or selection bias.

  7. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time. (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D


    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  8. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  9. Flexible photonic crystal membranes with nanoparticle high refractive index layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Karrock


    Full Text Available Flexible photonic crystal slabs with an area of 2 cm2 are fabricated by nanoimprint replication of a 400 nm period linear grating nanostructure into a ≈60 µm thick polydimethylsiloxane membrane and subsequent spin coating of a high refractive index titanium dioxide nanoparticle layer. Samples are prepared with different nanoparticle concentrations. Guided-mode resonances with a quality factor of Q ≈ 40 are observed. The highly flexible nature of the membranes allows for stretching of up to 20% elongation. Resonance peak positions for unstretched samples vary from 555 to 630 nm depending on the particle concentration. Stretching results in a resonance shift for these peaks of up to ≈80 nm, i.e., 3.9 nm per % strain. The color impression of the samples observed with crossed-polarization filters changes from the green to the red regime. The high tunability renders these membranes promising for both tunable optical devices as well as visualization devices.

  10. Novel benzanthrone probes for membrane and protein studies (United States)

    Ryzhova, Olga; Vus, Kateryna; Trusova, Valeriya; Kirilova, Elena; Kirilov, Georgiy; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kinnunen, Paavo


    The applicability of a series of novel benzanthrone dyes to monitoring the changes in physicochemical properties of lipid bilayer and to differentiating between the native and aggregated protein states has been evaluated. Based on the quantitative parameters of the dye-membrane and dye-protein binding derived from the fluorimetric titration data, the most prospective membrane probes and amyloid tracers have been selected from the group of examined compounds. Analysis of the red edge excitation shifts of the membrane- and amyloid-bound dyes provided information on the properties of benzanthrone binding sites within the lipid and protein matrixes. To understand how amyloid specificity of benzanthrones correlates with their structure, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed involving a range of quantum chemical molecular descriptors. A statistically significant model was obtained for predicting the sensitivity of novel benzanthrone dyes to amyloid fibrils.

  11. Fuel cell with ionization membrane (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)


    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  12. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.


    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  13. Phase-shifted response of plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered by the nanostruc......We analyze the dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) illuminated by a resonant electromagnetic field and placed close to a metal nanostructure, whose response to the incident field is phase shifted by 3π/2 (-π/2). It is found that, due to the phase shift in a field scattered...... by the nanostructure (and acting on the QDE along with the incident field), QDE dynamics is characterized by a fast QDE transition to the excited state followed by relaxation to a stable superposition (of the excited and ground states) with a close to 1 probability of the QDE to be found in the excited state. We...

  14. [Medical surveillance for shift and night work]. (United States)

    Roscelli, F


    Shift and night work are recognized as risk factors for health and safety; they are related to a wide range of public health problems ranging from cardiovascular disease and cancer to mental disorders and accidents. Occupational health physicians should evaluate workers' fitness for shift and night work before their assignment, at regular intervals, and if health problems connected with shift work occur. The evaluation should be accompanied by a careful job analysis to ensure that shift schedules are arranged according to ergonomic criteria. This arrangement can reduce health problems and make coping with irregular working hours possible, even for people suffering from contraindicative illnesses. Both health disorders representing absolute or relative contraindication and actual work conditions should be taken into account. Health checks should be aimed at detecting early signs of intolerance, such as sleeping and digestive trouble, drug consumption, accidents, and female reproductive function problems.

  15. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.


    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  16. Beta-shifts, their languages and computability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    For every real number ß >1, the ß-shift is a dynamical system describing iterations of the map x ¿ ßx mod 1 and is studied intensively in number theory. Each ß-shift has an associated language of finite strings of characters; properties of this language are studied for the additional insight...... they give into the dynamics of the underlying system. We prove that the language of the ß-shift is recursive iff ß is a computable real number. That fact yields a precise characterization of the reals: The real numbers ß for which we can compute arbitrarily good approximations—hence in particular...... is constructive, the “if” part is not. We show that no constructive proof of the “if” part exists. Hence, there exists no algorithm that transforms a program computing arbitrarily good approximations of a real number ß into a program deciding the language of the ß-shift....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mistry


    Full Text Available Now-a-days sentiment analysis has become a hot research area. With the increasing use of internet, people express their views by using social media, blogs, etc. So there is a dire need to analyze people’s opinions. Sentiment classification is the main task of sentiment analysis. But while classifying sentiments, the problem of polarity shift occurs. Polarity shift is considered as a very crucial problem. Polarity shift changes a text from positive to negative and vice versa. In this paper, a hybrid approach is proposed for polarity shift detection of negation (explicit and implicit and contrast. The hybrid approach consists of a rule-based approach for detecting explicit negation and contrast and a lexicon called SentiWordNet for detecting implicit negation. The proposed approach outperforms its baselines.

  18. Data for phase angle shift with frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul


    Full Text Available Phase angle shift between the current and voltage with frequency has been reported for a single phosphoric acid fuel cell in the cell temperature from 100 °C to 160 °C and the humidifier temperature from 40 °C to 90 °C. An electrochemical workbench is employed to find the shift. The figure of phase angle shift shows a peak in high humidifier temperatures. The peak in phase angle shift directs to lower frequency side with decreasing humidifier temperature. The estimation of electrochemical reaction time is also evaluated in the humidifier temperature zone from 50 °C to 90 °C.

  19. Firefighter Shift Schedules Affect Sleep Quality. (United States)

    Billings, Joel; Focht, Will


    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of firefighter sleep quality across department shift schedules. Sleep quality was assessed using a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a sample of 109 male career firefighters from six fire departments in three Southwestern US states. The three shift schedules studied were 24on/48off, 48on/96off, and Kelly. Seventy-three percent of firefighters report poor sleep quality. The 24on/48off shift schedule is associated with the best sleep quality and Kelly is associated with the worst sleep quality. Firefighters working second jobs report significantly poorer sleep quality than those who do not. Shift schedules that disrupt normal circadian rhythms more result in poorer sleep quality, which can lead to less effective emergency response and increased risk to firefighter health and safety.

  20. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.


    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited....... Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other...... methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  1. Income Shifting Behavior of Japanese Multinationals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaif Jarallah;Yoshio Kanazaki


    This study attempts to identify the factors that motivate Japanese listed non-financial multinationals intrafirm trade and their income shifting behavior toward different taxation policies in various countries...

  2. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bacterial membrane. (United States)

    Oncul, Sule; Cuce, Esra M; Aksu, Burak; Inhan Garip, Ayse


    The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on bacteria has attracted attention due to its potential for beneficial uses. This research aimed to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on bacterial membrane namely the membrane potential, surface potential, hydrophobicity, respiratory activity and growth. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were subjected to ELF-EMF, 50 Hz, 1 mT for 2 h. Membrane potential was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy with or without EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) with DisC3(5) (3,3-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide), zeta potential measurements were performed by electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity of the membrane was measured with MATH (Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons) test, respiratory activity was determined with CTC (5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride), colony forming unit (CFU) and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride) was used for growth determinations. ELF-EMF caused changes in physicochemical properties of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Hyperpolarization was seen in S. aureus and EDTA-treated E. coli. Surface potential showed a positive shift in S. aureus contrariwise to the negative shift seen in EDTA-untreated E. coli. Respiratory activity increased in both bacteria. A slight decrease in growth was observed. These results show that ELF-EMF affects the crucial physicochemical processes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which need further research.

  3. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work]. (United States)

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B


    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  4. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley


    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  5. Best focus shift mechanism for thick masks (United States)

    Burkhardt, Martin; Raghunathan, Ananthan


    The best focus shift due to thick mask effects is well known, both in ArF, and more importantly in EUV, where the shorter wavelength is small compared to both mask openings and absorber height. While the effect is stronger in opaque features in clear field masks, the best focus shift is visible in dark field masks as well, and it becomes even more pronounced when scattering bars are added to non-dense features. This pattern dependent focus variation can be predicted in both exact EMF simulations and fast image calculations that are used for optical proximity correction (OPC). Even though this focus shift can be predicted and patterns can be corrected in OPC, we would like to understand the mechanism that causes this focus shift. This can help us understand if, in addition to best focus shift, the image quality is further deteriorated due to the thick mask effects. The best focus shift is found to be an interplay of the complex diffraction coefficient due to thick mask effects and the direction of the light that is incident on the mask, or coherence value σ. A change in focus adds a phase term to each of the complex diffraction coefficients, causing their rotation in a phasor diagram. Best focus is found when the phasors have an angle of 0 or 180 degrees to each other and depending on which diffracted orders are caught in the pupil and contribute to imaging. We investigate the effect of partial coherence, mask thickness, and assist feature placement on best focus shift. We observe a waveguide effect in the absorber gaps because of the reduced real index of refraction in the absorber layer, making vacuum the optically dense medium. We suggest ways to lessen the best focus shifts through assist feature placement or the use of alternative absorbers that are closer matched to the dielectric index of vacuum.

  6. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections


    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander


    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary mod els with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large field values by including higher-order poles, which need to be hierarchically suppressed in order not to spoil the inflationary plateau. The herefrom resulting corrections to the inflationary dynamic...

  7. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts. (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise


    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  8. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite str...

  9. Challenges in commercializing biomimetic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine Elkjær


    of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments...... relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes....

  10. Sleep deprivation due to shift work. (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni


    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system in protein biogenesis of the mitochondrial outer membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnert, Maria; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Zerbes, Ralf M.; Horvath, Susanne E.; Stroud, David A.; von der Malsburg, Karina; Mueller, Judith M.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Perschil, Inge; Warscheid, Bettina; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Daum, Guenther; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin


    Mitochondria contain two membranes, the outer membrane and the inner membrane with folded cristae. The mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) is a large protein complex required for maintaining inner membrane architecture. MINOS interacts with both preprotein transport machineries of

  12. SAXS investigations on lipid membranes under osmotic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubim, R.L.; Vieira, V.; Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    shifted to higher values when fatty acids are incorporated to the membrane, indicating a relative increasing of repulsive interactions [2]. These findings reveal the great potential of this methodology for studies of membranes of biological interest. [1] J. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and surface forces, second edition, Academic Press, London 1991.; [2] H. Petrache, T. Zemb, L. Belloni, and V. Parsegian, PNAS, 103, 7982(2006).; [3] T. J. McIntosh, S. A. Simon, Biochemistry 25, 4058(1986). (author)

  13. Building membrane nanopores (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan


    Membrane nanopores--hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes--have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function. I also discuss the future challenges of developing nanopore technology, and consider what the next-generation of nanopore structures could be and where further practical applications might emerge.

  14. The First Cell Membranes (United States)

    Deamer, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Allamandola, Louis J.


    Organic compounds are synthesized in the interstellar medium and can be delivered to planetary surfaces such as the early Earth, where they mix with endogenous organic mixtures. Some of these compounds are amphiphilic, having polar and non-polar groups on the same molecule. Amphiphilic compounds spontaneously self-assembly into more complex structures such as bimolecular layers, which in turn form closed membranous vesicles. The first forms of cellular life required self-assembled membranes that were likely to be available on the prebiotic Earth. Laboratory simulations show that such vesicles readily encapsulate functional macromolecules, including nucleic acids and polymerases. A goal of future investigations is to fabricate artificial cells as models of the origin of life.

  15. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    Purification of proteins is an increasingly important process for the biotechnology industry. Separation of the desired high value protein from other proteins produced by the cell is usually attempted using a combination of different chromatographic techniques. These techniques separate mixtures...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited....... In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...

  16. Dual-transmission line modeling of electrochemical processes in polyaniline-cellulose ester composite porous membranes. (United States)

    Qaiser, Asif A


    The charge transport processes in polyaniline (PANI) composite porous membranes have been elaborated in this study using dual-transmission line impedance model conventionally used for macroscopically homogeneous (nanoporous) membranes. Mixed cellulose ester (ME)-PANI porous membranes were prepared using various in situ chemical polymerization techniques including solution- and vapor-phase polymerizations, and two-compartment cell diaphragmatic polymerization. Each technique yielded different PANI deposition site and content in the membranes. As a result, the modeling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data yielded different model parameters that have been correlated with the PANI content and deposition site (i.e., surface layering versus in-bulk deposition) in the membranes. The modeling results showed that PANI deposition enhanced charge transport by shifting the interfacial transfer mechanism at pore walls from simple double layer charging to the charge transfer involving oxidation of PANI molecular chains deposited at the pore walls of the composite membranes. In addition, in-bulk PANI deposition in the membranes by means of two-compartment cell polymerization showed several orders of magnitude faster charge transport as compared to the membranes where PANI deposited only at the surface. This study shows that pore-controlled diffusion in PANI composite porous membranes can be satisfactorily modeled using dual-transmission line model and correlated with PANI deposition site in the membranes.

  17. Membrane degradation mechanisms in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Mittal, Vishal Onkarmal

    Membrane degradation and failure is one of the most important factors limiting the lifetime of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Increasing the membrane life by developing degradation mitigation strategies in the cell or developing a new membrane with improved life requires a detailed understanding of the membrane degradation mechanism during operation in a PEMFC. An in-situ and nondestructive technique, which relies on the measurement of the membrane degradation rate in a fuel cell, was used to study the chemical/electrochemical mode of membrane degradation. NafionRTM membrane was used for the degradation study and fluoride emission rate (FER) as measured from the fuel cell effluent water analysis was used as a quantitative indicator of the membrane degradation rate. The degradation mechanism was studied by a detailed investigation of the effect of reactants, catalyst properties (location, potential, catalyst type, interaction with O2 and H2O), cell current, membrane thickness, NafionRTM counterion, and direction of water movement on the membrane degradation rate. Based on the experimental findings it is shown that commonly known membrane degradation mechanisms involving formation of active oxygen species from H 2O2 decomposition or the direct formation of active oxygen species in the oxygen reduction reaction are not the dominating membrane degradation mechanisms in PEMFCs. It is proposed that molecular H2 and O 2 react on the surface of Pt catalyst to form the membrane degrading species. Depending upon the catalyst location the source of H2 or O2 or both is from the reactant crossover through the membrane. The reaction mechanism is chemical in nature and depends upon the catalyst surface properties and the relative concentrations of H2 and O 2 at the catalyst. The membrane degradation rate also depends on the residence time of the species in the membrane and the reaction volume i.e. the membrane thickness. Thus, the membrane degradation may not

  18. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P


    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  19. Mucous membrane grafting. (United States)

    Henderson, H W A; Collin, J R O


    We review the use of mucous membrane grafting in the clinical management of dry eye-associated ocular surface disease. Literature review of the scientific evidence, presentation of guidelines and surgical details. The reformation and maintenance of a conjunctival fornix requires the addition of epithelial tissue, or a basement membrane which can be populated by healthy host epithelial cells. A healthy conjunctival or tarsal autograft, when available, is the ideal material. Oral mucosa does not contain goblet cells and therefore does not supplement the tear film: a full-thickness oral mucous membrane graft is the simplest graft to use if conjunctiva or tarsus is not available. Split-thickness mucosal grafts contract more, but are less bulky and pink than full-thickness grafts, and therefore should be used on the globe. Hard palate grafts are the thickest oral mucosal grafts and contract the least. Nasal mucosal grafts contain goblet cells that may contribute mucous to the tear film. This is maximised in turbinate mucosal grafts, which can relieve discomfort in extreme dry eye situations. Nasal septal cartilage contains fewer goblet cells, but adds rigidity. Amniotic membrane is thin and translucent-like conjunctiva, and possesses antiangiogenic, antiscarring and anti-inflammatory properties. It may become re-epithelialised with normal a conjunctival cell population and prevent postoperative cicatrisation, but requires the presence of healthy conjunctival stem cells to repopulate the graft, adequate lacrimal function to keep the graft moist, and a host site that is free from inflammation, otherwise it rapidly contracts. It can be combined with limbal transplantation and with an adjunctive antimetabolite.

  20. Virus separation using membranes. (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter


    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  1. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)


    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  2. Novicidin interactions with phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, Vijay Shankar

    Antimicrobial peptides target bacterial cell membranes and are considered as potential antibiotics. Their interactions with cell membranes are studied using different approaches. This thesis comprises of the biophysical investigations on the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin, interacting...... with liposomes. The lipid-induced changes in the peptide due to membrane binding, and the peptide-induced changes in the membrane properties were investigated using various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, and the structural and thermodynamic aspects of peptide-lipid interactions are discussed. This helps...... in understanding not only the antimicrobial nature of Novicidin, but also sheds light on the membrane-peptide interactions....

  3. [Effect of Membrane Wettability on Membrane Fouling and Chemical Durability of SPG Membranes]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tai-min; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Li-ya; Du, Ya-wei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Lei


    Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes have been applied for microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment. In the present study, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic SPG membranes were used in a microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor with online chemical cleaning, and their membrane fouling and chemical durability were determined to be strongly dependent on the membrane wettability. The fouling layer formed on the surface of both membranes was confirmed to be mainly organic fouling, and the hydrophobic membrane showed a relatively stronger resistance to the organic fouling. The severe chemical corrosion of the hydrophilic membrane was observed due to exposure to the alkaline sodium hypochlorite solution used for chemical cleaning, which resulted in significant increases in the median pore diameter and the porosity. On the other hand, the pore structure of the hydrophobic membrane changed slightly when exposed to the alkaline sodium hypochlorite solution, suggesting its strong alkali-resistance due to the non-wetting surface. However, the surface hydrophobic groups of hydrophobic membrane could be oxidized by sodium hypochlorite solution, resulting in more wettable membrane surface. The hydrophobic membrane also showed better performance in the respects of oxygen transfer, contaminant removal and energy-saving. Therefore, the hydrophobic membrane seemed more appropriate to be applied for microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment process.

  4. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.


    The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Gamble


    Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

  6. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  7. Solid-state membrane module (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT


    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  8. Flux Enhancement in Membrane Distillation Using Nanofiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček


    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD is an emerging separation technology, whose largest application potential lies in the desalination of highly concentrated solutions, which are out of the scope of reverse osmosis. Despite many attractive features, this technology is still awaiting large industrial application. The main reason is the lack of commercially available membranes with fluxes comparable to reverse osmosis. MD is a thermal separation process driven by a partial vapour pressure difference. Flux, distillate purity, and thermal efficiency are always in conflict, all three being strictly connected with pore size, membrane hydrophobicity, and thickness. The world has not seen the ideal membrane yet, but nanofibers may offer a solution to these contradictory requirements. Membranes of electrospun PVDF were tested under various conditions on a direct contact (DCMD unit, in order to determine the optimum conditions for maximum flux. In addition, their performance was compared to commonly available PTFE, PE, and PES membranes. It was confirmed that thinner membranes have higher fluxes and a lower distillate purity and also higher energy losses via conduction across the membrane. As both mass and heat transfer are connected, it is best to develop new membranes with a target application in mind, for the specific membrane module and operational conditions.

  9. [Comparative study on four membrane modules in membrane filtration process of Huanglian Jiedu decoction]. (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Li, Bo; Guo, Li-Wei; Xiao, Wei


    To compare the membrane filtration process of four membrane modules namely, FMX rotating disk flat membrane module, hollow fiber membrane module, tubular membrane module and filter cup membrane module, with traditional Chinese medicine compound Huanglian Jiedu decoction as the experimental subject. Under the same experimental operating conditions, the four membrane modules in membrane filtration process of Huanglian Jiedu decoction were compared in terms flux, resistance distribution, transmittance of index components and membrane fouling. Three membrane modules in the dynamic filtration form--FMX rotating disk flat membrane module, hollow fiber membrane module and tubular membrane module had more advantages than filter cup membrane module in the static dead-end filtration form in terms of permeate flux, transmittance of index components and membrane fouling. However, FMX membrane module that made the fluid in a strong vortex status had better performance than hollow fiber membrane and tubular membrane module in permeate flux and membrane fouling.

  10. Phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift. (United States)

    Liu, Fengwei; Wu, Yongqian; Wu, Fan


    We propose a novel phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift. The determination of tilt phase-shift is performed by extracting the tilted phase-shift plane from the phase difference of two normalized interferograms, and with the calculated tilt phase-shift value the phase distribution can be retrieved from the two normalized frames. By analyzing the distribution of phase difference and utilizing special points fitting method, the tilted phase-shift plane is extracted in three different cases, which relate to different magnitudes of tilts. Proposed method has been applied to simulations and experiments successfully and the satisfactory results manifest that proposed method is of high accuracy and high speed compared with the three step iterative method. Additionally, both open and closed fringe can be analyzed with proposed method. What's more, it cannot only eliminate the small tilt-shift error caused by slight vibration in phase-shifting interferometry, but also detect the large tilt phase-shift in phase-tilting interferometry. Thus, it will relaxes the requirements on the accuracy of phase shifter, and the costly phase shifter may even be useless by applying proposed method in high amplitude vibrated circumstance to achieve high-precision analysis.

  11. Blue and red shifted temperature dependence of implicit phonon shifts in graphene (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Jindal, V. K.


    We have calculated the implicit shift for various modes of frequency in a pure graphene sheet. Thermal expansion and Grüneisen parameter which are required for implicit shift calculation have already been studied and reported. For this calculation, phonon frequencies are obtained using force constants derived from dynamical matrix calculated using VASP code where the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is used in interface with phonopy software. The implicit phonon shift shows an unusual behavior as compared to the bulk materials. The frequency shift is large negative (red shift) for ZA and ZO modes and the value of negative shift increases with increase in temperature. On the other hand, blue shift arises for all other longitudinal and transverse modes with a similar trend of increase with increase in temperature. The q dependence of phonon shifts has also been studied. Such simultaneous red and blue shifts in transverse or out plane modes and surface modes, respectively leads to speculation of surface softening in out of plane direction in preference to surface melting.

  12. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study. (United States)

    Bonnell, Emily K; Huggins, Catherine E; Huggins, Chris T; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Palermo, Claire; Bonham, Maxine P


    Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41) were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day) did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day) of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  13. Influences on Dietary Choices during Day versus Night Shift in Shift Workers: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Bonnell


    Full Text Available Shift work is associated with diet-related chronic conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to explore factors influencing food choice and dietary intake in shift workers. A fixed mixed method study design was undertaken on a convenience sample of firefighters who continually work a rotating roster. Six focus groups (n = 41 were conducted to establish factors affecting dietary intake whilst at work. Dietary intake was assessed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls (n = 19. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and interpreted using thematic analysis. Dietary data were entered into FoodWorks and analysed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thematic analysis highlighted four key themes influencing dietary intake: shift schedule; attitudes and decisions of co-workers; time and accessibility; and knowledge of the relationship between food and health. Participants reported consuming more discretionary foods and limited availability of healthy food choices on night shift. Energy intakes (kJ/day did not differ between days that included a day or night shift but greater energy density (EDenergy, kJ/g/day of the diet was observed on night shift compared with day shift. This study has identified a number of dietary-specific shift-related factors that may contribute to an increase in unhealthy behaviours in a shift-working population. Given the increased risk of developing chronic diseases, organisational change to support workers in this environment is warranted.

  14. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert. (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün


    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  15. Modelling a Nurse Shift Schedule with Multiple Preference Ranks for Shifts and Days-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available When it comes to nurse shift schedules, it is found that the nursing staff have diverse preferences about shift rotations and days-off. The previous studies only focused on the most preferred work shift and the number of satisfactory days-off of the schedule at the current schedule period but had few discussions on the previous schedule periods and other preference levels for shifts and days-off, which may affect fairness of shift schedules. As a result, this paper proposes a nurse scheduling model based upon integer programming that takes into account constraints of the schedule, different preference ranks towards each shift, and the historical data of previous schedule periods to maximize the satisfaction of all the nursing staff's preferences about the shift schedule. The main contribution of the proposed model is that we consider that the nursing staff’s satisfaction level is affected by multiple preference ranks and their priority ordering to be scheduled, so that the quality of the generated shift schedule is more reasonable. Numerical results show that the planned shifts and days-off are fair and successfully meet the preferences of all the nursing staff.

  16. [Shift and night work and mental health]. (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Capozzella, Assunta; Corbosiero, Paola; Fiaschetti, Maria; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Scimitto, Lara; Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Tasciotti, Zaira; Schifano, Maria Pia; Andreozzit, Giorgia; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco


    Aim of our study was to evaluate the influence that shift work and night work could have on mental health. A review of literary articles from 1990 to 2011 on shift work and night work was carried out. The results of this review confirmed that the shift work and night work affect mental health with the onset of neuropsychological disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety, nervousness, depressive anxiety syndromes, chronic fatigue and chronic insomnia irritability, sleep disturbances, reduction in levels of attention, cognitive impairments, alteration of circadian rhythm. Night work and shift work cause severe desynchronization of the cronobiological rhythms and a disruption of social life with negative effects on performance at work, on health and on social relationships. In the light of these results and recognizing shift work and night work as risk factors for the health of workers is necessary to implement preventive and periodic health checks by the occupational doctor to ensure the health and safety of workers taking account of the different environmental and individual factors.

  17. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  18. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers? (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas


    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  19. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK


    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  20. How automatic is manual gear shifting? (United States)

    Shinar, D; Meir, M; Ben-Shoham, I


    Manual gear shifting is often used as an example of an automated (vs. controlled) process in driving. The present study provided an empirical evaluation of this assumption by evaluating sign detection and recall performance of novice and experienced drivers driving manual shift and automatic transmission cars in a downtown area requiring frequent gear shifting. The results showed that manual gear shifting significantly impaired sign detection performance of novice drivers using manual gears compared with novice drivers using an automatic transmission, whereas no such differences existed between the two transmission types for experienced drivers. The results clearly demonstrate that manual gear shifting is a complex psychomotor skill that is not easily (or quickly) automated and that until it becomes automated, it is an attention-demanding task that may impair other monitoring aspects of driving performance. Actual or potential applications of this research include a reevaluation of the learning process in driving and the need for phased instruction in driving from automatic gears to manual gears.

  1. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes (United States)

    Ho, W. S. Winston


    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  2. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul


    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  4. The affective shift model of work engagement. (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana


    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Protein Structure Determination Using Chemical Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Steen

    In this thesis, a protein structure determination using chemical shifts is presented. The method is implemented in the open source PHAISTOS protein simulation framework. The method combines sampling from a generative model with a coarse-grained force field and an energy function that includes...... chemical shifts. The method is benchmarked on folding simulations of five small proteins. In four cases the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with experimental data, the fifth case fail likely due to inaccuracies in the energy function. For the Chymotrypsin Inhibitor protein, a structure...... is determined using only chemical shifts recorded and assigned through automated processes. The CARMSD to the experimental X-ray for this structure is 1.1. Å. Additionally, the method is combined with very sparse NOE-restraints and evolutionary distance restraints and tested on several protein structures >100...

  6. Special offer for early shift takers!

    CERN Multimedia


    Peter Jenni, spokesperson of the ATLAS collaboration, just made the following announcement. "Despite the few problems that we are encountering, which of course are unavoidable in such a large project, I am very pleased with the way the ATLAS experiment is taking shape. With the imminence of data taking, I would like to make a special gesture as a thank you to all of you who are working so hard for ATLAS to meet its many deadlines. The first 100 ATLAS members who will sign up for shifts will receive twice the standard OTSMOU credit." You can sign up for shifts as of April 1st by sending an e-mail to

  7. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene


    workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership......PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  8. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects...... and original observations, this book is an important addition to the fields of phonology, optimality theory and theoretical syntax......., and analyses the variation, for example whether object shift is optional or obligatory, whether it applies only to pronouns or other objects as well, and whether it applies to adverbials. The authors show that optimality theory, traditionally used in phonology, is a useful framework for accounting...

  9. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Increases the Availability of Cholesterol in Phospholipid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Baker, Nathan A.


    Side-chain oxysterols are enzymatically generated oxidation products of cholesterol that serve a central role in mediating cholesterol homeostasis. Recent work has shown that side-chain oxysterols, such as 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), alter membrane structure in very different ways from cholesterol, suggesting a possible mechanism for how these oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis. Here we extend our previous work, using molecular dynamics simulations of 25-HC and cholesterol mixtures in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers to examine interactions between 25-HC and cholesterol in the same bilayer. When added to cholesterol-containing membranes, 25-HC causes larger changes in membrane structure than when added to cholesterol-free membranes, demonstrating interactions between the two sterols. We also find that the presence of 25-HC changes the position, orientation, and solvent accessibility of cholesterol, shifting it into the water interface and therefore its availability to external acceptors. This is consistent with experimental results showing that oxysterols can trigger cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. These interactions provide a potential mechanism for 25-HC-mediated regulation of cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis through direct modulation of cholesterol availability.

  10. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee


    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  11. Elasticities and stabilities: lipid membranes vs cell membranes


    Tu, Z. C.; An, R.; Ou-Yang, Z. C.


    A cell membrane can be simply regarded as composite material consisting of lipid bilayer, membrane cytoskeleton beneath lipid bilayer, and proteins embedded in lipid bilayer and linked with membrane cytoskeleton if one only concerns its mechanical properties. In this Chapter, above all, the authors give a brief introduction to some important work on mechanical properties of lipid bilayers following Helfrich's seminal work on spontaneous curvature energy of lipid bilayers. Next, the entropy of...

  12. Thermochemische Beständigkeit von keramischen Membranen und Katalysatoren für die H$_{2}$-Abtrennung in CO-Shift-Reaktoren


    Forster, Emanuel


    Die Wassergas-Shift-Reaktion ist ein Prozess zur Wasserstoffgewinnung, der unter anderemin IGCC-Kraftwerken Anwendung finden kann. Auf der Suche nach effizienteren Wegen,nach dem Shift die Produktgase zu trennen, erweisen sich wasserstoffpermeable Membranenals vielversprechende Plattform. In Verbindung mit dem IEK-1 wurden verschiedeneMembran- und Katalysatorsysteme auf ihre thermochemische Stabilität unterkraftwerksnahen Bedingungen getestet.Im ersten Teil werden verschiedene Bariumzirkonate...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias, Ph.d., P.E.; Franklin G. King, D.Sc.


    With the advances in new inorganic materials and processing techniques, there has been renewed interest in exploiting the benefits of membranes in many industrial applications. Inorganic and composite membranes are being considered as potential candidates for use in membrane-reactor configuration for effectively increasing reaction rate, selectivity and yield of equilibrium limited reactions. To investigate the usefulness of a palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a membrane reactor-separator configuration, we investigated the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by equilibrium shift in a tubular membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was considered to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to permeation through the membrane. For a dehydrogenation reaction, the feed stream to the reaction side contained cyclohexane and argon, while the separation side used argon as the sweep gas. Equilibrium conversion for dehydrogenation of cyclohexane is 18.7%. The present study showed that 100% conversion could be achieved by equilibrium shift using Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. For a feed containing cyclohexane and argon of 1.64 x 10{sup -6} and 1.0 x 10{sup -3} mol/s, over 98% conversion could be readily achieved. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexane was also experimentally investigated in a palladium-ceramic membrane reactor. The Pd-ceramic membrane was fabricated by electroless deposition of palladium on ceramic substrate. The performance of Pd-ceramic membrane was compared with a commercially available hydrogen-selective ceramic membrane. From limited experimental data it was observed that by appropriate choice of feed flow rate and sweep gas rate, the conversion of cyclohexane to benzene and hydrogen can increased to 56% at atmospheric pressure and 200 C in a Pd-ceramic membrane reactor. In the commercial ceramic membrane

  14. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  15. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali


    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  16. Phase-shift binary digital holography. (United States)

    Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tahara, Tatsuki


    We propose phase-shift digital holography (DH) with a one-bit image sensor. In this method, the propagating complex field from an object is binarized by a one-bit sensor using a phase-shifter. The complex field on the hologram plane is then calculated with the one-bit image data. The object field is recovered via Fresnel back-propagation of the calculated hologram and filtering to suppress some artifacts caused by the binarization. The concept was demonstrated in preliminary experiments by using a synthetically binarized hologram with single-shot and multi-shot phase-shift DH.

  17. Sleep, immunity and shift workers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida


    Full Text Available To date, shift workers represent between 15% and 25% of the modern day workforce. Work time poses a great challenge to workers as it requires that they balance productivity and sleep time between shifts. As a result, these workers experience chronic sleep deprivation with increased fatigue and drowsiness due to this sleep deprivation. The impact of this kind of work on the immune system is not yet known. We conducted a literature review with the aim of evaluating articles on this specific type of work's effects on sleep and immunity.

  18. Phase-shifting structures for isolated features (United States)

    Garofalo, Joseph G.; Kostelak, Robert L.; Yang, Tungsheng


    The technique for improving optical projection-system resolution by phase-shifting alternate apertures of a periodic grating was introduced in 1982. This halves the frequency content of the image passing through the optics and should therefore double the effective resolution of such patterns. Unfortunately, as feature separation increases, the efficacy of this method diminishes. Previous work applying a similar approach to isolated features involves introducing minute, non-printable, phase-shifted assist slots around the desired feature. The diffraction side-lobes of these slots constructively interfere with the center lobe of the primary aperture. The resolution enhancement afforded be this technique is limited by the printability of the assist slots. This restraint also dictates 1X-size reticle feature dimensions and the employment of high contrast imaging resists. A new approach entails significantly oversizing the desired feature and introducing a phase-shifting region around the periphery. This type of structure affords substantial focus-exposure improvements and may either be fabricated in a single-level, self-aligned scheme or by a two-level exposure with conventional e-beam tools since the phase-shifting regions are on the order of 1 micrometers (reticle dimensions). Extensive modeling of this structure for isolated contact holes and spaces explores the myriad of trade- offs involved in an optimum design. Mask-fabrication tolerances, such as phase-shift uniformity, are also investigated. It is shown that the focus-exposure window enlarges as the overall structure dimensions increase. The degree of enhancement must therefore by weighed against packing density restrictions. Also, the structure suffers, to some degree, from the effect of side-lobes. However, for a given side-lobe intensity, this technique yields enhancements superior to the assist-slot approach. As is typical of phase-shifted systems, performance is improved as the partial coherence ((sigma

  19. Phase shifting profilometry with optical vortices (United States)

    Sokolenko, B.; Poletaev, D.; Halilov, S.


    In this work we review principles and applications of a method of phase shifting profilometry with using of optical vortices imbedded into the probe beam. High spatial resolution caused by vortex phase sensitivity is analysable to retrieve the 2D and 3D shape of optically transparent and reflecting surfaces with exceeding of optical diffraction limit. This method applicable for non-destructive testing of thin films, live cells and biological tissues in real-time regime. Automatic processing of vortex interferograms with vortex phase shift analysis allow to achieve a vertical resolution down to 1,75 nm.

  20. Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher Loren; Raman, Lakshmi; Dalton, Heidi J


    Extracorporeal life support is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass. Experience in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has come largely from the neonatal population. Most centers have transitioned the ECMO pumps from roller pumps to centrifugal technology. Modes of support include venovenous for respiratory support and venoarterial for cardiac support. "Awake" ECMO is the trend with extubation and tracheostomy on the rise. Fluid overload is common and managed with diuretics or hemofiltration. Nutrition is important and provided enterally or via total parenteral nutrition. Overall survival for pediatric cardiac and respiratory ECMO has remained at approximately 50% to 60%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  2. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Membranes (United States)

    Trotta, Francesco; Biasizzo, Miriam; Caldera, Fabrizio


    Although the roots of molecularly imprinted polymers lie in the beginning of 1930s in the past century, they have had an exponential growth only 40–50 years later by the works of Wulff and especially by Mosbach. More recently, it was also proved that molecular imprinted membranes (i.e., polymer thin films) that show recognition properties at molecular level of the template molecule are used in their formation. Different procedures and potential application in separation processes and catalysis are reported. The influences of different parameters on the discrimination abilities are also discussed. PMID:24958291

  5. Integrated oxidation membrane filtration process - NOM rejection and membrane fouling. (United States)

    Winter, J; Uhl, W; Bérubé, P R


    The extent and mechanisms by which organic matter in a solution can be retained and foul a membrane largely depends on the molecular weight of the material being filtered and the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane. The present study investigated the effect of the MWCO of a membrane and the molecular weight distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) in a source water on the increase in resistance to the permeate flux over time. Of particular interest was the effect of oxidation, applied prior to membrane filtration, on the predominant fouling mechanism. Oxidation can change the molecular weight distribution of organic matter in raw water, and therefore the ability of a membrane to retain this organic matter. Oxidation, using both ozonation and UV/H 2 O 2 , could effectively reduce the extent of fouling for higher MWCO membranes. However, neither oxidation approaches could effectively reduce the extent of fouling for lower MWCO membranes, likely because oxidation could not effectively oxidize lower molecular weight organic matter. Althoug the data indicated that the extent of fouling is increasing with the amount of DOC retained by the membrane, no statistically significant correlation was observed between these parameters. The results suggest that oxidation did not affect the predominant fouling mechanism. However, it did affect the molecular weight distribution of the organic matter retained by the membranes, and as a result, the resistance offered by the foulant cake layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the triplet periodicity phase shifts in genes. (United States)

    Korotkov, Eugene V; Korotkova, Maria A


    The definition of a phase shift of triplet periodicity (TP) is introduced. The mathematical algorithm for detection of TP phase shift of nucleotide sequences has been developed. Gene sequences from Kegg-46 data bank were analyzed with a purpose of searching genes with a phase shift of TP. The presence of a phase shift of triplet periodicity has been shown for 318329 genes (approximately 10% from the number of genes in Kegg-46). We suppose that shifts of the TP phase may indicate the shifts of reading frame (RF) in genes. A relationship between the phase shifts of TP and the frame shifts in genes is discussed.

  7. Thiophene-based dyes for probing membranes. (United States)

    López-Duarte, Ismael; Chairatana, Phoom; Wu, Yilei; Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Bennett, Philip M; Reeve, James E; Boczarow, Igor; Kaluza, Wojciech; Hosny, Neveen A; Stranks, Samuel D; Nicholas, Robin J; Clays, Koen; Kuimova, Marina K; Anderson, Harry L


    We report the synthesis of four new cationic dipolar push–pull dyes, together with an evaluation of their photophysical and photobiological characteristics pertinent to imaging membranes by fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG). All four dyes consist of an N,N-diethylaniline electron-donor conjugated to a pyridinium electron-acceptor via a thiophene bridge, with either vinylene (–CH=CH–) or ethynylene (–C≡C–) linking groups, and with either singly-charged or doubly-charged pyridinium terminals. The absorption and fluorescence behavior of these dyes were compared to a commercially available fluorescent membrane stain, the styryl dye FM4-64. The hyperpolarizabilities of all dyes were compared using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 nm. Cellular uptake, localization, toxicity and phototoxicity were evaluated using tissue cell cultures (HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MDA-231). Replacing the central alkene bridge of FM4-64 with a thiophene does not substantially change the absorption, fluorescence or hyperpolarizability, whereas changing the vinylene-links to ethynylenes shifts the absorption and fluorescence to shorter wavelengths, and reduces the hyperpolarizability by about a factor of two. SHG and fluorescence imaging experiments in live cells showed that the doubly-charged thiophene dyes localize in plasma membranes, and exhibit lower internalization rates compared to FM4-64, resulting in less signal from the cell cytosol. At a typical imaging concentration of 1 μM, the doubly-charged dyes showed no significant light or dark toxicity, whereas the singly-charged dyes are phototoxic even at 0.5 μM. The doubly-charged dyes showed phototoxicity at concentrations greater than 10 μM, although they do not generate singlet oxygen, indicating that the phototoxicity is type I rather than type II. The doubly-charged thiophene dyes are more effective than FM4-64 as SHG dyes for live cells.

  8. Shift Work Disorder and Mental and Physical Effects of Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir


    Full Text Available With the growing prevalence of shift work all over the the world, the relationship between the daily lives of irregular lifestyles and rhythms is being investigated for those working as shift workers and their families. The effect of shift work on physical and mental health is a very important field of research in recent years. The onset and persistence of medical complications in shift workers includes impaired synchronization between work schedule rhythms and circadian clock. In this context, studies have been carried out showing the increased risk of sleep-wake disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little information about the actual frequency, effect on health and treatment of shift work disorder, known as circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Shift work disorder includes insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness related with the work schedule. The aim of this rewiev, mentioning about the physical and mental effects of shift work, and to provide information about the diagnosis, clinic and treatment methods of shift-work disorder.

  9. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift. (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim


    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inefficient quality control of thermosensitive proteins on the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins are generally recognised by cellular quality control machinery, which typically results in their ubiquitination and degradation. For soluble cytoplasmic proteins, degradation is mediated by the proteasome. Membrane proteins that fail to fold correctly are subject to ER associated degradation (ERAD, which involves their extraction from the membrane and subsequent proteasome-dependent destruction. Proteins with abnormal transmembrane domains can also be recognised in the Golgi or endosomal system and targeted for destruction in the vacuole/lysosome. It is much less clear what happens to membrane proteins that reach their destination, such as the cell surface, and then suffer damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested the ability of yeast cells to degrade membrane proteins to which temperature-sensitive cytoplasmic alleles of the Ura3 protein or of phage lambda repressor have been fused. In soluble form, these proteins are rapidly degraded upon temperature shift, in part due to the action of the Doa10 and San1 ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome. When tethered to the ER protein Use1, they are also degraded. However, when tethered to a plasma membrane protein such as Sso1 they escape degradation, either in the vacuole or by the proteasome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Membrane proteins with a misfolded cytoplasmic domain appear not to be efficiently recognised and degraded once they have escaped the ER, even though their defective domains are exposed to the cytoplasm and potentially to cytoplasmic quality controls. Membrane tethering may provide a way to reduce degradation of unstable proteins.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of quality factor and wavelength shift by phase shift microcavity ring down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheema, M Imran; Hayat, Ahmad A; Peter, Yves-Alain; Armani, Andrea M; Kirk, Andrew G


    Optical resonant microcavities with ultra high quality factors are widely used for biosensing. Until now, the primary method of detection has been based upon tracking the resonant wavelength shift as a function of biological events. One of the sources of noise in all resonant-wavelength shift measurements is the noise due to intensity fluctuations of the laser source. An alternative approach is to track the change in the quality factor of the optical cavity by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy, a technique which is insensitive to the intensity fluctuations of the laser source. Here, using biotinylated microtoroid resonant cavities, we show simultaneous measurement of the quality factor and the wavelength shift by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy. These measurements were performed for disassociation phase of biotin-streptavidin reaction. We found that the disassociation curves are in good agreement with the previously published results. Hence, we demonstrate not only the applicatio...

  12. Gas separations using inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, B.Z.; Singh, S.P.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)


    This report summarizes the results from a research and development program to develop, fabricate, and evaluate inorganic membranes for separating gases at high temperatures and pressures in hostile process environments encountered in fossil energy conversion processes such as coal gasification. The primary emphasis of the research was on the separation and recovery of hydrogen from synthesis gas. Major aspects of the program included assessment of the worldwide research and development activity related to gas separations using inorganic membranes, identification and selection of candidate membrane materials, fabrication and characterization of membranes using porous membrane technology developed at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and evaluation of the separations capability of the fabricated membranes in terms of permeabilities and fluxes of gases.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  14. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate...... mathematical models, each with a different approach to membrane separation. The first model is a statistical model investigating the interplay between solute shape and the probability of entering the membrane. More specific the transition of solute particles from being spherical to becoming more elongated...... as prolate ellipsoids with the same volume. The porous membrane is assumed isotropic such that the model reduces to a two dimensional model. With this assumption ellipsoids with the same volume reduces to ellipses with the same area. The model finds the probability of entering the pore of the membrane...

  15. Engineering membranes for bone regeneration. (United States)

    Caridade, Sofia Glória Ferreira; Mano, João Filipe Colardelle da Luz


    This review is focused on the use of membranes for the specific application of bone regeneration. The first section focuses on the relevance of membranes in this context and what are the specifications that they should possess in order to improve the regeneration of bone. Afterwards, several techniques to engineer bone membranes by using "bulk"-like methods are discussed where different parameters to induce bone formation are disclosed in a way to have desirable structural and functional properties. Subsequently, the production of nanostructured membranes using a bottom-up approach are discussed by highlighting the main advances in the field of bone regeneration. Primordial importance is given to the promotion of osteoconductive and osteoinductive capability during the membrane design. Whenever possible the films prepared using different techniques are compared in terms of handability, bone guiding ability, osteoinductivity, adequate mechanical properties or biodegradability. A last chapter contemplates membranes only composed by cells, disclosing their potential to regenerate bone.

  16. Membrane fouling and wetting in membrane distillation and their mitigation by novel membranes with special wettability. (United States)

    Wang, Zhangxin; Lin, Shihong


    Membrane distillation (MD) has been identified as a promising technology to desalinate the hypersaline wastewaters from fracking and other industries. However, conventional hydrophobic MD membranes are highly susceptible to fouling and/or wetting by the hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic constituents in these wastewaters of complex compositions. This study systematically investigates the impact of the surface wetting properties on the membrane wetting and/or fouling behaviors in MD. Specifically, we compare the wetting and fouling resistance of three types of membranes of different wetting properties, including hydrophobic and omniphobic membranes as well as composite membranes with a hydrophobic substrate and a superhydrophilic top surface. We challenged the MD membranes with hypersaline feed solutions that contained a relatively high concentration of crude oil with and without added synthetic surfactants, Triton X-100. We found that the composite membranes with superhydrophilic top surface were robustly resistant to oil fouling in the absence of Triton X-100, but were subject to pore wetting in the presence of Triton X-100. On the other hand, the omniphobic membranes were easily fouled by oil-in-water emulsion without Triton X-100, but successfully sustained stable MD performance with Triton X-100 stabilized oil-in-water emulsion as the feed solution. In contrast, the conventional hydrophobic membranes failed readily regardless whether Triton X-100 was present, although via different mechanisms. These findings are corroborated by contact angle measures as well as oil-probe force spectroscopy. This study provides a holistic picture regarding how a hydrophobic membrane fails in MD and how we can leverage membranes with special wettability to prevent membrane failure in MD operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of sleep disturbances in shift workers and people working with a fixed shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi


    Full Text Available Background: Different types of sleep disturbances can have a serious negative effect on a person’s ability, function and overall well-being. One of the most important issues that can result in sleep disturbances are occupational causes, the most important among them is shift work. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep disturbances between shift work and non-shift workers. Material and Methods: This study was designed as a case-control study in 196 shift workers and 204 non-shift workers in a textile factory. The data were collected by using a comprehensive questionnaire including Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Restless Leg Syndrome Questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using the SPSS software version 13 by student's t-test, Chi square and multiple logistic regressions. Results: The duration of night sleep in shift workers was less than day workers (p<0.001. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia were higher in shift workers significantly than non shift workers (p<0.001, OR=2.3 95% CI: 1.7-2.9. The most prevalent type of insomnia was problems in initiating sleep (P=0.022, OR=2.2 95% CI: 1.5-3.2. There was no difference in the prevalence of excessive day-time sleepiness, restless leg syndrome, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea and different types of parasomnias between two groups. Conclusion: Reduced length of sleep and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia in shift workers emphasizes the importance of serious attention to sleep disorders in shift workers.

  18. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization


    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro


    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid...

  19. Shifted Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai


    where a shift in onset of frequency profile can be induced by the Doppler effect. However, the model is also relevant for biomedical data analysis where the sources are given by compound intensities over time and the onset of the profiles have different delays to the sensors. A simple algorithm based...

  20. Discrete ambiguities in phase-shift analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, A.C.; Kok, L.P.; Roo, M. de


    In two practical examples (α-3He and α-α scattering) we investigate to what extent the elastic amplitude above the first inelastic threshold, determined from phase-shift analysis, is subject to ambiguity. We find that it is extremely difficult to determine the correct physical amplitude uniquely.

  1. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock. (United States)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M


    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Survey Detects Shifting Priorities of School Boards (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.


    The author reports the results of a nationwide survey of school board members which show a shift in focus toward student achievement and away from district-management issues known as the "killer B's": buses, buildings, books, budgets, and bonds. But today's school board members appear not to be as interested in issues that many policy observers…

  3. The shifting perspectives model of chronic illness. (United States)

    Paterson, B L


    To present the Shifting Perspectives Model of Chronic Illness, which was derived from a metasynthesis of 292 qualitative research studies. The model was derived from a metasynthesis of qualitative research about the reported experiences of adults with a chronic illness. The 292 primary research studies included a variety of interpretive research methods and were conducted by researchers from numerous countries and disciplines. Metastudy, a metasynthesis method developed by the author in collaboration with six other researchers consisted of three analytic components (meta-data-analysis, metamethod, and metatheory), followed by a synthesis component in which new knowledge about the phenomenon was generated from the findings. Many of the assumptions that underlie previous models, such as a single, linear trajectory of living with a chronic disease, were challenged. The Shifting Perspectives Model indicated that living with chronic illness was an ongoing and continually shifting process in which an illness-in-the-foreground or wellness-in-the-foreground perspective has specific functions in the person's world. The Shifting Perspectives Model helps users provide an explanation of chronically ill persons' variations in their attention to symptoms over time, sometimes in ways that seem ill-advised or even harmful to their health. The model also indicates direction to health professionals about supporting people with chronic illness.

  4. Adding a complex shift to HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Observatoire de Besancon-Institut UTINAM, CNRS UMR 6213, Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire BP1615, 25010 Besancon cedex (France) and Centre for Mathematics, Loten Building, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)


    A complex coordinate shift is incorporated in renormalized hypervirial perturbation theory. Test calculations on harmonic oscillators with cubic perturbations show that the resulting method produces accurate numerical results for the real energies of PT symmetric Hamiltonians with complex potentials and for the complex resonance energies of Hamiltonians with real potentials.

  5. NEG-shift, Licensing, and Repair Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj


    I entertain the idea that the cross-linguistic variation in the licensing of NEG-shift, the movement of negative objects to spec-NegP, can be accounted for by a few representational constraints that are not directly related to case licensing or feature checking, and which potentially conflict wit...

  6. The Phase Shift in the Jumping Ring (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang


    The popular physics demonstration experiment known as Thomson's Jumping Ring (JR) has been variously explained as a simple example of Lenz's law, or as the result of a phase shift of the ring current relative to the induced emf. The failure of the first-quadrant Lenz's law explanation is shown by the time the ring takes to jump and by levitation.…

  7. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa


    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  8. Hippocampal frequency shifts in different behavioural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.


    Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being

  9. Ultrafast carotenoid band shifts: Experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herek, J.L.; Wendling, M.; He, Z.; Polivka, T.; Garcia-Asua, G.; Cogdell, R.J.; Hunter, C.N.; van Grondelle, R.; Sundstrom, V.; Pullerits, T.


    The ultrafast carotenoid band shift upon excitation of nearby bacteriochlorophyll molecules was studied in three different light harvesting complexes from purple bacteria. The results were analyzed in terms of changes in local electric field of the carotenoids. Time dependent density functional

  10. Has the Education Paradigm Begun to Shift? (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton B.


    The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…

  11. Work Shifts and Disability: A National View. (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara


    More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…

  12. Research by Design: A paradigm shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan


    In this paper we will argue that architectural research is becoming more and more important, not only in academia but also in architectural practice. Moreover, a shift is taking place from using and absorbing research methods from other disciplines towards building on the own specific strength of...

  13. Paradigm Shift In Career Counselling: Implications For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, many of the respondents were aware of the need for a new approach to career counselling. The implication of this finding to entrepreneurship development is the need to adopt a paradigm shift in career counselling. Retraining of practicing counsellors and new training guides for student counsellors as well as the ...

  14. Hispanics Find Jobs that Shift Migration (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn


    Economic opportunity, the force that has driven population shifts for years, is changing the face of migration as Hispanics move into parts of the nation beyond border states and traditional ports of entry. North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Indiana are experiencing a steady growth in Hispanic population. In addition, West Virginia, Ohio, and…

  15. Nativity, Intermarriage, and Mother-Tongue Shift. (United States)

    Stevens, Gillian


    Discusses intergenerational language shift as a function of intra- and intergroup relations, focusing on patterns of linguistic and ethnic intermarriage. Analyzes 1976 Survey of Income and Education data and concludes that, in the United States, non-English languages disappear between generations as social interaction widens to include…

  16. Composite membrane with integral rim (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G


    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang


    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  18. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail:


    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  19. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.


    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly...... affected by the lipid environment. Theoretical predictions are pointed out, and compared to experimental findings, if available. Among others, the following phenomena are discussed: interactions of interfacially adsorbed peptides, pore-forming amphipathic peptides, adsorption of charged proteins onto...... oppositely charged lipid membranes, lipid-induced tilting of proteins embedded in lipid bilayers, protein-induced bilayer deformations, protein insertion and assembly, and lipid-controlled functioning of membrane proteins....

  20. Characterization of Polymeric Nanofiltration Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncic, B.


    Full Text Available As membrane processes are increasingly used in industrial applications, there is a growing interest in methods of membrane characterization. Traditional membrane characteristics, such as cut-off value and pore size distribution, are being supplemented by membrane surface characteristics, such as charge density or zeta potential and hydrophobicity. This study, therefore, characterizes the three different polymeric membranes used (NFT-50, DL and DK. The molecular mass cut-off (MMCO value was determined using a set of reference solutes within the molecular range 150-600 Da, whereas streaming potential measurements enabled quantification of the surface charge characteristics. Hydrophobicity was studied using contact angle measurements. The results indicated that even though all three membranes had very similar layer compositions which consisted of poly(piperazneamide, as top layers they showed different values of measured quantitive. The NFT-50 membrane had the lowest MMCO value and the most hydrophilic membrane surface, followed by DK and DL. Membrane fouling as measured by flux reduction was determined by streaming potential measurements and accompanied by a positive change in zeta potential.

  1. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift (United States)

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise


    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback. PMID:23717346

  2. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift. (United States)

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise


    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback.

  3. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F


    Full Text Available -section. The lens systems incorporate a piezo actuator which is operated in a regime of ±40 V. The shaped membrane lenses show lower wave front errors than the planar ones, down to 24 nm. However, the system with a planar membrane achieves a larger refractive power...

  4. Membrane emulsification with vibrating membranes: A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, J.D.H.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Boom, R.M.


    Membrane emulsification of oil in water may be enhanced by mechanically exciting the membrane, thereby enabling the formation of smaller droplets of a narrower size distribution, combined with higher specific production rate. To evaluate this potential, a force balance model was developed that

  5. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta


    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  6. Can short-wavelength depleted bright light during single simulated night shifts prevent circadian phase shifts? (United States)

    Regente, J; de Zeeuw, J; Bes, F; Nowozin, C; Appelhoff, S; Wahnschaffe, A; Münch, M; Kunz, D


    In single night shifts, extending habitual wake episodes leads to sleep deprivation induced decrements of performance during the shift and re-adaptation effects the next day. We investigated whether short-wavelength depleted (=filtered) bright light (FBL) during a simulated night shift would counteract such effects. Twenty-four participants underwent a simulated night shift in dim light (DL) and in FBL. Reaction times, subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin concentrations were assessed during both nights. Daytime sleep was recorded after both simulated night shifts. During FBL, we found no melatonin suppression compared to DL, but slightly faster reaction times in the second half of the night. Daytime sleep was not statistically different between both lighting conditions (n = 24) and there was no significant phase shift after FBL (n = 11). To conclude, our results showed positive effects from FBL during simulated single night shifts which need to be further tested with larger groups, in more applied studies and compared to standard lighting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu


    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  8. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxbaum, Robert


    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  9. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael


    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  10. Robust phase-shift estimation method for statistical generalized phase-shifting digital holography. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Nobukazu; Shiratori, Takaaki; Kajihara, Kazuki


    We propose a robust phase-shift estimation method for statistical generalized phase-shifting digital holography using a slightly off-axis optical configuration. The phase randomness condition in the Fresnel diffraction field of an object can be sufficiently established by the linear phase factor of the oblique incident reference wave. Signed phase-shift values can be estimated with a statistical approach regardless of the statistical properties of the Fresnel diffraction field of the object. We present computer simulations and optical experiments to verify the proposed method.

  11. Matrix membranes and integrability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fairlie, D. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Curtright, T. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  12. Epiretinal membrane surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Correll Christensen, Ulrik; La Cour, Morten


    Purpose: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery...... between the groups. Four cases (17%) in the CAT group had resolved visual complaints and improved BCVA after cataract surgery resulting in no need for PPV within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Surgery for idiopathic ERM in phakic eyes with either phaco-vitrectomy or sequential surgery are equal...... and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (CAT group), (2) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (3) phaco-vitrectomy (COMBI group). Examinations were at baseline, one month after each surgery, and at 3 months and 12 months of follow-up. Primary outcome was the RE (the difference between predicted...

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham


    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs

  14. Alleviation of membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with electrochemical oxidation mediated by in-situ free chlorine generation. (United States)

    Chung, Chong Min; Tobino, Tomohiro; Cho, Kangwoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo


    The control of membrane fouling is still the biggest challenge that membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment faces with. In this report, we evince that an in-situ electrochemical free chlorine generation is effective for membrane fouling mitigation. An electrochemical oxidation (EO) apparatus with perforated Ti/IrO2 anodes and Ti/Pt cathodes was integrated into a conventional MBR with microfiltration module (EO-MBR). The membrane fouling characteristics of EO-MBR fed with synthetic wastewater were monitored for about 2 months in comparison to control MBRs. In the EO-MBR at a direct current density of 0.4 mA/cm(2), the frequency of membrane fouling when the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) reached 30 kPa was effectively reduced by 40% under a physical membrane cleaning regime. The evolution patterns of TMP together with hydraulic resistance analysis based on resistance-in-series model indicated that the electrochemically generated active chlorine alleviated the physically irremovable membrane fouling. Further analysis on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge cake layer (SCL) revealed significant reductions of protein contents in soluble EPS and fluorescence emission intensities from humic acids and other fluorophores in bound EPS, which in-turn would decrease the hydrophobic accumulation of organic foulants on membrane pores. The chlorine dosage from the EO apparatus was estimated to be 4.7 mg Cl2/g MLVSS/day and the overall physicochemical properties (bio-solids concentration, floc diameter, zeta-potential) as well as the microbial activity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (>97%) were not affected significantly. A T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis suggested noticeable shifts in microbial community both in mixed liquor and sludge cake layer. Consequently, our electrochemical chlorination would be an efficient fouling control strategy in membrane

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  16. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Y.


    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from (/sup 3/H) acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37/sup 0/C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane.

  17. Lipid membranes on nanostructured silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, Andrea Lynn; Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ista, Linnea K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); O' Brien, Michael J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bisong, Paul (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Zeineldin, Reema R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Last, Julie A.; Brueck, Stephen R. J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)


    A unique composite nanoscale architecture that combines the self-organization and molecular dynamics of lipid membranes with a corrugated nanotextured silicon wafer was prepared and characterized with fluorescence microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The goal of this project was to understand how such structures can be assembled for supported membrane research and how the interfacial interactions between the solid substrate and the soft, self-assembled material create unique physical and mechanical behavior through the confinement of phases in the membrane. The nanometer scale structure of the silicon wafer was produced through interference lithography followed by anisotropic wet etching. For the present study, a line pattern with 100 nm line widths, 200 nm depth and a pitch of 360 nm pitch was fabricated. Lipid membranes were successfully adsorbed on the structured silicon surface via membrane fusion techniques. The surface topology of the bilayer-Si structure was imaged using in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The membrane was observed to drape over the silicon structure producing an undulated topology with amplitude of 40 nm that matched the 360 nm pitch of the silicon structure. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments found that on the microscale those same structures exhibit anisotropic lipid mobility that was coincident with the silicon substructure. The results showed that while the lipid membrane maintains much of its self-assembled structure in the composite architecture, the silicon substructure indeed influences the dynamics of the molecular motion within the membrane.

  18. Structure Prediction of Membrane Proteins (United States)

    Hu, Xiche

    Membrane proteins play a central role in many cellular and physiological processes. It is estimated that integral membrane proteins make up about 20-30% of the proteome (Krogh et al., 2001b; Stevens and Arkin, 2000; von Heijne, 1999). They are essential mediators of material and information transfer across cell membranes. Their functions include active and passive transport of molecules into and out of cells and organelles; transduction of energy among various forms (light, electrical, and chemical energy); as well as reception and transduction of chemical and electrical signals across membranes (Avdonin, 2005; Bockaert et al., 2002; Pahl, 1999; Rehling et al., 2004; Stack et al., 1995). Identifying these transmembrane (TM) proteins and deciphering their molecular mechanisms, then, is of great importance, particularly as applied to biomedicine. Membrane proteins are the targets of a large number of pharmacologically and toxicologically active substances, and are directly involved in their uptake, metabolism, and clearance (Bettler et al., 1998; Cohen, 2002; Heusser and Jardieu, 1997; Tibes et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2005). Despite the importance of membrane proteins, the knowledge of their high-resolution structures and mechanisms of action has lagged far behind in comparison to that of water-soluble proteins: less than 1% of all three-dimensional structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of membrane proteins. This unfortunate disparity stems from difficulties in overexpression and the crystallization of membrane proteins (Grisshammer and Tate, 1995; Michel, 1991).

  19. Fabrication of green polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli


    Provided herein are methods of fabricating membranes using polymers with functionalized groups such as sulfone (e.g., PSf and PES), ether (e.g., PES), acrylonitrile (e.g., PAN), fluoride(e.g., pvdf and other fluoropolymers), and imide (e.g., extem) and ionic liquids. Also provided are membranes made by the provided methods.

  20. Open Membranes in Matrix Theory


    Li, Miao


    We discuss how to construct open membranes in the recently proposed matrix model of M theory. In order to sustain an open membrane, two boundary terms are needed in the construction. These boundary terms are available in the system of the longitudinal five-branes and D0-branes.