WorldWideScience

Sample records for water-free chloroform extraction

  1. Antidiabetic effect of chloroform - methanol extract of Abrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiabetic effect of chloroform-methanol extract of Abrus precatorious seed, was studied in alloxan diabetic rabbits. The effect was compared to that of chlorpropamide - a known antidiabetic drug in the class of sulphonylurea and a control group that received normal saline instead of the extract. Normal blood glucose ...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF URENA SINUATA (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dibyajyoti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate thrombolytic properties of chloroform extract of Urena sinuata along with phytochemical study for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The concentrated extracts were collected and allow to air dry for complete evaporation of chloroform. Phytochemical analyses were found to be positive for carbohydrates and gum, reducing sugar, alkaloid, steroid, glycoside and flavonoids. The percent clot lytic activity was compared with water (positive control and standard enzyme streptokinase (negative control. The mean percent clot lytic activity of chloroform leaf extract of Urena sinuata was found 47.89%, which is significant compare with the positive and negative control. The present study suggests that chloroform extract of Urena sinuata has significant thrombolytic activity.

  3. Chloroform extract of turmeric inhibits biofilm formation, EPS production and motility in antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum N; McHugh, Timothy D

    2018-01-15

    In the form of biofilms, bacteria exhibit more resistance to antibiotics. Biofilm formers can withstand severe conditions and the host's defense system. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective biofilm inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the effect of a chloroform extract of turmeric on biofilm formation against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence, motility, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and cell surface hydrophobicity; important attributes of biofilm formation. Cell attachment assays indicated that a chloroform extract resulted in a 38.9-60.2% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface, and a 44.5-58.3% inhibition to a glass surface. Static biofilm formation assays indicated that a chloroform extract resulted in a 23-74.5% reduction in biofilm formation. The chloroform extract inhibited flagella-directed swarming and swimming motility and pilus-directed twitching motility in a dose-dependent manner. In addition to repression of motility, a chloroform extract also significantly (p extract, as compared with control cells. The presence of the extract also significantly (p extract. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated the presence of many phytochemical constituents, mainly sesquiterpenes and fatty acid groups. These results clearly suggested that turmeric could affect multiple cellular activities in biofilm formers exhibiting antibiotic resistance by modulating adherence, EPS production, motility and surface hydrophobicity.

  4. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaiedehaghi, M

    2006-06-01

    One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of extract being 5 mg/kg per day. Sixty-five of the sheep responded to treatment and recovered but 35 did not and died. The cure rate was 65%.

  5. a fraction from chloroform extract of Zizyphus spina-christi root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    badzu

    As part of our continued evaluation of Zizyphus spina-christi root bark, we tested fraction (numbered ZS-. 2A) from chloroform extract of the plant for its antiplasmodial activity against rodent plasmodia (Plasmodium berghei berghei) in vivo in mice for possible chemosuppressive effect against the parasite. The root bark of the.

  6. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora Persica L. and it's Chloroform Fraction in Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. ... Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose ...

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- ? ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. The...

  8. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  9. Anti-Giardial Activity of Chloroformic Extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis is a one of the most prevalent intestinal parasitic diseases in human, treatment of this disease through medicinal plants is very important since parasite resistance to chemical drugs exists. Thus, in this study, the in vitro anti-giardial activity of chloroformic extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia were separately investigated.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua and Tanacetum parthenium on cyst and trophozoite of G. lamblia in vitro were prepared in 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg∕ml concentrations for 5, 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. Purified cysts were used for encystations and culture in TYI-S-33 medium. Then, 2 ml of each solution was placed in test tubes, to which 10,000 washed cysts and trophozoites were added. The contents of the tubes were gently mixed and incubated. The percentages of dead parasites were determined by counting 500 cysts. Non treated parasites were considered a control group in each experiment and the viability of the parasites checked with Eeosin staining and statistical analysis were done. Results: The results showed that chloroformic extracts of A. annua at 100 mg/ml concentration affected on Gardia cyst 86% and 100% trophozoite after 1 hour. T. parthenium at 50mg/ml concentration killed cysts (83% and trophozite (100% after 1 hour, respectively. T. parthenium chloroformic extract had a better effect on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia at 50 mg/ml after 1 hour exposure than A. annua extract. Conclusion: According to this study, A. annua and T. parthenium chlorofomic extracts could be considered as a more effective anti-giardial agent. Chloroformic extract of T. parthenium was also shown the anti-giardial activity compared with A. annua and control groups at all exposure times. Therefore, in the future research using these plants are recommended against Giardia in low concentration in the in vivo

  10. Study of the Gold Extraction Using Tetra N-Butyl Ammonium Chloride-Chloroform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Puspito Rini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the AuCl4- ion in the solution as the function of pH before performing the extraction of gold in the system of tetra N-butylammonium chloride (TBACI -chloroform has been studied. The experimental data showed that AuCl4- ion was hydrolyzed at pH 5-10 and, an amorf dark-brown precipitate was appeared at pH 11-14. Amount of gold in the solution at pH 14 before extraction was around 70%. Study of the extraction has been carried out by investigating the influence of pH and TBACI concentration on the extraction efficiency. The experimental result indicated that TBACI was very efficient extractant for the extraction of gold from aqueous halide with the efficiency higher than 99%. The extraction of Gold in the TBACI-chloroform was effective at pH 0-4 with minimum concentration of TBACI 10-3 M, and the calculated Kex (extraction constant was 5.07x10-4.

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumdar, Upal Kanti; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgulav Laxmi Mohan; Karki, Subhas Somalingappa; Sambathkumar, Ramanathan; Manikandan, Laxmanan

    2003-09-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa was evaluated using carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma (chronic) models in rats. In mice, carrageenan peritonitis test was performed for the extract by oral administration. The chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa (CEBL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect at the dose 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Maximum inhibition (52.4%) was noted at the dose of 200 mg/kg after 3 h of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas the indomethacin (standard drug) produced 62.1% of inhibition. The extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in dextran induced paw oedema in a dose dependent manner. The extract also exhibited significant inhibition on the hind paw oedema in rats caused by histamine and serotonin respectively. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CEBL (200 mg/kg) and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 50.1 and 57.3% (p<0.001) respectively. The extract also inhibited peritoneal leukocyte migration in mice. Thus, the present study revealed that the chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the tested models.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyptis albida Chloroform Extract on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Miranda, Elizabeth; Pérez Ramos, Julia; Fresán Orozco, Cristina; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a chloroform extract of Hyptis albida (CHA) on inflammatory responses in mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peritoneal macrophages. Our findings indicate that CHA inhibits LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the process, levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) increased in the mouse peritoneal macrophages; however, the extract suppressed them significantly. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory actions of CHA and support its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  13. Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Manivannan, B; Mishra, P K; Pathak, N; Sriram, S; Bhande, S S; Panneerdoss, S

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the antifertility activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds by oral administration in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds, 50 mg/kg/day, was administered orally for 360 days to adult male langur monkeys. The sperm characteristics by light and electron microscopy, the sperm functional tests, the semen biochemistry, the serum testosterone level, the Leydig cell function, and the histology and ultrastructure of testis were determined to evaluate the antifertility activity and the blood biochemistry and hematology, to evaluate the toxicology. The extract gradually decreased the sperm concentration since days 30-60 of treatment with a total inhibition of sperm motility, a decrease in sperm viability and increase in sperm abnormality. Azoospermia was observed after day 90 of treatment and continued during the whole treatment period. Treatment withdrawal resulted in a gradual recovery in these parameters and 150 days later they reverted to nearly the pretreatment values. Morphological observation of the ejaculated sperm by light and scanning electron microscopy showed deleterious changes, particularly on the mid-piece. Sperm functional tests, viz., sperm mitochondrial activity index, acrosome intactness test and hypo-osmotic swelling test scored in the infertile range during treatment and returned to the fertile values 150 days after drug withdrawal. Histology of the testis revealed shrunken tubules, germ cell atrophy and normal Leydig cells. Ultrastructure of the testis showed vacuolization in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles were evident in the spermatocytes and spermatids. Round spermatids showed loss of Golgi bodies, peripheral mitochondria and vacuolated cytoplasm, indicating maturational arrest. Leydig cell functional test indicated a mild inhibition of steroidogenic function. Haematology and serum biochemistry study disclosed no significant

  14. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B

    1999-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I--control, Group II--administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg/animal/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III--administered the seed extract at 50 mg/animal/d for 150 d. Body weight and organ weight, semen analysis, sperm morphology by scanning electron microscopy, semen biochemistry, histology of the testis, haematology, serum clinical biochemistry, and the fertility status of the control and the treated animals were evaluated. Body weight and the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate did not show appreciable changes. Sperm concentration showed a gradual decline, reached severe oligospermia (fewer than 20 million/mL) after 75 d treatment, and attained uniform azoospermia after 120 d treatment. Sperm motility and viability were severely affected after 45 d treatment and reached less than 1% after 75 d treatment. The morphology of the spermatozoa by scanning electron microscopy revealed membrane damage in the acrosome, bent midpiece, coiled tail, and detached head and tail. The levels of fructose, glycerylphosphorylcholine, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were unaltered. Histology of the testis revealed arrest of spermatogenesis beyond the level of spermatocytes. No toxicity was evident from the haematology and serum biochemistry parameters. The libido of the treated animals was unaffected and the fertility rate was zero. The effects were comparable in both the dose regimens (Groups II and III) and were restored to normal 45 d after withdrawal of the treatment.

  15. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzaiedehaghi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of extract being 5 mg/kg per day. Sixty-five of the sheep responded to treatment and recovered but 35 did not and died. The cure rate was 65 %

  16. Expanded metabolite coverage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract through improved chloroform/methanol extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Tippmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved extraction and derivatization protocol for GC-MS analysis of amino/non-amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were extracted with chloroform: aqueous-methanol (1:1, v/v) and the resulting non-polar and polar extracts combined and dried for derivatization. Polar...... polar metabolites i.e. amino acids, organic acids and non-polar metabolites i.e. fatty alcohols and long-chain fatty acids which are normally non detectable. The recoveries of the extraction method was found at 88 ± 4%, RSD, N = 3 using anthranilic acid as an internal standard. The method promises...... and non-polar metabolites were derivatized using tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) dissolved in acetonitrile. Using microwave treatment of the samples, the derivatization process could be completed within 2 h (from >20 h of the conventional method), providing fully derivatized metabolites that contain...

  17. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  18. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chloroform and Methanol Extracts of Centella asiatica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, Tanmoy; Singha, Tanushree; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of active constituents with wide range of pharmacological actions have been reported with Centella asiatica. The present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its leaf extracts. Dried leaves were defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with chloroform and methanol. Both chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for analgesic activity through tail clip, tail flick, tail immersion, and writhing assay tests at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg using Swiss albino mice. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory assay was performed by carrageenan induced paw edema of methanol extract at 100 and 200 mg doses in Wistar albino rat. Dextropropoxyphene and indomethacin were employed as a standard for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. Our present study demonstrated that Centella asiatica bears significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those models. PMID:24369507

  20. Gastroprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the roots from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana C; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Lepieszynski, Juliana; Mayer, Bárbara; Twardowschy, André; Missau, Fabiana C; dos Santos, Elide P; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria C A

    2008-06-01

    Arctium lappa L. is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and the possible mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective effects of a chloroform extract (CE) of the roots from A. lappa and its fractions. Oral pretreatment with CE (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol by 61%, 70% and 76%, respectively. Oral administration of CE (100 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 days) reduced the chronic gastric ulceration induced by acetic acid by 52%. Intraduodenal CE (100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) reduced the total acidity of gastric secretion by 22%, 22% and 33%, respectively, while i.p. administration (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) inhibited total acidity by 50%, 60% and 67%, respectively. In-vitro, CE inhibited H+, K+ -ATPase activity with an EC50 of 53 microgmL(-1) and fraction A (30 and 100 microgmL(-1)) reduced this by 48% and 89%, respectively. CE had no effect on gastrointestinal motility. CE (250 microgmL(-1)) and fraction B (100 and 250 microgmL(-1)) had free-radical scavenging ability, inhibiting 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by 50%, 20% and 55%, respectively. Collectively, the results show that the CE protects animals from gastric lesions by reducing gastric acid secretion via inhibition of gastric H+, K+ -ATPase.

  1. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  2. Development of an improved method to extract pesticide residues in foods using acetonitrile with magnesium sulfate and chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozhu; Rong, Lei; Guo, Bin; Zhang, Mingshan; Li, Shengjun; Wu, Qing; Chen, Jitao; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2011-03-18

    A multiresidue method was developed based on extraction of 10 g sample with 10 mL acetonitrile and subsequent liquid-liquid partitioning formed by adding 4 g MgSO₄ plus 1 mL chloroform. During the partitioning process, the extraction recoveries of polar analytes were found to be essentially determined by the acetonitrile content in the aqueous phase. The use of MgSO₄ gave the least acetonitrile left in the aqueous phase (lower than 5%) and thus promoting complete partitioning of analytes into the organic phase. At the same time, removal of water from the acetonitrile phase was achieved by adding only a small amount of chloroform with no influence on the acetonitrile content in the aqueous phase, thus leading to decreasing the co-extraction of polar matrix components. The most complete mutual separation of acetonitrile and water was achieved by the joint use of MgSO₄ and chloroform and thus the optimal extraction recovery and analytical selectivity were obtained simultaneously. The new method, with higher recoveries of polar analytes, better analytical selectivity and simpler manipulation, is a claimed improvement to the original QuEChERS method. The proposed method was finally validated by the determination of 20 pesticides in a mixed food matrix by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrum (LC-MS/MS). Acceptable linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision and selectivity results were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili Fc, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu Pc, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for their anti-diarrhoeal effects in terms of the reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of their anti-diarrhoeal effects, their actions were further evaluated on castor oil-induced enteropooling (intestinal fluid accumulation). The median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol fraction was found to be less than 5000 mg/Kg b.w. At the two doses, the chloroform and the methanol fractions showed dose-dependent significant (p americana possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug(s) in future.

  4. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatoprotection with a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens against CCl4-induced injuries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Methods To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w. after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w. twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GSR, glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl4. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px when altered due to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin

  6. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of chloroform extract of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps taii in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Liang, Gui-You; Yang, Yong-Fu; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    2015-07-09

    Cordyceps taii, an entomogenous fungus native to south China, is a folk medicine with varieties of pharmacological activities including anticancer effect. To validate the ethnopharmacological claim against cancer, the antitumor and antimetastatic activities of chloroform extract of C. taii (CFCT) were investigated in vivo. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of CFCT against human lung cancer (A549) and gastric cancer (SGC-7901) cells were evaluated using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. In vivo anti tumor and antimetastatic activities, Kunming mice bearing sarcoma 180 and C57BL/6 mice bearing melanoma B16F10 were employed, respectively. The antitumor effects of CFCT were completely evaluated on the basis of the tumor weight, survival time, histologic analysis, and immune organ indices. The histopathological change, metastatic foci and malignant melanoma specific marker HMB45 in the lung tissue were detected for the evaluation of the antimetastatic activity of CFCT. CFCT exhibited dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicities against A549 and SGC-7901 cells with the IC50 values of 30.2 and 65.7 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, CFCT at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the tumor growth in vivo and prolonged the survival time in two different models as compared with the model group, especially when combined with the CTX at a low dose rate. And it also increased spleen index of Kunming mice and thymus index of C57BL/6 mice. Meanwhile, histologic analysis illustrated that CFCT alone or in combination with CTX could induce tumor tissue necrosis of both models. In addition, CFCT at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg inhibited the lung metastasis of melanoma B16F10 in tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. The antimetastatic effect was also observed when CFCT was used in combination with CTX. In comparison to any other groups, CFCT at a dose of 100 mg/kg could effectively enhance the GSH-Px activities of various tissues in tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. These findings

  7. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  8. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nalamolu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae has been widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of renal functions in diabetic rats. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the chloroform extract was determined in streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg, i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer; pH 4.5 diabetic rats, after oral administration at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in short term study. Blood samples were collected from the eye retro-orbital plexus of rats before and also at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration and the samples were analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a visible spectrophotometer. In long term study, the extract (300 mg/kg was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose was measured at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Urine samples were collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of treatments and analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnet's t-test. Results The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats and comparable with that of standard drug, glibenclamide in short term study. It also produced significant reduction in blood glucose in long term study. Significant renoprotective activity is observed in T. chebula treated rats. The results indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by T. chebula and is probably mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. The

  9. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  10. Vanda roxburghii chloroform extract as a potential source of polyphenols with antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities: identification of a strong phenolic antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nasim; Afrin, Rejina; Uddin, Md Josim; Uddin, Md Jalal; Alam, A H M K; Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Sadik, Golam

    2015-06-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively developing neurodegenerative disorder of the brain in the elderly people. Vanda roxburghii Rbr. root has been used traditionally in Bangladesh as tonic to brain and in the treatment of nervous system disorders including AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the extracts from V. roxburghii. The crude methanol extract from the roots of plant was sequentially fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and water to yield their corresponding extracts. The extracts were assessed for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by modified Ellman method and antioxidant property by several assays including ferric reducing antioxidant power, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and hydroxyl radical, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Endogenous substances in the extracts were analyzed by the standard phytochemical methods and active compound was isolated by the chromatographic methods. Chloroform extract was shown to demonstrate strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging activity against DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals when compared with the other extracts and the reference standard catechin. The antioxidant effect was further verified by inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. Likewise, the chloroform extract exhibited the highest inhibition against both the acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes with IC50 values of 221.13 and 82.51 μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed a large amount of phenolics and flavonoids in the chloroform extract. Bioactivity guided separation techniques led to the isolation of a strong antioxidant from the chloroform extract and its structure was determined as gigantol on the basis of spectral studies. These results suggest that the chloroform extract of V. roxburghii, possibly due to its phenolic

  11. Inhibitory effects of chloroform extracts derived from Corbicula fluminea on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Min; Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Yen-Ku; Chiu, Yi-Han; Ho, Li-Ping; Lee, Ru-Ping; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2012-04-25

    Corbicula fluminea, the primary freshwater bivalve cultivated in Taiwan, was formerly used as a remedy for hepatitis. Recent reports indicate that C. fluminea has many bioactivities, but it remains unknown whether C. fluminea affects inflammation. This study explored the anti-inflammatory activity of C. fluminea. C. fluminea was first treated with chloroform to obtain clam chloroform extracts (CCEs). On the basis of the assay for the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo, the results show that the CCEs significantly lowered the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the CCEs reduced LPS-induced organ damage. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that CCEs inhibit the LPS-induced mRNA expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. Western blot analysis indicated that the CCEs increased expression of IκB and attenuated the phosphorylation of IκB. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry suggests that phytosterols and fatty acids are responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of CCEs. Taken together, CCEs have the potential to be developed as an anti-inflammatory functional food.

  12. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Bigoniya, Papiya; Panchal, Shital S; Muchhandi, Irrappa S

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI) in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), Lee index of obesity (LIO), food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine), organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad) and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming) and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg) supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol (30:70 v/v) at 360 nm. Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.

  13. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI, Lee index of obesity (LIO, food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine, organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid: Methanol (30:70 v/v at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.

  14. Extraction of Cerium (IV) Using Di–n-butylsulfoxide in Chloroform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. A new and advantageous extraction procedure was developed for extraction of cerium (IV) from nitric acid with ... Various parameters such as equilibration time, metal ion concentration, effect of temperature and ..... lanthanides using cyanex-923: their separations and recovery from monazite, J.

  15. Evaluation of chloroform/methanol extraction to facilitate the study of membrane proteins of non-model plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Annelies; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Carpentier, Sebastien Christian

    2010-04-01

    Membrane proteins are of great interest to plant physiologists because of their important function in many physiological processes. However, their study is hampered by their low abundance and poor solubility in aqueous buffers. Proteomics studies of non-model plants are generally restricted to gel-based methods. Unfortunately, all gel-based techniques for membrane proteomics lack resolving power. Therefore, a very stringent enrichment method is needed before protein separation. In this study, protein extraction in a mixture of chloroform and methanol in combination with gel electrophoresis is evaluated as a method to study membrane proteins in non-model plants. Benefits as well as disadvantages of the method are discussed. To demonstrate the pitfalls of working with non-model plants and to give a proof of principle, the method was first applied to whole leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. Subsequently, a comparison with proteins extracted from leaves of the non-model plant, banana, was made. To estimate the tissue and organelle specificity of the method, it was also applied on banana meristems. Abundant membrane or lipid-associated proteins could be identified in both tissues, with the leaf extract yielding a higher number of membrane proteins.

  16. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assessment of amines in Port wine and grape juice after fast chloroformate extraction/derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Faria, M A; Fernandes, J O

    2011-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of volatile and nonvolatile biogenic amines in Port wines and grape juices was developed and evaluated. The method was based on a previously reported two-phase derivatization procedure with isobutyl chloroformate in a toluene medium, which provides a quantitative reaction in 10 min. Following the derivatization step, the excess of reagent was eliminated by treatment with alkaline methanol. The derivatization procedure was performed directly on 1 mL of sample, avoiding any fastidious and time-consuming cleanup extraction steps. The method allows the simultaneous quantification of 22 amines, which can be found in wines: methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, propylamine, isopropylamine, butylamine, isobutylamine, amylamine, isoamylamine, 2-methylbutylamine, hexylamine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, morpholine, 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine, cadaverine, 1,6-diaminohexane, 2-phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine. Because of the fact that histamine and tyramine derivatives are degraded during the isobutyl chloroformate elimination step, the corresponding determination was made after removal of the excess of derivatizing reagent by evaporating an aliquot of the toluene layer obtained after the reaction. The presented method showed excellent analytical characteristics in what linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detections were respected. It was used to assess the concentration of biogenic amines in juice grapes and Tawny and Vintage Port wines with different aging times. On the whole, the total content of amines in Port wines was low. Most of the amines found in wines have their origin in the raw material used for their elaboration, so the Port winemaking process is not prone to the production of this kind of compounds. Total biogenic amine contents have shown a decrease with the aging of both types of Port wines.

  18. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Jimenez-Coello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05 as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05. It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection.

  19. Baicalein, Ethyl Acetate, and Chloroform Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Inhibit the Neuraminidase Activity of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza A Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann-Jen Hour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study rated antiviral activity of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis extracts against influenza A virus subtypes, for example, pandemic 2009 H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc and chloroform extracts inhibited in vitro neuraminidase (NA enzymatic activity and viral replication more than methanol (MeOH extract. EtOAc extract demonstrated NA inhibition IC50 values ranging from 73.16 to 487.40 μg/mL and plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 23.7 to 27.4 μg/mL. Chloroform extract showed antiviral activities with plaque reduction IC50 values ranging from 14.16 to 41.49 μg/mL Time-of-addition assay indicated that EtOAc and chloroform extracts also significantly inhibited virus yields after infection. HPLC analysis demonstrated that baicalin was dominant in the MeOH extract; baicalein and chrysin were rich in the EtOAc and chloroform extracts. Molecular simulation revealed baicalein hydrogen bonding with Glu277 as well as hydrophobic and Van der Waals interactions with Ile222, Arg224, Ser246, and Tyr347 in NA1 active sites of NA1. Baicalein inhibited in vitro replication of influenza A viruses pandemic 2009 H1N1 (IC50 = 0.018 μM and seasonal 2007 H1N1 using plaque reduction assays. A combination of low-dose baicalein with other anti-influenza agents could be applicable for development of alternative remedies treating influenza A virus infection.

  20. The flavonol-enriched Cistus albidus chloroform extract possesses in vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Ouahiba; Atmani-Kilani, Dina; Sanchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Atmani, Djebbar

    2017-09-14

    Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae) has been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases, but no systematic studies on the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of C. albidus and its putative mechanism have been reported. We aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of this plant and to characterize its polyphenolic composition by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). A chloroform extract derived from C. albidus leaves was obtained by solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extraction. The tail immersion test and acetic-acid-induced writhing test were used to evaluate the anti-nociceptive action, while the experimental λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model was used to test the anti-inflammatory action. Changes in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, as well as the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathways on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages were analyzed by western blotting. HPLC with diode array detection coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) was performed to determine the phytochemical profile of the extract. Significant anti-nociceptive activity was observed both in the tail immersion (59.63% reduction at 120min) and in the acetic acid (65.94% inhibition) tests at 100mg/kg. The extract (50mg/kg) exhibited a substantial reduction in paw edema (51.6%) and significantly inhibited nitrite generation (72.62%) without affecting cell viability of LPS-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. These results were concomitant with a down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS in extract-treated macrophages and a decrease in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that flavonols such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were potentially responsible for such effects

  1. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  2. Expanded metabolite coverage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract through improved chloroform/methanol extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakda Khoomrung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved extraction and derivatization protocol for GC–MS analysis of amino/non-amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were extracted with chloroform: aqueous-methanol (1:1, v/v and the resulting non-polar and polar extracts combined and dried for derivatization. Polar and non-polar metabolites were derivatized using tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS dissolved in acetonitrile. Using microwave treatment of the samples, the derivatization process could be completed within 2 h (from >20 h of the conventional method, providing fully derivatized metabolites that contain multiple derivatizable organic functional groups. This results in a single derivative from one metabolite, leading to increased accuracy and precision for identification and quantification of the method. Analysis of combined fractions allowed the method to expand the coverage of detected metabolites from polar metabolites i.e. amino acids, organic acids and non-polar metabolites i.e. fatty alcohols and long-chain fatty acids which are normally non detectable. The recoveries of the extraction method was found at 88 ± 4%, RSD, N = 3 using anthranilic acid as an internal standard. The method promises to be a very useful tool in various aspects of biotechnological applications i.e. development of cell factories, metabolomics profiling, metabolite identification, 13C-labeled flux analysis or semi-quantitative analysis of metabolites in yeast samples.

  3. Anticancer Activity of Chloroform Extract and Sub-fractions of Nepeta deflersiana on Human Breast and Lung Cancer Cells: An In vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oqail, Mai M; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam S; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Farshori, Nida N

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. Nepeta deflersiana (ND) is used in the folk medicine as antiseptic, carminative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and for treating rheumatic disorders. However, the anticancer activity of ND chloroform extract has not been explored so far. The present study was aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of chloroform Nepeta deflersiana extract and various sub-fractions (ND-1-ND-15) of ND against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human lung cancer cells (A-549). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays, and cellular morphological alterations using phase contrast light microscope were studied. Cells were exposed with 10-1000 μg/ml of sub-fractions of ND for 24 h. Results showed that selected sub-fractions of the chloroform extract significantly reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells, and altered the cellular morphology in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to other fractions whereas, ND-1 did not cause any cytotoxicity even at higher concentrations. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by all the extracts as compared to the MCF-7 cells. The present study provides preliminary screening of anticancer activities of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of ND, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent. Nepeta deflersiana extract exhibit cytotoxicity and altered the cellular morphology. Sub-fractions of the chloroform extract of Nepeta deflersiana reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive

  4. Chloroform extract of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by downregulating ERK/NF-κB signaling and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Gi Jun; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is commonly used as a traditional medicine and functional food. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses more than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Treatment with 1 μg/mL LPS increased nitrite concentrations to 44.3 μM in RAW267.4 macrophages, but it was reduced to 10.6 μM by adding 100 μg/mL chloroform extract. LPS treatment also increased the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β to 41.3, 11.6, and 0.78 ng/mL in culture supernatants of the cells, but these cytokine levels decreased to 12.5, 3.1, and 0.19 ng/mL, respectively, by pretreating with 100 μg/mL of the extract. ICR mice injected with LPS (30 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a 0% survival rate after 48 h of the injection, but 48-h survival of the mice increased to 60% after oral administration of the extract. Subfractions of the chloroform extract markedly suppressed LPS-mediated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa-B. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. This research demonstrated that alfalfa aerial parts exert anti-inflammatory activity and may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.

  5. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

  6. GALLIC ACID: A PHENOLIC ACID AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM STEM BARK OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM LITORALE (BLUME AMSHOFF (MYRTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic acid had been isolated from chloroform soluble fractions of a methanol extract of stem bark of Syzygium litorale, Fam. Myrtaceae. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated and established as gallic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies (UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR and by comparison with literature data and authentic sample. This is the first report of the isolation of compound from this plant, although it has previously been found in Myrtaceae family such as S. aromaticum, S. cumini, S. polyanthum, S. cordatum, etc. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed very strong antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH with IC50 value of 23.2, 7.5, and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively.

  7. Suppressive activity of the chloroform extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f on effector T cell activation during Hymenolepis nana infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K; Matsuishi, J; Yu, Y; Nemoto, K; Nakazawa, M; Kasahara, T; Hisamitsu, T

    1998-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TWH extract) administered into mice daily at doses of 80.0 to 200.0 micrograms/kg (but not 40.0 micrograms/kg) caused suppression of protective immunity to Hymenolepis nana when the extract was injected subcutaneously during the induction phase of protective immunity. Daily administration of 200.0 micrograms/kg TWH extract, during the course of larval development from challenge, also suppressed protective immunity. Inhibition of protective immunity was only observed in mice that received TWH extract for 6 days at a daily dose of 200.0 micrograms/kg and were challenged 24 h after the final injection. TWH extract did not inhibit formation of effector cells that mediate delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to H. nana egg antigen when the extract was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 200.0 micrograms/kg/day for 5 days before cell preparation. However, TWH extract did inhibit DTH effector cell activation when cells prepared from infected, PBS-injected mice were transferred into 200.0 micrograms/kg TWH extract-treated recipient mice. These results strongly indicate that TWH extract cannot inhibit the generation of effector cells but will suppress their function in vivo.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v extract of Swietenia mahagoni leaf against Japanese Encephalitis vector Culex vishuni group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Adhikari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of a furniture tree Swietenia mahagoni L. (S. mahagoni against mosquito Culex Vishnui group. Methods: Different concentrations of crude, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts of S. mahagoni mature leaves were treated against Cx. vishnui group larvae. Results: Five graded concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.40% of crude extract of mature leaves and five graded concentrations (10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, 40 ppm and 50 ppm of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts showed significant (P<0.05 larval mortalities. LC50, LC90 values were calculated at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposures. Adult Cx. vishnui group mosquitoes exposed to burning coils prepared from S. mahagoni mature leaves showed smoke repellency and toxicity up to 4 h. Conclusions: This study was a pioneer attempt to establish S. mahagoni as an effective mosquito larvicide.

  9. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection.

  10. Sterility due to inhibition of sperm motility by oral administration of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, N; Mishra, P K; Manivannan, B; Lohiya, N K

    2000-07-01

    The contraceptive effects of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya have been reported in male albino rats at the dose regimens 5 and 10 mg/animal/day; oral for 150 days. The body weight, weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate remained unaltered during the entire course of the investigation. Total suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility coincided with a decrease in sperm count, viability and an increase in per cent abnormal spermatozoa during 60-150 days observation period. Minor changes in the germ cell proliferations in the testis and vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei in the few epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis were observed. Histology and biochemical composition of testis and accessory sex organs, haematology and serum clinical biochemistry and serum testosterone levels remained unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Test for estrogenicity indicated mild estrogenicity. Monthly fertility test showed negative fertility. All the altered parameters returned to normal level following 60 days withdrawal of the treatment. The results suggest that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya exerts antifertility effects in rats without adverse toxicity and that the effects may be directly rendered on the spermatozoa.

  11. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Nirmal K; Manivannan, Boomi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S

    2008-03-01

    To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys. The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n=3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests. Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastructure of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinical parameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal. The results suggest that the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.

  12. PRELIMINARY ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE AQUEOUS, ALCHOLIC AND CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONAEA VOGELLI HOOK. AND PLANCH. (LECYTHIDIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriagbonse Asowata

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Napoleonaea vogelli P. Beauv. {Lecythidiaceae} was done using aqueous, ethanol, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts to determine its antimicrobial and phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against bacteria and fungi isolates using the agar well diffusion method. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference standards to determine the sensitivity of the isolates. The leaf extracts of the plant were subjected to phytochemical analysis using standard experimental procedures. The extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against the test microbial isolates: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. The MIC values obtained using the Agar-dilution test ranged from 0.5-10mg/ml. The results demonstrated that the extracts of the leaves (N. vogelli possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that it will be useful in the treatment of microbial infections.

  13. Antiangiogenic Effect Of The Chloroform Extract Of Tinospora crispa (L. Miers Stem In The Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM Induced By bFGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Triastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Cancer is one of the most complex disease involving molecular process cause it is hard to be cured. There are many natural compounds which have been used empirically in the society in order to treat cancer. One of them is a kind of herbal medicine called ‘Brotowali’ (Tinospora crispa (L. Miers. The objective of this research was  to know antiangiogenic effect of the chloroform extract of  brotowali stem using CAM method induced by bFGF. In this research, the inhibition test is done by the CAM at 9 day chick embryo divided  into  seven groups of treatment. Group I is  as the paper disc controller, group II as the bFGF controller, group III as  bFGF +  DMSO 0,8% solvent controller, group IV, V, VI and VII, as the group that conduct the angiogenesis inhibition test. The last four group were given 10 ng of bFGF each and the chloroform extract of brotowali stem with the doses of 15 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 240 μg/ml and 960 μg/ml. After having been incubated for 3 days (egg at 12 day, CAM were carefully observed  macroscopically and microscopically. The result showed that  the chloroform extract of brotowali stem can  inhibit the angiogenesis in CAM induced by bFGF. It show that the angiogenesis inhibition for the dose of the

  14. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  15. Inter-species comparative antioxidant assay and HPTLC analysis of sakuranetin in the chloroform and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Rhus retinorrhoea and Rhus tripartita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Perwez; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Al-Dosary, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Kalam, Mohd Abul; Ahmad, Mohammad Shamim

    2017-12-01

    Extensive research on Rhus (Anacardiaceae) shows their antioxidant potential, which warrants further evaluation of its other species. To perform a comparative antioxidant assay on extracts of R. retinorrhoea and R. tripartita, including sakuranetin quantification by a validated HPTLC method. In vitro antioxidant assay was performed on chloroform and ethanol extracts of R. retinorrhoea Steud. ex Oliv. (RRCE and RREE) and R. tripartita (Ucria) Grande (RTCE and RTEE) by DPPH radical scavenging (at 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL concentrations) and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching methods at 500 μg/mL concentration. Densitometric HPTLC method was developed and validated using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (8:2:0.2; v/v/v) as mobile phase, executed on glass-backed silica gel F 254 plate and scanned at 292 nm. Antioxidant activity of Rhus extracts tested by the two methods (DPPH/BCB) was found in order of RTEE > RREE > RTCE > RRCE with IC 50 118.67/256.26, 315.75/82.35, 827.92/380.0 and 443.69/292.75, respectively. Scanning of the HPTLC plate provided an intense peak of sakuranetin at R f = 0.59. The estimated sakuranetin content in the dry weight of the extracts was highest in RREE (27.95 μg/mg) followed by RRCE (25.22 μg/mg), RTEE (0.487 μg/mg) and RTCE (0.0 μg/mg). Presence of sakuranetin in RREE, RRCE and RTEE supported the highest antioxidant property of the two Rhus species. Nonetheless, low sakuratenin in R. tripartita indicated the presence of other bioactive constituents responsible for synergistic antioxidant activity. The developed HPTLC method therefore guarantees its application in quality control of commercialized herbal drugs and formulations containing sakuranetin.

  16. Ultrastructural changes in the testis and epididymis of rats following treatment with the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, B; Mishra, P K; Pathak, N; Sriram, S; Bhande, S S; Panneerdoss, S; Lohiya, N K

    2004-04-01

    The benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at a dose of 10 mg/rat/day for 150 days, which has shown a total inhibition of motility, reduced sperm count and infertility, was tested to de fi ne the mode of action at the subcellular level in the testis and epididymis. The ultrastructure of the testis of the treated animals revealed no appreciable changes in the subcellular characteristics. The mechanism of protein synthesis as well as steroidogenesis were evident in the Sertoli cells while the spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, both round and elongated, depicted a prominent nucleus, distinct nuclear membrane and cytoplasmic characteristics indicating normal germ cell differentiation. The principal cells of the cauda epididymis were characterized by the presence of well-de fi ned rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and secretary granules, suggesting active secretory functions. The absorptive function of the cauda epididymis was evidenced by the presence of numerous vesicles and multivesicular bodies adjacent to stereocilia. It is concluded that the inhibition of sperm motility by the drug could be due to other epididymal factors rather than the subcellular characteristics of testis and epididymis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. (U.S. Army Dental Corps, Fort Sill, OK (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  18. Determination of antioxidant activity in methanolic and chloroformic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant activity of methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit. In this study, the total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in methanolic and chloroformic were measured by ferric thiocyanate. (FTC) ...

  19. Phytochemistry and Preliminary Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity of Chloroform Extract of Amburana cearensis (Allemão A.C. Sm. against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirivaldo Barros Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Amburana cearensis was chemically characterized and tested for antibacterial activity.The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified were 4-methoxy-3-methylphenol (76.7%, triciclene (3.9%, α-pinene (1.0%, β-pinene (2.2%, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3.1%. Preliminary antibacterial tests were carried out against species of distinct morphophysiological characteristics: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determinate in 96-well microplates for the chloroform extract and an analogue of themain compound identified, which was purchased commercially.We have shown that plant’s extract was only inhibitory (but not bactericidal at the maximum concentration of 6900 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. Conversely, the analogue 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol produced MICs ranging from215 to 431 μg/mL against all bacterial species.New antibacterial assays conducted with such chemical compound against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains have shown similarMICresults and minimumbactericidal concentration (MBC of 431 μg/mL.We conclude that A. cearensis is a good source of methoxy-methylphenol compounds,which could be screened for antibacterial activity againstmultiresistant bacteria fromdifferent species

  20. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  1. Determination of antioxidant activity in methanolic and chloroformic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the MC extracts were also evaluated. The total antioxidant activity results indicated that, the inhibition percent of methanolic extract was significantly higher than the inhibition percent of chloroformic extract in the FTC and TBA methods. A higher IC50 value for free radical scavenging ...

  2. Chloroform stripping from waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.; Darakchiev, R.; Semkov, K. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The problem treated in this paper is the purification of waste industrial waters from chloroform. An industrial installation with a stripping column is designed, and the results of its study and industrial tests are presented. It is shown that, in a column with 6400 mm total height of the used packing (Holpack), the chloroform concentration in the waste water decreases 150,000 times, approaching that of drinking water.

  3. Cyperus scariosus Chloroform Fraction Inhibits T cell Responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the extract was studied by skin allograft rejection test, and phagocytosis - in vitro and ex vivo - by C. albicans method and carbon clearance test, respectively. The extract was fractionated with chloroform, n-butanol and water, and then used to investigate the T-cell specific immunosuppressive potential of these fractions by ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of Cissus multistriata were investigated against 8 bacterial and 2 fungal test organisms, using the tube dilution and agar ditch diffusion methods. Aqueous leaf extract had no activity against both the bacterial and fungal test organisms. Both the methanol ...

  5. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed and it's in vivo antibacterial potentiality in Channa punctatus against Klebsiella PKBSG14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar; Jana, Monoranjan

    2017-10-01

    The relative efficacy of the isolated pure compound, extracted from Carica papaya seed has been tested against live fish, Channa punctatus infected with pathogenic strains of KlebsiellaPKBSG14 (gene bank accession no.KJ162158) at a dose of 0.75 CFU/ml in vivo. The isolated compound has been characterized by chromatography and mass spectroscopy studies using FTIR, 1HNMR and 13c NMR to identify as well as to determine the nature of the pure compound. This study revealed the extracted biological molecule is oleic acid, a long chained saturated fatty acid (LFAs) with a molecular formula C18H34O2. Later this compound was analyzed for its efficacy as an antibacterial agent in vivo through cytotoxicological and genotoxicological assays. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg b.w of isolated pure oleic acid has been tested and it showed effective result in regard to DNA fragmentation, comet tail length and toxicity biomarkers like ROS generation. The results of in vivo studies showed similar effects on spleen cells with regard to cell viability by PI staining, cell cycle analysis and also Annexin-FITC assay. Thus, the overall results suggest that oleic acid increases drug bioavailability and thereby has a better chemo-preventive action against bacterial infection in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural production of chloroform by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.J.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Field, J.A.; de Leer, E.W.B.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1998-01-01

    Chloroform production was detected in the headspace of pure cultures of the basidiomycetes Mycena metata and Peniophora pseudopini and the deuteromycete Caldariomyces fumago. The average production rates were in the range of 0.07-70 μg/l culture fluid/day for Caldariomyces fumago and 0.7-40 ng/1

  8. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degra...

  9. Chloroform fumigation-extraction labile C pool (microbial biomass C "plus" shows high correlation to microbial biomass C in Argentinian and Brazilian soils Alta correlación entre el "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigación con cloroformo-extracción (carbono de biomasa microbiana plus y carbono de biomasa microbiana en suelos de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio De-Polli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroform fumigation-incubation and chloroform fumigation-extraction approaches have significantly contributed to assess soil microbial biomass. Some controversy is found in the literature about the suggestion to calculate microbial biomass carbon (MBC without the subtraction of the un-fumigated control, in opposition to the originally proposed method that requires such subtraction. Some authors consider the non-subtraction proceeding as a more robust method. Nevertheless, values obtained without subtraction of a control include other labile organic fractions of soil carbon besides microbial biomass. Therefore, due to the usefulness of this measurement we consider more appropriate to call it as chloroform-fumigation labile C pool or microbial biomass carbon "plus" (MBC PLUS. We used a vast series of data from soils of Argentina and Brazil under different management situations to verify whether MBC correlates to MBC PLUS. There was a significant statistical correlation between values of MBC obtained by fumigation-extraction method and the corresponding MBC PLUS. The MBC PLUS performed as well as MBC as an indicator to differentiate soil managements and their impact on soil quality.Los métodos de fumigación-incubación y fumigación extracción han contribuido significativamente a las determinaciones de biomasa microbiana del suelo. En la literatura se encuentran algunas controversias acerca de la sugerencia de calcular el carbono de biomasa microbiana (CBM sin la sustracción del control no fumigado, en oposición a las metodologías tradicionales que requieren de dicha sustracción. Algunos autores mencionan que el hecho de no realizar la sustracción hace al procedimiento más robusto. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos sin la sustracción del control incluyen otras fracciones lábiles del carbono, además de la biomasa microbiana. Debido a lo útil que resulta esta medida consideramos adecuado llamarla "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigaci

  10. Technique sensitivity of water-free one-step adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, K L; Mine, A; De Munck, J; Countinho, E; Peumans, M; Jaecques, S; Lambrechts, P; Van Meerbeek, B

    2008-09-01

    All-in-one adhesives have been associated with water-related problems, such as phase-separation, polymerization-inhibition and reduced shelf life. In this study we investigated whether these problems could be avoided by a water-free self-etch adhesive that requires a 'wet-bonding' application procedure. Additionally, the technique-sensitivity of such a system was evaluated. The micro-tensile bond strength (muTBS) of a water-free and a water-containing experimental one-step adhesive (EXP) bonded to either 'air-dried', 'blot-dried' or 'overwet' bur-cut enamel and dentin was determined. Likewise, the muTBS of a commercial water-free adhesive Absolute2 (Denstply-Sankin) was determined. The interfacial interaction of the adhesives was evaluated by SEM and TEM. In the blot-dried group, both water-free adhesives obtained the highest bond strength and the bond strength of the water-free EXP was comparable to that of the water-containing EXP bonded to an air-dried surface. When they were applied to overwet surfaces, the water-free adhesives tended towards a lower bond strength. This was partly attributed to the presence of phase-separation (or 'overwet') droplets in the adhesive layer. Unexpectedly, even on air-dried dentin, the water-free adhesives were able to demineralize dentin, however to a limited extent, hence impairing the bond strength. Water-free one-step adhesives are a valuable alternative for conventional water-containing one-step adhesives. However, water-related problems in these adhesives are not ruled out, as they are eventually also mixed with water during the application procedure. As such, they partially fail to meet their objective. In addition, their bonding procedure, which involves 'wet bonding', is more technique-sensitive than dry bonding.

  11. Chronic toxicity of chloroform to Japanese medaka fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Brennan, L M; Beaman, J R; Wolfe, M J; Hoffmann, F J; Gardner, H S

    2001-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were continually exposed in a flow-through diluter system for 9 months to measured chloroform concentrations of 0.017, 0.151, or 1.463 mg/L. Parameters evaluated were hepatocarcinogenicity, hepatocellular proliferation, hematology, and intrahepatic chloroform concentration. Histopathology was evaluated at 6 and 9 months. Chloroform was not hepatocarcinogenic to the medaka at the concentrations tested. Chronic toxicity was evidenced at these time points by sta...

  12. Chronic toxicity of chloroform to Japanese medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Brennan, L M; Beaman, J R; Wolfe, M J; Hoffmann, F J; Gardner, H S

    2001-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were continually exposed in a flow-through diluter system for 9 months to measured chloroform concentrations of 0.017, 0.151, or 1.463 mg/L. Parameters evaluated were hepatocarcinogenicity, hepatocellular proliferation, hematology, and intrahepatic chloroform concentration. Histopathology was evaluated at 6 and 9 months. Chloroform was not hepatocarcinogenic to the medaka at the concentrations tested. Chronic toxicity was evidenced at these time points by statistically significant ([alpha] = 0.05) levels of gallbladder lesions and bile duct abnormalities in medaka treated with 1.463 mg/L chloroform. We assessed hepatocellular proliferation by exposing test fish to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in the aquarium water for 72 hr after 4 and 20 days of chloroform exposure; we then quantified area-labeling indices of the livers using computer-assisted image analysis. We observed no treatment-related increases in cellular proliferation. We analyzed cells in circulating blood in medaka after 6 months of chloroform exposure. Hematocrit, leukocrit, cell viability, and cell counts of treated fish were not significantly different from those of control fish. Using gas chromatography (GC), we evaluated intrahepatic concentrations of chloroform in fish after 9 months of exposure. Livers from the 0.151 and 1.463 mg/L chloroform-treated fish had detectable amounts of chloroform, but these levels were always lower than the aquaria concentrations of chloroform. Thus, it appeared that chloroform did not bioaccumulate in the liver. Unidentified presumptive metabolite peaks were found in the GC tracings of these fish livers. PMID:11171522

  13. In vivo antiplasmodial effect of chloroform extracts of Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Key words: Malaria therapy, Plasmodium berghei, Artemisia maciverae, Artemisia maritima, medicinal plants. INTRODCUTION. Malaria is one of the most prevalent infections in the world. It constitutes one of the main causes of death in much of the tropics. Malaria is caused by parasites of the.

  14. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  15. Influence of Ultrasonic Irrigation and Chloroform on Cleanliness of Dentinal Tubules During Endodontic Retreatment-An Invitro SEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anurag; Gurtu, Anuraag; Vinayak, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic irrigation has been proved for its remarkable cleaning efficiency in the field of endodontics. But its role in endodontic re-treatment has been understated. There is not much data available to understand the effect of ultrasonic irrigation for the evaluation of cleanliness of dentinal tubules when it is used with or without chloroform, a gutta percha solvent during endodontic retreatment. Aim To compare the influence of ultrasonic irrigation with syringe irrigation on cleanliness of dentinal tubules after gutta perch removal for endodontic retreatment with or without the use of chloroform a gutta percha solvent using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 45 human mandibular premolar teeth for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were taken and were occlusally adjusted to a working length of 19 mm. The root canals of all teeth were prepared chemo mechanically to a master apical file size 40 and were divided in various groups. In Group 1 (n = 5; control group), the canals remained unfilled. In Groups 2 and 3 (n = 20 each), the canals were filled using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer, removal of root fillings was undertaken after 2 weeks using Gates Glidden drills and H files without chloroform in Group 2 and with chloroform in group 3. The specimen of Group 2 and 3 were further divided into two subgroups I and II (n=10). In subgroup I, irrigation was done using side vented needles and sodium hypochlorite. In subgroup II irrigation was done using passive ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Thereafter, the roots were split and the sections were observed under SEM. The number of occluded dentinal tubules /total number of dentinal tubules were calculated for the coronal, middle and apical third of each root half. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using standardized technique. Result Results indicated that the cleanest dentinal

  16. Effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each control group. Primary microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Specimens were exposed to solvents for 15 minutes and were subjected to microhardness testing again. Data were recorded and analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA.No significant difference was found in dentin microhardness before and after exposure to solvents in any of the orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform or saline groups (P=0.727. None of the experimental groups showed any significant difference in terms of dentin microhardness reduction (P=0.99 and had no significant difference with the negative control group.This study showed that chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil as gutta percha solvents did not decrease the microhardness of root dentin. Thus, none of the mentioned solvents has any superiority over the others in terms of affecting dentin properties.

  17. Assessment of Aristolochia bracteolata leaf extracts for its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was found to have the significant activity followed by the chloroform extract against certain bacteria. Water extract did not have any activity against bacteria. Antifungal activity assessment indicated that the tested fungal strains are more susceptible to aqueous extract followed by methanol extract and chloroform extract.

  18. Development of Solid Phase Microextraction for Determination of Carbon tetrachloride and Chloroform in Air by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamad javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research the solid phase micro extraction (SPME for sampling and determination of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in air was developed and effect of ambient parameters on SPME was assessed. Methods: For this purpose standard chamber was built in the laboratory. The concentrations of compounds in the chamber were measured with SPME. The optimum condition for extraction were determined and compared with 1003 method of national institute occupational safety and health (NIOSH-1003. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Carboxen-Poly dimethyl siloxane (CAR/PDMS has high adsorption in comparing with other fibers and there were no significant differences between sampling rates at different temperatures (range of 20 to 30 °C and air velocities (2 to 50 cm/s but, relative humidity (RH had a significant effect on sampling rates. The results showed that samples can be storage in refrigerator at 4 °C for 3 days. The correlation coefficient of results between SPME and NIOSH-1003 for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were 0.99 and 0.98 respectively and relative standard deviation of reproducibility between fibers for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were 13.6 and 12.8 respectively. Conclusion: This study was showed that SPME was more sensitive than NIOSH-1003 method and successfully applied for determination of time weight average of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform as a passive method.

  19. Effect of trihalomethanes (chloroform and bromoform) on human haematological count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Asna; Hashmi, Imran; Nasir, Habib; Khan, Romana

    2017-06-01

    With the increasing concerns about the harmful effects of disinfection products, the process of chlorination is becoming questionable. Bromoform and chloroform are among the most frequently occurring disinfection by-products. Haematological parameters are an important indicator of human well-being which is why the prime objective of the current study was to conduct a dose-response assessment to investigate the effects of trihalomethanes on human haematological count. Blood samples of healthy subjects were exposed to different concentrations (10, 30 and 50 μg/mL) of chloroform and bromoform in vitro to analyse how these compounds affected the haematological count with increasing dose concentrations. Headspace gas chromatography analysis was also conducted on samples to assess the difference between measured and spiked values of doses. The results indicated that the damage caused by bromoform was statistically more significant as compared to chloroform. Haemoglobin (HGB) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration levels lowered as they were significantly affected (p 0.05).

  20. Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Ketola, R.A.; Laturnus, F.

    2000-01-01

    Ambient air and soil air of spruce forest, beech forest and grassland from Zealand, Denmark, were investigated for volatile chlorinated compounds by adsorbent tube sampling, thermodesorption, cryo-trapping and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The mean...... the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests......, whereas an anthropogenic origin is suggested for the other chlorinated compounds investigated. From the release study and concentration gradient measurements in the spruce forest soil, chloroform release to the atmosphere was calculated for northern temperate regions. The release was in the range...

  1. Isotopic dilution studies of the chloroform--chloroform-d system by Raman difference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laane, J.; Kiefer, W.

    1980-11-15

    Raman difference spectroscopy has been used to measure small frequency shifts in the ..nu../sub 1/ and ..nu../sub 2/ bands of CHCl/sub 3/ and CDCl/sub 3/ in various mixtures of liquid chloroform and deuterochloroform. The frequency shifts relative to the pure liquids vary linearly with concentration, and at infinitive dilution are determined to be for CHCl/sub 3/: ..delta nu../sub 1/=+0.56 and ..delta nu../sub 2/=+1.92 cm/sup -1/; and for CDCl/sub 3/: ..delta nu../sub 1/=+0.33 and ..delta nu../sub 2/=+1.82 cm/sup -1/. The fact that all frequency shifts are positive indicates that an exchange effect between like molecules is responsible for the phenomenon. The ..nu../sub 4/ bands show no frequency shifts but narrow substantially in bandwidth upon isotopic dilution. The position of the composite (CHCl/sub 3/+CDCl/sub 3/) ..nu../sub 6/ band relative to the pure liquids was also measured as a function of concentration. The data confirm that the frequency difference between this band in liquid CHCl/sub 3/ and in CDCl/sub 3/ is 1.05 cm/sup -1/. The ..nu../sub 6/ frequency appear not to be significantly shifted by isotopic dilution.

  2. Chloroform alters interleaflet coupling in lipid bilayers: an entropic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sagués, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of the two leaflets of the plasmatic cell membrane is conjectured to play an important role in many cell processes. Experimental and computational studies have investigated the mechanisms that modulate the interaction between the two membrane leaflets. Here, by means of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the addition of a small and polar compound such as chloroform alters interleaflet coupling by promoting domain registration. This is interpreted in terms of an entropic gain that would favour frequent chloroform commuting between the two leaflets. The implication of this effect is discussed in relation to the general anaesthetic action. PMID:25833246

  3. Natural formation of chloroform and brominated trihalomethanes in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.J.; Leer, E.D.W.B. de; Brinkman, U.A.T.H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the occurrence of halogenated organic compounds in soil air of rural areas. Chloroform appeared to occur in elevated concentrations compared tO those in atmospheric air, while the concentrations of other chlorinated solvents were almost equal or lower than those in atmospheric air. We

  4. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active

  5. Water free proton conducting membranes based on poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming a water-free electrolyte membrane useful in fuel cells. Also provided is a water-free electrolyte membrane comprising a quaternized amine salt including poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate, a poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate silica composite, and a combination thereof and a fuel cell comprising the membrane.

  6. THE PRESERVATION OF SOME ORAL LIQUID PREPARATIONS - THE REPLACEMENT OF CHLOROFORM BY OTHER PRESERVATIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; LEIJEN, JB

    1994-01-01

    Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for,pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness oi possible alternatives for chloroform in three-oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a

  7. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuisma, Elena; Hansson, C. Fredrik; Lindberg, Th. Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A.; Idh, Sebastian; Schröder, Elsebeth, E-mail: schroder@chalmers.se [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-05-14

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, and are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances are important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory, and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likely oxidize, and thus adsorption onto graphene oxide, rather than clean graphene, is a more relevant process to study.

  8. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: a density functional study

    CERN Document Server

    Kuisma, Elena; Lindberg, Th Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A; Idh, Sebastian; Schroder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances is important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT), and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method (vdW-DF-cx) is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likel...

  9. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  10. Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water extracts were obtained for each plant by sequential solvent extraction. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in triplicate, from 640 to 5 μg/mL, two-fold, serially on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells. Results: The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  11. Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin

    2007-01-01

    Poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate (P4VPBS) is a polymeric salt that has shown promise as a water-free proton-conducting material (solid electrolyte) suitable for use in membrane/electrode assemblies in fuel cells. Heretofore, proton-conducting membranes in fuel cells have been made from perfluorinated ionomers that cannot conduct protons in the absence of water and, consequently, cannot function at temperatures >100 C. In addition, the stability of perfluorinated ionomers at temperatures >100 C is questionable. However, the performances of fuel cells of the power systems of which they are parts could be improved if operating temperatures could be raised above 140 C. What is needed to make this possible is a solid-electrolyte material, such as P4VPBS, that can be cast into membranes and that both retains proton conductivity and remains stable in the desired higher operating temperature range. A family of solid-electrolyte materials different from P4VPBS was described in Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (NPO-30493), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), page 48. Those materials notably include polymeric quaternized amine salts. If molecules of such a polymeric salt could be endowed with flexible chain structures, it would be possible to overcome the deficiencies of simple organic amine salts that must melt before being able to conduct protons. However, no polymeric quaternized amine salts have yet shown to be useful in this respect. The present solid electrolyte is made by quaternizing the linear polymer poly- 4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) to obtain P4VPBS. It is important to start with P4VP having a molecular weight of 160,000 daltons because P4VPBS made from lower-molecular-weight P4VP yields brittle membranes. In an experimental synthesis, P4VP was dissolved in methanol and then reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to precipitate P4VPBS. The precipitate was recovered, washed several times with methanol to remove traces of acid, and dried to a

  12. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.

    2000-01-01

    are presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation...... of chloroform is suggested, whereas for the other compounds anthropogenic sources are assumed. The addition of trichloroacetic acid to the soil increased the release of chloroform from the soil. It is, therefore, suggested that trichloroacetic acid also contributed to the formation of chloroform. Under...... the experimental conditions, the spruce forest soil released chloroform concentrations corresponding to a rate of 12 mu g m(-2) day(-1). Data on chloroform production rates are presented and compared with literature results, and possible formation mechanisms for chloroform are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of chloroform soluble fraction from Perilla frutescens britton leaves produced by radiation breeding in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Yun Ho; So, Yang Kang; Kim, Jin Baek; Jin, Chang Hyun [Advance Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Soo [Dept. Food Science and Technology Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Young [Freshwater Bioresources Utilization Division, Nakdonggang National Institute of Biological Resources, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of each solvent fraction of a mutant Perilla frutescens produced by radiation breeding. Following extraction with 80% methanol, P. frutescens was fractionated in the order of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol; the chloroform fraction exhibited less cytotoxicity, the greatest inhibitory effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the highest rate of inhibition on the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interferon-β (IFN-β). The chloroform fraction also suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reduced the activation of nuclear factor-{sub κ}B (NF-{sub κ}B) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the presence of corosolic acid in the chloroform fraction was identifed. Taken together, the present fndings indicate that the chloroform fraction obtained from mutant P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPSstimulated RAW264.7 cells via the suppression of iNOS expression and the inactivation of NF-{sub κ}B.

  14. Chloroform degradation in methanogenic methanol enrichment cultures and by Methanosarcina barkeri 227.

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, D M; Gossett, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of methanol addition and consumption on chloroform degradation rate and product distribution in methanogenic methanol enrichment cultures and in cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were investigated. Degradation of chloroform with initial concentrations up to 27.3 microM in enrichment cultures and 4.8 microM in pure cultures was stimulated by the addition of methanol. However, methanol consumption was inhibited by as little as 2.5 microM chloroform in enrichment cultures and 0....

  15. Chloroform in Indoor Air and Wastewater: The Role of Residential Washing Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jennifer L; Corsi, Richard L; Kemp, Jeff

    1996-07-01

    A residential washing machine was studied in order to determine the extent of chloroform formation following the application of a laundry bleach containing sodium hypochlorite. A dynamic model was also developed to estimate chloroform formation, mass transfer, and gaseous emissions during a typical wash cycle. A series of 22 experiments was completed to determine model parameters, including chemical reaction and mass transfer rate coefficients, as well as headspace air exchange rates. Three additional experiments were completed to evaluate model performance. Experimental and model results suggest that washing machine environments are very conducive to chloroform formation, with chloroform levels frequently exceeding 1 mg/L in washwater. Chloroform stripping efficiencies were observed to be greater than those previously reported for ethanol, but less than those reported for radon. Mass emissions of chloroform to indoor air during a ten-minute wash cycle were predicted to be between 5.3 and 9.8 mg. On a unit activity basis, chloroform emissions associated with hypochlorite-containing bleach addition to washing machines far exceeded emissions from showers. Each source was estimated to emit similar quantities of chloroform on an annual basis. Finally, it was estimated that the use of hypochlorite-containing laundry bleaches may contribute a significant fraction of chloroform mass loadings to municipal wastewater.

  16. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    .... volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids...

  17. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Petroleum-ether and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic extracts of mangrove/plants (Derris heterophylla, Salvadora persica, Sonneratia caseolaris, Clerodendron inerme), seaweeds (Acanthophora muscoides, Microdictyon pseudohapteron), seagrass...

  18. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  19. Anti- Plasmodium Falciparum Activity of Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria drugs. Dendrathema indicum/ Dunkufea plant used in the treatment of malaria in the northern part of Nigeria was evaluated for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The crude ethanol extract of the plant, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl ...

  20. Selective Electroless Nickel Plating on PMMA using Chloroform Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Nicholas

    In the past 5 years, we have discovered that chloroform promotes the adhesion of thin gold films to Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. Based on this new understanding of the interaction of chloroform with PMMA and metal atoms, we were curious to see if chloroform would promote the adhesion of Nickel to PMMA deposited by electroless plating. My goal was to selectively electroless plate Nickel onto PMMA. Chloroform was spun-cast onto 1 inch square PMMA substrates. I used electrical tape to shield one half of the PMMA from the chloroform during spin-casting; this allowed for a direct comparison of treated vs. untreated. The samples were then put through hydrochloric acid and a series of baths provided by Transene Company Inc. to electrolessly deposit nickel on the sample. After many trials, there was a clear distinction in the adhesion strength of the Nickel to the plain PMMA surface vs. the chloroform pre-treated surface. Showing that it is possible to create chloroform sites via spin-casting for electroless nickel plating on PMMA opens up the challenge to better understand the chemistry taking place and to perfect the electroless plating process.

  1. Investigating chloroperoxidase-catalyzed formation of chloroform from humic substances using stable chlorine isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breider, Florian; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) is suspected to play an important role in the biosynthesis of natural chloroform. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the variability of the δ(37)Cl value of naturally produced chloroform and to better understand the reaction steps that control the chlorine isotope signature of chloroform. The isotope analyses have shown that the chlorination of the humic substances (HS) in the presence of high H3O(+) and Cl(-) concentrations induces a large apparent kinetic isotope effect (AKIE = 1.010-1.018) likely associated with the transfer of chlorine between two heavy atoms, whereas in the presence of low H3O(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, the formation of chloroform induces a smaller AKIE (1.005-1.006) likely associated with the formation of an HOCl-ferriprotoporphyrin IX intermediate. As the concentration of H3O(+) and Cl(-) in soils are generally at submillimolar levels, the formation of the HOCl-ferriprotoporphyrin IX intermediate is likely rate-limiting in a terrestrial environment. Given that the δ(37)Cl values of naturally occurring chloride tend to range between -1 and +1‰, the δ(37)Cl value of natural chloroform should vary between -5‰ and -8‰. As the median δ(37)Cl value of industrial chloroform is -3.0‰, the present study suggests that chlorine isotopic composition of chloroform might be used to discriminate industrial and natural sources in the environment.

  2. Hypoglycemic activity of the stem bark extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of reduction in the blood glucose exhibited by the chloroform fraction was similar to that produced by the standard agent (metformin), while the nhexane fraction exhibited greater reduction. When the n-hexane and the chloroform fractions were compared with the crude methanolic extract, the fractions possessed ...

  3. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  4. Chloroform-Treated Filamentous Phage as a Bioreceptor for Piezoelectric Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric V; Sykora, Jennifer C; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Petrenko, Valery A; Chen, I-Hsuan; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2005-01-01

    Affinity-selected filamentous bacteriophage was induced to spherical forms ("spheroids") by chloroform treatment and deposited to piezoelectric transducers by Langmuir-Blodgett to prepare biosensors for the detection of streptavidin...

  5. ACTIVITIES OF ACACIA NILOTICA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Recophin was used against Escherischia coli,. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Shigella dysenteriae. Ethanol and chloroform/water extracts of. Acacia nilotica stem bark appear to have the highest antibacterial activities on the bacterial isolates tested, followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  6. Cancer Risk Assessment From Multi-Exposure to Chloroform in Drinking Water of Ilam City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Arman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among various trihalomethane (THM compounds, chloroform is considered to be the main compound and was selected as an indicator of THMs in this study. This study aims to calculate and assess the lifetime cancer risks resulting from chloroform intakes of various exposure routes in Ilam’s urban drinking water. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The results showed that average chloroform concentrations in different districts were between 20 and 30.3 μg/L, and the highest concentrations were detected in district 4 with a value of 32.2 μg/L. All water samples contained concentrations of chloroform below the standards of the world health organization (WHO and the institute of standards and industrial research of Iran (ISIRI. Assessment of lifetime cancer risks was carried out using prediction models for different exposure routes, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal routes for people living in Ilam city. The highest risk from chloroform seems to be from the oral ingestion route, followed by inhalation and dermal absorption. The maximum and minimum lifetime cancer risks were 6.59 × 10 - 6 and 5.95 × 10 - 6 in districts 4 and 3, respectively. It was also concluded that the average lifetime cancer risk was 6.26 × 10 - 6 in all districts. Based on the population data, the total number of expected lifetime cancer cases from exposure to chloroform is 1 for Ilam city.

  7. Improving the Adhesion of Au Thin Films Onto PMMA Substrates Using Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Courtney; Mo, Alan; Augustine, Brian; Hughes, Chris; DeVore, Thomas; James Madison University Team

    2013-03-01

    Conventional techniques such as O2 plasma treatment to improve Au thin film adhesion have resulted in limited success. In this study, the adhesion of 6 nm and 100 nm Au thin films onto 0.8 mm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets was significantly improved when Au thin film samples were exposed to a saturated chloroform environment after metallization. The shear force required to remove the Au films was calculated by placing samples onto a polisher spinning at 150 rpm and using a spring loaded device to apply the force. Au thin samples were characterized through optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). AFM and optical images show a roughening of the Au thin films after chloroform exposure. ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that residual chloroform solvent remains on the PMMA. Our research indicates chloroform may improve adhesion by relieving the stresses at the PMMA-Au interface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on chloroform pre-treated PMMA samples show residual solvent at the surface one-week after exposure. We have attributed this to a Lewis acid-base interaction between chloroform and the PMMA surface. We will report on the XPS data of post treated samples.

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  10. EKSTRAKSI DAN FRAKSINASI FOSFOLIPID DARI LIMBAH PENGOLAHAN MINYAK SAWIT [Extraction and Fractionation of Phospholipids from the Waste of Palm Oil Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teti Estiasih1; Kgs. Ahmadi2; Fithri Choirun Nisa1; Ahmad Diaul Khuluq1

    2010-01-01

    .... palm pressed fiber, sludge, and spent bleaching earth (adsorbent). The extraction process was performed by using chloroform-methanol, followed by polar lipid separation by solubilization in choloroform...

  11. Cyperus scariosus Chloroform Fraction Inhibits T cell Responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    delayed-type hypersensitivity models employing sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen. Further, the extract was studied ... also inhibited cell-mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune response (45.9 %) at 600 mg/kg dose, phagocytosis ..... states of the body and auto-immune disorders such as arthritis.

  12. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  13. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of an Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    , the coarse powder of air-dried leaf were subjected to successive solvent extraction by maceration for 72h using solvents of increasing polarity in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each aqueous extract was carefully evaporated ...

  14. Preparation of poly (alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles by polymerization of water-free microemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krauel, Karen; Graf, Anja; Hook, Sarah M

    2006-01-01

    Phase diagrams of the pseudoternary systems ethyloleate, polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan mono-oleate/sorbitan monolaurate and propylene glycol with and without butanol as a co-surfactant were prepared. Areas containing optically isotropic, one-phase systems were identified and samples therein...... that polymerization is expected to occur at a water-oil interface by base-catalysed polymerization. It would appear that propylene glycol is sufficiently nucleophilic to initiate the polymerization. The use of water-free microemulsions as templates for the preparation of poly (alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles opens...

  15. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  16. Water-free titania-bronze thin films with superfast lithium-ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Katz, Michael B; Li, Baihai; Kim, Sung Joo; Du, Xianfeng; Hao, Xiaoguang; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Zhang, Shuyi; Graham, George W; Van der Ven, Anton; Bartlett, Bart M; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-19

    Using pulsed laser deposition, TiO2 (-) B and its recently discovered variant Ca:TiO2 (-) B (CaTi5O11) are synthesized as highly crystalline thin films for the first time by a completely water-free process. Significant enhancement in the Li-ion battery performance is achieved by manipulating the crystal orientation of the films, used as anodes, with a demonstration of extraordinary structural stability under extreme conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  18. Evaluation of functional groups responsible for chloroform formation during water chlorination using compound specific isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Bolotin, Jakov; Von Gunten, Urs; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2008-11-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis was used to monitor the delta(13)C signature of chloroform produced upon the chlorination of model compounds representing natural organic matter functional groups (resorcinol, acetylacetone, acetophenone, phenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and a natural water sample. For each model compound, a different apparent kinetic isotope effect was found for chloroform formation. Normal isotope effects were found for resorcinol, acetylacetone, and acetophenone, and ranged from 1.009 +/- 0.002 to 1.024 +/- 0.004. For the two phenols, an inverse effect was found (0.980 +/- 0.004). Lake Zürich water also had a inverse effect (0.997 +/- NOM, but that other functional groups may also participate. The apparent 13C kinetic isotope effect for the addition/ elimination reaction of 1,1,1-trichloropropanone mediated by OH- to yield chloroform is 1.014 +/- 0.002. A comparison of this value to those found for the chlorination of the model precursors and an evaluation of the differences in chloroform production kinetics for the different model precursors argue against a mechanism in which all NOM precursors react via a common intermediate. Compound specific isotope analysis may give additional insights into chloroform formation mechanisms beyond those allowed by current techniques.

  19. An antifungal property of crude plant extracts from Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroform, ethanolic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous root extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides were investigated in vitro for antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium species, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton rubrum using radial growth ...

  20. Atomistic study of lipid membranes containing chloroform: looking for a lipid-mediated mechanism of anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Reigada

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of general anesthesia is still a controversial issue. Direct effect by linking of anesthetics to proteins and indirect action on the lipid membrane properties are the two hypotheses in conflict. Atomistic simulations of different lipid membranes subjected to the effect of small volatile organohalogen compounds are used to explore plausible lipid-mediated mechanisms. Simulations of homogeneous membranes reveal that electrostatic potential and lateral pressure transversal profiles are affected differently by chloroform (anesthetic and carbon tetrachloride (non-anesthetic. Simulations of structured membranes that combine ordered and disordered regions show that chloroform molecules accumulate preferentially in highly disordered lipid domains, suggesting that the combination of both lateral and transversal partitioning of chloroform in the cell membrane could be responsible of its anesthetic action.

  1. A van der Waals density functional study of chloroform and other trihalomethanes on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Joel; Sundborg, Oskar; Wahlström, Olof; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2012-11-01

    A computational study of chloroform (CHCl3) and other trihalomethanes (THMs) adsorbed on graphene is presented. The study uses the van der Waals density functional method to obtain adsorption energies and adsorption structures for these molecules of environmental concern. In this study, chloroform is found to adsorb with the H atom pointing away from graphene, with adsorption energy 357 meV (34.4 kJ/mol). For the other THMs studied the calculated adsorption energy values vary from 206 meV (19.9 kJ/mol) for fluoroform (CHF3) to 404 meV (39.0 kJ/mol) for bromoform (CHBr3). The corrugation of graphene as seen by the THMs is small, the difference in adsorption energy along the graphene plane is less than 6 meV for chloroform.

  2. Micellar aggregation of CTAB in water and chloroform solutions - a study by laser Raman spectroscopy. [Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, A.M.A.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Teixeira-Dias, J.J.C.

    1982-03-01

    Changes in the C-H stretching region of the Raman spectra of CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) in aqueous and chloroform solutions with varying concentration, temperature, and electrolyte additives are interpreted in terms of structural and environmental effects. The results are in agreement with the presence of several gauche rotational isomers of CTAB in the aqueous and chloroform solutions, and with CTAB micellar association of the ordinary type in water and inverted micellar association in chloroform. 14 references.

  3. Modeling the interaction of ozone with chloroform and bromoform under conditions close to stratospheric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, N. E.; Yagodovskaya, T. V.; Savilov, S. V.; Lukhovitskaya, E. E.; Vasil'ev, E. S.; Morozov, I. I.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    The reactions of ozone with chloroform and bromoform are studied using a flow gas discharge vacuum unit under conditions close to stratospheric (temperature range, 77-250 K; pressure, 10-3-0.1 Torr in the presence of nitrate ice). It is shown that the reaction with bromoform begins at 160 K; the reaction with chloroform, at 190 K. The reaction products are chlorine and bromine oxides of different composition, identified by low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of nitrate ice raises the temperature of reaction onset to 210 K.

  4. Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Grøn, C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil air from top soil of a Danish spruce forest was investigated monthly from December 1997 to December 1998 for the occurrence of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. Within the monitoring period, three different patterns of soil air...... concentrations were identified. For chloroform, concentrations peaked in spring and autumn while 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloromethane peaked during mid winter. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, concentrations remained constant throughout the year. The relative ratios of soil air concentrations...... concentrations were found in the soil in warm and humid periods of the year (spring and autumn) with high microbial activity....

  5. Persulfate Oxidation of MTBE- and Chloroform-Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated persulfate (Na2S2O8) regeneration of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and chloroform-spent GAC was evaluated in this study. Thermal-activation of persulfate was effective and resulted in greater MTBE removal than either alkaline-activation or H2O2–persulfate binary mixtur...

  6. Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the Systematic Review Protocol for the IRIS Chloroform Assessment (Inhalation) for public review and comment. As part of developing a draft IRIS assessment, EPA presents a methods document, referred to as the protocol, for conducting a chem...

  7. Identification of intermediates leading to chloroform and C-4 diacids in the chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Erkelens, Corrie; Galan, L.

    1985-01-01

    The chlorination of terrestrial humic acid was studied at pH 7. 2 with varying chlorine to carbon ratios. The principal products are chloroform, di- and trichloroacetic acid, and chlorinated C-4 diacids. At a high chlorine dose many new chlorination products were detected, among them

  8. Formation of aryl-chlorinated aromatic acids and precursors for chloroform in chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Galan, L.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of chloroform when humic substances are chlorinated is well known. Other chlorinated products that may be formed are chloral, di- and trichloroacetic acid, chlorinated C-4 diacids, and α-chlorinated aliphatic acids. Several of these compounds are formed in molar yields comparable

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of free energy and conformational transition rates of calix[4]arene in chloroform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, Wouter K.; Briels, Willem J.

    1997-01-01

    In a previous article we introduced a reaction coordinate based on the unstable normal mode at the saddle point of the potential energy surface. We here calculate the free-energy distribution along this coordinate for the isomerization of calix[4]arene in vacuo and in chloroform using umbrella

  10. New Approach To Produce Water Free of Bacteria, Viruses, and Halogens in a Recyclable System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abd El-Shafey I.; Cavalli, Gabriel; Bushell, Michael E.; Wardell, John N.; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katarina; Hay, John N.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new cross-linked N-halamine polymer against bacteria and viruses was evaluated. The polymer achieved a 9-log10 reduction of bacteria (both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in 1.5 h and a 5-log10 reduction of bacteriophage PRD1 in 3 h. At the same time, the ability of the nonhalogenated polymer to trap halide ions was examined. The polymer was incorporated into a multifiltration system to study the ability to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halide ions. The antimicrobial activity, useful lifetime, halide ion level, and recycling possibilities of the system were quantified on a laboratory scale. A design for a large-scale multifiltration system based on this polymer is proposed. PMID:21115711

  11. A Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR reductively dechlorinates both 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang; Zhao, Siyan; He, Jianzhong

    2014-11-01

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) and chloroform are two notorious groundwater pollutants. Here we report the isolation and characterization of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR that rapidly dechlorinates both compounds. In pyruvate-amended medium, strain PR reductively dechlorinates ∼ 1.0 mM TCA completely to monochloroethane within 15 days. Under the same conditions, strain PR dechlorinates ∼ 1.2 mM chloroform to predominantly dichloromethane (∼ 1.14 mM) and trace amount of monochloromethane (∼ 0.06 mM) within 10 days. Strain PR shares 96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its closest relative - Desulfitobacterium metallireducens strain 853-15; however, it distinguishes itself from known Desulfitobacterium strains by its inability of utilizing several of their commonly shared substrates such as lactate, thiosulfate and sulfite. A reductive dehalogenase gene (ctrA) in strain PR was identified to be responsible for dechlorination of both TCA and chloroform, showing a maximum expression level of 5.95 ∼ 6.25 copies of transcripts cell(-1) . CtrA shares 94% amino acid sequence identity with CfrA in Dehalobacter sp. strain CF50 and DcrA in Dehalobacter sp. strain DCA. Interestingly, strain PR could tolerate high aqueous concentrations (up to 0.45 mM) of trichloroethene, another groundwater pollutant that often coexists with TCA/chloroform. As the first chloroform-respiring and the second TCA-respiring isolate that has been identified, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PR may prove useful in remediation of halogenated alkanes with trihalomethyl (-CX₃) groups. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Screening antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris albicans extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg, and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg. Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC methods among the tested extracts at all concentrations, it was found inactive in the metal chelating assay. The methanol extract of the aerial parts indicated moderate metal chelating activity (60% at 100 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes showed moderate anticholinesterase effect at 200 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the aerial parts showed significantly inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (78.44 ± 0.51%.

  13. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant effects of extracts from Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Piper nigrum L. root extracts on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced rat liver injury. Among the three different extracts (water, ethanol and chloroform extract), ethanol extract exhibits the highest hepatoprotective activity (p < 0.05). When using the ethanol extract at a dose of ...

  14. Chloroform in a pristine aquifer system: Toward an evidence of biogenic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Lauritsen, F.R.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ambient air, soil air, and groundwater were monitored for volatile halogenated organic compounds in a pristine spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Although this location is remote from industrial areas and free of any point sources of either soil or groundwater contamination, several volatile...... chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected. The concentration profiles of chloroform indicated a formation of this compound in the soil. Low concentrations were found in ambient air (0.02 ng L21), higher concentrations in the upper soil layers (9.6 ng L21 at 0.75 m below the surface), and a decrease...... with increasing depth (down to 1.5 ng L21 just above the groundwater table at 7.5 m below the surface). For the other identified chlorinated compounds the concentration profiles were different from those of chloroform and exhibited less systematic variation between ambient air and soil air and with increasing...

  15. A very stable complex of a modified marine cyclopeptide with chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberhauer, Gebhard; Pintér, Áron; Woitschetzki, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Noncovalent interactions play a pivotal role in molecular recognition. These interactions can be subdivided into hydrogen bonds, cation-π interactions, ion pair interactions and London dispersion forces. The latter are considered to be weak molecular interactions and increase with the size of the interacting moieties. Here we show that even the small chloroform molecule forms a very stable complex with a modified marine cyclopeptide. By means of high-level quantum chemical calculations, the size of the dispersive interactions is calculated; the dispersion energy (approximately -40 kcal mol-1) is approximately as high as if the four outer atoms of the guest form four strong hydrogen bonds with the host. This strong binding of chloroform to a modified marine cyclopeptide allows the speculation that the azole-containing cyclopeptides-haloform interaction may play some biological role in marine organisms such as algae.

  16. Characterization of fungal extracts from Trichoderma isolates: their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current research work was designed to evaluate, test, and characterize effective antifungal extracts from Trichoderma isolates against coffee wilt pathogen (Gibberella xylarioides). For extraction of antifungal extracts from fungal mycelium different organic solvents, viz., chloroform, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, ...

  17. Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Properties of Four Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative phytochemical and anti-trypanosomal properties of the petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, obtained by cold extraction from the leaves, stem bark and roots of. Prosopis africana were evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves of the plant contained ...

  18. Lecithin extraction and characterization from melon seeds obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed oils from different agricultural zones of Nigeria were sampled. Oils were extracted using soxhlet extraction techniques, characterized and lecithin extracted using standard biochemical methods. The percentage oil yield was higher when n-hexane solvent system was used than when chloroform/methanol solvent ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum l. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the methanol extracts of O. basilicum exhibited the ...

  20. [The uterotropismus of halothane, chloroform or methoxyflurane in clinical use (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassolt, A; Schubiger, V; Hauser, G A

    1976-11-01

    To perform episiotomy, 89 women after childbirth were anaesthetized with either halothane (50 patients), methoxyflurane (24 patients) or chloroform (15 patients). The activity of the uterus was registered tocodynamographically. To examine the alternate influence of narcotics and uterotonica, 57 patients were pre-medicated with sintocinon and methergin i.m. as a prophylaxis. The second group (32 patients) received no premedication to stimulate labor activity, however in 18 cases towards the end of narcosis oxytocin and methergin were given i.v. In addition to these examinations 5 vaginal deliveries were anaesthetised with halothane only. Concerning our own experimental study it can be observed: 1. The relaxative properties of halothane wich suppresses completly the activity of myometrium during the deep stages of anaesthesia are superior to chloroform and methoxyflurane. 2. More rapid relaxation of the uterus with halothane compared with chloroform and methoxyflurane. 3. After the use of halothane a quicker return of the activity of the uterus compared with chloroform and methoxyflurane. 4. The value of a prophylaxis with uterotonica can be demonstrated by a comparatively reduced slowing-down of labour-activity during anaesthesia. 5. In every one of the cases, an interuption of the labour-suppressing, caused by the anaesthesia, can be obtained by injecting intravenously oxytocin or methergin. 6. During vaginal delivery, compared to the post placentar phase, there is no need for higher concentrations of halothane to be used to suppress labour contractions. The discussion deals with the intensity of reduction of the uterus contraction caused by the above mentioned narcotics, the dangers of the atony of the uterus, and the indications and contra-indications of obstetrical anaesthesia with halothane or methoxyflurane.

  1. Tetraiodido[methylenebis(diphenylphosphine oxide-κ2O:O′]tin(IV chloroform solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Tanski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnI4(C25H22O2P2]·CHCl3, crystallized from a chloroform solution of SnI4 and the diphosphine CH2(PPh22 exposed to air. The monomeric complex displays a distorted octahedral coordinaton for the tin(IV atom with average Sn—I and Sn—O bond lengths of 2.79 (2 and 2.15 (1 Å, respectively.

  2. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  3. In vitro modulation of HERG channels by organochlorine solvent trichlormethane as potential explanation for proarrhythmic effects of chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Eberhard P; Alter, Markus; Zitron, Edgar; Kiesecker, Claudia; Kathöfer, Sven; Thomas, Dierk; Kreye, Volker A W; Kreuzer, Jörg; Becker, Rüdiger; Katus, Hugo A; Greten, Johannes; Karle, Christoph A

    2006-08-20

    Acute chloroform intoxication can cause depression of the central nervous system and may lead to death from lethal arrhythmias or respiratory arrest. Thus, the organic solvent is no longer in clinical use as an anaesthetic, but still plays a role in cases of suicide, homicide or inhalation for psychotropic effects. Several cases of lethal arrhythmia after intoxication with chloroform have been described. Pharmacological inhibition of cardiac "human ether-à-go-go-related gene" (HERG) potassium channels is linked to proarrhythmic effects of cardiac and noncardiac drugs. To further investigate the electrophysiological basis of the arrhythmogenic potential of chloroform, we analysed inhibitory effects of chloroform on cloned HERG potassium channels, heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cells using the double-electrode voltage-clamp technique and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, respectively. In HEK cells, chloroform blocked HERG tail currents with an IC(50) of 4.97mM. Biophysical properties were further investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Onset and wash-out of block was fast and inhibition was completely reversible. Chloroform did not alter channel activation, however, direct channel inactivation was accelerated significantly. Steady-state-inactivation of HERG was not affected. Chloroform dependent block of HERG channels was voltage dependent with a decrease of inhibition at more positive membrane potentials. No frequency-dependence of block could be observed. In summary, chloroform blocked HERG potassium channels probably in a toxicologically relevant concentration. These findings contribute to the pathophysiology of proarrhythmic effects in acute chloroform intoxication.

  4. Dechlorination and decomposition of chloroform induced by glow discharge plasma in an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongjun, E-mail: lyjglow@sohu.com [College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 (United States); Crittenden, John C. [Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 (United States); Wang, Lei [College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Liu, Panliang [Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Hydrated electrons played an important role for chloroform decomposition. • Oxygen enhanced hydrolyses are critical for the chloroform mineralization. • Energy efficiency of GDP is higher than those of the typical competitive processes. - Abstract: In this study, efficient dechlorination and decomposition of chloroform (CF) induced by glow discharge plasma (GDP) in contact with a sodium sulfate solution was investigated. Intermediate byproducts were determined by ionic chromatography and headspace gas chromatography, respectively. Results showed that CF can be effectively dechlorinated and decomposed under the action of GDP. Both removal and dechlorination of CF increased with increasing pH and with addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers to the solution. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to the solution slightly decreased the CF removal. Formic acid, oxalic acid and dichloromethane were determined as the major intermediate byproducts. Final products were carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid. Hydrated electrons were the most likely active species responsible for initiation of the dechlorination, and hydroxyl radicals may be the ones for the oxidation of the organic intermediate byproducts. Hydrolyses of the chloromethyl radicals contributed much in the mineralization of the organic chlorine. Reaction mechanism was proposed based on the dechlorination kinetics and the distribution of intermediate byproducts.

  5. Vapor-liquid equilibria for acetone + chloroform + methanol and constituent binary systems at 101. 3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiaki, Toshihiko (Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry); Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-10-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and azeotropic data, which are useful for the design and operation of separation processes, have been observed for many systems. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for acetone + chloroform + methanol and for the constituent binary systems chloroform + methanol and chloroform + acetone were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental data were correlated with the extended Redlich-Kister and Wilson equations. The data were best correlated and completely calculated for the ternary and three binary azeotropic data using the extended Redlich-Kister equation.

  6. Identification of Dehalobacter reductive dehalogenases that catalyse dechlorination of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuiquan; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-19

    Two novel reductive dehalogenases (RDases) that are highly similar to each other but catalyse distinct dechlorination reactions were identified from Dehalobacter-containing mixed cultures. These two RDases were partially purified from crude protein extracts of anaerobic dechlorinating enrichment cultures using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices were assayed for dechlorinating activity, and associated proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with the metagenome of the parent culture as the reference database. The two RDases identified, annotated as CfrA and DcrA, share an amino acid identity of 95.2 per cent, but use different substrates: CfrA dechlorinates chloroform (CF) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), but not 1,1-dichloroethane; DcrA dechlorinates 1,1-dichloroethane, but not CF or 1,1,1-TCA. These two novel RDases share no more than 40 per cent amino acid identity to any other known or putative RDases, but both have a twin-arginine motif and two iron-sulfur binding motifs conserved in most RDases. Peptides specific to two putative membrane anchor proteins, annotated as CfrB and DcrB, were also detected in gel slices.

  7. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro anti-algal activity of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haroon, Amany M; Abdel-Aal, Eman I

    2016-01-01

    .... Organic solvents differed in polarity including petroleum ether, methylene chloride, chloroform, acetone and methanol were used to extract the phytochemical compounds and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC–MS...

  9. Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H T; Chen, M J; Lin, C H; Chou, W S; Chen, J H

    2009-08-01

    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern. Although environmental monitoring is a useful technique to investigate chloroform concentrations in indoor swimming-pool air, in practice, the interpretations of measured data would inevitably run into difficulties due to the complex interactions among the numerous variables, including environmental conditions and occupant activities. Considering of the relevant variables of environmental conditions and occupant activities, a mathematical model was first proposed to predict the chloroform concentration in indoor swimming-pool air. The developed model provides a straightforward, conceptually simple way to predict the indoor air chloroform concentration by calculating the mass flux, J, and the Péclet number, Pe, and by using a heuristic value of the indoor airflow recycle ratio, R. The good agreement between model simulation and measured data demonstrates the feasibility of using the presented model for indoor air quality management, operational guidelines and health-related risk assessment.

  10. Chiral separation of beta-blockers after derivatization with (-)-menthyl chloroformate by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Choi, P W; Hong, S P; Kim, H J

    1999-12-01

    Optimum conditions of chiral derivatization reaction of beta-blockers acebutolol, arotinolol, beta-xolol, bisoprolol, celiprolol, metoprolol and pindolol) with (-)-menthyl chloroformate were investigated for the resolution by HPLC. With more than 30 times molar excess of (-)-menthyl chloroformate chiral derivatization reactions were completed within one hour at room temperature except arotinolol and celiprolol. Diastereomeric derivatives of beta-blockers were well resolved on the ODS column using acetonitrile-methanol-water as a mobile phase.

  11. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  12. Investigation of the Mass Transfer Parameters of Caffeine Extraction in a Packed Column

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet BİLGİN; HASDEMİR, İ. Metin; Aydin, Ahmet; Umur DRAMUR

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the mass transfer parameters were investigated in the liquid extraction process, which is the main step of producing caffeine from tea residue, in a packed brosilicate glass column, 5.86 cm in diameter, 132 cm in height, filled by 10x10 mm glass Raschig rings. Because chloroform was used as a solvent in the extraction process, the equilibrium distribution of the water-caffeine-chloroform ternary system were determined at room temperature. By using various solvent/raffi...

  13. Effect of the extract from leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance on S180 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y T; Wang, X L; Xie, Q J; Zhang, Y N

    2016-07-25

    We examined the effects of the extract from leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance on S180 cells and screened for antitumor active sites in the plant. Solvent extraction was conducted to prepare extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance and conduct preliminary separation, an MTT assay to determine the effect of leaf extract on the proliferation of S180 cells, and inverted microscopy to observe the effect of chloroform extract on the morphology of S180 cells. Double-staining (Annexin V/propidium iodide) with flow cytometry was conducted to determine the effect of the chloroform extract on S180 cell apoptosis. At some concentrations, the different extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells. Among all extracts, the chloroform extract showed the strongest inhibitory effect on S180 cell proliferation. The IC50 values for the chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, and water layer were 0.238, 0.471, 0.844, and 0.411 mg/mL, respectively. We observed cell shrinkage, volume reduction, and varying sizes by inverted microscopy. Additionally, with increasing drug concentration, the number of cells decreased and debris increased. The cells showed typical apoptotic morphological changes. The chloroform extract induced the apoptosis of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Different extracts from the leaves of L. formosana Hance inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells, and the chloroform extract was the main antitumor component. This extract from the leaves of L. formosana Hance inhibited the proliferation of S180 cells in part by inducing apoptosis.

  14. Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform

    OpenAIRE

    Imit, Mokhtar; Yamamoto, Takakazu; Imin, Patigul

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant k obs of 1.4×10−5 s−1 at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.

  15. Tetra-μ2-oxido-di-μ4-peroxido-tetrakis[diphenylantimony(V] chloroform disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sb4(C6H58O4(O22]·2CHCl3, contains a tetranuclear antimony(V core, bridged by oxide and peroxide ligands. Two cores form centrosymmetric dimers by intermolecular C—H...O contacts. These dimeric units are further connected by chloroform solvent molecules involved in C—H...O and C—H...Cl interactions into strands along [010]. The five-membered Sb2O3 rings in the Sb4O8 core invariably adopt envelope conformations.

  16. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  17. Dithizone chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhefeng; Zhou, Wei

    2006-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3 σ) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% ( c = 0.2 μg/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  18. Dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhefeng [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)]. E-mail: zhefengfan@163.com; Zhou Wei [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)

    2006-07-15

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3{sigma}) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% (c = 0.2 {mu}g/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  19. Antinociceptive effect of Hyptis pectinata leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Ana C C D; Mello, Iderjane C M; Nunes, Rogeria S; Dos Santos, Marquês A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C de H

    2006-09-01

    Oral administration of hexanes, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Hyptis pectinata significantly reduced the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased the response to thermal stimuli in hot-plate test. Such effect was completely reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  20. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  1. Ames and random amplified polymorphic DNA tests for the validation of the mutagenic and/or genotoxic potential of the drinking water disinfection by-products chloroform and bromoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallef, Messaouda; Cenkci, Süleyman; Akyil, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Konuk, Muhsin; Benouareth, Djamel Eddine

    2017-11-17

    Chloroform and Bromoform are two abundant trihalomethanes found in Algerian drinking water. The investigation of the mutagenic hazard of these disinfection by-products was studied by Ames test as prokaryotic bioassay to show their mutagenic effects. For this, Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains were employed. Both chloroform and bromoform showed a direct mutagenic effect since the number of revertant colonies gradually increase in dose-dependent manner with all concentrations tested with the two bacterial strains and these were both in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activation. The genotoxic hazard was also studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA test on the root cells of Allium cepa as eukaryotic bioassay. DNA extracted from the roots of the onion were incubated at different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction. This was based on demonstrating a major effect of disappearance of bands compared to roots incubated in the negative control (distilled water). The results showed that these two compounds affected genomic DNA by breaks although by mutations.

  2. Influence of Sulfur for Oxygen Substitution in the Solvolytic Reactions of Chloroformate Esters and Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of oxygen within a chloroformate ester (ROCOCl by sulfur can lead to a chlorothioformate (RSCOCl, a chlorothionoformate (ROCSCl, or a chlorodithioformate (RSCSCl. Phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl reacts over the full range of solvents usually included in Grunwald-Winstein equation studies of solvolysis by an addition-elimination (A-E pathway. At the other extreme, phenyl chlorodithioformate (PhSCSCl reacts across the range by an ionization pathway. The phenyl chlorothioformate (PhSCOCl and phenyl chlorothionoformate (PhOCSCl react at remarkably similar rates in a given solvent and there is a dichotomy of behavior with the A-E pathway favored in solvents such as ethanol-water and the ionization mechanism favored in aqueous solvents rich in fluoroalcohol. Alkyl esters behave similarly but with increased tendency to ionization as the alkyl group goes from 1° to 2° to 3°. N,N-Disubstituted carbamoyl halides favor the ionization pathway as do also the considerably faster reacting thiocarbamoyl chlorides. The tendency towards ionization increases as, within the three contributing structures of the resonance hybrid for the formed cation, the atoms carrying positive charge (other than the central carbon change from oxygen to sulfur to nitrogen, consistent with the relative stabilities of species with positive charge on these atoms.

  3. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-12-08

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2010 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater at the Hanford Site for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study also explores the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. The research was initiated to decrease the uncertainties in abiotic degradation rates of CT and chloroform CF associated with temperature and possible heterogeneous effects. After 2 years of data collection, the first evidence for heterogeneous effects was identified for hydrolysis of CT, and preliminary evidence for the effects of different mineral types on CF hydrolysis rates also was reported. The CT data showed no difference among mineral types, whereas significant differences were seen in the CF results, perhaps due to the fact that CF hydrolyzes by both neutral and base-catalyzed mechanisms whereas CT follows only the neutral hydrolysis path. In this report, we review the project objectives, organization, and technical approaches taken, update the status and results of the hydrolysis-rate experiments after 4 years of experimentation (i.e., through FY 2010), and provide a brief discussion of how these results add to scientific understanding of the behavior of the CT/CF plume at the Hanford Site.

  4. Crystal structure of Boc-(S-ABOC-(S-Ala-(S-ABOC-(S-Phe-OBn chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wenger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, phenyl (S-2-[(S-(1-{2-[(S-(1-{[(tert-butoxycarbonyl]amino}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]propanamido}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]-3-phenylpropanoate chloroform monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S-1-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid [(S-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S-2-aminopropanoic acid [(S-Ala] and (S-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid [(S-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc and benzyl ester (OBn. The tetramer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intramolecular i,i + 3 and i,i − 1 C=O...H—N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloroform solvent molecules are intercalated between the folded chains via C—H...O=C interactions.

  5. Ancient DNA extraction from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan

    2012-01-01

    A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits.

  6. Antimicrobial profile of moringa oleifera lam. Extracts against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chloroform and ethanol extracts of seeds and leaf of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antimicrobial activity against some selected food – borne microorganisms as a first step in the screening of the extracts for preliminary sanitizing/preservative properties on foods. The preliminary phytochemical screening and ...

  7. Antimicrobial potential of extracts and fractions of the African walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of the leaf, stem bark, kernel and root methanol extracts as well as the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of the leaf of Tetracarpidium conophorum, the African walnut, were investigated using the agar cup diffusion and agar broth dilution techniques. Extracts and ...

  8. Oil extract from Gongronema latifolium leaves exhibit anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air-dried, pulverized leaves of Gongronema latifolium were subjected to step wise fractionation using first, ethanol and subsequently fractionation of the dried ethanol extract using solvents of increasing polarity, n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Column fractionation of the n-hexane extract using graded ...

  9. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvicidal activity of extracts from Aloe turkanensis, Aloe ngongensis and Aloe fibrosa against the common malaria vector, Anopheles gambie, was determined. Ground Aloe leaves from the three plants were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone and methanol. Only the ethyl acetate ...

  10. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Profiles of Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The dry chloroform and methanol extracts of the leaf and twigs of Daphne alpinа were used for analysis. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by established procedures. Antioxidant potential was investigated by several methods. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts were obtained by ...

  11. Effect of Hippocratea Obtusifolia Extracts on Lactation Inducement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental animals with average weight of 200g were randomly grouped into six; the first five groups A, B, C, D and E were force-fed with feeds mixed with a measured portion of the extract, while the last group was force-fed with food mixed with distilled water only serving as control. The chloroform extract was found ...

  12. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram- positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  13. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  14. Antiplasmodial Activity of Extracts and Fractions of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica was carried out in a 4-day suppressive and 7-day curative test procedure. Six groups of animals were administered with crude extracts of 80% methanol, dichloromethane, and fractions of petroleum acetate, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol ...

  15. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L . on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) was evaluated against some pathogenic bacterial strains. Chloroform extract of seeds exhibited varying level of antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 2.0 - 5.0 mg/ml, against both Gram-positive and ...

  16. Phytochemical and in vitro antiplasmodium activities of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemicals, acute toxicity and in vitro antiplasmodium activity of aqueous and chloroform leaf extracts of Cassia nigricans using the basic phytochemical screening, Lorke's and Candle Jar methods. Steroid glycosides, reducing sugars and alkaloids were detected in both extracts, ...

  17. Ultrasound-assisted chiral derivatization of etodolac with (1R-(−-menthyl chloroformate for the determination of etodolac enanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first report of an ultrasound-assisted derivatization reaction between a carboxylic acid of etodolac (ETO and a chiral derivatization reagent, (1R-(−-menthyl chloroformate (R-MCF. Fifty μL of deproteinated mouse serum containing ETO enantiomers was derivatized with 125 μL of 200 mM R-MCF and 17 μL of pyridine (a catalyst, with the reaction facilitated by ultrasonic radiation for 13 min, which were the optimal conditions as determined by response surface methodology. After quenching the reaction by adding an aqueous L-proline solution, the mixture was subjected to salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction (SA-LLE, which provided phase separation for sample concentration as well as cleanup. The ETO diastereomers were separated on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm under a simple gradient elution of a mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol: acetonitrile (10:1, V/V and 10 mM acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1, followed by fluorescence detection with excitation and fluorescence emission wavelengths of 235 nm and 345 nm, respectively. The developed method was validated for specificity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect. A good linearity in the range of 0.5–50.0 μg mL−1 for each ETO enantiomer with r2 > 0.998 and acceptable values for the intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision as well as negligible matrix effects supported the suitability and reliability of the method. Finally, this method was used to analyze real samples taken from mice treated with (±-ETO.

  18. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ambient pressures. Synthesis and processing of these protic salts into proton-conducting membrane is far from optimized. This protic salt approach has great promise for more improvements in proton conducting membranes for making practical compact, lightweight and inexpensive fuel cells with uses ranging from small electronics (Power = 1 to 100 Watts) to transportation (kiloWatts) to stationary applications (>100 kiloWatts). This work clearly showed that proton can be conducted without water using protoic ionic liquids which are Bronsted salts which contain a proton and whose acid and base moieties have pK separated by more than 4 units and less than 14. A key finding is that the base used should be significantly different than the basicity of water or else water displaces the base and an ordinary acid membrane is left behind. This is the case where the acid moiety is sulfonic acid found on perfluorinated polymeric membranes. This PI suggests that a fruitful route for attaining highly proton-conductive stable protic salt membranes is to use the STABLE poly-phosphazene (-P=N-) polymer backbone with electrochemically STABLE pendant acid or base units on the phosphorous of poly-phosphazene and with suitable pK so the base is NOT the same pK as water. From this work this should give stable water-free proton conductors which should allow for stable fuel cells with Pt catalysts and possible with non-platinum catalyst for the hydrogen anode and oxygen cathode.

  19. [Kenzo Yoshida of the Hiroshima Domain and Chloroform Anesthesia at the End of the Edo Era in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuiki, Akitomo

    2016-02-01

    Japanese physicians encountered difficulties in obtaining information from The Netherlands on general anesthetics since 1848. It was a turning point when Chinese medical textbooks were imported in the latter half of the 1850 s. They were written by Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873), a British missionary and physician who lived in China for many years. Among them, Siyi Luelun (Sei-i Ryakuron) published in 1857, was widely welcome by Japanese surgeons and medical students. Kenzo Yoshida (1848-1924), a physician from the Hiroshima Domain, was impressed by a two-page description of chloroform anesthesia in it He observed William Willis administrating chloroform anesthesia on several injured Satsuma domain soldiers in January 1868 at the Shokokuji Temple in Kyoto. A few days later, Yoshida had a chance to administer chloroform to a man who committed suicide by cutting the abdomen. The intestine, which was 90 cm long, protruded from the wound, was put back into the abdominal cavity under chloroform anesthesia given by Yoshida. This is the second case of chloroform anesthesia administered by a Japanese physician.

  20. Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Rawani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa (P. tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v, acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. Results: In a 72 h bioassay experiment, 0.5 % crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (P < 0.05 mortality was recorded at a concentration of 60 mg/L. The chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v solvent extract provide 4 h protection against Cx. quinquefasciatus and 5 h against An. stephensi from biting. Conclusions: Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v extract showed efficient activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus, so it could be used as a mosquito larvicide agent. There is no change in the activity of non-target organism so, it is safe to use.

  1. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  2. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Attenuation Parameter Studies: Heterogeneous Hydrolytic Reactions -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Russell, Colleen K.; Truex, Michael J.

    2009-09-18

    This report documents a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study sought also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. It was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Environmental Management Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies (CRPST) project and complements work initiated by the Hanford Groundwater Project in FY 2006 that focused primarily on CT in homogenous solution. Work was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY-Cortland).

  3. High-Temperature Adsorption of n-Octane, Benzene, and Chloroform onto Silica Gel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliński

    2000-05-01

    The adsorption properties of silica gel surface for compounds differing in types of intermolecular interactions were studied under conditions in which the same silica was investigated by means of a "gas phase titration" method, i.e., at high temperature and low surface coverage. Adsorption isotherms of n-octane, benzene, and chloroform were determined at 373, 363, and 353 K. Based on these isotherms the isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated. Moreover, the adsorption energy distribution function and the derivative of film pressure with respect to the adsorbed amount were computed from the isotherms determined at 373 K. The obtained results were compared to those determined by gas phase titration. It was stated that on the dependencies of film pressure derivative some linear sections appeared that corresponded to the inflection points on gas phase titration curves. The results are discussed in terms of both the type and the strength of surface-molecule interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (Fabaceae in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanine Gomes Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich. Amshoff (CFDv in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg, as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg. Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity.

  5. Photocatalysis of chloroform decomposition by tetrachlorocuprate (II) on Dowex 2-X8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brent M; Hoggard, Patrick E

    2014-01-01

    Heterogenized on a polystyrene anion exchange resin and in the presence of oxygen, CuCl4(2-) catalyzes the photodecomposition of chloroform at wavelengths above 345 nm with greater efficiency than an equivalent amount in homogeneous solution. The reaction is proposed to proceed in two stages, the first stage yielding CCl4 and HO2(-) as products, the second consisting of a chain reaction resulting from the CuCl4(2-)-catalyzed photodissociation of CCl4, yielding phosgene with CCl3 radicals as chain carriers. Photodecomposition is retarded by added Cl(-), CH3CN, C6H12 or C2H5OH, which is ascribed to the displacement of CHCl3 molecules from the vicinity of the copper by attraction to the polystyrene matrix or to the alkylammonium cation sites. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Trapa natans L. fruit rind extracted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trapa natans L. fruit rind was extracted in different solvents with increasing polarity; 1,4-dioxan, chloroform, acetone, imethylformamide, ethanol and water. The extractive yield ranged from 0.62 –12.62%. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts was determined by agar disc diffusion method. Maximum antibacterial activity ...

  7. The anti-tick properties of the root extracts of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the anti-tick properties of the root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. Of the hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts tested, only ethyl acetate extracts proved to be potent against adults of H. marginatum rufipes.

  8. [Effects of Tagetes erecta extracts on glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-lu; Wang, You-nian; Wang, Hong-lei; Zhao, Li-lin; Liu, Su-qi; Cao, Hui; Yu, Tong-quan; Lu, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With in vivo and in vitro Tagetes erecta roots under light and dark as test materials, this paper studied the effects of their extracts on the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis. The results showed that the chloroform extract of T. erecta roots had the highest light-activated activity, followed by water extract, and methanol extract. After treated with chloroform extract, the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities in T. viennensis increased markedly, while its protein content decreased obviously. The variation degree of T. viennensis protease activity and protein content was significantly higher when the chloroform extract came from the T. erecta roots under light, suggesting that there existed active matters in the extract, which could promote the activation of protease, and thus, the decomposition of protein in T. viennensis. The bioactivity of T. erecta metabolites was mainly of light-activated one.

  9. Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunee Khamjun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae is known in Thai as Waan-Ma-Haa-Mek. The rhizomes of this plant have been used as a component of Thai herbal medicinal recipes used for decreasing dysmenorrhea. In the present study, the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of this plant were investigated in experimental animals. The rhizomes of C. aeruginosa were extracted with chloroform, methanol and water to give chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The effects of the three extracts on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice were performed. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever and the anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of orally administered the chloroform extract and methanol extract in mice was 3.03 g/kg. No dead mice were observed after oral administration of aqueous extract at the dose of 10 g/kg. Oral administration of the chloroform extract and the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa rhizomes (100-400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid. Only the chloroform extract suppressed the licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test in mice. All extracts of C. aeruginosa rhizomes had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice, yeast-induced fever and carrageenin-induced edema in rats. These results suggest that the chloroform extract of C. aeruginosa rhizome possesses analgesic effect via a different mechanism from that of the aspirin.

  10. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M; Moran, Michael J; Zogorski, John S; Price, Curtis V

    2012-08-07

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  11. Ethyl 3-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1-phenylsulfonyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acrylate chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thenmozhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H27NO6S·0.5CHCl3, the ethyl acrylate substituent adopts an extented conformation with all torsion angles close to 180°. The chloroform solvent molecule is disordered across an inversion centre and is therefore half occupied. The molecular packing is controlled by intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  12. Bacteriocin small of fast-growing rhizobia is chloroform soluble and is not required for effective nodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, A. A.; Zaat, S. A.; Wijffelman, C. A.; Pees, E.; Lugtenberg, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Small bacteriocin is a low-molecular-weight bacteriocin which is common in fast-growing rhizobia. As its activity could not be detected in chloroform-sterilized culture supernatants (P.R. Hirsch, J. Gen. Microbiol. 113:219-228, 1979), the bacteriocin could not be purified in order to study its

  13. The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forczek, Sándor T; Pavlík, Milan; Holík, Josef; Rederer, Luděk; Ferenčík, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine cycle in natural ecosystems involves formation of low and high molecular weight organic compounds of living organisms, soil organic matter and atmospherically deposited chloride. Chloroform (CHCl3) and adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) are part of the chlorine cycle. We attempted to characterize the dynamical changes in the levels of total organic carbon (TOC), AOX, chlorine and CHCl3 in a drinking water reservoir and in its tributaries, mainly at its spring, and attempt to relate the presence of AOX and CHCl3 with meteorological, chemical or biological factors. Water temperature and pH influence the formation and accumulation of CHCl3 and affect the conditions for biological processes, which are demonstrated by the correlation between CHCl3 and ΣAOX/Cl(-) ratio, and also by CHCl3/ΣAOX, CHCl3/AOXLMW, CHCl3/ΣTOC, CHCl3/TOCLMW and CHCl3/Cl(-) ratios in different microecosystems (e.g. old spruce forest, stagnant acidic water, humid and warm conditions with high biological activity). These processes start with the biotransformation of AOX from TOC, continue via degradation of AOX to smaller molecules and further chlorination, and finish with the formation of small chlorinated molecules, and their subsequent volatilization and mineralization. The determined concentrations of chloroform result from a dynamic equilibrium between its formation and degradation in the water; in the Hamry water reservoir, this results in a total amount of 0.1-0.7 kg chloroform and 5.2-15.4 t chloride. The formation of chloroform is affected by Cl(-) concentration, by concentrations and ratios of biogenic substrates (TOC and AOX), and by the ratios of the substrates and the product (feedback control by chloroform itself). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  15. Anti Tuberculosis Activity of Forest Kedondong (Spondias pinnata Stembark Extract Against Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR Strain of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Putra Dwija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forest Kedondong (Spondias pinnata traditionally known as “loloh cemcem” and commonly used as a chronic cough remedy. Previous research showed that methanol extract of Forest Kedondong leaves active against MDR strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study were to determine the phytochemical constituent and anti tuberculosis activity of stem bark extract of this plant against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Method: Coarsely powder of Forest Kedondong stem bark was extracted successively with n-hexane, chloroform and 80% ethanol. Anti tuberculosis assay of chloroform and ethanol extract was conducted using proportion method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium within 3 different concentration of extract of 1, 10, and 100 mg/mL. Activity was evaluated by inhibition of extract against M. tuberculosis growth, which was calculated by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing medium compared to control. Results and Discussion: Phytochemical test showed that chloroform extract contains terpenoid and flavonoids. Ethanol extract contains terpenoid, polyphenols and flavonoids. These extracts were active against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis with 100% inhibition at concentration of 100 mg/mL. Chloroform extract has higher inhibition against M. tuberculosis growth than Ethanol extract. Conclusions: These extracts were potentially developed to an anti tuberculosis constituent from natural product.

  16. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A; Matveev, Vladimir V; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N; Penkova, Anastasia V; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I; Chizhik, Vladimir I

    2016-04-07

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by (1)H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is "frozen" at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes "unfrozen" at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  17. Bis{2-methoxy-6-[(E-(4-methylbenzyliminomethyl]phenolato}palladium(II chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadariah Bahron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pd(C16H16NO22]·CHCl3, the PdII cation lies on an inversion center. One Cl atom of the CHCl3 solvent molecule lies on a twofold axis and the C—H group is disordered with equal occupancies about this axis with the other Cl atom in a general position with full occupancy. The PdII cation is four-coordinate and adopts a square-planar geometry via coordination of the imine N and phenolic O atoms of the two bidentate Schiff base anions. The N and O atoms of these ligands are mutually trans. The plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 73.52 (10° with that of the methoxyphenolate ring. In the crystal, molecules of the PdII complex are arranged into sheets parallel to the ac plane, and the chloroform solvent molecules are located in the interstitial areas between the complex molecules. Weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions stabilize the packing.

  18. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  19. Role of chloroform and dichloromethane solvent molecules in crystal packing: an interaction propensity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Wood, Peter A; Galek, Peter T A

    2013-08-01

    Using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), it is shown that the acidic C-H donors of chloroform and dichloromethane, respectively, form hydrogen bonds with N, O, S, halides or carbon-bound halogens in 82% and 77% of structures in which such interactions can occur. This hydrogen-bond potency is retained to a significant degree even in the presence of the more conventional O-H and N-H donors. The hydrogen-bond propensities exhibited by the C-H protons in CHCl3 and CH2Cl2 are similar to those of the acetylenic C-C≡C-H proton. However, involvement of the Cl atoms of CHCl3 and CH2Cl2 in non-bonded interactions is rather limited: the propensities for formation of (O or N)-H...Cl bonds are only 6% in both cases, while the propensities for the formation of halogen-halogen bonds is generally dichloromethane solvent molecules play a clear role in the involvement of these molecules in molecular aggregation in crystal structures, and this is exemplified by hydrogen-bond predictions made using the statistical propensity tool which is now part of the CSD system.

  20. LATE POISONING WITH CHLOROFORM AND OTHER ALKYL HALIDES IN RELATIONSHIP TO THE HALOGEN ACIDS FORMED BY THEIR CHEMICAL DISSOCIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E A

    1915-07-01

    The central lobular necrosis in the liver, which has been regarded by some writers as characteristic of late chloroform poisoning, has been produced experimentally with a number of other drugs. It is, therefore, in no sense peculiar to chloroform poisoning. Substances which have been shown to produce a morphological picture indistinguishable from that of late chloroform poisoning are: (a) dichlor- and tetrachlormethane, (b) tribrom- and triiodomethane, (c) monochlor-, monobrom-, and monoiodoethane, also the dibromethane; that is, in general, the halogen substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons containing one or two carbon atoms. Presumably similar results might be obtained with the higher members of the same series. The mechanism by which chloroform produces its characteristic tissue changes must accordingly be considered as a group reaction. Outside the body the similarities between the chemical behavior of different members of this group have been correlated by Nef on the basis of the type of dissociation which these substances undergo and the differences in their behavior on the basis of the differences of the degree to which such dissociations occur. According to the work of Nef, the group of substances under discussion has the property of dissociating to yield a halogen acid and an unsaturated alkylidene rest. Thus with chloroform the type of dissociation may be expressed thus: See PDF for Equation In this paper the view is developed that the changes characteristic of late poisonings with the above named group, namely edema, multiple hemorrhages, fat infiltration, and necrosis are ascribable (1) to acids and (2) to the fact that the amount of acid formed parallels the chemical dissociability of the drug outside of the body. Favoring the view that acid is responsible for the changes are the following observations. 1. All the characteristic features of late chloroform poisoning have been produced merely by the administration of hydrochloric acid, except, however, for

  1. Mutagenic, antimutagenic and antioxidant potency of leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Jihed; Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Nitraria retusa; methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane extracts. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. These extracts from leaf parts of N. retusa showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (microsome fraction). The highest protection against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity was observed with chloroform and methanol extracts with inhibition percentages of 44.93% (at 50 microg/plate in the presence of TA102 strain) and 38% (at 10 microg/plate in the presence of TA104 strain), respectively. Whereas Hexane and chloroform extracts reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2-aminoanthracene by 83.4% (using the S. typhimurium TA104 assay system) and 65.3% (using the S. typhimurium TA 102 assay system), respectively. Antioxidant activity of N. retusa extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damages and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, with 0.95mM trolox equivalent when tested by the ferric reducing/antioxidant method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extract and Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An acetone extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizomes and the nhexane and chloroform fractions obtained from it were tested on eight pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that the acetone extract and the nhexane fraction exhibited significant activities against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and weak activities against Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. They were inactive against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella thypi, while the chloroform fraction was devoid of activities. NMR analysis disclosed the presence of α-curcumene, xanthorrhizol and an unknown monoterpene in the nhexane fraction. In the chloroform fraction, curcumin was found to be the main compound, together with xanthorrhizol as a minor compound. These results suggest that the antibacterial potency of acetone extract of C. xanthorrhiza is contained in the n-hexane fraction, in which the active constituents are terpenoid compounds. This is the first report of the use of NMR analysis for compound identification contained in an extract or fractions of C. xanthorrhiza.

  3. Optimizing factors influencing DNA extraction from fresh whole avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to optimize the efficient combination of lysis buffer, proteinase K, incubation time, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) volume, spinning rate (rpm), and precipitation agent on quantity and quality of DNA extracted from various volumes of avian blood. Blood samples were collected in EDTA and ...

  4. Hypoglycaemic effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimosoideae), its chloroform, hexane, and mother liquor fractions were evaluated in glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of the seed exhibited a peak percentage decrease of 64% and 44.1% in blood glucose ...

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  6. An antifungal property of crude plant extracts from Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. MANN*, A. BANSO and L.C. CLIFFORD. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, The Federal Polytechnic,. P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. Abstract: Chloroform, ethanolic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous root extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Ter- minalia avicennioides were investigated in vitro ...

  7. Standardization of DNA extraction from invasive alien weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    and purification of DNA which include degradation of. DNA, contamination with highly viscous ... (5) For further purification, mixture was extracted with an equal volume of phenol: chloroform: isoamyl alcohol. .... disulphide bonds between cysteine residues (Nalini et al.,. 2004). Elimination of protein was carried out by phenol ...

  8. Influence of Extraction Solvent on Antioxidant Properties of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Guiera senegalensis is widely used in West Africa for traditional medicine. In Northern Nigeria, it is used for general well-being by women during postpartum recovery period. In this study, we report the effect of extraction solvents viz acetone, chloroform, ethanol, methanol (each at 50% and 75% concentrations) ...

  9. Chemical constituents of the solvent extracted and hydrodistilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were conducted on the effect of solvents of extraction (n–hexane, chloroform and toluene) on the chemical constituents of the essential oils of two popular spices in Nigeria, namely; African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) and Turmeric (Curcuma domestica). Comparisons were made on the chemical constituents ...

  10. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Gongronema latifolium was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of G. latifolium were fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and ethanol. Phytochemical screening of the dried fractions were carried and then acute toxicity ...

  11. Antiviral activity of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist extracts grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Conyza Canadensis L. Cronquist were investigated for their antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) AD-169 and Cox-B3 viruses by modification of the widely used shell-vial assay. The results showed that butanol and methanol ...

  12. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas ...

  13. In vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Four different solvent (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) leaf extracts of the plant were tested for cytotoxicity against four cancer cells, viz, MCF-7 (oestrogen positive breast cancer cell line), MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer cell line), SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) and ACHN (renal ...

  14. Phytochemical and antimicrobial study on the leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf of Erythrophleum africanum was exhaustively extracted with ethanol using cold maceration techniques. This was subsequently partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and nbutanol. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity against the following micro-organisms ...

  15. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... 4División de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. Centro Universitario. S/N, las Campanas, 76010, Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico. Accepted 12 May, 2010. Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their.

  16. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  17. Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed lipids of Persea americana and Chrysophyllum albidum were studied. Lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, analysed with silicic column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The total lipid content of Persea americana was 10.8% while that of Chrysophyllum albidum was 7.7%. Fractionation of ...

  18. Rapid removal of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in water by aluminum-iron alloy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Pu, Yuan; Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Wang, Rong; Song, Peng; Fisher, Adrian

    2017-09-05

    Water contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the major public health concerns. In this study, we explored the use of aluminum-iron alloys particles in millimeter scale for rapid removal of CHCl3, CCl4 and TCE from water. Three types of Al-Fe alloy particles containing 10, 20 and 58 wt% of Fe (termed as Al-Fe10, Al-Fe20 and Al-Fe58) were prepared and characterized by electrochemical polarization, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer. For concentrations of 30-180 μg/L CHCl3, CCl4 and TCE, a removal efficiency of 45-64% was achieved in a hydraulic contact time of less than 3 min through a column packed with 0.8-2 mm diameter of Al-Fe alloy particles. The concentration of Al and Fe ions released into water was less than 0.15 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Alloying Al with Fe enhances reactivity towards chlorinated hydrocarbons' degradation and the enhancement is likely the consequence of galvanic effects between different phases (Al, Fe and intermetallic Al-Fe compounds such as Al13Fe4, Fe3Al and FeAl2) and catalytic role of these intermetallic Al-Fe compounds. The results demonstrate that the use of Al-Fe alloy particles offers a viable and green option for chlorinated hydrocarbons' removal in water treatment.

  19. Estimates of European emissions of methyl chloroform using a Bayesian inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, M.; Graziosi, F.; Arduini, J.; Furlani, F.; Giostra, U.; Blake, D. R.; Bonasoni, P.; Fang, X.; Montzka, S. A.; O'Doherty, S. J.; Reimann, S.; Stohl, A.; Vollmer, M. K.

    2014-09-01

    Methyl chloroform (MCF) is a man-made chlorinated solvent contributing to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is controlled under the "Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer" and its amendments, which called for its phase-out in 1996 in developed countries and 2015 in developing countries. Long-term, high-frequency observations of MCF carried out at three European sites show a constant decline in the background mixing ratios of MCF. However, we observe persistent non-negligible mixing ratio enhancements of MCF in pollution episodes, suggesting unexpectedly high ongoing emissions in Europe. In order to identify the source regions and to give an estimate of the magnitude of such emissions, we have used a Bayesian inversion method and a point source analysis, based on high-frequency long-term observations at the three European sites. The inversion identified southeastern France (SEF) as a region with enhanced MCF emissions. This estimate was confirmed by the point source analysis. We performed this analysis using an 11-year data set, from January 2002 to December 2012. Overall, emissions estimated for the European study domain decreased nearly exponentially from 1.1 Gg yr-1 in 2002 to 0.32 Gg yr-1 in 2012, of which the estimated emissions from the SEF region accounted for 0.49 Gg yr-1 in 2002 and 0.20 Gg yr-1 in 2012. The European estimates are a significant fraction of the total semi-hemisphere (30-90° N) emissions, contributing a minimum of 9.8% in 2004 and a maximum of 33.7% in 2011, of which on average 50% are from the SEF region. On the global scale, the SEF region is thus responsible for a minimum of 2.6% (in 2003) and a maximum of 10.3% (in 2009) of the global MCF emissions.

  20. Carbon and Chlorine Isotope Fractionation Patterns Associated with Different Engineered Chloroform Transformation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Palau, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fernández, Diana; Heckel, Benjamin; Meyer, Armin; Domènech, Cristina; Rosell, Mònica; Soler, Albert; Elsner, Martin; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2017-06-06

    To use compound-specific isotope analysis for confidently assessing organic contaminant attenuation in the environment, isotope fractionation patterns associated with different transformation mechanisms must first be explored in laboratory experiments. To deliver this information for the common groundwater contaminant chloroform (CF), this study investigated for the first time both carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation for three different engineered reactions: oxidative C-H bond cleavage using heat-activated persulfate, transformation under alkaline conditions (pH ∼ 12) and reductive C-Cl bond cleavage by cast zerovalent iron, Fe(0). Carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation values were -8 ± 1‰ and -0.44 ± 0.06‰ for oxidation, -57 ± 5‰ and -4.4 ± 0.4‰ for alkaline hydrolysis (pH 11.84 ± 0.03), and -33 ± 11‰ and -3 ± 1‰ for dechlorination, respectively. Carbon and chlorine apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) were in general agreement with expected mechanisms (C-H bond cleavage in oxidation by persulfate, C-Cl bond cleavage in Fe(0)-mediated reductive dechlorination and E1CB elimination mechanism during alkaline hydrolysis) where a secondary AKIECl (1.00045 ± 0.00004) was observed for oxidation. The different dual carbon-chlorine (Δδ13C vs Δδ37Cl) isotope patterns for oxidation by thermally activated persulfate and alkaline hydrolysis (17 ± 2 and 13.0 ± 0.8, respectively) vs reductive dechlorination by Fe(0) (8 ± 2) establish a base to identify and quantify these CF degradation mechanisms in the field.

  1. Self-assembly of regioregular poly (3,3‴-didodecylquarterthiophene) in chloroform and study of its junction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manish Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Prakash, Rajiv, E-mail: rprakash.mst@iitbhu.ac.in

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: rr-PQT-12 films formed by spin coating before and after ageing (at 25 °C) showing the effect of fiber growth and significant change in charge transfer property. - Highlights: • Self-assembly of rr-PQT-12 into fiber form in chloroform marginal solvent at RT. • As assembled dispersion is processed for the fabrication of organic devices. • Processed fiber shows improvement in charge transport over its pristine one. - Abstract: This article deals with the study of self-assembly of regioregular poly (3,3‴-didodecylquarterthiophene), rr-PQT-12 into fiber form in chloroform by ageing process. Time dependent fiber growth mechanism is monitored by UV–vis absorption and confirmed by atomic force microscopy technique. It is observed that isolated rr-PQT-12 undergoes self-assembled fibril growth along π-π interaction direction and 45 min is sufficient for such assemblies in case of 0.125% w/v of rr-PQT-12 polymer in chloroform. Further the self-assembled fibril polymer is used in fabrication of Schottky diode. It exhibits ten times enhancement in forward current density (with one-fold higher mobility) and high rectification ratio compared to the isolated rr-PQT-12 due to the segmental electronic traps filling within stacking region. Our study provides a facile method of ordering of PQT-12 isolated chains in chloroform solvent and an effective way for improvement of performance of organic polymers based devices through such self-assembly.

  2. Antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Acacia salicina extracts (ASE) and modulation of cell gene expression by H2O2 and ASE treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Valenti, Kita; Kilani, Soumaya; Skandrani, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Mariotte, Anne-Marie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Ghedira, Kamel; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laporte, François; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2008-08-01

    The total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts from Acacia salicina, were investigated for the antioxidative, cytotoxic, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities. The viability of K562 cells were affected by all extracts after 48 h exposure. Our results showed that A. salicina extracts have antigenotoxic and/or antimutagenic activities. TOF and chloroform extracts exhibit antioxidant properties, expressed by the capacity of these extracts to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. To further explore the mechanism of action of A. salicina extracts, we characterized expression profiles of genes involved in antioxidant protection and DNA repair in the human lymphoblastic cell line K562 exposed to H2O2. Transcription of several genes related to the thioredoxin antioxidant system and to the DNA base-excision repair pathway was up-regulated after incubation with chloroform, TOF and petroleum ether extracts. Moreover genes involved in the nucleotide-excision repair pathway and genes coding for catalase and Mn-superoxide-dismutase, two important antioxidant enzymes, were induced after incubation with the chloroform extract. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that the chloroform and TOF extracts of A. salicina leaves contain bioactive compounds that are able to protect cells against the consequences of an oxidative stress.

  3. Foldamer dynamics expressed via Markov state models. I. Explicit solvent molecular-dynamics simulations in acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Sidney P.; Park, Sanghyun; Pande, Vijay S.

    2005-09-01

    In this article, we analyze the folding dynamics of an all-atom model of a polyphenylacetylene (pPA) 12-mer in explicit solvent for four common organic and aqueous solvents: acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water. The solvent quality has a dramatic effect on the time scales in which pPA 12-mers fold. Acetonitrile was found to manifest ideal folding conditions as suggested by optimal folding times on the order of ˜100-200ns, depending on temperature. In contrast, chloroform and water were observed to hinder the folding of the pPA 12-mer due to extreme solvation conditions relative to acetonitrile; chloroform denatures the oligomer, whereas water promotes aggregation and traps. The pPA 12-mer in a pure methanol solution folded in ˜400ns at 300K, compared relative to the experimental 12-mer folding time of ˜160ns measured in a 1:1 v/v THF/methanol solution. Requisite in drawing the aforementioned conclusions, analysis techniques based on Markov state models are applied to multiple short independent trajectories to extrapolate the long-time scale dynamics of the 12-mer in each respective solvent. We review the theory of Markov chains and derive a method to impose detailed balance on a transition-probability matrix computed from simulation data.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of acetone, chloroform and acetonitrile on sludge-derived adsorbent, commercial granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Guan-Yinag; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2008-06-15

    The adsorption characteristics of chloroform, acetone, and acetonitrile on commercial activated carbon (C1), two types of activated carbon fibers (F1 and F2), and sludge adsorbent (S1) was investigated. The chloroform influent concentration ranged from 90 to 7800 ppm and the acetone concentration from 80 to 6900 ppm; the sequence of the adsorption capacity of chloroform and acetone on adsorbents was F2>F1 approximately C1 approximately S1. The adsorption capacity of acetonitrile ranged from 4 to 100 mg/g, corresponding to the influent range from 43 to 2700 ppm for C1, S1, and F1. The acetonitrile adsorption capacity of F2 was approximately 20% higher than that of the other adsorbents at temperaturescarbon fibers is higher than that of the other adsorbents due to their smaller fiber diameter and higher surface area. The micropore diffusion coefficient of VOC on activated carbon and sludge adsorbent was approximately 10(-4) cm2 s(-1). The diffusion coefficient of VOC on carbon fibers ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-7) cm2 s(-1). The small carbon fiber pore size corresponds to a smaller diffusion coefficient.

  5. Effect of Crude Leaf Extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapassorn Bussaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc. is a fungus that causes anthracnose disease in tropical fruit plants, resulting in damages of the fruit plants and low yield and quality of fruits. The use of chemical fungicides is common for management of this disease, but it also results in the development of fungal resistance to the chemicals. Therefore, this study aims to in vitro evaluate the efficacy of 14 crude leaf extracts against C. gloeosporioides. The results showed that Piper sarmentosum leaf extracts, using 80% of ethanol, methanol, and chloroform as solvents, were found to have very high antifungal activities. Crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves could effectively inhibit the growth of fungal mycelium (100%, followed by crude chloroform extract (81.85% and 80% ethanol extract (45.50%. Maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides spore germination could be obtained after application with crude methanol extract of P. sarmentosum leaves and crude chloroform extract of Mentha cordifolia leaves at 1.25 and 2.5%, respectively. In conclusion, crude extracts of P. sarmentosum leaves were found to be highly effective for inhibiting both C. gloeosporioides mycelium growth and spore germination, and they have a potential as the new natural fungicides for management of anthracnose disease.

  6. Pesticidal activity of certain plant extracts and their isolates against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimetry Nadia Zikry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts from seven plant species were assayed against the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus in the laboratory. The plants were extracted sequentially with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol. The petroleum ether extract of each was fractionated into sap and unsap, then identified by GC chromatography. Also compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of Citrullus colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of Nicandra physaloides were tested for their toxicity against the adult beetle. The sensitivity of the adults to various crude extracts revealed great variation in effectiveness. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Nicandra physaloides proved to be the most toxic in comparison to other extracts tested, while petroleum ether extracts of Curcuma longa proved to be the least effective. All the fatty acid fractions of the seven plant species were toxic to the adult beetles at the tested concentrations. N. physaloides, Schinus terebinthifolius and Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality of adults at the highest concentration tested (1.0%. Using 1.0% unsap fraction of Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality between the adults. The least percentage mortality between the adult beetles recorded (22% was for unsap fraction of T. orientalis at concentration of 0.0625% but increased to 80.0% mortality at concentration of 1.0%. The compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of C. colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of N. physaloides proved to be highly efficient against C. maculatus adults.

  7. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  8. Determination of copper in natural waters and sediments by extraction spectroscopic method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    A sensitive extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed based on the formation and extraction of Cu(II)-neocuproine-rosenbengal into chloroform. The molar extinction coefficient of the system is 55.500 and Beer's law is obeyed up to 15...

  9. Study of the extraction of cobalt(II) from sulphate medium by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we have first investigated the extraction of cobalt(II) from sulphate medium using capric acid dissolved in chloroform and then the effect of other diluents on the extraction process at 25°C. This study aims to understand the behaviour followed by this metal or, in other words, find its stoichiometry at the end of the ...

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of extractives of naturally durable wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Kirker; A.B. Blodgett; S.T. Lebow; C.A. Clausen

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study to evaluate naturally durable wood species in an above ground field trial using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) detected differences in fatty acid extractives between species and within the same species over time. Fatty acids were extracted with chloroform: methanol mixture then methylated with sodium methoxide and fractionated using...

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  12. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the chloroform fraction from Phyllanthus niruri plant is mediated via the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidike, Ifeoma Chinwude; Salawu, Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Ndukuba, Mary; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Osunkwo, Uche Alex

    2010-12-01

    Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) is used folklorically for the treatment of diabetes, malaria, fever, diarrhea, liver disease, and urolithiasis. As an initial step toward isolating compounds effective against inflammation and pain, this study is aimed at providing scientific evidence for the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic properties of the chloroform soluble fraction (PNF1) of Phyllanthus niruri methanol extract in rats and mice. Three doses of PNF1 [25, 50, 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)] were used. Screening was done using acetic-acid-induced writhing, egg-albumin-induced pedal inflammation, Randall-Selitto test, hot-plate test, and yeast-induced pyresis as experimental models. Results show that PNF1 significantly (p egg albumin-induced inflammation was observed only at a dose of 100 mg PNF1/kg bw, which was comparable with the effect produced by aspirin (100 mg/kg bw). At 50 and 100 mg/kg bw, PNF1 significantly (p < .05, p < .01) increased pain threshold of inflamed tissue in the Randall-Selitto test but did not increase response to thermally induced pain in the hot-plate test. It is concluded that PNF1 possesses antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects that are peripherally mediated. This justifies its use in traditional medicine and its potential as a candidate for further development.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  14. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  15. Reduced rate of intensive care unit acquired gram-negative bacilli after removal of sinks and introduction of 'water-free' patient care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, J.; Tostmann, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Bos, M.; Kolwijck, E.; Akkermans, R.P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Voss, A.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, H. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sinks in patient rooms are associated with hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal of sinks from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient rooms and the introduction of 'water-free' patient care on gram-negative bacilli colonization rates.

  16. Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

  17. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC-MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D; Osborn, A Mark; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC-MS/MS. •Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils.•Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system.•This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF Shorea foxworthyi Sym STEAM BARK METHANOL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Hairil Alimuddin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening of antimicrobial activity compound from steam bark of Shorea foxworthyi Sym by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography method have been conducted. The result of this research can be base in elucidation of antimicrobial activity compounds from S. foxworthyi Sym. The first step was done in this research that is maceration of S. foxworthyi steam bark using methanol solvent. Fractination to methanol extract was done using n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate solvent, respectively. Phytochemical screening were done to methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions. Screening of antimicrobial activity compound were done to polar fraction such as methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction. The bacteria were used in this screening such as E. coli, S. aureus, S. thypii, and B. Subtilis. The extract was highest antimicrobial activity choosed to test by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography. The result was showed that chloroform extract was had highest antimicrobial activity and the flavonoide of compaund was considered having antimicrobial activity.   Keywords: antimicrobial, TLC-Bioautography, and Shorea foxworthyi Sym

  19. Environmental Levels and Trends of 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride and chloroform in water, sediment and biota for the European and Arctic regions: literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Leslie, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride in European and Arctic waters, sediments and biota were collected from scientific literature and monitoring programmes for the period 1980–2005 and are presented in this report.

  20. Antibacterial Activities of Ginkgo biloba L. Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, chloroform, and hexane extracts of the leaves of Himalayan gymnospermous plant Ginkgo biloba L. was assessed against five animal and plant pathogenic strains (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi, and Xanthomonas phaseoli employing disc-diffusion and broth-dilution assays. The methanol extract showed the highest activity (zone of inhibition of 15–21 mm followed by ethanol (14–19 mm, chloroform (15–20 mm, and hexane (14–19 mm extracts at 250 μg/mL. A minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 7.8 μg/mL was found for the methanol extract against most of the pathogens tested.

  1. Multi-constituent synergism is responsible for anti-inflammatory effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Abdul Majid, A M S; Atangwho, Item Justin; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Altaf, Rabia; Ahmad, Ashfaq

    2014-11-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceaes) leaves have been used traditionally to treat swelling and rheumatism in Indian cultures. To fractionate A. indica leaf extracts using bioactivity guided manner for identification of the active anti-inflammatory principles. Polarity-gradient sequential extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water) of A. indica leaves were screened for their anti-inflammatory potential using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model (1 g/kg). The chloroform extract was sequentially fractionated to obtain n-hexane (F-1), n-hexane-chloroform (F-2), and chloroform (F-3) fractions and their inhibitory effect on rat paw edema was evaluated (500 mg/kg). Inhibitory effect of F-2 on granuloma formation, plasma interleukin (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was assessed at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg using the cotton pellet assay in rats. Three sub-fractions (SF-1, SF-2, and SF-3) were obtained upon chromatography of F-2, and their inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase was assessed at 200 µg/mL concentration. The sub-fractions were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All the extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, chloroform extract was the most effective against paw edema (53.25% inhibition). The three fractions of chloroform extract showed significant effect, while F-2 being the most potent (51.02%). F-2 demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of granuloma and cytokines. Interestingly, all the sub-fractions of F-2 inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 with almost equal potential. GC-MS revealed that chemically the sub-fractions were totally different from each other. Anti-inflammatory effect of A. indica is a result of cumulative and synergistic effects of diversified constituents with varying polarities that collectively exert the effect via suppression of cyclo-oxygenases and cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α).

  2. In matrix derivatization of trichloroethylene metabolites in human plasma with methyl chloroformate and their determination by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Meenu; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Sudhir Kumar; Khan, Haider A; Murthy, R C

    2013-04-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial chemical that has been widely used as metal degreaser and for many industrial purposes. In humans, TCE is metabolized into dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trichloroethanol (TCOH). A simple and rapid method has been developed for the quantitative determination of TCE metabolites. The procedure involves the in situ derivatization of TCE metabolites with methyl chloroformate (MCF) directly in diluted plasma samples followed by extraction and analysis with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Factors which can influence the efficiency of derivatization such as amount of MCF and pyridine (PYR), ratio of water/methanol were optimized. The factors which can affect the extraction efficiencies of SPME were screened using 2(7-4) Placket-Burman Design (PBD). A central composite design (CCD) was then applied to further optimize the most significant factors for optimum SPME extraction. The optimum factors for the SPME extraction were found to be 562.5mg of NaCl, pH at 1 and an extraction time of 22 min. Recoveries and detection limits of all three analytes in plasma were found to be in the range of 92.69-97.55% and 0.036-0.068 μg mL(-1) of plasma, respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be in the range of 0.990-0.995. The intra- and inter-day precisions for TCE metabolites were found to be in the range of 2.37-4.81% and 5.13-7.61%, respectively. The major advantage of this method is that MCF derivatization allows conversion of TCE metabolites into their methyl esters in very short time (≤30 s) at room temperature directly in the plasma samples, thus makes it a solventless analysis. The method developed was successfully applied to the plasma samples of humans exposed to TCE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa Linn. leaf extracts and fractions by acute and chronic models

    OpenAIRE

    Boddawar, Ganesh D.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.; Shaikh, Shafik S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objectives: Leaf extracts and fractions of S. bispinosa were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in mice using acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models with aspirin as a reference drug. Materials and methods: Methanol, chloroform and hexane were used to prepare leaf extracts by soxhlet extraction method, while acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether were used to prepare fractions of most active extract. These extract and fractions were evaluated by using carrageenan and f...

  4. Optimizing the extraction of antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhikai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and distilled water were used to extract antibacterial compounds from pineapple leaf fiber. Compounds extracted using acetone showed the greatest antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, measured by inhibition zone diameter. Three extraction parameters including temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were optimized through orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum active substance extraction rate and bacteriostatic effect. Results showed that using acetone, the optimum extraction conditions for temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio were 45°C, 8 h, and 1:40 (g/ml, respectively.

  5. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  6. Extraction separation of no-carrier-added {sup 103}Pd from irradiated Rh target, Cu and Zn using {alpha}-furyldioxime, dimethylglyoxime and {alpha}-benzildioxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Isotopes Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box: 31485/498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org; Shirazi, Behrouz [Isotopes Research Group, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box: 31485/498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added {sup 103}Pd from irradiated rhodium target hydrochloric solution was investigated using {alpha}-furyldioxime, dimethylglyoxime and {alpha}-benzildioxime as extracts in chloroform. The best extractant yield for a single run was 96.9% with dimethylglyoxime from 0.93 M HCl and {sup 103}Pd purity was better than 99.99%.

  7. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes.

  8. [Preliminary screening tests of molluscicidal effect of extracts from Eucalyptus leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ming-Ya

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves collected from Guangdong Province, China. According to the WHO recommended indoor immersed method, the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves with 250, 100, 10 mg/L of water extraction, alcohol precipitation and organic solvent extraction were investigated. The dose-effect relationship showed that all the mortality rates of Oncomelania hupensis reached 80% with the volatile oil from five Eucalyptus leaves immersed at the concentrations of 100 mg/L for 48 h, and the mortality rates were both 93.3% with the volatile oil from Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla leaves. The mortality rate was up to 95% with the chloroform extract, and the mortality rate reached 60% at the concentrations of 10 mg/L for 48 h. The volatile oils from five Eucalyptus leaves and the chloroform extract in alcohol extraction from Eucalyptus urophylla leaves are better than other solvents.

  9. Gelation behaviour of a bent-core dihydrazide derivative: effect of incubation temperature in chloroform and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxue; Zhang, Tianren; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Binglian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Min

    2016-02-07

    In this work, a new kind of gelator, 1,3-bis[(3,4-dioctyloxy phenyl) hydrazide]phenylene (BP8-C), containing two dihydrazide units as the rigid bent-core, has been synthesized and investigated. It was demonstrated that BP8-C is an efficient gelator which can gel various organic solvents, such as ethanol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, etc. Both an opaque gel (O-gel) and a transparent gel (T-gel), which is more stable, were obtained with BP8-C in chloroform at different incubation temperatures. Kinetic data based on fluorescence spectra revealed that the T-gels showed a larger Avrami parameter (n = 1.44 at 20 °C) than that of the O-gels (n = 1.21 for gelation at temperatures below 0 °C). While BP8-C did form the opaque gel in toluene, gelation took longer at lower incubation temperatures and even precipitated out below 0 °C. The kinetic Avrami analysis on sols of BP8-C with different concentrations shows a two-phrase mechanism, i.e. the n values are between 0.88 and 1.74 followed by 1.69 and 3.01 throughout the temperature range of 5 °C and 35 °C for 5.34 mg mL(-1) BP8-C in toluene, indicating that the fibers formed first and then bundled to produce compact networks. We propose that supersaturation governs the formation of gel in chloroform and that the diffusion process denominates gelation in toluene. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that the xerogels prepared at different temperatures in different solvents exhibited a Col(h) structure and that there are three molecules in one columnar slice. Our results indicate that the gelation process, morphology of the gels and thus the final properties of the gels depend strongly on the preparation conditions such as temperature, solvent, concentration, etc.

  10. The alkaline comet assay used in evaluation of genotoxic damage of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaouda Khallef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline comet assay (pH 12.3 is a useful method for monitoring genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in the root nuclei of Allium cepa and various plants; it allows the detection of single- and double-strand breaks, incomplete excision-repair sites and cross-links. It has been introduced to detect even small changes in DNA structure. It is a technically simple, highly sensitive, fast and economic test which detects in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity (DNA integrity and packing mode in any cell types examined, and requires just a few cells for its execution (Liman et al., 2011; Yıldız et al., 2009. Chloroform and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in drinking water. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75and 100µg/ml and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 µg/ml as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed and p<0.05 was accepted as the test of significance. Comet assay results showed that DNA damage was significant at p <0.05 for the different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform compared to the negative control which has a damage rate equal to 3.5 ± 0.7 and the positive control which has damage rate equal to 13.5 ± 2.12. The exposure of root tip cells to these disinfection by-products increases DNA damage. All concentrations examined in this study of bromoform and chloroform cause significant harm, which could be due to DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. The measurement of DNA damage in the nuclei of higher plant tissues is a new area of study with SCGE. This assay could be incorporated into in situ monitoring of atmosphere, water and soil: the comet assay allows a fast detection without

  11. In vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of the aqueous and chloroformic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to generate a toxicological profile of Rapanea melanophloeos, a medicinal plant widely utilized in traditional medicine to treat helminthiasis,using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The aqueous extract showed potent in vitro toxicity to brine shrimp with a median lethal ...

  12. Evaluation of extraction methods from paraffin wax embedded tissues for PCR amplification of human and viral DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P; Chan, D.; To, K; Yu, M.; Cheung, J.; Cheng, A

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the efficiency of phenol/chloroform, microwave, and Qiagen spin column based DNA extractions from paraffin wax embedded tissue for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, to assess the reliability of amplifying a housekeeping gene to indicate successful viral DNA extraction.

  13. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus) extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandar Balakrishnan; Sadayan Paramasivam; Abimanan Arulkumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the lemongrass plant Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) leaves extracted serially by the solvents (chloroform, methanol and water). Methods: The plant leaves extracts were used for antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter aeruginosa microorganisms by the Kirby Bauer agar disc diffusion method. This study wa...

  14. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Senyan [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Yao, Yunyi; Lu, Shijun; Aldous, Kenneth; Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Mei, Changlin, E-mail: chlmei1954@126.com [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gu, Jun, E-mail: jungu@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of porphyrin compounds irradiated with visible light in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Gladysz-Plaska, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of two porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine (H2TPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H-porphine (H2TPyP), as well as their Zn(II) complexes (ZnTPP and ZnTPyP), have been studied analysing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra in chloroform with addition of β-myrcene. After irradiation with visible light the free-base porphyrins have been converted to the form of dication on account of hydrochloric acid generated as a result of chloroform decomposition induced by β-myrcene. Whereas in case of their Zn(II) complexes the mechanism of action is more complicated, leading presumably to the formation of the aggregated metalloporphyrin species with chloride ions playing the bridging role. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of the absorption quenching process were calculated for all the systems examined, with respect to the porphyrin concentration. The most effective irradiation was observed in case of H2TPP porphyrin.

  16. A pillar-layered metal-organic framework as luminescent sensor for selective and reversible response of chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Li, Shuni; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Zhai, Quan-Guo

    2017-03-01

    A new 3D metal-organic framework, namely, {Zn4(H2BPTC)2(HCOO)4}n (SNNU-1, H4BPTC=biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid, SNNU=Shaanxi Normal University) has been solvothermal synthesized. Four independent tetrahedral Zn atoms are connected by organic ligands to form a 2D Zn-H2BPTC layer, which is further bridged by in-situ generated HCOO- to give the 3D pillar-layered framework of SNNU-1. Unique Zn and H2BPTC all act as 4-connected nodes leading to a new 4,4,4-connected topological net with point symbol of {4·5·62·82}{4·52·62·8}{52·63·7}. Notably, intense blue emission band is observed for SNNU-1, which exhibits solvent-dependent effect. Compared to other common organic solvents, chloroform can specially improve the photoluminescent intensity of SNNU-1. Further repeated response and release experiments clearly showed that SNNU-1 can act as luminescent sensor for selective and reversible detection of chloroform.

  17. The accumulation of brain water-free sodium is associated with ischemic damage independent of the blood pressure in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Manabu; Kitazato, Keiko T; Yagi, Kenji; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kurashiki, Yoshitaka; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Kinouchi, Tomoya; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Satomi, Junichiro; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2015-08-07

    Estrogen deficiency worsens ischemic stroke outcomes. In ovariectomized (OVX(+)) rats fed a high-salt diet (HSD), an increase in the body Na(+)/water ratio, which characterizes water-free Na(+) accumulation, was associated with detrimental vascular effects independent of the blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that an increase in brain water-free Na(+) accumulation is associated with ischemic brain damage in OVX(+)/HSD rats. To test our hypothesis we divided female Wistar rats into 4 groups, OVX(+) and OVX(-) rats fed HSD or a normal diet (ND), and subjected them to transient cerebral ischemia. The brain Na(+)/water ratio was increased even in OVX(+)/ND rats and augmented in OVX(+)/HSD rats. The increase in the brain Na(+)/water ratio was positively correlated with expansion of the cortical infarct volume without affecting the BP. Interestingly, OVX(+) was associated with the decreased expression of ATP1α3, a subtype of the Na(+) efflux pump. HSD increased the expression of brain Na(+) influx-related molecules and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The pretreatment of OVX(+)/HSD rats with the MR antagonist eplerenone reduced brain water-free Na(+) accumulation, up-regulated ATP1α3, down-regulated MR, and reduced the cortical infarct volume. Our findings show that the increase in the brain Na(+)/water ratio elicited by estrogen deficiency or HSD is associated with ischemic brain damage BP-independently, suggesting the importance of regulating the accumulation of brain water-free Na(+). The up-regulation of ATP1α3 and the down-regulation of MR may provide a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate ischemic brain damage in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluorotellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning-xilu 28, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Aidong; He, Jianli; Zhou, Zhiguang [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Li, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning-xilu 28, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shi, Tengfei; Xiao, Xusheng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi’an 710119 (China); Si, Jinhai, E-mail: jinhaisi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xianning-xilu 28, Xi’an 710049 (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Fluorotellurite glass is a new mid-IR fiber laser material. • Physical and chemical dehydration method removed OH group from bulk mid-IR glass. • Emission intensity at 2.71 μm was enhanced with the incorporation of Pr{sup 3+} ion. • The introduction of Pr{sup 3+} ion improved fluorescence lifetime from 1.07 to 1.55 ms. • Er/Pr-TZNF60 glass is a deal material to develop mid-IR fiber lasers at 2.7 μm. -- Abstract: Using physical and chemical dehydration technique and traditional melting and quenching method, we fabricated a group of Er/Pr-codoped water-free fluorotellurite glasses with composition of 60TeO{sub 2}–30ZnF{sub 2}–10NaF (TZNF60, mol%). The lifetime τ{sub f} of {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition, directly measured under the excitation by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system at 978 nm, in Er/Pr codoped fluorotellurite glasses is 1.37–1.55 ms, longer than that of Er-doped tellurite oxide (215 μs) and Er-doped fluorotellurite glasses (1.07 ms). The introduction of Pr{sup 3+} ions into Er-doped system increases the emission intensity at 2.71 μm (Er: {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}) and emission cross section as well. These advances partially arise from the absence of OH groups and low phonon energy with the addition of large amount of fluorides into oxide-based host glasses. With the high quantum efficiency and large figure of merit, Er/Pr-TZNF60 glass can be potentially a promising material for the development of mid-infrared fiber lasers at around 2.7 μm.

  19. Phytochemical screening of Nepeta cataria extracts and their in vitro inhibitory effects on free radicals and carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Abdel Moneam Mohamed; Ebrahim, Mohamed Elsayed; Aly, Hanan Farouk; Metawaa, Hemaia Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahlam Hosni; Mahmoud, Ebtissam A; Ebrahim, Faten Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This research was performed to investigate in vitro the biological activities of successive as well as 70% ethanol extracts of Nepeta cataria on some biochemical parameters including oxidative markers and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme activities (α-amylase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase). Powdered N. cataria and its successive extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Tests for tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides and flavonoids were positive in ethanolic extract, but those for steroids and terpenoids were positive in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Also, different extracts were chromatographically investigated. The results obtained demonstrated that different successive extracts of N. cataria exhibited an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. It is observed that 70% ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed, respectively, the most potent inhibitory activities, while ethyl acetate and ethanol successive extracts appeared with moderate or low reducing activities.

  20. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach (China Berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Ahmed, Manzoor; Naz, Sumaira; Ayaz, Musarrat

    2015-01-01

    Nature provides a variety of drugs and medicinal agents derived from plants. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Melia azedarach bark with methanol/water (9:1 v/v), chloroform, butanol, hexane, water and ethyl acetate. For the determination of the antimicrobial activities, the agar well diffusion method was employed. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality assay; antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The chloroform extract was active against Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, the ethyl acetate extract had highest antibacterial spectrum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the n-hexane extract had highest inhibition against E. aerogenes, the aqueous extract showed highest activities against P. mirabilis, the butanol fraction showed highest activities against E. aerogenes and the methanolic extract was highly active against P. mirabilis.

  1. Comparison of different methods for extraction and purification of human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    The affectability and unwavering quality of PCR for indicative and research purposes require effective fair systems of extraction and sanitization of nucleic acids. One of the real impediments of PCR-based tests is the hindrance of the enhancement procedure by substances exhibit in clinical examples. This examination considers distinctive techniques for extraction and cleaning of viral DNA from serum tests in view of recuperation productivity as far as yield of DNA and rate recouped immaculateness of removed DNA, and rate of restraint. The best extraction strategies were the phenol/chloroform strategy and the silica gel extraction methodology for serum tests, individually. Considering DNA immaculateness, extraction technique by utilizing the phenol/chloroform strategy delivered the most tasteful results in serum tests contrasted with the silica gel, separately. The nearness of inhibitors was overcome by all DNA extraction strategies in serum tests, as confirm by semiquantitative PCR enhancement.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Lais Goyos [UNESP; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias [UNESP; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxida...

  3. SCREENING FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII

    OpenAIRE

    C. Baskaran; V. Ratha bai; D. Kanimozhi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, aceton,chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Murraya koenigii. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Murraya koenigii. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of Murraya koenigii were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bac...

  4. Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz

    OpenAIRE

    S Mondal; G K Dash; S Acharyya; D K Brahma; S Bal

    2009-01-01

    The diuretic and laxative activity of different extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f) Kurz (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The chloroform and methanol extracts produced significant diuretic and laxative activity. On the other hand, the petroleum ether extract did not reveal significant activity. Urinary levels of sodium, potas...

  5. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Shaurub H; El-Bassiony, Ghada M

    2015-01-01

     Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole­ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bi...

  6. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the lemongrass plant Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus leaves extracted serially by the solvents (chloroform, methanol and water. Methods: The plant leaves extracts were used for antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter aeruginosa microorganisms by the Kirby Bauer agar disc diffusion method. This study was carried out on lemongrass plant leaf extracts in different concentration of all solvents. The leaf extracts from different solvents were tested for their scavenging activity against the stable free radical DPPH in quantization using a spectrophotometric assay. Oxidative damage was induced in vitro by treating blood DNA and analyzing the effects of the leaf extracts. Results: The results showed that C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zones of inhibition in chloroform, methanol and water extracts. It was Observed that the C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Analyzed data in the present work suggested that antibacterial activity of C. citratus plant leaf extracts showed good results for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. DPPH scavenging activity was highly elicited by the extract of C. citratus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of C. citratus leaves effectively decreased the extent of DNA damage. Conclusions: The present study suggested that the lemongrass plant extracts could offer various health benefits.

  7. Evaluation of Antiplasmodial activity of extracts and constituents from Ampelozizyphus amazonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Dominique F M; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Machado, Marta; Lopes, Dinora; Echevarria, Aurea; Rosário, Virgílio E; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A

    2015-10-01

    Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke, a plant that is widely used by the population of the Amazonian region to prevent and treat malaria, was investigated in this work, which describes, for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of its extracts and associates this activity with its isolated constituents. Different extracts with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water) were obtained of the root bark. This procedure resulted in extracts that were characterized for their constituents. The cytotoxicity and activity of the extracts against Plasmodium berghei (schizontocidal activity, liver stage) and Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 and Dd2 strains, erythrocyte stage) were assessed in vitro. Of the four extracts assayed against P. berghei, the chloroform extract showed the greatest activity, with an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 30.1 µg/mL, followed by the aqueous extract (IC50 = 39.9 µg/mL). The chloroform extract exhibited the highest antiplasmodial activity in the erythrocyte stage of P. falciparum, with an IC50 value lower than 15 µg/mL. Fractionation of this more active extract led to the isolation and elucidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, lupeol, betulin and betulinic acid, which showed antiplasmodial activities with IC50 values ranging from 5.6 to 80.30 µM. The most active of these, betulinic acid, was further quantified in the extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector analyzes. The higher amount was found in the chloroform extract, which was the most active one against P. falciparum. The results obtained in this work may partly explain the popular intake of A. amazonicusas an antimalarial remedy in the Amazon region.

  8. Adsorption of chloroform on N-doped and Al-doped graphene: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. L.; Ren, J. F.; Yue, W. W.; Chen, M. N.; Hu, G. C.; Yuan, X. B.

    2017-10-01

    Adsorption properties of chloroform (CHCl3) on pristine graphene, N-doped graphene and Al-doped graphene are studied by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our calculations reveal that there are higher charge transfer and smaller adsorption distance and bigger adsorption energy when CHCl3 is adsorbed on Al-doped graphene comparing with adsorptions on pristine graphene and N-doped graphene. The p-p orbital coupling between Al and Cl is stronger than those of Csbnd Cl and Nsbnd Cl, which suggests that Al-doped graphene is more sensitive to the adsorption of CHCl3. Al-doped graphene can be a good candidate for sensors or catalyst to detect and adsorb CHCl3.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: Chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges, E-mail: kamyougeo@yahoo.fr [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, The University of Yaounde I, P.O Box, 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Inductively plasma torch is used for the decomposition of organochlorine molecule. ► We examine the impact of liquid water substitution by oxygen gas as oxidant. ► Complete and safe decomposition is achieved with the presence of oxygen. ► The energy efficiency and capabilities of process are better with O{sub 2} than H{sub 2}O. -- Abstract: The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ∼4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl{sub 3} feed rates up to 400 g h{sup −1} with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh{sup −1}. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, HCl and H{sub 2}O) and redox titration (Cl{sub 2}). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h{sup −1}) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude ethanol extract, aqueous and chloroform fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was investigated for antimicrobial activity. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations were the methods employed for the study. Clinical bacterial and fungal isolates were used as ...

  11. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the 80% methanol extracts of both plants could significantly lower carrageenan-induced paw oedema at doses of 200 mg/kg, p.o. Among the solvent fractions, the acetone, chloroform and methanol fractions of S. nilotica exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, the strongest being that of the acetone fraction.

  12. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  13. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  14. Role of diluent on the separation of 90Y from 90Sr by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using T2EHDGA as the extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S; Raut, D R; Mohapatra, P K

    2012-04-01

    The separation behaviour of (90)Y from (90)Sr was investigated by diluent variation using solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane techniques employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) as the extractant. Both D(Y) (distribution ratio of Y(III)) and S.F. (separation factor) were found to be high in the solvent extraction studies when chloroform was used as the diluent. Subsequent supported liquid membrane (SLM) studies using PTFE flat sheet membranes containing 0.2M T2EHDGA in various diluents indicated the trend of Y transport as xylene>hexone>chloroform>carbon tetrachloride>n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. However, the Sr(II) transport rates were also high with xylene, hexone, and carbon tetrachloride as the diluents which led us to carry out subsequent studies using chloroform and n-dodecane+30% iso-decanol mixture. Acid variation studies in chloroform system indicated an interesting phenomena of increasing Y(III) transport and decreasing Sr(II) transport with increasing acid concentration. Separation of (90)Y from a mixture of (90)Sr and (90)Y was also attempted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid extraction of wet BLT0404 microalgae for biofuel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Agustian, Egi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, research and development of microalgae for biodiesel production were conducted by researchers in the world. This research becomes popular because of an exponential growth of the microalgae under nutrient limitation. Lipid of microalgae grows faster than oil producing land crops. Therefore, microalgae lipid content could improve the economics of biodiesel production. The aim of this study was to investigate yield of lipid extract and chemicals compounds containing in non-acylglycerol neutral lipid from BLT 0404 microalga. The study was conducted because lipid extraction was an important step for biodiesel as well as biofuel production. The extraction was carried out using polar and non-polar mixture solvents. The polar solvent was methanol and non-polar one was chloroform. Process extraction was conducted under various stirring time between the microalgae and methanol and volume ratio between the methanol and chloroform. Methanol as a polar solvent was able to extract polar lipid (phospholipid and glycolipid) because it removed polar membrane lipid and lipid-associated to polar molecule. Moreover, the non-polar solvent was used for extraction non-acylglycerol neutral lipid (hydrocarbons, sterols, ketones, free fatty acids, carotenes, and chlorophylls) for biofuel production. Under ratio of microalgae: methanol: chloroform of 0.8: 4: 2 that stirring time of the microalgae with methanol was 30 min yielded 58% of total lipid extract. The yield value consisted of 14.5% of non-acylglycerol neutral lipid and 43.5% of polar lipid. The non-acylglycerol neutral lipid will be converted into biofuel. Therefore, analysis of its chemical compounds was required. The non-acylglycerol neutral lipid was analyzed by GCMS and found that the extract contained long chains of hydrocarbon compounds. The hydrocarbons consisted of C18-C30 that high peaks with larger percentage area were C20-C26. The results suggested that stirring between microalgae and methanol for 30 min was

  16. Chloroformate derivatization for tracing the fate of Amino acids in cells and tissues by multiple stable isotope resolved metabolomics (mSIRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Higashi, Richard M

    2017-07-11

    Amino acids have crucial roles in central metabolism, both anabolic and catabolic. To elucidate these roles, steady-state concentrations of amino acids alone are insufficient, as each amino acid participates in multiple pathways and functions in a complex network, which can also be compartmentalized. Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) is an approach that uses atom-resolved tracking of metabolites through biochemical transformations in cells, tissues, or whole organisms. Using different elemental stable isotopes to label multiple metabolite precursors makes it possible to resolve simultaneously the utilization of these precursors in a single experiment. Conversely, a single precursor labeled with two (or more) different elemental isotopes can trace the allocation of e.g. C and N atoms through the network. Such dual-label experiments however challenge the resolution of conventional mass spectrometers, which must distinguish the neutron mass differences among different elemental isotopes. This requires ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (UHR-FTMS). When combined with direct infusion nano-electrospray ion source (nano-ESI), UHR-FTMS can provide rapid, global, and quantitative analysis of all possible mass isotopologues of metabolites. Unfortunately, very low mass polar metabolites such as amino acids can be difficult to analyze by current models of UHR-FTMS, plus the high salt content present in typical cell or tissue polar extracts may cause unacceptable ion suppression for sources such as nano-ESI. Here we describe a modified method of ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization of amino acids to enable rapid quantitative analysis of stable isotope labeled amino acids using nano-ESI UHR-FTMS. This method showed excellent linearity with quantifiable limits in the low nanomolar range represented in microgram quantities of biological specimens, which results in extracts with total analyte abundances in the low to sub-femtomole range. We have

  17. Extraction spectrophotometric method for determination of aluminium in silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N L; Sinha, B C

    1990-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been worked out for spectrophotometric determination of macro and micro amounts of alumina in ceramic raw materials and finished products, including glasses. The method is based on the extraction of aluminum oxinate into chloroform after masking of titanium with chromotropic acid and of iron with ascorbic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline or ferrocyanide at pH 5.2. The absorbance is measured at 385 nm. Interference by Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Co, when present, is overcome by stripping them as cyanide complexes by shaking the chloroform extract with potassium cyanide solution. Zr is masked with quinalizarin sulphonic acid and fluoride with BeSO(4).

  18. Antioxidant activity and total phenols from the methanolic extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Laís Goyos; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia

    2011-11-10

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC). The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E)-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lígia Dokkedal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC. The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude extract, fractions and populnoic acid isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio F; Antoniolli, Daiane; Comunello, Eros; Cardoso, Luis G V; Carvalho, José C T; Bastos, Jairo K

    2006-01-01

    Many plant crude extracts and their isolated compounds are the most attractive sources of new drugs and show promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Austroplenckia populnea is commonly known as "marmelinho-do campo, mangabeira-brava, mangabarana and vime" and it has been used in folk medicine as anti-dysenteric and anti-rheumatic. Powdered bark wood (3.25 kg) was macerated with aqueous ethanol (96%) and the extract was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 406 g of crude hydralcoholic extract. The hydralcoholic extract was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) in sequence, yielding 8.0 g, 9.5 g and 98.17 g of crude extracts, respectively. Chromatography of the hexane extract over a silica gel column led to the isolation of the triterpene populnoic acid. The oral administration of hydralcoholic, hexane, chloroform and EtOAc extracts (200 mg/kg) decreased the ulcer lesion index (ULI) by 83.15%, 46.87%, 32.2%, 68.12%, respectively. Oral administration of populnoic acid (100 mg/kg) diminished the ULI by 55.29%. All the obtained results were significant in comparison with the negative control, with exception of the chloroform extract.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Man Lien

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL. The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL, while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  2. In vitro biocompatibility and proliferative effects of polar and non-polar extracts of cucurbita ficifolia on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristatile, Balakrishnan; Alshammari, Ghedeir M

    2017-05-01

    Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, there has been an enduring attention towards the identification of unique method, to isolate the natural components for therapeutic applications. Our study focuses on different polar and non-polar solvents (methanol, hexane and chloroform) to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia (pumpkin) and to study the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity effects on human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). The extracts were screened for their effects on cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and cell cycle on the hBM-MSCs cell line. The assays demonstrated that the chloroform extract was highly biocompatible, with less cytotoxic effect, and enhanced the cell proliferation. The methanol extract did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity when compare to the control. Concordantly, the cell cycle analysis confirmed that chloroform extract enhances the proliferation at lower concentrations. On the other hand, hexane extract showed high level of cytotoxicity with apoptotic and necrotic changes in hBM-MSCs. Collectively, our data revealed that chloroform is a good candidate to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia. Furthermore, our results suggest that specific gravity and density of the solvent might play a crucial role in the extraction process, which warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Tinospora crispa extract and bioactive components on the rat isolated left atria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-dried stems of Tinospora crispa were extracted with water, followed by partitioning with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and finally by n-butanol. The n...

  4. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflmmatory activities of Ximenia americana extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kashivishwanath Shettar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ximenia americana extracts. Methods: Herbal extraction was done by Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was done using different biochemical tests. Antioxidant potential of plant extracts were analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdenum and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, and anti-inflammatory activity by using protein denaturation in vitro bioassay. Total phenolic content of each extract was also determined to assess their corresponding effect on antioxidant capacity of plant. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed that each solvent extract contained broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides, whereas compared to other solvent extracts, chloroform extract showed negative result for phenolic compounds whereas aqueous extract exhibited the highest phenolic content and the significant antioxidant capacity based on the test performed. Out of all extracts, methanol extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: The present study revealed that different solvent extracts of Ximenia americana leaves contain broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. Results confirm that aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant activity and methanol extract exhibited high antiinflammatory activity. Further study requires purification, characterization and structural elucidation of phenolic compounds in both extracts that may help in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A

    2005-06-15

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO{sub 2}. A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO{sub 2} phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO{sub 2}. For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO{sub 2}. These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO{sub 2} for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  6. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Mondino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB- for extracting nucleic acid (DNA from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  7. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Bud Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum, shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‑hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract, swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract, pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract. This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  8. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  9. Evaluation of extraction methods from paraffin wax embedded tissues for PCR amplification of human and viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P K; Chan, D P; To, K F; Yu, M Y; Cheung, J L; Cheng, A F

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of phenol/chloroform, microwave, and Qiagen spin column based DNA extractions from paraffin wax embedded tissue for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, to assess the reliability of amplifying a housekeeping gene to indicate successful viral DNA extraction. DNA samples extracted from 20 blocks of cervical carcinoma tissues using the three methods were subjected to PCRs targeting 509 bp and 355 bp of the beta globin gene, and 450 bp and 150 bp of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. Microwave extraction showed the highest positive rate for beta globin PCR, whereas the spin column method was the most efficient for HPV DNA extraction. When the 509 bp beta globin and 450 bp HPV PCR results were correlated, two of 10, eight of 12, and nine of 10 beta globin positive extractions prepared by means of the phenol/chloroform, microwave, and spin column methods, respectively, yielded HPV DNA of the expected size. For the beta globin negative samples, HPV was detected in three of 10, two of eight, and four of 10 samples. HPV DNA extraction was most efficient using the Qiagen spin column and had the highest positive predictive value when a housekeeping gene was used as an indicator of successful viral DNA extraction; the phenol/chloroform method was the least efficient. The potential drawbacks of some extraction methods when using a human housekeeping gene to assess the quality of viral DNA extraction need to be considered.

  10. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  11. Extraction Strategy for DNA Recovery from Putrefied Teeth and Skull Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Kamoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic samples are commonly exposed to harsh environmental conditions which affect the degree of sample (DNA preservation and subsequent genetic profiling. The aim of this study was to develop a better strategy for DNA extraction from hard putrefied tissues (Teeth and Skull bone. Jaw (teeth and the skull samples were collected from the putrefied corpses and the authors were asked to determine if the two specimens belonged to the same body. The DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform and DNA IQ™ System Kit. The PowerPlex®  16 and the PowerPlex® Y System Kits were used for autosomal STR and Y-STR genotyping, respectively. DNA profiling found evidence in favor of DNA degradation. Phenol-Chloroform extracted-DNA was re-extracted by using DNA IQ ™ System kit and managed to identify 13 autosomal STR loci and 13 Y-STR markers from doubly extracted DNA. In conclusion, the combination of two DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform + DNA IQ™ improved the quality of DNA extracted from putrefied teeth and skull bone.

  12. Assessment of antimutagenic action of Celtis glabrata Steven ex Planch. (Cannabaceae) extracts against base pair exchange and frame shift mutations on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains by Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Duygu; Durak, Yusuf; Uysal, Ahmet; Gunes, Erdogan; Aladag, Mustafa Onur

    2016-01-01

    Celtis glabrata is used in Turkey for the treatment of various health disorders. The acetone, chloroform, ethanol, and methanol extracts of C. glabrata leaf, fruit, and seed were investigated to evaluate their antimutagenic activities. The antimutagenicity of these extracts was determined by Ames test against mutagens (4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and sodium azide (SA)). The extracts were used at concentrations between 5 and 0.005 mg/plate. The ethanol extracts of leaves exhibited strong antimutagenicity (70%) against 2-AF with S9 at 5 mg/plate on TA98. But methanol (61%, 53%) and acetone (53%, 52%) also revealed strong inhibition rates at concentrations of ≥ 0.5 mg/plate. Among the extracts, the highest activity (96%) was obtained from acetone extract against SA without S9, followed by chloroform extract (91%) at a dose of 5 mg/plate on TA100 with S9. Ethanol (without S9) and chloroform (with S9) extracts showed strong antimutagenicity at all doses. Exception of chloroform and acetone (without S9), all fruit extracts (with/without S9) manifested strong antimutagenicity at doses of ≥ 0.5 mg/plate on TA98 strain. Ethanol extracts revealed 68% inhibition against 2-AF on TA98. Acetone and ethanol extracts manifested 84% and 82% inhibition against SA on TA100, respectively. All the extracts of seeds revealed strong inhibition against 2-AF at ≥ 0.5 mg/plate doses on TA98, but acetone extract showed excellent antimutagenicity (94%). Moreover, the chloroform (74, 73, 63, 54%), acetone (74, 72, 70, 65%) and methanol (74, 67, 63, 61%) extracts of seeds revealed strong antimutagenic activity on TA100 against SA with S9. This plant may be natural source of antimutagenic agents.

  13. Genomic DNA extraction from medicinal plants available in Malaysia using a TriOmic(TM) improved extraction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Hairul, A R; Sade, A B; Yiap, B C; Raha, A R

    2011-11-08

    DNA extraction was carried out on 32 medicinal plant samples available in Malaysia using the TriOmic(TM) extraction kit. Amounts of 0.1 g flowers or young leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen, lysed at 65°C in RY1(plus) buffer and followed by RNAse treatment. Then, RY2 buffer was added to the samples and mixed completely by vortexing before removal of cell debris by centrifugation. Supernatants were transferred to fresh microcentrifuge tubes and 0.1 volume RY3 buffer was added to each of the transferred supernatant. The mixtures were applied to spin columns followed by a centrifugation step to remove buffers and other residues. Washing step was carried out twice by applying 70% ethanol to the spin columns. Genomic DNA of the samples was recovered by applying 50 μL TE buffer to the membrane of each spin column, followed by a centrifugation step at room temperature. A modification of the TriOmic(TM) extraction procedure was carried out by adding chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps in the extraction procedure. The genomic DNA extracted from most of the 32 samples showed an increase of total yield when chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps were applied in the TriOmicTM extraction procedure. This preliminary study is very important for molecular studies of medicinal plants available in Malaysia since the DNA extraction can be completed in a shorter period of time (within 1 h) compared to manual extraction, which entails applying phenol, chloroform and ethanol precipitation, and requires 1-2 days to complete.

  14. Inhibition of thermal induced protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ali; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdul; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the in vitro inhibition of protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides including 20β hydroxy-1-oxo(22R)-witha-2,5,24 trienolide (1), (20R,22R-14α,20α)-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,16,24 tetraenolide (2). The results showed that the extract/fractions of the plant evoked profound inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation. The chloroform fraction caused the most dominant attenuation of 68% at 500 μg/mL. The bioactivity-guided isolation from chloroform fraction led to the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 that showed profound protein inhibition with 78.05% and 80.43% effect at 500 μg/mL and thus strongly complimented the activity of extract/fractions. In conclusion, extract/fractions of W. somnifera possessed strong inhibition of protein denaturation that can be attributed to these isolated withanolides.

  15. Kinetics of solanidine hydrolytic extraction from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. haulm in solid-liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAJLO Z. STANKOVIC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried and milled haulm of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. was used as the solid phase. An ethanolic solution of hydrochloric acid mixed with chloroform in different volume ratios was the liquid phase. The aim of paper was to unite in a single step the processes of glycoalkaloids extraction from haulm, their hydrolysis to solanidine and the extraction of solanidine. This could make the procedure of obtaining solanidine faster and simpler. The best degree of solanidine hydrolytic extraction of 84.5 % was achieved using 10 % w/v hydrochloric acid in 96 % vol. ethanol mixed with chloroform in a volume ratio of 2:3, after 120 min of hydrolytic extraction.

  16. Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the total flavonoid and taxifolin contents and the radical-scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extracts of Polygonum orientale leaves, stems, and seeds by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The extract with higher total flavonoid content has higher radical scavenging activity. Taxifolin (IC50 = 2.83 μmol/L has antioxidant activity stronger than that of rutin (IC50 = 3.08 μmol/L. The free radical-scavenging potentials of chloroform, ethyl acetate, water, ethanol, and methanol extracts of Polygonum orientale seeds were also investigated. The free radical-scavenging abilities of various extracts were determined as: methanol > ethanol > water > ethyl acetate > chloroform.

  17. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of leaf and seed extracts of Coix lacryma-jobi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajan Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the possible phytochemical constituents, antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of Coix lacryma-jobi L. (Job’s tears using the chloroform leaves and seed extracts. Methods: The test for antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration was conducted by the disc diffusion and two-fold dilution method, respectively. In anthelmintic activity test, using Pheretima posthuma model, vermifuge and vermicidal activity were determined by using the chloroform extract at various concentrations. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of chloroform extracts of Job’s tears leaves indicated the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, saponin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and steroids whereas the seeds extract contained glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and steroids, which revealed highest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (12.5–50 mg/mL was observed against all selected bacteria. On the other hand, it has been observed that chloroform leaves extracts showed shortest time of paralysis (P = 8.17 min and death (D = 18.23 min at 100 mg/ mL concentration, in comparison with seed extracts (P = 36.83 min and D = 62.33 min at 100 mg/mL concentration and albendazole (10 mg/mL used as reference drug (P = 20.17 min and D = 43.67 min, which indicated the plant possessed mild anthelmintic activity. Conclusions: The chloroform extracts (leaves and seeds showed efficacy for both bacterial infections and parasitic diseases, which ensure the traditional uses of Coix lacryma-jobi L.

  18. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Ana Karina Lima; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Scortecci, Katia Castanho

    2013-01-01

    Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays ...

  19. Evaluation of Anti-oxidant Activity of Elytraria acaulis Aerial Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Babu Bastipati; Lakshmi Narasu, M.

    2017-01-01

    Elytraria acaulis, a stem less perennial herb of Acantheceae family has many medicinal and therapeutic properties. Anti oxidative activity of the aerial parts of this Elytraria acaulis were assessed in the present study. The aerial parts of the plant (Stem & Leaves) were extracted in different organic solvents such as n-Hexane, Ethanol, Methanol, Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform. Initially, Total Phenolic & Total Flavonoids content in different solvent plant extracts were estimated. The free radi...

  20. Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Filho José Vitor M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of six marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta from North Ceará coast (Northeast Brazil were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the single disk method. Best results were shown by the hexane extracts of Amansia multifida against enteric Gram-negative strains such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. cholerae-suis, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different leaves crude extracts of Omani Ficus carica against food borne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AfafMohammed Weli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prepare different polarities crude extract from the leaves of Ficus carica and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential against food borne pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: The dried leaves were macerated in absolute ethanol for one week. The ethanol was evaporated and the crude extract was defatted with ethanol-water. The defatted hydro alcoholic crude extract was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant potential was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different crude extracts against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Results: The total extraction yield was 2.2%. The highest extraction yield was in chloroform and the lowest in hexane. The antioxidant results were found in the order of hydro alcoholic>ethyl acetate>hexane>chloroform. Hydro alcoholic crude extract and its derived fractions display moderate antimicrobial potential against the selected bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheichia coli and Pseudomonas, in the range of 0%-13%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the hydro alcoholic and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Ficus carica possess very good antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

  2. Chloroform aerobic cometabolism by butane-growing Rhodococcus aetherovorans BCP1 in continuous-flow biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarelli, R; Cappelletti, M; Fedi, S; Pinelli, D; Frascari, D

    2012-06-01

    This work focuses on chloroform (CF) cometabolism by a butane-grown aerobic pure culture (Rhodococcus aetherovorans BCP1) in continuous-flow biofilm reactors. The goals were to obtain preliminary information on the feasibility of CF biodegradation by BCP1 in biofilm reactors and to evaluate the applicability of the pulsed injection of growth substrate and oxygen to biofilm reactors. The attached-cell tests were initially conducted in a 0.165-L bioreactor and, then, scaled-up to a 1.772-L bioreactor. Glass cylinders were utilized as biofilm carriers. The continuous supply of growth substrate (butane), which led to the attainment of the highest CF degradation rate (8.4 mg(CF) day(-1) m (biofilm surface)(-2)), was compared with four schedules of butane and oxygen pulsed feeding. The pulsed injection technique allowed the attainment of a ratio of CF mass degraded per unit mass of butane supplied equal to 0.16 mg(CF) mg (butane)(-1), a value 4.4 times higher than that obtained with the continuous substrate supply. A procedure based on the utilization of integral mass balances and of average concentrations along the bioreactors resulted in a satisfactory match between the predicted and the experimental CF degradation performances, and can therefore be utilized to provide a guideline for optimizing the substrate pulsed injection schedule.

  3. Analytical platform for metabolome analysis of microbial cells using methyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kathleen F; Aggio, Raphael B M; Van Houtte, Jeremy R; Villas-Bôas, Silas G

    2010-09-01

    This protocol describes an analytical platform for the analysis of intra- and extracellular metabolites of microbial cells (yeast, filamentous fungi and bacteria) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The protocol is subdivided into sampling, sample preparation, chemical derivatization of metabolites, GC-MS analysis and data processing and analysis. This protocol uses two robust quenching methods for microbial cultures, the first of which, cold glycerol-saline quenching, causes reduced leakage of intracellular metabolites, thus allowing a more reliable separation of intra- and extracellular metabolites with simultaneous stopping of cell metabolism. The second, fast filtration, is specifically designed for quenching filamentous micro-organisms. These sampling techniques are combined with an easy sample-preparation procedure and a fast chemical derivatization reaction using methyl chloroformate. This reaction takes place at room temperature, in aqueous medium, and is less prone to matrix effect compared with other derivatizations. This protocol takes an average of 10 d to complete and enables the simultaneous analysis of hundreds of metabolites from the central carbon metabolism (amino and nonamino organic acids, phosphorylated organic acids and fatty acid intermediates) using an in-house MS library and a data analysis pipeline consisting of two free software programs (Automated Mass Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) and R).

  4. Thermodynamic study of charge-transfer complex of iodine with HT18C6 in chloroform solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Javadian Jazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric study concerning the interaction between HT18C6 as n-donor and I2 as σ-acceptor has been performed in chloroform solution at different temperatures. The results are indicative of the formation 1:1 complex through equilibrium reaction. The stability constant of the complex at 7, 13, 19 and 25 oC is obtained by the computer-fitting of absorbance-mole ratio data in MATLAB software. The ΔHo and ΔSo values are obtained by the Vant Hoff method. The obtained data show that the complex is enthalpy stabilized and entropy destabilized. The entropy destabilitization is attributed to the decrease of the entropy of the free donor upon complexation. Comparison of the data from this work with those of previous works done on 18C6-I2 and HA18C6-I2 is indicative of different stability, stoichiometry and products. The possible reasons for such differences are discussed.

  5. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Safranin O and Methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple extractive Spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium (RST in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the RST with basic dyes safranin O (Method A and methylene blue (Method B in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate λmax against the reagent blank. These methods have been statistically evaluated and are found to be precise and accurate.

  6. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baskaran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, Petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Carica papaya. Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Carica papaya. The antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida kefyr. Results: It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, aceton, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aquas extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The chloroform extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus, zone of diameter 15.17暲0.29mm and acetone extract of Carica papaya showed more activity against Candida albicans, zone of diameter 11.23暲0.25mm compared to other solvent extracts. Conclusions: In this study chloroform extract in bacteria and acetone extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than Ethanol, methanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, hexane and hot water extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial and antifungal activity of Carica papaya extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presences of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity are confirmed.

  7. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  8. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Massiha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the plants used to treat certain diseases, because they have showed antimicrobial activity. In this case, many studies have conducted on antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial effects of aqueous, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of A. annua against eight bacterial species. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal activity of the essential oil and extract was performed by agar disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods.Results: The obtained results showed antibacterial activity of the organic and chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua against the tested microorganisms. Presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic compounds, quinines and terpenoids were identified in the composition of the obtained extract using mass gas-chromatograph. The best result for the minimum inhibitory Concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration was reported for the 32 mg/ml of chloroformic extract.Conclusion: The results indicate the fact that the extracts and essential oils of the plants can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

  10. Evaluation of two DNA extraction methods from maternal plasma for using in non-invasive bovine fetus gender determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Arash; Tarang, Alireza; Aleyasin, Seyed Ahmad; Salehi, Abdolreza; Seighalani, Ramin; Tahmoressi, Farideh

    2012-11-01

    Fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum has been shown to be a useful material for prenatal fetal sex determination during early gestational ages. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis is now possible at 8(th) week of pregnancy, by maternal blood sample testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two DNA extraction methods from mother plasma and its routine clinical application in bovine fetus gender determination with non-invasive method. Maternal blood samples were taken from 40 pregnant cows during the 8(th)-38(th) weeks of gestation. DNA was extracted from 350 µl of maternal plasma with two salting-out and phenol-chloroform methods. The absorption in A260 and purity (A260/A280) of extracted DNA were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Three µl of the extracted DNA with phenol-chloroform method was used as a template. The PCR reaction was carried out to amplify the fragments of X and Y chromosomes of amelogenin, TSPY and BC1.2 genes. The difference between the mean absorption of DNA extracted by phenol-chloroform method and salting-out method was not significant in A260 (p>0.05, p=0.3549), but the difference between mean purity (A260/A280) of DNA extracted by phenol-chloroform method and salting-out method was significant (ptest was 100% with no false negative and false positive results. The results showed that phenol-chloroform method is a simple and sensitive method for isolation of fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

  11. Extraction matrine from Radix Sopheorae Tonkinensis by non-supported liquid membrane extraction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (NSLME is a new development extraction technology based on Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction (SLME. Sample extraction assembly is composed of three phases: an acceptor phase: phosphate–sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution at the bottom; an organic phase: chloroform applied as the non-supported liquid membrane in the middle layer; and a donor phase: aqueous solution samples containing alkaloids in the upper layer. The whole system is maintained stable by density difference among the three layers that avoided the mutual interferences. The alkaloid in the donor phase can spread to the underlying acidic acceptor phase, where it is able to form water soluble salt in the acid environment, and thus cannot return to the middle organic phase. Therefore, the transmission of alkaloid is a one-way path, and the extraction of alkaloids can be achieved and enriched. In this study, the extraction of alkaloid was carried out by using matrine aqueous solution as the donor phase, and the extraction quantity and efficiency were investigated by GC/MS. This study evaluated the relationship between extracted quantity and extraction time. The effects of extraction temperature, membrane thickness, pH value of acceptor phase on extraction quantity and efficiency were also studied, and the optimal extraction condition was found. The extracted quantity achieved the largest amount at 45 °C when pure phosphoric acid was applied as the acceptor phase; the organic solvent volume was 0.2 mL. The extraction of alkaloid from Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis was performed under the optimized condition. The extraction rate of matrine was up to 54% after a four-hour extraction. A huge advantage of NSLME technology is that the extracted alkaloid enjoyed high purity compared with that extracted by the traditional Liquid–Liquid Extraction (LLE.

  12. Effect of plant extracts on book deteriorated fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbende, Swapna P; Dalal, Lalchand P

    2016-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts of four plants against some isolated fungal species from deteriorated books. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of selected plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against some book deteriorating fungal species. Fifteen species belonging to 09 genera were isolated and identified from infested books in library. Aqueous and solvent extracts of leaves of Azadiracta indica, Callistemon citrinus, Eucalyptus lanceolatus and Pongamia pinnata were tested against some dominant fungal species viz. Chaetomium spiralis, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus stolonifer. Solvent extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity than aqueous extracts. However, these plant extracts exhibited moderate activity against A. flavus, C. spiralis, R. stolonifer and A. alternata.

  13. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of extracts prepared from Polygonaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Lajter, Ildikó; Hohmann, Judit; Jakab, Gusztáv; Vasas, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of aqueous and organic extracts of 27 selected species belonging in five genera (Fallopia, Oxyria, Persicaria, Polygonum and Rumex) of the family Polygonaceae occurring in the Carpathian Basin were tested in vitro. From different plant parts (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots), a total of 196 extracts were prepared by subsequent extraction with methanol and hot H2O and solvent-solvent partition of the MeOH extract yielding n-hexane, chloroform and 50% MeOH subextracts. It was found that the chloroform subextracts and/or the remaining 50% MeOH extracts of Fallopia species (F. bohemica, F. japonica and F. sachalinensis), Rumex species (R. acetosa, R. acetosella, R. alpinus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathus, R. pulcher, R. stenophyllus, R. thyrsiflorus, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia) and Polygonum bistorta, Polygonum hydropiper, Polygonum lapathifolium and Polygonum viviparum demonstrated the highest XO inhibitory activity (>85% inhibition) at 400 µg/mL. The IC50 values of the active extracts were also determined. On the basis of the results, these plants, and especially P. hydropiper and R. acetosella, are considered worthy of activity-guided phytochemical investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Pulsed electric field (PEF) as an intensification pretreatment for greener solvent lipid extraction from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Mauricio D Antezana; Sturm, Belinda S M; Nord, Ryan D; Carey, William J; Moore, David; Shinogle, Heather; Stagg-Williams, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from Ankistrodesmus falcatus wet biomass using the green solvent, ethyl acetate. The extraction efficiency for ethyl acetate without PEF was lower (83-88%) than chloroform. In addition, the ethyl acetate exhibited a 2-h induction period, while the chloroform showed no time dependence. Utilizing PEF technology resulted in 90% of the cells being lysed and a significant enhancement in the rate of lipid recovery using ethyl acetate. The increase in lipid recovery was due to the presence of the electric field and not due to temperature effects. The PEF technology uses less energy than other PEF systems reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Potential Anti-cancer and Anti-bacterial Activities of Philippine Echinoderm Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodyl J. Layson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In high-throughput search for bioactive compounds under resource-limited settings from Philippine echinoderms, the aqueous, methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of seven Philippine echinoderms namely Holothuria nobilis (sea cucumber, Bohadscia marmorata (sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronatus (sea cucumber, Holothuria axiologa (sea cucumber, Linckia laevigata (starfish, Oreaster nodusus (starfish and Ophiocoma ochoenleinii (brittle star were screened for antitumor and antibacterial activity. Antitumor activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality assay while antibacterial assay was performed using turbidimetric method. Both assays utilized 96-well microtiter plates to facilitate speed and ease in screening. The chloroform extract of H. nobilis gave a positive result on antitumor activity while almost all sample extracts showed antibacterial activity against E. coli.

  17. Thin-layer chromatography analysis and scavenging activity of marigold (Calendula officinalis L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extracts were obtained by extraction of marigold flower (Calendula officinalis L. The content of total phenolic compounds, determined by UV spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, was 15.12 mg/g. The content of total flavonoids, determined by UV spectrophotometric method according to Markham, was 5.13 mg/g. Qualitative determination of phenolic compounds in the extracts was performed by one- and two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC procedures. The results of one- and two-dimensional TLC analyses showed that different flavonoids and phenolic acids were present in the investigated extracts. The greatest number of flavonoids (rutin, quercetin and some unidentified flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acid were deteminated in methanol extract. The influence of marigold extracts, in concentration range 0.6-1.2 mg/mL, on 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. All extracts showed scavenging activity (SA in the following order: ethyl acetate > n-butanol > methanol > water > chloroform > petroleum ether. The SA increased with increasing concentration of extracts. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts exibited the most significant SA. These extracts in concentration of 1.2 mg/mL eliminated completely DPPH radicals. The lowest SA had chloroform and petroleum ether extracts (in concentration of 0.6 mg/mL SA=0%. The SA of marigold extracts is attributed to its hydrogen-donating ability and scavenging effect.

  18. Reliable solution processed planar perovskite hybrid solar cells with large-area uniformity by chloroform soaking and spin rinsing induced surface precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann-Cherng Chern

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent soaking and rinsing method, in which the solvent was allowed to soak all over the surface followed by a spinning for solvent draining, was found to produce perovskite layers with high uniformity on a centimeter scale and with much improved reliability. Besides the enhanced crystallinity and surface morphology due to the rinsing induced surface precipitation that constrains the grain growth underneath in the precursor films, large-area uniformity with film thickness determined exclusively by the rotational speed of rinsing spinning for solvent draining was observed. With chloroform as rinsing solvent, highly uniform and mirror-like perovskite layers of area as large as 8 cm × 8 cm were produced and highly uniform planar perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 10.6 ± 0.2% as well as much prolonged lifetime were obtained. The high uniformity and reliability observed with this solvent soaking and rinsing method were ascribed to the low viscosity of chloroform as well as its feasibility of mixing with the solvent used in the precursor solution. Moreover, since the surface precipitation forms before the solvent draining, this solvent soaking and rinsing method may be adapted to spinless process and be compatible with large-area and continuous production. With the large-area uniformity and reliability for the resultant perovskite layers, this chloroform soaking and rinsing approach may thus be promising for the mass production and commercialization of large-area perovskite solar cells.

  19. The cytotoxic effect of Elephantopus scaber Linn extract against breast cancer (T47D) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyani, N.; Nurkhasanah

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main cause of death. Elephantopus scaber Linn (ES) which has been used as a traditional medicine contains an antitumor compounds. This study aimed to explore the active fraction from ethanolic extract of ES as anticancer and to determine its inhibition effect on the cell proliferation cycle of breast cancer (T47D) cells. The ES leaf was macerated with ethanol and then evaporated to get the concentrated extract. The extract was fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol respectively. The cytotoxic activity of each fraction was carried out with MTT method, and the inhibition of cell cycle test were observed by flowcytometry method. The result showed that ES and the fractions have cytotoxic activity against T47D cell lines with IC50 values of extract, petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol fractions were 58.36±2.38, 132.17±9.69, 7.08±2.11, and 572.89±69.23 µg/mL. The inhibition effect of ethanol extract on the lifecycle of cells was occured in sub G1 phase. There was no prolonging of G1, S, G2/M and polyploidy phase of T47D cell lines. The chloroform fraction of ES is the most cytotoxic fraction against T47D cells without prolonging the cell lifecycle.

  20. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Gong

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii.

  1. Chemical composition and in vitro anti-algal activity of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany M. Haroon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the phytochemical constituents and anti-algal activities of crude extracts from dry macrophytes species, Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum. Organic solvents differed in polarity including petroleum ether, methylene chloride, chloroform, acetone and methanol were used to extract the phytochemical compounds and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analyzer was used for the detection of these compounds. Generally, the results indicated that the composition and mass fraction of phytochemical constituents varied with plant species and extraction solvents. The growth inhibition effects of separate and mixed plants extracts on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were studied. In addition, the effects of mixed extracts on ten taxonomically different freshwater microalgae species, using the single-species and mixed culture species tests were also studied. Among the five different extracts tested chloroform extract and mixed extracts of the two plant species showed the highest anti-algal potential with P. subcapitata. The sensitivity of microalgae species tested in single-species cultures to P. crispus and M. spicatum extracts found to be group-specific, in which cyanophyte Anabaena flos-aquae var. treleasei and the diatoms Gomphoneis eriense var. apiculate and Tryblionella hungarica were more sensitive compared to the tested green microalgae species. In addition, the inhibitory effects of macrophyte extracts decreased for the mixed microalgae cultures. The extracts of P. crispus and M. spicatum showed the presence of some bioactive compounds that could contribute toward the phyto-algicidal properties of these plants.

  2. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  3. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  4. Cytotoxicity of some edible mushrooms extracts over liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Emsen, Buğrahan; Kaya, Abdullah; Kocabaş, Aytaç; Çınar, Seval; Kartal, Deniz İrtem

    2015-05-01

    Mushrooms have been valued for their nutritive content and as traditional medicines; several important medicinal properties of mushrooms have been recognized worldwide. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cell growth inhibitory potential of four edible mushrooms; Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. (Agaricaceae), Tricholoma fracticum (Britzelm.) Kreisel (Tricholomataceae), Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. and Nordholm (Rhizopogonaceae), Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (Polyporaceae) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Five different extracts of edible mushrooms were obtained using water, methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform as solvent systems for cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. C. comatus showed substantial in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with all extracts especially with chloroform 50% inhibition (IC50 value of 0.086 mg/ml) and acetone (IC50 value of 0.420 mg/ml). Chloroform extract of C. comatus had maximum amount of β-carotene (25.94 μg/mg), total phenolic content (76.32 μg/mg) and lycopene (12.00 μg/mg), and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus had maximum amount of flavonoid (3.67 μg/mg). While chloroform extract of C. comatus showed the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) capturing activity (1.579 mg/ml), the best result for metal chelating activity was obtained from methanolic extract (0.842 mg/ml). Moreover, all tested mushrooms demonstrated antibacterial activity and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus and acetone extracts of T. fracticum were the most active against tested microorganism. These results indicate that different extracts of investigated mushroom have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.

  5. “Bligh and Dyer” and Folch Methods for Solid–Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Lipids from Microorganisms. Comprehension of Solvatation Mechanisms and towards Substitution with Alternative Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, Cassandra; Abert Vian, Maryline; Zemb, Thomas; Kunz, Werner; Chemat, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Bligh and Dyer (B & D) or Folch procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids from microorganisms and biological tissues using chloroform/methanol/water have been used tens of thousands of times and are “gold standards” for the analysis of extracted lipids. Based on the Conductor-like Screening MOdel for realistic Solvatation (COSMO-RS), we select ethanol and ethyl acetate as being potentially suitable for the substitution of methanol and chloroform. We confirm this by performing solid–liquid extraction of yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica IFP29) and subsequent liquid–liquid partition—the two steps of routine extraction. For this purpose, we consider similar points in the ternary phase diagrams of water/methanol/chloroform and water/ethanol/ethyl acetate, both in the monophasic mixtures and in the liquid–liquid miscibility gap. Based on high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes, and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionisation detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles, this greener solvents pair is found to be almost as effective as the classic methanol–chloroform couple in terms of efficiency and selectivity of lipids and non-lipid material. Moreover, using these bio-sourced solvents as an alternative system is shown to be as effective as the classical system in terms of the yield of lipids extracted from microorganism tissues, independently of their apparent hydrophilicity. PMID:28346372

  6. “Bligh and Dyer” and Folch Methods for Solid–Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Lipids from Microorganisms. Comprehension of Solvatation Mechanisms and towards Substitution with Alternative Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Breil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bligh and Dyer (B & D or Folch procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids from microorganisms and biological tissues using chloroform/methanol/water have been used tens of thousands of times and are “gold standards” for the analysis of extracted lipids. Based on the Conductor-like Screening MOdel for realistic Solvatation (COSMO-RS, we select ethanol and ethyl acetate as being potentially suitable for the substitution of methanol and chloroform. We confirm this by performing solid–liquid extraction of yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica IFP29 and subsequent liquid–liquid partition—the two steps of routine extraction. For this purpose, we consider similar points in the ternary phase diagrams of water/methanol/chloroform and water/ethanol/ethyl acetate, both in the monophasic mixtures and in the liquid–liquid miscibility gap. Based on high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC to obtain the distribution of lipids classes, and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionisation detector (GC/FID to obtain fatty acid profiles, this greener solvents pair is found to be almost as effective as the classic methanol–chloroform couple in terms of efficiency and selectivity of lipids and non-lipid material. Moreover, using these bio-sourced solvents as an alternative system is shown to be as effective as the classical system in terms of the yield of lipids extracted from microorganism tissues, independently of their apparent hydrophilicity.

  7. "Bligh and Dyer" and Folch Methods for Solid-Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lipids from Microorganisms. Comprehension of Solvatation Mechanisms and towards Substitution with Alternative Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, Cassandra; Abert Vian, Maryline; Zemb, Thomas; Kunz, Werner; Chemat, Farid

    2017-03-27

    Bligh and Dyer (B & D) or Folch procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids from microorganisms and biological tissues using chloroform/methanol/water have been used tens of thousands of times and are "gold standards" for the analysis of extracted lipids. Based on the Conductor-like Screening MOdel for realistic Solvatation (COSMO-RS), we select ethanol and ethyl acetate as being potentially suitable for the substitution of methanol and chloroform. We confirm this by performing solid-liquid extraction of yeast ( Yarrowia lipolytica IFP29 ) and subsequent liquid-liquid partition-the two steps of routine extraction. For this purpose, we consider similar points in the ternary phase diagrams of water/methanol/chloroform and water/ethanol/ethyl acetate, both in the monophasic mixtures and in the liquid-liquid miscibility gap. Based on high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes, and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionisation detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles, this greener solvents pair is found to be almost as effective as the classic methanol-chloroform couple in terms of efficiency and selectivity of lipids and non-lipid material. Moreover, using these bio-sourced solvents as an alternative system is shown to be as effective as the classical system in terms of the yield of lipids extracted from microorganism tissues, independently of their apparent hydrophilicity.

  8. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  10. TWO EXTRACTION METHODS AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE SAPONIN OF THE SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L., “BOLICHE”

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Ch., G.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Huamán M., J.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Aguirre M., R.; Departamento de Química Analítica FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Barrera T., M.; Escuela de Química, FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We used the plant of “boliche” of the region of the northwest of Lima Sapindus Saponaria L. as a raw material for extraction, separation and classification of the saponin obtained. The extraction was performed by two different methods, in order to ascertain the most efficient. One method degrease the sample with chloroform and then extracts the saponin with ethanol in soxhlet, while the other method makes a maceration with ethanol. In both cases we obtain a crude extract of saponins, which is...

  11. Extraction of total RNA from leaves of Eucalyptus and other woody and herbaceous plants using sodium isoascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hibino, T; Kawazu, T; Wada, T; Kihara, T; Koyama, H

    2003-05-01

    Rapid extraction of total RNA from Eucalyptus leaves is difficult due to the high content of polyphenolics and polysaccharides. A rapid and simple method was developed by using an extraction buffer containing sodium isoascorbate at a concentration of 500 mM. This method consisted of one or two chloroform extractions, one acid guanidium-phenol-chloroform extraction, and isopropanol precipitation alone. The yields of the RNA fractions were 246-1750 micrograms/g fresh weight when leaves of Eucalyptus, five other woody plants, and four herbaceous plants were used as samples. The contamination of the RNA fractions by proteins and polysaccharides was very limited as judged spectrophotometrically. When the RNA fractions were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, intact rRNA bands were detected. The RNA fractions could be used for RT-PCR. These results indicate that our new method achieves a simple and rapid preparation of high-quality RNA from leaves of Eucalyptus and other plant species.

  12. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Total phenols, total flvonoids contents and free radical scavenging activity of seeds crude extracts of pigeon pea traditionally used in Oman for the treatment of several chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate total phenols, flavonoids content of methanol crude extract of pigeon pea seeds powder and its different polarities soluble fractions and evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The powder seeds samples were used for extraction with methanol. Methanol crude extract from the seeds was defatted by water and fractioned by different polarities of solvents. The investigation of total phenols and flavonoids contents of total six crude extracts of pigeon pea were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride calorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from the seeds of pigeon pea was determined through α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: Significant amount of total phenols content was presented in hexane crude extract among the six crude extracts of pigeon pea and the order was hexane>chloroform> methanol>ethyl acetate>butanal>water. Similarly, significant amount of total flavonoids content was presented in chloroform crude extract and the order was chloroform>methanol>ethyl acetate>butanol>water>hexane. The crude extracts displayed significant α,α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in hexane extract followed by butanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water crude extracts having value of 95.50%, 83.30%, 64.60%, 64.20%, 60.60% and 52.60%, respectively. Conclusions: The crude extracts from seeds of pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different chronic diseases.

  15. Sources and occurrence of chloroform and other trihalomethanes in drinking-water supply wells in the United States, 1986-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Zogorski, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs)--bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform--are disinfection by-products commonly produced during the chlorination of water and wastewater. Samples of untreated ground water from drinking-water supply wells (1,096 public and 2,400 domestic wells) were analyzed for THMs and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-2001, or compiled, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report provides a summary of potential sources of THMs and of the occurrence and geographical distribution of THMs in samples from public and domestic wells. Evidence for an anthropogenic source of THMs and implications for future research also are presented. Potential sources of THMs to both public and domestic wells include the discharge of chlorinated drinking water and wastewater that may be intentional or inadvertent. Intentional discharge includes the use of municipally supplied chlorinated water to irrigate lawns, golf courses, parks, gardens, and other areas; the use of septic systems; or the regulated discharge of chlorinated wastewater to surface waters or ground-water recharge facilities. Inadvertent discharge includes leakage of chlorinated water from swimming pools, spas, or distribution systems for drinking water or wastewater sewers. Statistical analyses indicate that population density, the percentage of urban land, and the number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous-waste facilities near sampled wells are significantly associated with the probability of detection of chloroform, especially for public wells. Domestic wells may have several other sources of THMs, including the practice of well disinfection through shock chlorination, laundry wastewater containing bleach, and septic system effluent. Chloroform was the most frequently detected VOC in samples from drinking-water supply wells (public and domestic wells) in the United States. Although

  16. Determination of efficacy of fingermark enhancement reagents; the use of propyl chloroformate for the derivatization of fingerprint amino acids extracted from paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Tineke; Voorhaar, Annelies; Stoel, Reinoud; de Puit, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    The analysis of the constituents of fingerprints has been described numerous times, mainly with the purpose of determining the aging effect on fingerprints or showing the differences between donors or groups of donors. In this paper we describe the use of derivatized amino acids to determine the efficacy of the visualization reagents 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) and ninhydrin. At present certain conditions are used for the application of these reagents, as determined by trial-and-error investigations, to the effect on fingerprints. The recovery of amino acids from a porous surface can be used as a measure for the efficacy of a visualization agent. In this paper we describe a method for the determination of the amount of amino acid left after reaction with well known fingerprint visualization reagents. This will allow a more scientific approach to method development for fingermark enhancement techniques. Furthermore, investigations on the influence of the concentration of fingermark amino acids, the order of application of and exposure time to reagents and the influence of age of the amino acids were carried out. These studies have resulted in a broader understanding of the mechanism involved in visualization of fingermarks using DFO and ninhydrin. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory study on heterogeneous decomposition of methyl chloroform on various standard aluminosilica clay minerals as a potential tropospheric sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kutsuna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane, CH3CCl3 was found to decompose heterogeneously on seven types of standard clay minerals (23 materials in dry air at 313 K in the laboratory. All reactions proceeded through the elimination of HCl; CH3CCl3 was converted quantitatively to CH2=CCl2. The activities of the clay minerals were compared via their pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants (k1. A positive correlation was observed between the k1 value and the specific surface area (S of clay minerals, where the S value was determined by means of the general Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET equation. The k1 value was anti-correlated with the value of n, which was a parameter of the general BET equation and related to the average pore size of the clay minerals, and correlated with the water content that can be removed easily from the clay minerals. The reaction required no special pretreatment of clay minerals, such as heating at high temperatures; hence, the reaction can be expected to occur in the environment. Photoillumination by wavelengths present in the troposphere did not accelerate the decomposition of CH3CCl3, but it induced heterogeneous photodecomposition of CH2=CCl2. The temperature dependence of k1, the adsorption equilibrium coefficient of CH3CCl3 and CH2=CCl2, and the surface reaction rate constant of CH3CCl3 were determined for an illite sample. The k1 value increased with increasing temperature. The amount of CH3CCl3 adsorbed on the illite during the reaction was proportional to the partial pressure of CH3CCl3. The reaction was sensitive to relative humidity and the k1 value decreased with increasing relative humidity. However, the reaction was found to proceed at a relative humidity of 22% at 313 K, although the k1 value was about one-twentieth of the value in non-humidified air. The conditions required for the reaction may be present in major desert regions of the world. A simple estimation indicates that the possible heterogeneous

  18. Ameliorative Effects of Chloroform Fraction of Cocos nucifera L. Husk Fiber Against Cisplatin-induced Toxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Azeez, Adesola Fausat; Ola-Davies, Olufunke Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (Cis) is used in the treatment of solid tumors and is known to elicit serious side effects. Objective: The present study investigated the protective effects of chloroform fraction of Cocos nucifera husk fiber (CFCN) against Cis-induced organs’ damage and chromosomal defect in rats. Quercetin (QUE), standard antioxidant, served as positive control. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups and treated with corn oil (control), Cis alone, Cis + CFCN, CFCN alone, Cis + QUE, and QUE alone. QUE and CFCN were given at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, by oral gavage for 7 days before the rats were exposed to a single dose of Cis (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) at the last 36 h of study. Results: Administration of Cis alone caused a significant (P 0.05) affected in Cis-treated rats. Furthermore, the activities of hepatic and renal catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and levels of reduced glutathione were significantly (P Cocos nucifera husk fiber (CFCN) against Cis-induced organs’ damage while quercetin (QUE) served as standard antioxidant.Thirty male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups and treated with corn oil (Control), Cis alone, Cis + CFCN, CFCN alone, Cis + QUE and QUE alone.QUE and CFCN were given at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day respectively by oral gavage for seven days before the rats were exposed to a single dose of Cis (10mg/kg, i.p.) at the last 36 h of study. Results indicate that administration of Cis caused a significant (P0.05) affected in Cis-treated rats.The activities of hepatic and renal catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of reduced glutathione were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in Cis-treated rats with concomitant elevation of malondialdehyde.Cis exposure increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCE) by 92%.Pretreatment with CFCN inhibited lipid peroxidation

  19. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-06-30

    Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power assay, flavonoid content, phenolic content and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Significant antioxidant activity was displayed by methanol extract (IC 50 34.71 ± 0.02) in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Total flavonoids and phenolics ranged 0.96-6.0 mg/g of extract calculated as rutin equivalent and 0.48-1.43 mg/g of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent respectively. Significant value of rutin and caffeic acid was observed via high performance liquid chromatography. These results showed that extracts of R. arvensis exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, R. arvensis is a rich source of rutin, flavonoids and phenolics.

  20. Giardia intestinalis: DNA extraction approaches to improve PCR results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Rezaie, Sasan; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Razmjou, Elham

    2011-06-01

    Difficulty in disrupting cysts of Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite, decreases the yield of DNA extracted and reduces the effectiveness of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To improve the detection of the Giardia Glutamate Dehydrogenase (gdh) gene, we re-evaluated the effects of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction methods. Purified and concentrated cysts from 33 fecal samples were disrupted using conventional methods, and DNA extraction was conducted using two protocols: the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol (PCI). PCR amplification was successful for 12 extracted DNA samples (36%) using PCI following a glass bead and freeze/thaw pretreatment and for all 33 samples (100%) using the QIAamp Stool Mini Kit following the aforementioned pretreatment. Consequently, the pretreatment of cysts with glass beads and freeze/thaw cycles followed by extraction of DNA with the QIAamp Stool Mini kit was the more effective protocol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of Gossypol and Analysis of Phytochemicals in Seed Extract of Bt and Non-Bt Varieties of Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, R.; Angajala Kishore Kumar; Y.Rama Reddy; P. Jyothi Chaitanya; N.Lakshmi Bhavani; Jalapathi Pochampalli

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate the gossypol (Phenolic compound) and screening of phytochemical constituents from seed extract. During this study gossypol was extracted from cotton seeds and cotton seed cake using different organic solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol, pet ether, chloroform and hot water and screened for phytochemical constituents. Analysis revealed the presence of phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. Specific tests were conducted for each group of the ...

  2. In Vitro Pharmacological Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Different Solvent Extracts of Lantana camara Leaves Collected from Tropical Region of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus. Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%, phytol (4.528%, caryophyllene oxide (4.605%, and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z- (3.751%.

  3. In Vitro Pharmacological Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Different Solvent Extracts of Lantana camara Leaves Collected from Tropical Region of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform) on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield) and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g) content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus). Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%), phytol (4.528%), caryophyllene oxide (4.605%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (3.751%).

  4. Effects of different extracts of Rosa damascena on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Mahboobeh; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of Rosa damascena on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures were investigated in mice. The animals were divided into the following groups: normal saline control group, diazepam group (3 mg/kg), three aqueous extract groups (100, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg), three ethanolic extract groups (100, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg) and three chloroformic extract groups (100, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg). The extracts, normal saline or diazepam were injected intraperitoneally 30 min before PTZ injection. Latency to the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) and generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) and the percent of mortality of rats in each group were recorded. Significant increases in both MCS and GTCS latencies were observed in all the three aqueous extract groups in comparison with the normal saline control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The MCS latency in the ethanolic extract (1 000 mg/kg) group and the GTCS latencies in the two ethanolic extract (500 and 1 000 mg/kg) groups were higher than those in the normal saline control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). There were no significant differences in MCS and GTCS latencies between the three chloroformic extract groups and the normal saline control group. No significant differences were seen in mortality rate following PTZ administration between the different extracts-treated mice and the control mice. The results of the present study showed that R. damascena has an anticonvulsant effect in a mouse model of PTZ-induced seizures but the exact mechanism of this effect should be clarified in future studies.

  5. In vitro study of the PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present work we determined the total phenolic content of Aloe vera leaf skin (AVLS extracts by using various solvents (hexane, chloroform-ethanol (1/1, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. We have also evaluated the antioxidant and the anti-PLA2 properties of these extracts by measuring their inhibition potency on the human pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2 (group IIA. Results The water extract exhibits the highest inhibitory effect with an IC50 = 0.22 mg/ml and interestingly no effect was observed on the digestive phospholipase A2 (group IB even at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities were also analyzed and the most active extracts were observed when using chloroform ethanol (1/1 and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.274 and 0.326 mg/ml, respectively. Analysis of the total phenolic content reveals that the water extract, with the best anti-PLA2 effect, was poor in phenolic molecules (2 mg GAE/g. This latter value has to be compared with the chloroform-ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts (40 and 23.8 mg GAE/g, respectively, mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity. Conclusion A significant correlation was established between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity but not with the anti PLA2 activity. Results from phytochemical screening suggest that the anti PLA2 molecules were probably catechin tannins compounds.

  6. WtF-Nano: One-pot dewatering and water-free topochemical modification of nanocellulose in ionic liquids or gamma-valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Tiina; Helminen, Jussi Kari Juhani; Lemetti, Laura; Långbacka, Jesper; Rico Del Cerro, Daniel; Hummel, Michael; Filpponen, Erkko Ilari; Rantamäki, Antti; Kakko, Tia; Kemell, Marianna; Wiedmer, Susanne; Heikkinen, Sami; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair William Thomas

    2017-11-07

    It is shown that ionic liquids can be used to dewater birch kraft pulp cellulose nanofibrillar (CNF) suspension and act as a medium for water-free topochemical modification of the nanocellulose. Acetylation, was applied as a model reaction to investigate the degree of modification and scope of effective ionic liquid structures. Little difference in reactivity was observed when water was removed, after introduction of ionic liquid or molecular co-solvent. However, the viscoelastic properties of CNF suspended in two ionic liquids showed that the more basic, but non-dissolving ionic liquid, allows for better solvation of the CNF. Vibrio fischeri bacterials tests showed that all ionic liquids in this study were harmless. Scanning electron microscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering on regenerated samples show that the acetylated CNF is still in a fibrillar form. 1D and 2D NMR analysis, after direct dissolution in a novel ionic liquid electrolyte solution, identified that both cellulose and residual xylan on the surface of the nanofibrils reacts to give acetate esters. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq. Cogn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaisezhiyen Pavithra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts (aqueous, methanol, acetone chloroform and petroleum ether of Kedrostis foetidissima. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability of the extracts were also determined. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be high in methanolic extract for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner followed by chloroform, aqueous, acetone and petroleum ether extracts. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability was also found to be high in methanolic extract. The difference in scavenging potential of the extracts may be due to variation in the percentage of phytoconstituents extracted in various solvents. Thus the result suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of K. foetidissima could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and can be explored as a therapeutic agent in free radical induced diseases.

  8. Antibacterial activities of the ultrasound assisted extracts of Laurus nobilis, Peganum harmala and rosemary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of the Laurus nobilis,Peganumharmala and rosemary extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thus, the ultrasonic extracts were performed using the aqueous, ethanol, hydro-alcoholic or chloroform phases. The microdilution technique was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities which was finally reported as the MIC and MBC values. All the extracts showed the antibacterial activities against the bacteria at the concentration of 6.25%. However, the metalonic extract exert a maximum antibacterial activity. The extract of three plants revealed the same antibacterial activity against E. coli, but the ethanoloic extract from P. harmala showed a maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at the concentration of 6.25%. Results of the current study showed the similar antibacterial activities of the extracts against E. coli; meanwhile, the maximum antibacterial effect on S. aureus was observed by applying alcohol or water as a solvent. In general, this paper proposed that ultrasound assisted extraction was quick and cost effective approach to extract the plants. In addition, ethanolic solvent was found as the best selection among the aqueous, hydro-alcoholic or chloroform solvents.

  9. Standardization of DNA extraction from sand flies: Application to genotyping by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; de Oliveira, Liliane Prado; Alonso, Diego Peres; de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Gomes Barrios, Suellem Petilim; de Oliveira Moura Infran, Jucelei; Fernandes, Wagner de Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Ferreira, Alda Maria Teixeira; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2017-06-01

    Standardization of the methods for extraction of DNA from sand flies is essential for obtaining high efficiency during subsequent molecular analyses, such as the new sequencing methods. Information obtained using these methods may contribute substantially to taxonomic, evolutionary, and eco-epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to standardize and compare two methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from sand flies for obtaining DNA in sufficient quantities for next-generation sequencing. Sand flies were collected from the municipalities of Campo Grande, Camapuã, Corumbá and Miranda, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Three protocols using a silica column-based commercial kit (ReliaPrep™ Blood gDNA Miniprep System kit, Promega(®)), and three protocols based on the classical phenol-chloroform extraction method (Uliana et al., 1991), were compared with respect to the yield and quality of the extracted DNA. DNA was quantified using a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer. The presence of sand fly DNA was confirmed by PCR amplification of the IVS6 region (constitutive gene), followed by electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel. A total of 144 male specimens were analyzed, 72 per method. Significant differences were observed between the two methods tested. Protocols 2 and 3 of phenol-chloroform extraction presented significantly better performance than all commercial kit extraction protocols tested. For phenol-chloroform extraction, protocol 3 presented significantly better performance than protocols 1 and 2. The IVS6 region was detected in 70 of 72 (97.22%) samples extracted with phenol, including all samples for protocols 2 and 3. This is the first study on the standardization of methods for the extraction of DNA from sand flies for application to next-generation sequencing, which is a promising tool for entomological and molecular studies of sand flies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cleanup and analysis of sugar phosphates in biological extracts by using solid phase extraction and anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Hans Peter; Cohen, A.; Buttler, T.

    1998-01-01

    of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained by using cold methanol as quenching agent and chloroform as extraction solvent. It was shown that pretreatment of the cell extract with SPE markedly improved the quality of the liquid chromatography analysis with recoveries of the sugar phosphates close to 100%. Furthermore......A cleanup method based on anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed to render biological extracts suitable for the analysis of hexose phosphates with a modified anion-exchange chromatography method and pulsed amperometric detection. The method was applied to cell extracts......, the method allowed for sample enrichment and the original extraction procedure could be simplified by implementing SPE early in the extraction protocol. (C) 1998 Academic Press....

  11. A method suitable for DNA extraction from humus-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianjin; Gao, Song; Jiang, Shengwei; Kan, Guoshi; Liu, Pengju; Wu, Xianming; An, Yingfeng; Yao, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    A rapid and convenient method for extracting DNA from soil is presented. Soil DNA is extracted by direct cell lysis in the presence of EDTA, SDS, phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) followed by precipitation with 2-propanol. The extracted DNA is purified by modified DNA purification kit and DNA gel extraction kit. With this method, DNA extracted from humus-rich dark brown forest soil was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be used for efficient PCR amplification and restriction digestion. In contrast, DNA sample extracted with the traditional CTAB-based method had lower yield and purity, and no DNA could be extracted from the same soil sample with a commonly-used commercial soil DNA isolation kit. In addition, this method is time-saving and convenient, providing an efficient choice especially for DNA extraction from humus-rich soils.

  12. Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane-Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamura, N.; Page, C.; Long, T.; Semprini, L; Arp, D J

    1997-01-01

    Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O(inf2). Butane inhibited CF degradation by the butane-grown bacteria, suggesting that butane monooxygenase is respon...

  13. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products.

  14. Immunomodulatory activity of an extract of the novel fungal endophyte Entrophospora infrequens isolated from Nothapodytes foetida (Wight) Sleumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S C; Amna, T; Khajuria, A; Gupta, A; Arora, Rajesh; Spiteller, M; Qazi, G N

    2007-09-01

    A novel camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus viz., Entrophospora infrequens was isolated from an important Indian medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida. The present study reports evaluation ofbioactivities of two novel extracts viz., chloroform (CEEI) and methanolic (MEEI) extracts of Entrophospora infrequens with respect to their immunomodulatory potential in vitro and in vivo (in Balb/c mice). The endophyte E. infrequens was found to synthesize camptothecin, which tested positive in CEEI. The immunomodulatory potential of CEEI and MEEI was compared with standard camptothecin (CPT). Doses of the chloroform extract (CEEI) ranging from 12.5-100 mg/kg body weight, significantly (p immunomodulatory potential of this neoteric camptothecin-producing endophyte from Nothapodytes foetida.

  15. Study of Various Extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their Potential in Controlling Three Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalljee, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical groups of Ayapana triplinervis, extracted successively with hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform: methanol (1:1, and chloroform: methanol (4:1 were studied for their effects on Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis and Myzus persicae, three serious pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius. The most bioactive extracts were further fractionated into groups using Thin Layer Chromatography, and seven of those exhibiting strongest activity were tested on each of the three test insects. Results showed that the alkaloids and tannins exhibited greatest feeding deterrence in P. xylostella and C. binotalis, followed by phenols and flavonoids. In the case of M. persicae, A. triplinervis extracts disrupted growth and development of the nymphs, had significant pest control properties, and were good candidates for further study on their potential as botanical pesticides, in the context of an organic farming/ sustainable agriculture system, as an environmentallyfriendly alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  16. Evaluation of DNA Extraction and PCR Methods for Detection of Enterocytozoon bienuesi in Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Subrungruang, Ittisak; Mungthin, Mathirut; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Rangsin, Ram; Naaglor, Tawee; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the sensitivities of three DNA extraction methods, i.e., FTA filter paper, a QIAamp stool mini kit, and a conventional phenol-chloroform method, by using specimens with known concentrations of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was performed. FTA filter paper and the QIAamp stool mini kit were the most sensitive methods, which could detect E. bieneusi in specimens with a concentration of 800 spores/ml. We also compared five previously described PCR methods that use five different...

  17. An efficient organic solvent based extraction method for the proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Srijeet K; Walters, Benjamin T; Clouse, Steven D; Goshe, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    Membrane proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes and are an integral component of many signaling cascades, but due to their highly hydrophobic nature and the complexities associated with studying these proteins in planta, alternative methods are being developed to better characterize these proteins on a proteome-wide scale. In our previous work ( Mitra , S. K. et al. J. Proteome Res. 2007 , 6 , ( 5 ), 1933 - 50 ), methanol-assisted solubilization was determined to facilitate the identification of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane proteins compared to Brij-58 solubilization and was particularly effective for leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs). To improve peptide identification and to overcome sample losses after tryptic digestion, we have developed an effective chloroform extraction method to promote plasma membrane protein identification. The use of chloroform extraction over traditional solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to off-line strong cation exchange liquid chromatography (SCXC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis facilitated the removal of chlorophylls, major contaminants of plant tissue preparations that can affect downstream analysis, in addition to the effective removal of trypsin used in the digestion. On the basis of a statistically derived 5% false discovery rate, the chloroform extraction procedure increased the identification of unique peptides for plasma membrane proteins over SPE by 70% which produced nearly a 2-fold increase in detection of membrane transporters and LRR RLKs without increased identification of contaminating Rubisco and ribosomal peptides. Overall, the combined use of methanol and chloroform provides an effective method to study membrane proteins and can be readily applied to other tissues and cells types for proteomic analysis.

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic stem extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Mukhtar Danmusa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal plants are an enormous source of alternative antimicrobial therapy, particularly in this era of emerging resistance against orthodox antimicrobial agents. Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of methanolic stem extracts of Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. and various fractions (chloroform, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol obtained through liquid-liquid partition. Methods: The basic phytochemistry assay and disc diffusion/broth dilution techniques were used. The microorganisms tested were pure isolates of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Neisseria gonnorhea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea and Candida krusei. Results: Thin layer chromatography results showed 13 prominent coloured spots from chloroform extract using dichloromethane/methanol 10:1 as the solvent system. The crude extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and steroids/terpenes. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and zones of inhibition (ZI findings showed that stem extracts inhibited growth of all microbes at ZI range of 22 – 29 mm except C. ulcerans, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. mirabilis, C. stellatoidea and C. krusei. It was observed that chloroform fraction had the highest antimicrobial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/mL against all susceptible pathogens except P. aeruginosa (2.5 mg/mL. Conclusions: Ochna schweinfurthiana F.Hoffm. stem contains bioactive constituents with potent antimicrobial activities at low MIC, especially in the chloroform soluble fraction. This study validates and encourages the ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating infections caused by these susceptible microbes.

  19. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extra...

  20. Identification of Dehalobacter reductive dehalogenases that catalyse dechlorination of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shuiquan; Elizabeth A. Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Two novel reductive dehalogenases (RDases) that are highly similar to each other but catalyse distinct dechlorination reactions were identified from Dehalobacter-containing mixed cultures. These two RDases were partially purified from crude protein extracts of anaerobic dechlorinating enrichment cultures using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices were assayed for dechlorinating activity, and associated proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spec...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Solvent Extracts of Three Marine Macroalgae From Chilika Lake, Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro study of antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae viz., Chaetomorpha linum (Mell Kuetzing, Enteromorpha compressa (L Greville and Polysiphonia subtilissima Mont. showed specific activity in inhibiting the growth of three Gram-negative bacteria (Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli and two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus brevis. The results revealed that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were active against most of the pathogens whereas methanol and ethanol extracts were active only against S. flexneri.

  2. Simple Extractive Colorimetric Determination of Oxaprozin by Acid-Dye Complexation Methods in Solid Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive extractive spectrophometric method has been described for the assay of oxaprozin (OXA either in pure form or in pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The developed method involves formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complex of OXA with bromocresol green in aqueous acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 421 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 μg mL-1. This method has been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets. Results of analysis were validated statistically. The excipients present in the formulations do not interfere with the assay procedure.

  3. Evaluation of growth conditions and DNA extraction techniques used in the molecular analysis of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, S; Nowakiewicz, A; Ziółkowska, G; Trościańczyk, A; Majer-Dziedzic, B; Zięba, P

    2017-05-01

    Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extracts of Tremella fuciformis and its major phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kim, Su-Hwan; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2014-04-01

    Methanol extract subfractions of the edible white jelly mushroom (Tremella fuciformis), were assessed for the following antioxidant properties: ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and inhibitory activity of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Among the subfractions tested, the chloroform subfraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, with the highest total phenolic content (66.31 μg CAE/mg extract) and flavonoids content (5.12 μg QE/mg extract). The ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity of the chloroform subfraction was 7.89 μmol trolox/mg extract, which was the highest among all subfractions. This subfraction also showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity of LDL oxidation. In addition, the chloroform subfraction demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Major phenolic acids from the mushroom extract were identified as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (323 mg/kg dry weight of mushroom), gentisic acid (174 mg/kg dry weight of mushroom), and 4-coumaric acid (30 mg/kg dry weight of mushroom). © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Antifungal properties of organic extracts of eight Cistus L. species against postharvest citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Talibi, I; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Saadi, B; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of methanol and chloroform extracts of eight Cistaceae species to control citrus sour rot decay, caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii, was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Methanol extracts of these plant species exhibited more interesting activity against G. citri-aurantii, in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, compared with chloroforme extracts. Under in vitro trials, obtained results showed that methanol extracts of all tested plants revealed a highest significant antifungal activity with inhibition zones that ranged between 12·33 and 16·33 mm in diameter. All tested methanol extracts totally inhibited spore germination when tested at 10 mg ml(-1) . Incidence of sour rot was significantly lowered to 11·11% when fruits were treated with Cistus populifolius and Cistus ladanifer methanol extracts compared with 100% in the control. The disease severity was lowered to 5·19% and 6·04% when fruits were treated with the same methanol extracts respectively. The methanol Cistus extracts had sufficient antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo against G. citri-aurantii to consider its use in the citrus industry after it has been tested under production and natural infection conditions. Such natural products therefore represent a viable alternative approaches for sour rot postharvest management of citrus. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. In-tube extraction for enrichment of volatile organic hydrocarbons from aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Maik A; Yuan, Xue; Schilling, Beat; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2008-02-01

    In-tube extraction (ITEX) is a novel solventless extraction technique in which a headspace syringe with a needle body filled with a sorbent (here: Tenax TA) is used. The analytes are extracted from sample headspace by dynamic extraction. The needle body is surrounded by a separate heater, which is used for thermal desorption of analytes into the injection port of a GC system. We report here for the first time the optimization and evaluation of a fully automated analytical method based on ITEX. As target analytes, 19 common groundwater contaminants such as halogenated volatiles and monoaromatic compounds have been chosen. Method related parameters such as extraction temperature, number of extraction cycles, extraction and desorption volume as well as extraction and desorption flow rates were investigated in detail. The linear dynamic range of the ITEX method ranged over six orders of magnitude between 0.028 microg/L and 1218 microg/L with linear correlation coefficients between 0.990 and 0.998 for the investigated compounds. Method detection limits for monoaromatic compounds were between 28 ng/L (ethylbenzene) and 68 ng/L (1,2,4-trimethylbenzene). For halogenated volatile organic compounds, method detection limits between 48 ng/L (chloroform) and 799 ng/L (dichloromethane) were obtained. The precision of the method with external calibration was between 3.1% (chloroform ethylbenzene) and 7.4% (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene).

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  8. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    A chloroform-free novel process for the efficient production of biodiesel from wet microalgae is proposed. Crude biodiesel is produced through extraction with hexane after microwave-assisted transesterification (EHMT) of lipids in wet microalgae. Effects of different parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, methanol dosage, and catalyst dosage, on fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) yield are investigated. The yield of FAME extracted into the hexane from the wet microalgae is increased 6-fold after the transesterification of lipids. The yield of FAME obtained through EHMT of lipids in wet microalgae is comparable to that obtained through direct transesterification of dried microalgae biomass with chloroform; however, FAME content in crude biodiesel obtained through EHMT is 86.74%, while that in crude biodiesel obtained through the chloroform-based process is 75.93%. EHMT ensures that polar pigments present in microalgae are not extracted into crude biodiesel, which leads to a 50% reduction in nitrogen content in crude biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAF AND BARK EXTRACTS OF CLERODENRUM VISCOSUM AND CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, Sunita; Pattanaik, Soumya Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic and antioxidant potential of leaf and bark extracts of two Clerodendrum sps namely C. phlomidis and  C. viscosum was investigated. Solvent extracts   hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol were tested for their cytotoxic potential using brine shrimp motility assay and antioxidant potential was ascertained using DPPH and FRAP assays.             Cytotoxic activity of all the solvent extracts was tested at four doses 25, 50,100 and 200µl/ml. All the extracts showed d...

  10. Assessment of the in vivo genotoxicity of cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol as coded test chemicals using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assays, we examined cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol under blind conditions as coded chemicals in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after 3 days of administration. Cadmium chloride showed equivocal responses in the liver and stomach, supporting previous reports of its poor mutagenic potential and non-carcinogenic effects in these organs. Treatment with chloroform, which is a non-genotoxic carcinogen, did not induce DNA damage in the liver or stomach. Some histopathological changes, such as necrosis and degeneration, were observed in the liver; however, they did not affect the comet assay results. D,L-Menthol, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, did not induce liver or stomach DNA damage. These results indicate that the comet assay can reflect genotoxic properties under blind conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. (η6-Benzene(carbonato-κ2O,O′[dicyclohexyl(naphthalen-1-ylmethylphosphane-κP]ruthenium(II chloroform trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gowrisankar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ru(CO3(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}]·3CHCl3, was synthesized by carbonation of [RuCl2(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}] with NaHCO3 in methanol at room temperature. The RuII atom is surrounded by a benzene ligand, a chelating carbonate group and a phosphane ligand in a piano-stool configuration. The crystal packing is consolidated by C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent metal complexes and between the complexes and the solvent molecules. The asymmetric unit contains one metal complex and three chloroform solvent molecules of which only one was modelled. The estimated diffraction contributions of the other two strongly disordered chloroform solvent molecules were substracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  12. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  13. Extraction of elements with dithizone and diethylammonium-N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamate from hydrofluoric acid solutions and its applications to the analysis of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caletka, R.; Krivan, V.

    1982-03-01

    By means of the radiotracer technique, the behaviour of 36 elements was investigated in the extraction with dithizone and diethylammonium-N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamate from hydrofluoric acid solutions (3-30 M HF) in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. The obtained distribution coefficients show that under certain extraction conditions Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cu, Hg, Pd, Pt, Sb and Se can be quantitatively extracted into the organic phase while other elements are unextractable with each of both the chelating agents. On this basis, a procedure for the separation of Ag, Au, Cu, Pd and Se from the niobium matrix was worked out. The extraction was performed with both chelating agents from 20 M HF in chloroform. The yields were found to be between 95.5% (Se) and 99.6% (Ag) for dithizone, and they were similar for diethylammonium-N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamate. The decontamination factor for niobium is better than 10/sup 5/.

  14. Evaluation of different solvent mixtures in esterifiable lipids extraction from microalgae Botryococcus braunii for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Ciudad, Gustavo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    Non-polar and polar solvents as well as their mixtures were tested for the extraction of microalgae lipids and thus, to evaluate their effect on total and esterifiable lipids extraction yields with potential to be converted to biodiesel. The obtained results show an increase in lipids and esterifiable lipids extraction yields when non-polar and polar solvent mixtures were used. The higher esterifiable lipids extraction yield was 19.2%wt (based on dry biomass) using a chloroform-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol), corresponding to a 98.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. In addition, esterifiable lipids extraction yield of 18.9%wt (based on dry biomass) was obtained when a petroleum ether-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol) was used, corresponding to a 96.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of plant extracts used in traditional malaria therapy in the Lake Victoria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Akeng'a Ayuko

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of our program screening the flora of the Lake Victoria Region, a total of 54 organic extracts from seven plant families (8 species were individually tested for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive [Sierra Leone (D-6] and chloroquine-resistant [Vietnam (W-2] strains. Only 22% of these extracts exhibited very high in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Six methanol (MeOH extracts and one chloroform extract showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the D-6 Plasmodium falciparum strain, while only three MeOH extracts were active against the W-2 strain. All of the ethyl acetate extracts proved to be inactive against both strains of P. falciparum. A brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to predict the potential toxicity of the extracts. The cytotoxicity to antiplasmodial ratios for the MeOH extracts were found to be greater than 100, which could indicate that the extracts are of low toxicity.

  16. The Effects of Pistacia terebinthus Leaf Extracts and Giberellic Acid on Plant Height, Inflorescence Survival and Inflorescence Numbers of Pelargonium ‘Ringo Deep Scarlet' /

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Yahya; Atabeyoğlu, Ömer; Kordali, Şaban

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : In this paper, the effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol extracts of Pistacia terebinthus leaves at 100 and 200 ppm doses and Giberellic Acid (GA3), which is used commonly as plant-growth hormone were investigated on plant height, inflorescence survivor and numbers of Pelargonium ‘Ringo Deep Scarlet’. The applications of GA3 and all extracts lengthened the inflorescence survivor of pelargonium in comparison to untreated control group. However, two dos...

  17. [Formation of a depside-caffeine complex during cold conservation of coffee leaf samples in a hydro-ethanolic medium. Methodologic implications for the extraction of depsides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, J P

    1977-07-18

    The depsides present in coffee leaves are not apparent upon extraction with ethanol if the plant material has been fixed in boiling ethanol then maintained at - 25 degrees C. A complex formed with cafein prevents the extraction and this artefact from cold conservation concerns chlorogenic acid and its isomers. A treatment with chloroform can break the complex and allows the depsides to be dosed. The complex does not seem to exist in living tissues.

  18. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Fadwa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules.

  19. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  20. Leaf and root extracts of Moricandia arvensis protect against DNA damage in human lymphoblast cell K562 and enhance antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-07-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the roots and leaves of Moricandia arvensis: root chloroform extract (ChlR), leaf chloroform extract (ChlL), root ethyl acetate extract (EAR) and leaf ethyl acetate extract (EAL). The genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the induction and inhibition of the genotoxicity induced by the direct-acting mutagen, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), using the "Comet assay." It appears that none of the different extracts produces a genotoxic effect, except the highest tested concentrations of the leaf extracts which were capable to eliciting DNA damage. Human lymphoblast cells K562 were pretreated with different concentrations of each extracts and then treated by H(2)O(2), for the antigenotoxic study. The results showed that all extracts inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) and particularly ChlR (42.5μg/ml) and ChlL (65μg/ml) extracts. In addition, antioxidant potential study of root and leaf extracts using different antioxidant tests indicated that root extracts possess a potent antioxidant activity through namely their capacity to transfer electrons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compound from Dalbergia stipulacea Roxb. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bhat, Tahir Ahmad; Singh, Rattan Deep

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of extracts and isolated compound of Dalbergia stipulacea. Combined extracts (chloroform and methanol) of plant leaves fractionated with n-butanol loaded with column afforded a flavonoid glycoside compound identified as luteolin 4'-rutinoside. Different extracts and isolated compound exhibited pronounced antibacterial and antifungal varied activities against four bacteria (Clostridium acetobutylinium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, and Pseudomonas sp.) and one fungus (Candida albicans) susceptibility were determined using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts and isolated compounds was determined by broth dilution method. The maximum activity was shown by chloroform extract against C. albicans with a zone of inhibition of 17 mm and minimum activity was displayed by methanolic extract against Pseudomonas sp. with 5 mm. However, isolated compound has shown maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. with 15 mm. The MIC values higher in methanol extract against Pseudomonas sp. and isolated compound shows good against Pseudomonas sp. and B. subtilis. Our findings indicate that plant could be used as a good antimicrobial agent in food, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide industries.

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Acute Toxicity of Clausena excavata Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clausena excavata (Lour., locally known as “Kemantu hitam,” is a common plant in Malaysian folklore medicine. This study evaluated the antioxidant properties of the solvent extracts of C. excavata leaves and determined the acute toxicity of methanolic extract C. excavata (MECE leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Harvested leaves were dried and subjected to solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol in succession. The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and ethanolic aluminium chloride method, respectively. The chloroform extract was found to be highest in flavonoid content, while the methanolic extract showed the highest TPC and antioxidant activity. There was no mortality in rats treated with MECE leaves even at a high dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. However, the MECE leaves produced mild to moderate pathological changes in the liver and kidneys, shown by mild degenerative changes and leucocyte infiltration. The extract did not affect the haematological parameters or relative weights of the liver or kidneys. Overall, the MECE leaves have potent antioxidant activity and are presumed safe to be used orally as health-promoting product at low to moderate doses.

  3. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  4. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  5. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL DNA KITS AND TRADITIONAL DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURE IN PCR DETECTION OF PORK IN DRY/FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  6. Extraction of rotenone from Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis by pressurized liquid extraction compared with maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Yun, Attawadee; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai; Itharat, Arunporn; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2006-09-01

    The extraction of active compounds from plants is one of the most critical steps in the commercial development of natural products for medicinal, herbicidal or pesticidal use. The focus of this study was to compare conventional maceration and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) techniques for the efficient extraction of rotenone from the stem and root of Derris elliptica Benth and Derris malaccensis Prain. The effects of experimental variables, such as solvent, temperature and pressure, on PLE efficiency have been studied. Chloroform was determined to be a good extraction solvent (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w) compared to commonly used solvent, 95% ethanol (rotenone content 15.0%, w/w). The optimal conditions for PLE were 50 degrees C and 2000 psi. PLE showed higher extraction efficiency (rotenone content 46.1%, w/w) as compared with conventional maceration method (rotenone content 40.6%, w/w). The order of rotenone content found in crude extract obtained by optimized method from the highest to the lowest was root (46.1%, w/w) and stem (9.4%, w/w) of D. elliptica and stem of D. malaccensis (5.2%, w/w), respectively. Moreover, the results from this study indicated that PLE was considerably less time and solvent consuming (30 min, 3 ml/g of dried sample) than the conventional maceration techniques (72 h, 10 ml/g of dried sample).

  7. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  8. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus (Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui). The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC(50) values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 μg/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC(50) values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 μg/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC(50) values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction of alkaloids for NMR-based profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2012-01-01

    A museum collection of Cinchona cortex samples (n = 117), from the period 1850–1950, were extracted with a mixture of chloroform-d1, methanol-d4, water-d2, and perchloric acid in the ratios 5:5:1:1. The extracts were directly analyzed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (600 MHz) and the spectra evaluated...... using principal component analysis (PCA) and total statistical correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY). A new method called STOCSY-CA, where CA stands for component analysis, are described and an analysis using this method are presented. It was found that the samples had a rather homogenous content...... of the well-known cinchona alkaloids quinine, cinchonine and cinchonidine without any apparent clustering. Signals from analogues were detected but not in substantial amounts. The main variation was related to the absolute amounts of extracted alkaloids, which was attributed to the evolution of the Cinchona...

  10. Acoustical Studies on the Ternary Mixture of 1, 4- Dioxane + Chloroform + Cyclohexane liquid Mixtures At 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity of the ternary mixture of 1, 4- dioxane + chloroform + cyclohexane, were measured at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. The thermodynamical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β, intermolecular free length (Lf, free volume (Vf, internal pressure (πi, acoustic impedance (Z, molar sound velocity (R and molar compressibility (W have been obtained from the experimental data for all the mixtures, with a view to investigate the exact nature of molecular interaction. Adiabatic compressibility and intermolecular free length decrease with increase in concentration and temperature. The other parameters show almost increasing concentration of solutes. These parameters have been further used to interpret the molecular interaction part of the solute and solvent in the mixtures.

  11. Elucidation of compounds from toxic fraction of Heracleum persicum extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mofasseri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Heracleum persicum (Golparis a native medicinal plant of Iran which belongs to Apiaceae family. The fruits of the plant have been used as spice for flavoring. They have also showed carminative, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic properties. In this study, toxicity of different fractions of Heracleum persicum was evaluated and phytochemical compounds of toxic fraction(s were elucidated. Methods: Ripe fruits of H. persicum were extracted with 80% methanol and fractionated by different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The toxicity of different fractions was evaluated by brine shrimp (Artemia salinalethality test. This test has been provided by US National Cancer Institute and has been used to evaluate the toxic characteristics of different types of plant extracts, heavy metals, pesticides, food additives and medicinal compounds. The toxic fraction was selected for further purification until achievement of pure compounds. Results: The toxicity evaluation showed that 100 μg⁄mL of the chloroform fraction showed the highest (97% lethality percentage. Four furanocoumarins were separated and identified from the chloroform fraction using different chromatographic techniques and were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Elucidated compounds were bergapten, isopimpinellin, 5-(3-methyl but-2-enyloxy-7H-furo-[2,3-f] chromen-7-one and 5-methoxy-7H-furo[2,3-f]chromen-7-one which the two last mentioned components were characterized for the first time. Conclusion: It was concluded that furanocoumarins of H. persicum could be introduced as cytotoxic compounds.

  12. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  13. Comparative study of total phenolics, flavonoids contents and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different polarities fruits crude extracts of Datura metel L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenolics and flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from fruits of Datura metel (D. metel. Methods: Different crude extracts from the fruits of D. metel were subjected to determination of total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities by established methods. Results: The total phenolics results showed that ethyl acetate extract was the most efficient (60.26% compared to hexane, chloroform, butanol and methanol extracts which had phenolic contents of 50.08, 35.50, 52.54 and 26.49%, respectively. Almost similar results were obtained from the fruits crude extracts for total flavonoids and results found that methanol crude extract was the highest (1.71% compared to other crude extracts. The antioxidant activity results showed that methanol extract acted the highest activity compared to other extracts and in the order of methanol>ethyl a cetate>hexane>chloroform>butanol extract. All extracts were displayed moderate antibacterial potential against the tested bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa in the range of 0%-10%. Conclusions: The results of this present study clearly showed that the crude extracts of D. metel demenstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and it may act as potential antioxidant sources for human biological system.

  14. Extraction of lipids from microalgae using CO2-expanded methanol and liquid CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Ashok; Jessop, Michael J; Stubbins, Spencer H; Champagne, Pascale; Jessop, Philip G

    2015-05-01

    The use of CO2-expanded methanol (cxMeOH) and liquid carbon dioxide (lCO2) is proposed to extract lipids from Botryococcus braunii. When compressed CO2 dissolves in methanol, the solvent expands in volume, decreases in polarity and so increases in its selectivity for biodiesel desirable lipids. Solid phase extraction of the algal extract showed that the cxMeOH extracted 21 mg of biodiesel desirable lipids per mL of organic solvent compared to 3mg/mL using either neat methanol or chloroform/methanol mixture. The non-polar lCO2 showed a high affinity for non-polar lipids. Using lCO2, it is possible to extract up to 10% neutral lipids relative to the mass of dry algae. Unlike extractions using conventional solvents, these new methods require little to no volatile, flammable, or chlorinated organic solvents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioautographic test of Punica granatum extracts on Fusarium oxysporum.f .sp.albidinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAOUFI A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albidinis, is among the most aggressive soil fungi causing wilt and rot of date palm. Bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albidinis (Foa, is a major limiting factor of the date palm cultivation. In order to look for other alternatives to fight against this fungus, in this work we study the antifungal potency of substances extracted from the peel of Punica granatum . The analysis by the method of direct bioautography allows the detection of 17 bioactive substances, Three are indicated in the ethyl acetate extract, two on the level of hexane extract, two in the extract of dichlorométhane, one in the butanol extract and nine on the level of the chloroformic extract. Key Words: sp. Albidinis,

  16. Evaluation of green solvents: Oil extraction from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi using cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Kyle V; Wales, Michael D; Rezac, Mary E; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2017-07-01

    Cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) was evaluated for extracting oil or triacylglycerol (TAG) from wet cells of the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi. CPME is a greener alternative to chloroform as a potential solvent for oil recovery. A monophasic system of CPME and biphasic system of CPME:water (1:0.7) performed poorly having the lowest TAG extraction efficiency and TAG selectivity compared to other monophasic systems of hexane and chloroform and the biphasic Bligh and Dyer method (chloroform:methanol:water). Biphasic systems of CPME:water:alcohol (methanol/ethanol/1-propanol) were tested and methanol achieved the best oil extraction efficiency compared to ethanol and 1-propanol. Different biphasic systems of CPME:methanol:water were tested, the best TAG extraction efficiency and TAG selectivity achieved was 9.9 mg/mL and 64.6%, respectively, using a starting ratio of 1:1.7:0.6 and a final ratio of 1:1:0.8 (CPME:methanol:water). Similar results were achieved for the Bligh and Dyer method (TAG extraction efficiency of 10.2 mg/mL and TAG selectivity of 66.0%) indicating that the biphasic CPME system was comparable. The fatty acid profile remained constant across all the solvent systems tested indicating that choice of solvent was not specific for any certain fatty acid. This study was able to demonstrate that CPME could be used as an alternative solvent for the extraction of oil from the wet biomass of oleaginous yeast. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1096-1103, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Anti-Hyperglycemic Properties of Crude Extract and Triterpenes from Poria cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poria cocos, Bai Fu Ling in Chinese, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. However, its claimed benefits and mechanism are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect and action of P. cocos on type 2 diabetes. We first performed phytochemical analysis on the crude extract and factions of P. cocos. P. cocos crude extract at 50 mg/kg body weight or more significantly decreased blood glucose levels in db/db mice. Based on a bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation (BDFI strategy, chloroform fraction and subfractions 4 and 6 of the P. cocos crude extract possessed a blood glucose-lowering effect. Dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid were identified from the chloroform sub-fractions 4, 3, and 2, respectively. Dehydrotumulosic acid had anti-hyperglycemic effect to a greater extent than dehydrotrametenolic acid and pachymic acid. Mechanistic study on streptozocin- (STZ- treated mice showed that the crude extract, dehydrotumulosic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, and pachymic acid of P. cocos exhibited different levels of insulin sensitizer activity. However, the P. cocos crude extract and triterpenes appeared not to activate PPAR-γ pathway. Overall, the data suggest that the P. cocos extract and its triterpenes reduce postprandial blood glucose levels in db/db mice via enhanced insulin sensitivity irrespective of PPAR-γ.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of bark extracts from Commiphora berryi and Commiphora caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Ramesh; Meyyappan, Arumugam; Nandi, Debkumar; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Chowdhury, Avik Acharya; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Latha, Subbaiah; Giri, Venkatachalam Sesha; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Jaisankar, Parasuraman

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight extracts obtained from the dried barks of Commiphora berryi and Commiphora caudata (Burseraceae). The radical scavenging activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide assays. The methanolic extracts of C. berryi and C. caudata showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC₅₀ values of 26.92 and 21.16 µg mL⁻¹, respectively, and low radical scavenging activity against the nitric oxide assay. The antimicrobial activity of the plants was tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of C. berryi showed good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.26 mg mL⁻¹, whereas the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. caudata showed moderate antimicrobial activity with an MIC of more than 2.0 mg mL⁻¹ against P. aeruginosa compared to the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, which showed an MIC of 1.1 mg mL⁻¹. The methanolic extracts of C. berryi and C. caudata also showed moderate cytotoxic activity against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), with values IC₅₀ of 82.6 and 88.4 µg mL⁻¹, respectively.

  19. Essential Oil Constituents and Biological Activities of Leaf Extracts of Semenovia suffruticosa from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mottaghipisheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semenovia suffruticosa (Freyn et Bornm. Manden. is one of the species of genus Semenovia (Apiaceae family. The essential oil of S. suffruticosa was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main components were cis-β-ocimene (12.9%, linalool (9.5%, γ-terpinene (9.0% and α-terpinolene (7.4%, representing the 38.8% of the oil. Antibacterial activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was evaluated for the first time. The various extracts were tested by the disc-diffusion assay for antimicrobial activity against common animal and human infectious bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited the highest sensitivity against the extracts, with a 13-15 mm zone of inhibition. Antiradical activity of S. suffruticosa ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Ethanol extract was the most powerful free radical scavenger in all these methods. These results, though preliminary, suggest that leaf extracts of S. suffruticosa exert promising antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  20. Analysis of Phytochemicals, Antibacterial and Antioxidant activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf extract- an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Malliga Elangovan; Dhanarajan. M. S; Rajalakshmi A; Jayachitra A; Pardhasaradhi Mathi; Narasimharao Bhogireddy

    2014-01-01

    The leading important things about utilizing plant-derived medication are relatively less dangerous than artificial drugs and provide deep restorative benefits. In this regard, Moringa oleifera plant was evaluated for its nutritional effects. The phytochemical study, antibacterial activity and the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,...

  1. Factors influencing the yield of satellite DNA in extractions from Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster adults and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, P M; Barnett, T R; Babbitt, D G

    1976-05-03

    The application of different DNA extraction methods to identical batches of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster flies or embryos has revealed that the ionic strength of a homogenization medium is of critical importance if chloroform extractions are performed. The low yield of satellite DNA after homogenization in low salt buffers is less severe if EDTA is included in the buffer. Phenol extraction procedures result in no such differential behavior of satellite and main band DNA, but under certain circumstances a particular satellite fraction of Drosophila virilis DNA may be lost.

  2. Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark

    OpenAIRE

    Koti Basavaraj; Ashok Purnima

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcoholic extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark (200 mg/kg body weight, p. o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. The first group received only 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg body weight) and the second group received the standard drug furosemide (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Rest of the three groups received each of extracts viz. pe...

  3. A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from skin and paraffin-embedded tissues applicable to T-cell clonality assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Julia V; Biderman, Bella V; Nikulina, Elena E; Sudarikov, Andrey B

    2012-01-01

    PCR-based clonality assay of rearranged T-cell receptor genes gamma and beta (TCRG and TCRB) in a number of cases could be essential to discriminate between cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoproliferative lesions in the skin. However, extraction of good-quality DNA from skin specimens (especially formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) remains a challenge. Common procedures, being labour-intensive and time-consuming and requiring toxic solvents such as phenol and chloroform, still may end up with DNA sample of insufficient quality. We herewith present a simple and efficient method for DNA isolation based on ammonia extraction of tissue, followed by neutralization and simultaneous salting out of proteins with acetic acid. We have analysed 30 samples - 24 fresh (16 skin, two spleen and six lymph node) and six paraffin-embedded. Standard procedure (proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol/chloroform extraction) has been carried out simultaneously. We observed good PCR signal for TCRG rearrangements in 30 samples processed with the new protocol and only in 20 extracted with proteinase K/phenol/chloroform. For TCRB, the success rate was 29 of 30 with the new protocol, compared to 11 of 30 with conventional protocol. The proposed method of DNA extraction should improve the value of T-cell clonality assay, because insufficient DNA quality and quantity may bias analysis towards monoclonality and therefore cause false-positive results. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Analysis of coal extracts by HPLC-ESI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Feng; Cui-Ping Ye; Wen-Ying Li; Ke-Chang Xie [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

    2003-07-01

    In order to get the structure information of the coal pyridine extracts, the methods based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) has been developed. For the purpose of classifying the mixture according to the polarity of the compound before HPLC/MS analysis, column chromatography packed with silica gel was applied to separate coal pyridine extracts into three fractions: acetonitrile (lower), chloroform (middle), pyridine (higher). The fraction of chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) was analyzed in this article. In the mass range of 150-1500amu, the components observed include 314.3/369.1, and 301.3/369.1, which should be the plasticizer in the solvent. Other peaks included a series of molecular ions from the beginning of 541.3amu with m/z difference 74amu (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2} or C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O). 541.3amu (ESI+) is the elemental structure in the series; this implied that the higher molecular mass parts in coal might consist of some basic units. And two valuable compounds containing nitrogen atom were acquired at m/z 393.5amu (C{sub 27}H{sub 39}NO) and 334.5amu (C{sub 20}H{sub 38}N{sub 4}). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. In vivo analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extracts and fractions of Eria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, N M Mahmudul Alam; Hasan, Mahmud; Mahmud, Zobaer Al; Qais, Nazmul; Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Ahmed, Farhan; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2017-03-01

    Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane and chloroform-soluble fractions of methanolic extract of Eria javanica leaves in animal model (rat and mice). Methods The anti-nociceptive potentials of the extracts were studied using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and the antipyretic activity was investigated using yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done on rats at a dose by using carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Results In acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition study in Swiss albino mice, the crude methanolic extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses and the n-hexane soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract at 400 mg/kg showed statistically significant activity with 53.21 % (pweight (pweight (pweight (pweight dose showed statistically significant antipyretic activity from 3 hours and onward(p<0.001) in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia test in albino Wister rats. In carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema test, crude methanolic extract showed statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity from 2nd hour and onwards. The chloroform-soluble fraction of methanolic extract also showed significant activity from 1st hour onwards. Conclusions This study thereby indicates that leaves of E. javanica possess peripheral analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities and therefore a suitable candidate for further study.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  7. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Mukesh S.; Patil, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic effect of Salacia chinensis root extract in triton (400mg/kg b.w.)-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis roots were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton- and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. A comparison was also made between the action of Salacia chinensis root extract and a known antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg body wt.). The results of the study were expressed as mean± S.E. and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test for multiple comparisons. Values with P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body wt. of the chloroform extract and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis root exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.01) in serum lipid parameters like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats of both models as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. These extracts were found to possess better antihyperlipidemic potential as compared to pet ether and aqueous extract. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that chloroform and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis roots possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity and hence it could be a potential herbal medicine as adjuvant with existing therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:22345877

  8. The effect of diluents on the extraction of Sm(III using N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutylmalonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN SI-XIU

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of the extraction of samarium(III from nitrate solutions using N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutylmalonamide (TBMA in a series of diluents. The dependence of the extraction distribution on the concentrations of aqueous nitric acid, lithium nitrate and organic TBMA was investigated. The experimental results showed that the extraction efficiency of TMBA in different diluents for Sm(III increases in the order: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, xylene, toluene, cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-octane. The stoichiometry of the extracted species conform to Sm(NO33.3TBMA in all the employed diluents. The interaction between extractant or extracted species and diluent is discussed and a quantitative expression relating the extraction constant and the parameters of the diluent has been established.

  9. Human sperm immobilization effect of Carica papaya seed extracts: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Kothari, L K; Manivannan, B; Mishra, P K; Pathak, N

    2000-06-01

    To examine if the seed extracts of Carica papaya, which showed antispermatogenic/sperm immobilization properties in animal models, could cause human sperm immobilization in vitro. Chloroform extract, benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract, its methanol and ethyl acetate sub-fractions and the isolated compounds from the sub-fractions i.e., ECP 1 & 2 and MCP 1 &2, of the seeds of Carica papaya were used at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%. Sperm motility was assessed immediately after addition of extracts and every 5 minutes thereafter for 30 minutes. There were dose-dependent spermicidal effects showing an instant fall in the sperm motility to less than 20% at 2% concentration. Isolated compounds ECP 1 & 2 were more effective inducing a motility of less than 10%. Many of the spermatozoa became vibratory on the spot. Total inhibition of motility was observed within 20-25 min at all concentrations of all products. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed deleterious changes in the plasma membrane of the head and mid-piece of spermatozoa. Sperm viability test and the number of abnormal spermatozoa after completion of incubation suggested that the spermatozoa were infertile. The effects were spermicidal but not spermiostatic as revealed by the sperm revival test. The results reveal spermicidal activity in vitro of the seed extracts of Carica papaya.

  10. Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with tribulus alatus extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. El-Tantawy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.

  11. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized.

  12. Extraction of Escherichia coli proteins with organic solvents prior to two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, M P; Herbert, B R; Williams, K L; Gooley, A A

    1999-01-01

    Compared to soluble proteins, hydrophobic proteins, in particular membrane proteins, are an underrepresented protein species on two-dimensional (2-D) gels. One possibility is that many hydrophobic proteins are simply not extracted from the sample prior to 2-D gel separation. We attempted to isolate hydrophobic proteins from Escherichia coli by extracting with organic solvents, then reconstituting the extracted proteins in highly solubilising sample solution amenable to 2-D electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients (IPGs). This was conducted by an extraction with a mixture of chloroform and methanol, followed by solubilisation using a combination of urea, thiourea, sulfobetaine detergents and tributyl phosphine. Peptide mass fingerprinting assisted in the identification of 13 proteins, 8 of which have not previously been reported on 2-D gels. Five of these new proteins possess a positive hydropathy plot. These results suggest that organic solvent extractions may be useful for selectively isolating some proteins that have previously been missing from proteome maps.

  13. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  14. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  15. Validation of a DNA IQ-based extraction method for TECAN robotic liquid handling workstations for processing casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Fourney, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    A semi-automated DNA extraction process for casework samples based on the Promega DNA IQ™ system was optimized and validated on TECAN Genesis 150/8 and Freedom EVO robotic liquid handling stations configured with fixed tips and a TECAN TE-Shake™ unit. The use of an orbital shaker during the extraction process promoted efficiency with respect to DNA capture, magnetic bead/DNA complex washes and DNA elution. Validation studies determined the reliability and limitations of this shaker-based process. Reproducibility with regards to DNA yields for the tested robotic workstations proved to be excellent and not significantly different than that offered by the manual phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA extraction of animal:human blood mixtures contaminated with soil demonstrated that a human profile was detectable even in the presence of abundant animal blood. For exhibits containing small amounts of biological material, concordance studies confirmed that DNA yields for this shaker-based extraction process are equivalent or greater to those observed with phenol/chloroform extraction as well as our original validated automated magnetic bead percolation-based extraction process. Our data further supports the increasing use of robotics for the processing of casework samples. Crown Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA extractions from deep subseafloor sediments: novel cryogenic-mill-based procedure and comparison to existing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Karine; Callac, Nolwenn; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Reynaud, Yann; Duthoit, Frédérique; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Extracting DNA from deep subsurface sediments is challenging given the complexity of sediments types, low biomasses, resting structures (spores, cysts) frequently encountered in deep sediments, and the potential presence of enzymatic inhibitors. Promising results for cell lysis efficiency were recently obtained by use of a cryogenic mill (Lipp et al., 2008). These findings encouraged us to devise a DNA extraction protocol using this tool. Thirteen procedures involving a combination of grinding in liquid nitrogen (for various durations and beating rates) with different chemical solutions (phenol, chloroform, SDS, sarkosyl, proteinase, GTC), or with use of DNA recovery kits (MagExtractor®) were compared. Effective DNA extraction was evaluated in terms of cell lysis efficiency, DNA extraction efficiency, DNA yield and determination of prokaryotic diversity. Results were compared to those obtained by standard protocols: the FastDNA®SPIN kit for soil and the Zhou protocol. For most sediment types grinding in a cryogenic mill at a low beating rate in combination with direct phenol-chloroform extraction resulted in much higher DNA yields than those obtained using classical procedures. In general (except for clay-rich sediments), this procedure provided high-quality crude extracts for direct downstream nested-PCR, from cell numbers as low as 1.1×10(6) cells/cm(3). This procedure is simple, rapid, low-cost, and could be used with minor modifications for large-scale DNA extractions for a variety of experimental goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nematicidal activity of crambe extracts on Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro-Roncato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the control of nematodes, such as the use of plant secondary metabolites, can be explored for integrated pest management systems. The objective of this work was to assess the best solvent for obtaining allyl isothiocyanate from Crambe abyssinica leaves, and the effects of this extract on Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Dry leaves of C. abyssinica at 200 mg L-1 were used to prepare extracts by using water (by infusion and grinding, acetone, water + ethanol (hydroalcoholic extraction, methanol, hexane, and chloroform as solvents. Following the evaporation of the solvents, the residue was resuspended in water for use in the experiments. Distilled water and chemical nematicide were used as control treatments. Once the most effective extracts were defined, the following dosages of dried crambe leaves were used: 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg L-1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify the allyl isothiocyanate present in the extracts. After the solvents evaporated, the residues were eluted with water and used in assays with 200 eggs for the hatching test or 200 second stage juveniles (J2 for mobility and mortality tests. The hydroalcoholic extract was the most effective in reducing the hatching of M. incognita and M. javanica juveniles, by 71.6 and 74.4 percentage points, respectively. The mortality of M. incognita and M. javanica in the hydroalcoholic extract was 93.2 and 64.4%, respectively, followed by the methanol extract (17.6 and 34% and the extract obtained by grinding (9.2 and 28%. The hydroalcoholic extract at 250 mg L-1 showed high nematicidal effect. The HPLC analysis of the extracts revealed that only the methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts had allyl isothiocyanate, indicating that the inhibitory effects on the hatching, mobility, and mortality were not solely attributed to the presence of this compound.

  18. Micronuclei in Bone Marrow and Liver in relation to Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Response due to Coexposure to Chloroform, Dichloromethane, and Toluene in the Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Belmont-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity in cells may occur in different ways, direct interaction, production of electrophilic metabolites, and secondary genotoxicity via oxidative stress. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and toluene are primarily metabolized in liver by CYP2E1, producing reactive electrophilic metabolites, and may also produce oxidative stress via the uncoupled CYP2E1 catalytic cycle. Additionally, GSTT1 also participates in dichloromethane activation. Despite the oxidative metabolism of these compounds and the production of oxidative adducts, their genotoxicity in the bone marrow micronucleus test is unclear. The objective of this work was to analyze whether the oxidative metabolism induced by the coexposure to these compounds would account for increased micronucleus frequency. We used an approach including the analysis of phase I, phase II, and antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress biomarkers, and micronuclei in bone marrow (MNPCE and hepatocytes (MNHEP. Rats were administered different doses of an artificial mixture of CLF/DCM/TOL, under two regimes. After one administration MNPCE frequency increased in correlation with induced GSTT1 activity and no oxidative stress occurred. Conversely, after three-day treatments oxidative stress was observed, without genotoxicity. The effects observed indicate that MNPCE by the coexposure to these VOCs could be increased via inducing the activity of metabolism enzymes.

  19. A spectrophotometric and thermodynamic study of the sitting-atop complex formation from reaction between free base meso-tetraarylporphyrins and zirconyl nitrate in chloroform solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mansournia, Mohammad Reza

    2009-10-01

    The sitting-atop complexation of meso-tetraarylporphyrins and its para-substituted derivatives (H 2t(4-X)pp, X:H, Br, Cl, CH(CH 3) 2, OCH 3, CH 3), as electron donors, with zirconyl, as an electron acceptor, have been investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform. The mole ratio studies based on physicochemical techniques were employed clearly and revealed the formation of 1:1 sitting-atop complexes which was confirmed by UV-vis, 1H NMR and IR spectroscopic data. The value of the formation constant was estimated for each complex using a nonlinear optimization of the complex absorbance vs. mole ratio data by package KINFIT. The results showed that the stability of these complexes decreases with the temperature enhancement. Thermodynamic parameters, Δ G°, Δ H° and Δ S°, of the SAT complexes have been determined from the temperature dependence of formation constants by Van't Hoff equation. Also, the influence of the substituents of the aryl rings in H 2t(4-X)pp on the stability of the SAT complexes is discussed.

  20. Dependence of solvent quality on the composition of copolymers: experiment and theory for solutions of P(MMA-ran-t-BMA) in toluene and in chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, Maria; Wolf, Bernhard A

    2015-01-21

    The interaction of toluene with P(MMA-ran-t-BMA) and with the corresponding homopolymers was determined via vapor pressure measurements at 30, 50 and 70 °C. A unified thermodynamic approach served for the modeling of the results. It is capable of describing the behavior of the different solutions by means of two adjustable parameters, one representing the effective number of solvent segments and the other accounting for the interactions between the components. The solvent quality of toluene passes a maximum, a minimum and another maximum upon an increase of the t-BMA content of the copolymer at all temperatures. A similar behavior is discernable from vapor pressure data of chloroform published for the same copolymers. The heats of mixing for toluene depend strongly on temperature; at 50 °C they are all endothermal with the exception of PMMA, for which the value obtained from vapor pressures at 30 °C agrees very well with published caloric data.

  1. Micronuclei in Bone Marrow and Liver in relation to Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Response due to Coexposure to Chloroform, Dichloromethane, and Toluene in the Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont-Díaz, Javier; López-Gordillo, Ana Paulina; Molina Garduño, Eunice; Serrano-García, Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Montero-Montoya, Regina D.

    2014-01-01

    Genotoxicity in cells may occur in different ways, direct interaction, production of electrophilic metabolites, and secondary genotoxicity via oxidative stress. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and toluene are primarily metabolized in liver by CYP2E1, producing reactive electrophilic metabolites, and may also produce oxidative stress via the uncoupled CYP2E1 catalytic cycle. Additionally, GSTT1 also participates in dichloromethane activation. Despite the oxidative metabolism of these compounds and the production of oxidative adducts, their genotoxicity in the bone marrow micronucleus test is unclear. The objective of this work was to analyze whether the oxidative metabolism induced by the coexposure to these compounds would account for increased micronucleus frequency. We used an approach including the analysis of phase I, phase II, and antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress biomarkers, and micronuclei in bone marrow (MNPCE) and hepatocytes (MNHEP). Rats were administered different doses of an artificial mixture of CLF/DCM/TOL, under two regimes. After one administration MNPCE frequency increased in correlation with induced GSTT1 activity and no oxidative stress occurred. Conversely, after three-day treatments oxidative stress was observed, without genotoxicity. The effects observed indicate that MNPCE by the coexposure to these VOCs could be increased via inducing the activity of metabolism enzymes. PMID:24949447

  2. DNA extraction from benthic Cyanobacteria: comparative assessment and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaget, V; Keulen, A; Lau, M; Monis, P; Brookes, J D

    2017-01-01

    Benthic Cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic counterparts, challenging the quality of drinking water supplies. The biofilm that benthic algae and other micro-organisms produce is a complex and protective matrix. Monitoring to determine the abundance and identification of Cyanobacteria, therefore, relies on molecular techniques, with the choice of DNA isolation technique critical. This study investigated which DNA extraction method is optimal for DNA recovery in order to guarantee the best DNA yield for PCR-based analysis of benthic Cyanobacteria. The conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared with five commercial kits, with the addition of chemical and physical cell-lysis steps also trialled. The efficacy of the various methods was evaluated by measuring the quantity and quality of DNA by UV spectrophotometry and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using Cyanobacteria-specific primers. The yield and quality of DNA retrieved with the commercial kits was significantly higher than that of DNA obtained with the phenol-chloroform protocol. Kits including a physical cell-lysis step, such as the MO BIO Power Soil and Biofilm kits, were the most efficient for DNA isolation from benthic Cyanobacteria. These commercial kits allow greater recovery and the elimination of dangerous chemicals for DNA extraction, making them the method of choice for the isolation of DNA from benthic mats. They also facilitate the extraction of DNA from benthic Cyanobacteria, which can help to improve the characterization of Cyanobacteria in environmental studies using qPCRs or population composition analysis using next-generation sequencing. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  4. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL. Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  5. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique.

  6. Determination of Zinc Ions in Environmental Samples by Dispersive Liquid- Liquid Micro Extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arabi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work preconcentration of the Zn ions was investigated in water sample by Dispersive liquid- liquid micro extraction (DLLME using chloroform as an extraction solvent, methanol as a disperser solvent and 8-Hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. The determination of extracted ions was done by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of various analytical parameters including pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and volume and concentration of the chelating agent on the extraction efficiency of analyses was investigated. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 26 and the detection limit of the method was 0.0033 µg l-1 and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D for five determinations of 1 ng/ml Zn were 7.41%. 

  7. Withania somnifera aqueous extract facilitates the expression and release of GnRH: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hardeep; Gupta, Muskan; Lakhman, Sukhwinder; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-10-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has a long history in traditional medicines as an aphrodisiac. It has been known to influence sexual behaviour in animal models but mechanism of action is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which Ashwagandha extract exert its gonadotropic activities. Due to the complexity of neuroendocrine pathways, there are limited in vitro models available despite the strong demand for such systems to study and predict neuroendocrine effects of chemicals or natural products. Immortalized rat hypothalamic GnV-3 cell line was investigated as a model to screen for neuroendocrine effects of Ashwagandha extract. GnV-3 cells were cultured under different media conditions and evaluated after treatment with Ashwagandha water extract, for GnRH expression and release by immunostaining and ELISA respectively. These cells acquired differentiated morphology, characteristic shape displayed by preoptic GnRH neurons in vivo. In addition, GnV-3 cells exhibited upregulation of plasticity related polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and mature dendrite marker microtubule associated protein (MAP2) as well as GnRH expression and release. Chloroform fraction of the extract proved to exhibit all the bioactive properties as it induced differentiation and upregulated GnRH and MAP2 expression in GnV-3 cells, similar to Ashwagandha extract. Withanone and Withaferin A were found to be present in ASH-WEX and chloroform fraction while Withanone came out to be the major constituent of chloroform fraction. The preliminary in vivo studies in adult male animals showed that ASH-WEX was able to upregulate the GnRH levels although non-significantly. Taken together, this data demonstrate significant morphological and physiological changes in GnV-3 cells after treatment with Ashwagandha extract and may suggest the potential beneficial effects of Ashwagandha on reproductive functions in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Comparison of quenching and extraction methodologies for metabolome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faijes Magda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable quenching and metabolite extraction method has been developed for Lactobacillus plantarum. The energy charge value was used as a critical indicator for fixation of metabolism. Results Four different aqueous quenching solutions, all containing 60% of methanol, were compared for their efficiency. Only the solutions containing either 70 mM HEPES or 0.85% (w/v ammonium carbonate (pH 5.5 caused less than 10% cell leakage and the energy charge of the quenched cells was high, indicating rapid inactivation of the metabolism. The efficiency of extraction of intracellular metabolites from cell cultures depends on the extraction methods, and is expected to vary between micro-organisms. For L. plantarum, we have compared five different extraction methodologies based on (i cold methanol, (ii perchloric acid, (iii boiling ethanol, (iv chloroform/methanol (1:1 and (v chloroform/water (1:1. Quantification of representative intracellular metabolites showed that the best extraction efficiencies were achieved with cold methanol, boiling ethanol and perchloric acid. Conclusion The ammonium carbonate solution was selected as the most suitable quenching buffer for metabolomics studies in L. plantarum because (i leakage is minimal, (ii the energy charge indicates good fixation of metabolism, and (iii all components are easily removed during freeze-drying. A modified procedure based on cold methanol extraction combined good extractability with mild extraction conditions and high enzymatic inactivation. These features make the combination of these quenching and extraction protocols very suitable for metabolomics studies with L. plantarum.

  9. Extraction of antioxidative principles of Achillea biserrata M. Bieb. and chromatographic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hexane, chloroform and water extracts were prepared by making consecutive extraction of Achillea  biserrata from the family Asteraceae. Volatile oil of the same types was obtained by water distillation that was continued 4 hours in the Clevenger fixture and dried by adding anhydrous sodium sulfate. After GS/MS analysis, volatile oil of the same types was kept at 4 ºC in the refrigerator and dark until the work activity was performed. Volatile oil yield that was obtained from mixture of all dried flower and plant leaves were determined for Achillea biserrata 0.4%(v/w The antioxidant activities of extracts, total phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin amounts were determined. Two different tests were performed for measurements of antioxidant activities.1 Especially, for the purpose of meeting the general properties of good additives’ free radical cleaning activity was done by DPPH method and the inhibition of oxidation activity was done by with β-carotene method. The 50% inhibition (IC50 values of the water, methanol:water and chloroform extracts were 19.6, 37.9 and 114 μg /mL, respectively ın DPPH test. Besıdes, the nonpolar extracts were active in β-carotene/linoleic acid test system. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were highest in the water extract possessing 3.39% and 1.12%, respectively. Methanolic extract showed the presence of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as protocatecuic acid (177.83 g/g and chlorogenic acid (164.78 g/g ın HPLC analsıs. Automated extraction system obtained better separation of the active principles from plant tissues than conventional extraction procedures.

  10. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, SHENGJUAN; WANG, YULIANG; ZHANG, XIAOLONG

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention. PMID:27347087

  11. Comparative studies on extracts fromHericium erinaceusby different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  12. Comparison between several methods of total lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Moreira, Daniel Mendonça; Kunigami, Claudete Norie; Aranda, Donato Alexandre Gomes; Teixeira, Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lipids obtained from microalgae biomass has been described as a promising alternative for production of biodiesel to replace petro-diesel. It involves steps such as the cultivation of microalgae, biomass harvesting, extraction and transesterification of lipids. The purpose of the present study was to compare different methods of extracting total lipids. These methods were tested in biomass of Chlorella vulgaris with the solvents ethanol, hexane and a mixture of chloroform:methanol in ratios 1:2 and 2:1. The solvents were associated with other mechanisms of cell disruption such as use of a Potter homogenizer and ultrasound treatment. The percentage of triglycerides in the total lipids was determinated by the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase-p-chlorophenol method (triglycerides monoreagent K117; Bioclin). Among the tested methods, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1) assisted by ultrasound was most efficient, extracting an average of 19% of total lipids, of which 55% were triglycerides. The gas chromatographic analysis did not show differences in methyl ester profiles of oils extracted under the different methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  14. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  15. Antioxidant, Iron Chelating and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Extracts from Talinum triangulare Leach Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Amorim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1, resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract.The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1. The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform.

  16. Differential growth inhibition of cancer cell lines and antioxidant activity of extracts of red, brown, and green marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kavitha; Iyer, Vidhya V

    2013-05-01

    As the use of various anticancer drugs is associated with many undesirable side effects, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new, better, and specific anticancer compounds. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities as well as effects on cell morphology were investigated for methanol (M), chloroform (C), ethyl acetate (E), and aqueous (A) extracts of Caulerpa peltata, Gelidiella acerosa, Padina gymnospora, and Sargassum wightii using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferrous ion chelation, and resazurin-based growth inhibition (in A549, HCT-15, MG-63, and PC-3 cell lines) assays. A general trend was the greater extraction of phenols and flavonoids by chloroform and ethyl acetate, which showed higher activity in many assays. These non-polar C and E extracts showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and growth inhibitory activities in A549, HCT-15, and PC-3 cells. However, higher ferrous ion chelation (A extracts) and growth inhibition in MG-63 cells (M and A extracts) were seen for the polar extracts. Furthermore, P. gymnospora and C. peltata emerged as promising sources for antiproliferative agents that could be explored for their own activity and as leads for the development of other compounds.

  17. In vitro evaluation of antifilarial effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract in different solvents on the microfilariae of Setaria cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Sharba

    2017-03-01

    Polar solvent extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves were investigated to evaluate in vitro anthelmintic activity on the microfilariae of Setaria cervi. Four extracts of A. indica leaves were prepared with different solvents in increasing order of polarity (diethyl ether indica leaves was prepared in Ringer's solution at the concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml and used against microfilariae in three replicates. Ringer's solution was used as experimental control. Mortality rates of microfilariae were recorded for each concentration after 45, 90 and 135 min, respectively. All the solvent extracts show significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 200 μg/ml after 135 min of incubation. Highest mortality rate of microfilariae was observed in methanol and ethanol extracts throughout the incubation period compared to chloroform and diethyl ether extracts which showed low mortality rates. Dose dependent effect of ethanol and chloroform showed highest and lowest ranking when analyzed by regression values and correlation of regression. Solvents extracts of A. indica leaves showed anthelmintic effect and therefore may be used as phytopharmacological agents in future.

  18. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of thiocyanate by extraction as bisthiocyanatobisquinolinemercury(II) complex and its ligand substitution reaction with dithizone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einaga, H; Ishii, H; Iwasaki, I

    1973-10-01

    Thiocyanate forms with mercury(II) in the presence of quinoline a mixed-ligand mercury(II) complex, bisthiocyanatobisquinolinemercury(II), and is extracted into chloroform. This mixed-ligand complex is treated with dithizone and forms the bisdithizonatomercury(II) complex. Maximum and constant absorbance of the dithizone complex is obtained when thiocyanate is extracted at pH 5.1-6.5, and Beer's law is obeyed at 498 nm, where the difference in absorbance between the dithizone complex and dithizone is largest. Chloride, bromide, iodide, cyanide and large amounts of ammonium and copper(II) ions interfere.

  19. Bioactive Lipidic Extracts from Octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus: Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractions from an organic extract from fresh octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus were studied for biological activities such as antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. A chloroform extract obtained from octopus tentacles was sequentially fractionated using thin layer chromatography (TLC, and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Organic extract reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. Based on the results obtained, the isolated fractions obtained from octopus contain compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of cancer cell lines.

  20. Comparison and optimization of methods for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorreiter, Fränze; Richter, Silke; Peter, Michel; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2016-09-01

    The challenge of performing a time-resolved comprehensive analysis of molecular systems has led to the quest to optimize extraction methods. When the size of a biological sample is limited, there is demand for the simultaneous extraction of molecules representing the four areas of "omics": genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we optimized a protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites and compared it with two existing protocols. Our optimization comprised the addition of a methanol/chloroform metabolite purification before the separation of DNA/RNA and proteins. Extracted DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites were quantitatively and/or qualitatively analyzed. Of the three methods, only the newly developed protocol yielded all biomolecule classes of adequate quantity and quality. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshima Thusoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.

  3. (μ-Piperazine-1,4-dicarbodithioato-κ4S1,S1′:S4,S4′bis[bis(triphenylphosphane-κPgold(I] chloroform disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia A. Guzei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Au2(C6H8N2S4(C18H15P4]·2CHCl3, the digold complex resides on a crystallographic inversion center and co-crystallizes with two molecules of chloroform solvent. The piperazine-1,4-dicarbodithioate linker has an almost ideal chair conformation. The geometry about the gold atoms is severely distorted tetrahedral punctuated by a very acute S—Au—S bite angle.

  4. Antioxidant activities of leaf galls extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y L; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. In this study, the chemical composition and free radical scavenging potential of leaf gall extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous) of Terminelia chebula is evaluated, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditiona medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, triterpens, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, reducing sugars were identified in the extracts according to standard procedures. The free radical scavenging activities of the extract were also analysed by standard procedures. The methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Super oxide radical scavenging, Hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the ethanolic extract showed higher free radical scavenging potential than all the other extracts. As the higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the ethanolic extract, so the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the ethanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  5. Investigation of antimicrobial effect of crude extract and three sub-fractions of Platychaete aucheri (Boiss. Boiss against five standard microbial strains and clinical Escherichia coli isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zabihi- Nik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Platychaete aucheri (Boiss. Boissis one of the Persian endemic plants and it belongs to Asteraceae family. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extract and three sub-fractions of the flowering aerial parts of Platychaete aucheri against some gram-positive and gram-negative standard bacteria, Candida albicans and clinical Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs and burn wounds. Experimental: Total methanolic extract of P.aucheri was prepared by maceration method.Further chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous fractions were obtained by using liquid-liquid extraction method. Antimicrobial effect examined by well diffusion and broth microdilution method based on the CLSI protocol. The standard tested microbial strains included Escherichia coli PTCC 1399, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430, Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, Bacillus cereus PTCC 1247 and Candida albicans PTCC 5027. Also, extract and fractions were tested against Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples and burn wounds of patients from Imam Khomeini and Shahid Motahari Hospitals of Tehran (Iran during 2013 and 2014 respectively. Results: Total extract and fractions had ability to prevent microbial growth. Total methanolic extract, chloroform and petroleum ether fractions demonstrated moderate antimicrobial activity against standard P.aeruginosa and E.coli with MIC values in the range of 35-42 mg/ml. MIC values against clinical isolates of E.coli were in the range of 60-72 mg/ml. The aqueous fraction showed lower antimicrobial activity in comparison to total extract and other fractions against standard and clinical isolates. Results confirmed that petroleum ether and chloroform fractions had relatively more anti bacterial activity than total methanolic extract and aqueous fraction. Recommended applications/industries: Based on the non toxicity results in future studies, this plant can be used as a

  6. Antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh S Sikarwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark (family: Capparidaceae extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of C. nurvala and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b. wt.. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was also performed in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, and aqueous extracts of C. nurvala stem bark were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by following pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. wt. as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. Results and Conclusions : C. nurvala petroleum ether extract (CNPEE and ethanolic extract (CNEE showed significant (P< 0.001 antidiabetic activities. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose level of these extracts on seventh day of study were CNPEE (126.33±13.703 mg/dl and CNEE (126.66±13.012 mg/dl when compared with diabetic control (413.50±4.752 mg/dl and chloroform extract (320.83±13.516 mg/dl. In OGGT model (glucose loaded rats, CNPEE showed a glucose level of 178.83±3.070 mg/dl after 30 min and 131.66±2.486 mg/dl after 90 min, whereas CNEE showed 173.66±4.224 mg/dl after 30 min and 115.50±3.394 mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug.

  7. Crystal structure of an HgII coordination polymer with an unsymmetrical dipyridyl ligand: catena-poly[[[dichloridomercury(II]-μ-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylpyridin-3-amine-κ2N:N′] chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Hee Moon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[HgLCl2]·0.5CHCl3}n (L = N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylpyridin-3-amine, C11H11N3, contains one HgII ion, one bridging L ligand, two chloride ligands and a chloroform solvent molecule with half-occupancy that is disordered about a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. Each HgII ion is coordinated by two pyridine N atoms from two symmetry-related L ligands and two chloride anions in a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry with bond angles falling in the range 99.05 (17–142.96 (7°. Each L ligand bridges two HgII ions, forming polymeric zigzag chains propagating in [010]. In the crystal, the chains are linked by intermolecular N/C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds together with weak C—H...π interactions, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular network, which is further stabilized by C—Cl...π interactions between the solvent chloroform molecules and the pyridine rings of L [chloride-to-centroid distances = 3.442 (11 and 3.626 (13 Å]. In addition, weak Cl...Cl contacts [3.320 (5 Å] between the chloroform solvent molecules and the coordinating chloride anions are also observed.

  8. New Approaches for Effective Microwave Assisted Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül SERDAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an effective microwave assisted extraction (MAE method for extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea samples. A series of solvents (water, ethanol:water mixture or citric acid:water mixture were used for extraction of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried collected in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods. Tea samples were extracted using water in a close microwave system under the certain extraction conditions. Extraction was carried out under a controlled 600 W microwave power at 80 oC temperature for 4 min irradiation time. Alternative to water, an ethanol-water mixture (1:1 or a citric acid-water (1:1 mixture was used as extracting solvent under the same conditions. After MAE crude aqueous extract was partitioned first with chloroform to separate caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins.  Both caffeine and catechin extraction was quite successful with microwave assisted system employing only 4 minutes treatment. The highest caffeine yield was obtained in the second collection period using frozen green tea samples and ethanol-water as extracting solvent. The yield of catechin extracts was between 0.84-3.96% depending on the solvent system used for extraction. Ethanol-water mixture seems to be appropriate for effective extraction in the basis of extract yields. However, HPLC results showed that individual catechin content of each extraction is more important criteria for the evaluation of most effective extraction medium rather than the mass of the extract.  Using citric acid as extracting solvent in MAE seem to be more fruitful providing 100% catechin mixture with the highest EGCG content. 

  9. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  10. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited to high oleic acid oil and water purification property (Katayon et al., 2006; Foid et al., 2001 and. Folkard et al., 1993), whereas it contains up to. 332.5 g of crude protein per kg of sample (Jose et al., 1999). Studies to characterize the interaction effects of pH and salts on the extraction of. PROTEIN EXTRACTABILITY ...

  11. Solvent extraction separation of zirconium(IV) with macrobicyclic polyether from chloride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathev, V.J.; Khopkar, S.M. [University of Bombay, Bombay (India)

    1997-12-31

    Zirconium(IV) was qualitatively extracted at pH 3.4 with 0.01 mol l{sup -1} cryptand 2.2.2 in chloroform. From the organic phase zirconium(IV) was stripped with 1 mol l{sup -1} nitric acid and was subsequently determined spectrophotometrically at 385 nm as a complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline. Zirconium(IV) was separated from large number of anions and transition metals in binary as well as in the multicomponent mixtures. 11 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H2O (Chl/Met/H2O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H2O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step helps

  13. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  14. Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae aerial extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Sakthivadivel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and aqueous aerial extracts of Cleome viscosa against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: Standard World Health Organization protocols with minor modifications was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity of exyracts was evaluated at concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/L. Larval mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h. Results: Amongst the solvent extracts tested, petroleum ether exhibited the highest larvicidal activity and LC50 values was 52.62 and 43.16 mg/L followed by acetone, aqueous and chloroform extract with LC 50 values of 328.64 and 280.58; 493.44 and 298.76; 509.27 and 434.40 mg/L after 24 and 48 h respectively. Conclusions: Further investigations are needed to explore the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether aerial extract of this plant against a wide range of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  15. Phytochemical study of the decoct from the leaves of Maytenus Truncata Reissek and the evaluation of the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic and antiulcerogenic activities of the decoct extracts; Estudo fitoquimico do decocto das folhas de Maytenus truncata Reissek e avaliacao das atividades antinociceptiva, antiedematogenica e antiulcerogenica de extratos do decocto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Nascentes de Deus; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Carvalho, Juliana de Jesus; Salazar, Gloria Del Carmen Melendez; Duarte, Lucienir Pains [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: gdfsqui@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br; Silva, Renata Pamplona; Jorge, Rodrigo Martinez; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Analises Clnicas e Toxicologicas; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tania Maria de Almeida [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Rene Rachou. Lab. de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Peres, Valdir [Centro Universitario de Patos de Minas, MG (Brazil); Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia

    2007-07-15

    The present paper describes the phytochemical investigation and biological activities of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaf decocts of M. truncata Reiss (Celastraceae). Our studies afforded two flavonoid glycosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (1) and kampferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (2) from the methanolic extract and dulcitol (3) from the ethyl acetate extract. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited considerable antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities. The results of the phytochemical studies suggest that the healing activity of methanol extracts can be related to the presence of glycosyl flavonoids. (author)

  16. Estudo fitoquímico do decocto das folhas de Maytenus truncata Reissek e avaliação das atividades antinociceptiva, antiedematogênica e antiulcerogênica de extratos do decocto Phytochemical study of the decoct from the leaves of Maytenus Truncata Reissek and the evaluation of the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic and antiulcerogenic activities of the decoct extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Nascentes de Deus Fonseca

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the phytochemical investigation and biological activities of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaf decocts of M. truncata Reiss (Celastraceae. Our studies afforded two flavonoid glycosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (1 and kampferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-glucopyranosyl- O-rhamnopyranosyl-O-galactopyranoside (2 from the methanolic extract and dulcitol (3 from the ethyl acetate extract. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited considerable antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities. The results of the phytochemical studies suggest that the healing activity of methanol extracts can be related to the presence of glycosyl flavonoids.

  17. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lung fragments of equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E M; Paula, J F R; Motta, P M C; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Haddad, J P A; Del Puerto, H L; Reis, J K P

    2010-08-17

    We compared three different protocols for DNA extraction from horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lung fragments, determining average final DNA concentration, purity, percentage of PCR amplification using beta-actin, and cost. Thirty-four samples from PBMC, and 33 samples from lung fragments were submitted to DNA extraction by three different protocols. Protocol A consisted of a phenol-chloroform and isoamylic alcohol extraction, Protocol B used alkaline extraction with NaOH, and Protocol C used the DNAzol((R)) reagent kit. Protocol A was the best option for DNA extraction from lung fragments, producing high DNA concentrations, with high sensitivity in PCR amplification (100%), followed by Protocols C and B. On the other hand, for PBMC samples, Protocol B gave the highest sensitivity in PCR amplification (100%), followed by Protocols C and A. We conclude that Protocol A should be used for PCR diagnosis from lung fragment samples, while Protocol B should be used for PBMC.

  18. Interfacial reaction in the synergistic extraction rate of Ni(II) with dithizone and 1,10-phenanthroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watarai, H; Sasaki, K; Takahashi, K; Murakami, J

    1995-11-01

    The kinetic synergistic effect of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) on the extraction rate of Ni(II) with dithizone (HDz) into chloroform was studied by means of a high-speed stirring method combined with photodiode-array spectrophotometry. The initial extraction rate of the adduct complex NiDz(2)phen depended upon the concentrations of both HDz and phen, suggesting the formation of NiDzphen(+) as the rate-controlling step. When [HDz] < [phen], the initial extraction of NiDz(2)phen competed with the formation of an intermediate complex, which was adsorbed at the interface and assigned most probably to NiDzphen(+)(2). The intermediate complex was gradually converted to NiDz(2)phen at a later stage of the extraction. The rate constants for the formation and consumption of the intermediate were determined, and the kinetic mechanism in the synergistic extraction was discussed.

  19. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields.

  20. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas O; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol-chloroform-isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations.

  1. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  2. An efficient modified method for plant leaf lipid extraction results in improved recovery of phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sunitha; Enninful, Regina; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Jagadish, Krishna; Welti, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    Lipidomics plays an important role in understanding plant adaptation to different stresses and improving our knowledge of the genes underlying lipid metabolism. Lipidomics involves lipid extraction, sample preparation, mass spectrometry analysis, and data interpretation. One of the practical challenges for large-scale lipidomics studies on plant leaves is the requirement of an efficient and rapid extraction method. A single-extraction method with a polar solvent mixture gives results comparable to a widely used, multi-extraction method when tested on both Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum bicolor leaf tissue. This single-extraction method uses a mixture of 30 parts chloroform, 25 parts isopropanol, 41.5 parts methanol, and 3.5 parts water (v/v/v/v) and a 24-h extraction time. Neither inclusion of ammonium acetate nor inclusion of acetic acid increased extraction efficiency. The extract produced by this method can be used for analysis by mass spectrometry without a solvent evaporation step. The amount of lipid extracted, including phosphatidic acid, is comparable to widely used, more labor-intensive methods. The single-extraction protocol is less laborious, reducing the potential for human error.

  3. Study the Three Extraction Methods for HBV DNA to Use in PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheikh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Hepatitis B is important because of the its high prevalence. Recently PCR method , has found greater interest among different diagnostic methods. Several reports emphasis on some false negative results in those laboratories using PCR. The aim of this study was to compare three different procedures for HBV DNA extraction. A total 30 serum samples received from Shariati hospital. Sera was taken from patients having chronic Hepatitis with HBs antigen positive and HBe antigen negative. The sensitivity of guanidium hydrochloride method for extracting the HBV DNA from serum were evaluated and compared with phenol–chloroform and boiling methods. Diagnostic PCR kit was obtained from Cynagene contained taq polymerase, reaction mixture, dNTP, and buffer for reaction. A 353 bp product were amplified by amplification program provided in used PCR protocol. The comparison of results indicated that procedure was successful for amplification of the designed products from Hepatitis B in sera. Number of positive results were 16,19,23 and number of negative result were 14,11,7 for the boiling, phenol-chloroform and guanidium-hydrochloride extraction methods respectively.PCR method is the fastest diagnosis method and the most accurate procedure to identify Hepatitis B. Guanidium hydrochloride method was the most successful procedure studied in this survey for viruses.

  4. Pharmacological effects of the phytochemicals of Anethum sowa L. root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-E-In, Md Moshfekus; Sultana, Nasim; Hossain, Md Nur; Hasan, Sayeema; Islam, Md Rabiul

    2016-11-14

    Anethum sowa L. is widely used as an important spice and traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. On the basis of scientific ethnobotanical information, this study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the crude extracts of Anethum sowa L. roots as well as to identify the classes of phytochemicals by chemical tests. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was ascertained with the stable organic free radical (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl). The agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of bacterial and fungal strains of the crude extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined by the microdilution test. Cytotoxic activities were screened using brine shrimps (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Finally, phytochemicals were profiled using standard procedures. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the different crude extracts by methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, cardiac glycosides and tannins while cyanogenetic glycosides were not detected. The methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts displayed high antioxidant activity (IC 50  = 13.08 ± 0.03, 33.48 ± 0.16 and 36.42 ± 0.41 μg/mL, respectively) in the DPPH assay comparable to that of the standard ascorbic acid and BHT (IC 50  = 3.74 ± 0.05 and 11.84 ± 0.29 μg/mL). The cytotoxic activity of the crude ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts possessed excellent activity (LC 50  = 5.03 ± 0.08, 5.23 ± 0.11 and 17.22 ± 0.14 μg/mL, respectively) against brine shrimp larvae after 24 h of treatment and compared with standard vincristine sulphate (LC 50  = 0.46 ± 0.05 μg/mL). The extracts also showed good antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when compared with two standard

  5. Rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc induce caspase dependant apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathilake, K S; Karunanayake, E H; Samarakoon, S R; Tennekoon, K H; de Silva, E D

    2016-08-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mainly caused by filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is the second leading cause of long term and permanent disability in tropical countries. To date, incapability to eliminate long lived adult parasites by current drugs remains the major challenge in the elimination of LF. Hence, in the current study, the efficacy of rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria (a plant traditionally used in Sri Lanka in the management of LF) was evaluated as an effective filaricide in vitro. Sequential solvent extracts of C. zedoaria rhizomes were screened for in vitro antifilarial activity at 0.01-1 mg/mL concentrations by motility inhibition assay and 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay using cattle parasite Setaria digitata as a model organism. Exposure of parasites to hexane and chloroform extracts of C. zedoaria caused a dose dependant reduction in motility and viability of microfilariae (IC50 = 72.42 μg/mL for hexane extract, 191.14 μg/mL for chloroform extract) and adult parasites (IC50 = 77.07 μg/mL for hexane extract, 259.87 μg/mL for chloroform extract). Both extracts were less toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells when compared to filariae. A dose dependant increase in caspase 3/CED 3 and a decrease in total protein content, cyclooxygenase (COX) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activities were observed in adult parasites treated with hexane or chloroform extract. A significant degree of chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation were also observed in these worms by Hoechst 33342 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining respectively. Dose dependant chromosomal DNA laddering was observed in treated adult worms but not in microfilariae in response to both extracts. Oxidative stress parameters such as reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in glutathione s transferase (GST

  6. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  7. Experimental determination of enthalpies of solution of tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) and some metal derivatives, in chloroform: interpretation of the solvation processes at a molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Minerva; Campos, Myriam; Torres, Luis Alfonso

    2010-01-18

    The enthalpies of solution, Delta(sol)H(m), for 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (CA registry number 917-23-7, TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) (to be written as CoTPP, NiTPP, CuTPP, and ZnTPP) in chloroform, were calorimetrically measured at T = 298 K in the concentration ranging from 3.5 x 10(-5) to 2.8 x 10(-4) mol.kg(-1). Through the linear extrapolation of the experimental data, corresponding values at infinite dilution were determined as: Delta(sol)H(m) (ZnTPP) = (55.5 +/- 0.2) kJ x mol(-1), Delta(sol)H(m) (CoTPP) = (36.9 +/- 0.2) kJ x mol(-1), Delta(sol)H(m) (TPP) = (25.7 +/- 0.6) kJ x mol(-1), Delta(sol)H(m) (NiTPP) = (15.6 +/- 0.1) kJ x mol(-1), and Delta(sol)H(m) (CuTPP) = (15.6 +/- 0.1) kJ x mol(-1). The enthalpies of solvation for the five compounds were also determined using the previously published values for the enthalpy of sublimation, as well as complementary data from the literature. The values obtained are as follows: Delta(solv)H(m)(TPP) = -(158.3 +/- 2.1) kJ x mol(-1), Delta(solv)H(m)(CoTPP) = -(154.1 +/- 2.0) kJ x mol(-1), Delta(solv)H(m)(CuTPP) = -(149.4 +/- 5.0) kJ x mol(-1) Delta(solv)H(m)(NiTPP) = -(141.4 +/- 4.0) kJ x mol(-1), and Delta(solv)H(m)(ZnTPP) = -(140.5 +/- 3.0) kJ x mol(-1). The results are analyzed in relation to several molecular properties such as ionic radius, electronic spectra, and Connolly surface. An explanation of the observed trends for solvation enthalpies is proposed.

  8. Validated Extractive Spectrophotometric Estimation of Tadalafil in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adlin Jino Nesalin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the estimation of tadalafil in both pure and tablet dosage form. Methods A and B are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes of the drug with dyes such as bromothymol blue (BTB and bromocresol green (BCG in acidic buffer solution followed by their extraction with chloroform to form yellow colored chromogen with absorption maxima at 420 nm and 415 nm respectively. Beer’s law is valid in the concentration range of 10-50 mcg/mL for both the methods. These developed methods were validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. Statistical analysis proves that the methods are reproducible and selective for the routine analysis of the said drug.

  9. Evaluation of Melia azedarach extracts against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nedel, Fernanda

    2015-02-01

    Although the incidence of caries worldwide has declined in recent years, it is necessary to search for new means to overcome this disease and its microbiological agents. Phytochemistry can become an effective alternative to antibiotics, offering a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bactericide activity of a bioactive phytocomponent from Melia azedarach against Streptococcus mutans. The crude extract (CEx) from leaves and stem barks of M. azedarach in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetate ethyl, butanol, and aqueous fractions was evaluated using seven different concentrations. Disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. 0.12% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The CEx and the petroleum ether fraction from M. azedarach showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, confirming its antibiotic potential.

  10. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  11. Simple extractive colorimetric determination of levofloxacin by acid-dye complexation methods in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Safwan; Al-Khalil, Raghad

    2005-09-01

    Two simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of levofloxacin (LVFX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes (1:1 and 1:2 drug/dye) of levofloxacin with bromophenol blue (BPB) and bromocresol green (BCG) in aqueous acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 424 and 428 nm for LVFX-BPB and LVFX-BCG, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 1.85-31.5 and 1.85-25 microg ml(-1) with BPB and BCG, respectively. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets. Results of analysis were validated statistically. The excipients present in the formulations do not interfere with the assay procedure.

  12. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

    2006-08-31

    Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids.

  13. Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriga, Balaji; Mopuri, Ramgopal; MuraliKrishna, T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum (A. sativum). Dried bulbs of A. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of 81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of 1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was 100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2'-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity (80%-90% of the standard). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy of A. sativum against S. litura, a polyphagous insect. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Some Extraction Methods for Isolation of Catechins and Caffeine from Turkish Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi DEMİR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective extraction of anticancer and antioxidant principles from Turkish green tea were main purpose of this work. The pre-optimized experimental condition for liquid extraction was employed for comparative appraisal.  Not only extraction methods also nature of the green tea samples (fresh, dried or frozen and quantitative yields related to collection periods were investigated.  After extraction of the green tea with various techniques the extract was partitioned with chloroform to remove caffeine, after that the extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate to obtain catechin mixture. Quantification of individual catechins was carried out by HPLC and analysis results proved that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG was main catechin specie present in all extracts. The results indicate that hot water extraction (at 80 0C provides higher catechin yield when compared to other methods. The highest extract yields were obtained with dried leaves collected in second collection period. The crude catechin mixture contains high amount of EGCG and might be used as raw material for production of plant remedies at industrial scale.

  15. Antioxidant effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, E; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Jaramillo-Flores, M E; Guerrero Legarreta, I

    2009-02-01

    Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration with ethanol and reflux with chloroform. Rosemary extracts showed higher antioxidant activity, even more than the phenol compounds separately. These extracts also showed the highest antioxidant capacity, possibly due to the presence of high concentrations of carnosic acid and carnosol and unidentified active compounds. However, ethanol oregano extracts containing high concentrations of phenols, mainly rosmarinic acid, efficiently prevented colour deterioration. The antioxidant effect of the studied extracts depends, not only on the concentration of phenol compounds (rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid), but also on the extraction method and solvent.

  16. Anti-inflammatory potential of different extracts isolated from the roots of Ficus lacor buch. Hum and Murraya koenigii L. spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Murraya koenigii root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform (MKPE, MKEA and MKCF, respectively and Ficus lacor aerial root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol (FLPE , FLET, FLCF and FLET, respectively at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w. using animal models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-, histamine- and serotonin-induced inflammation. The results of the Murraya koenigii roots chloroform extract caused 66.4% inhibition and the ethanol extract of Ficus lacor aerial roots caused 68.3% inhibition at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., MKPE and MKCF showed 55.10% and 70.10% inhibition, respectively. FLPE and FLET showed 74.50% and 75.40% inhibition, respectively, in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model. In histamine-induced inflammation, the MKCF showed 60% inhibition, and 67.01% and 68.02% inhibition with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, respectively, in Ficus lacor aerial roots at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., MKCF showed 64% inhibition. FLPE and FLET showed 70.13%and 74.01% inhibition, respectively; 62.15% and 66.10% inhibition was observed with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots at 50 mg/kg b.w. At higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., FLPE and FLET showed 69.10% and 68.72% inhibition in serotonin-induced inflammation.

  17. Evaluation of Filtration and DNA Extraction Methods for Environmental DNA Biodiversity Assessments across Multiple Trophic Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Djurhuus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding of marine environmental DNA (eDNA, originating from tissue, cells, or extracellular DNA, offers the opportunity to survey the biological composition of communities across multiple trophic levels from a non-invasive seawater sample. Here we compare results of eDNA metabarcoding of multiple trophic levels from individual seawater samples collected from a kelp forest in Monterey Bay, California in order to establish methods for future cross-trophic level eDNA analysis. Triplicate 1 L water samples were filtered using five different 47 mm diameter membrane filters (PVDF, PES, GFF, PCTE, and NC and DNA was extracted from triplicates of each filter-type using three widely-used extraction methods (the DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit, the MoBio PowerWater DNA Isolation kit, and standard phenol/chloroform methods resulting in 45 individual eDNA samples prepared with 15 workflow combinations. Each DNA extract was amplified using PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene (microorganisms; Bacteria and Archaea, 18S rRNA gene (phytoplankton, and the 12S rRNA gene (vertebrates, and PCR products were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The richness and community composition of microbial, phytoplankton, and vertebrate OTUs were not significantly different between any of the 0.2 μm pore-size filter types extracted with the DNeasy or MoBio kits. However, phenol/chloroform extraction resulted in significantly different community structures. This study provides insight into multiple choices for extraction and filtration methods to use eDNA metabarcoding for biodiversity assessment of multiple trophic levels from a single sample. We recommend any combination of either DNeasy or MoBio with PES, PCTE, PVDF, or NC filters for a cross trophic level comparison.

  18. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of some Narcissus plants extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, Eman; Abou-Donia, Amina H; Darwish, Fikria A; Toaima, Soad M; Takla, Sarah S; Al Asaar, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the chloroform extracts of bulbs and roots of Narcissus papyraceus Ker Gawl. and Narcissus tazetta L. The cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) and colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116) in comparison to doxorubicin. The extracts from the after-flowering (AF) bulbs of N. tazetta L. and N. papyraceus exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against HEPG2 (IC50: 2.2, 3.5 μg mL(-1)) and HCT116 (IC50: 4.2, 3.9 μg mL(-1)) cell lines, respectively. N. tazetta L. bulbs exhibited the least cell viability percentage in HepG-2 cell line (5.32%), while the AF root extracts of N. papyraceus exhibited the least cell viability percentage in HCT116 cell line (4.93%), when applied at a concentration of 50 μg mL(-1), thereby being more active than doxorubicin at the same concentration.

  20. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  1. Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ustün, Osman; Sener, Bilge

    2011-03-01

    Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F. carica var. domestica were screened for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Cholinesterase inhibition against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL., while antioxidant activity was tested using three in vitro methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the n-hexane and acetone extracts exerted a notable inhibition against both AChE (62.9 +/- 0.9% and 50.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and BChE (76.9 +/- 2.2% and 45.6 +/- 1.3%, respectively). However, they had low activity in the antioxidant tests. The chloroform extract was found to be the richest in total flavonoid content (252.5 +/- 1.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent), while the n-butanol extract had the highest total phenol amount (85.9 +/- 3.2 mg/g extract gallic acid equivalent).

  2. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC(50) values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100% mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of parabens in human milk and other food samples by capillary electrophoresis after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with back-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshana, Usama; Ertaş, Nusret; Göğer, Nilgün G

    2015-08-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with back-extraction was used prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the extraction of four parabens. Optimum extraction conditions were: 200 μL chloroform (extraction solvent), 1.0 mL acetonitrile (disperser solvent) and 1 min extraction time. Back-extraction of parabens from chloroform into a 50mM sodium hydroxide solution within 10s facilitated their direct injection into CE. The analytes were separated at 12°C and 25 kV with a background electrolyte of 25 mM borate buffer containing 5.0% (v/v) acetonitrile. Enrichment factors were in the range of 4.3-10.7 and limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 μg mL(-1). Calibration graphs showed good linearity with coefficients of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.9957 and relative standard deviations (%RSDs) lower than 3.5%. DLLME-CE was demonstrated to be a simple and rapid method for the determination of parabens in human milk and food with relative recoveries in the range of 86.7-103.3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Various Solvent Extracts from In Vivo and In Vitro Grown Trifolium pratense L. (Red Clover).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash; Mat Taha, Rosna; Mohajer, Sadegh; Banisalam, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract.

  5. Determination of the phosphorylated sugars of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas Pathway in Lactococcus lactis using a fast sampling technique and solid phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels B.s.; Jokumsen, Kirsten Væver; Villadsen, John

    1999-01-01

    with chloroform at -25 degrees C ensures a total permeability of the cellular membrane towards the metabolites of interest as well as the inactivation of enzymes liable to alter their levels. The final step of the procedure consists in a solid phase extraction using columns with a high affinity for phosphorylated...... to -35 degrees C, bringing about a fast and complete stop of all metabolic activity. In contrast to yeast the metabolites leak out of the cells when these are brought into contact with methanol and are present in the medium and in the biomass after the quenching. A liquid-liquid extraction...

  6. [The use of real-time PCR technology to assess the effectiveness of methods of DNA extraction from cultures of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatykh, S V; Dokshukina, A A; Khaĭnasova, T S; Muradov, S V; Kofiadi, I A

    2011-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of efficiency of several methods of DNA extraction from storage cultures of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganism communities isolated from sulfide ores of Shanuch ore deposit (Kamchatka peninsula) was conducted. DNA extraction methods in various combinations of physical (heating to 65-98 degrees C, grinding with SiO2 particles), enzymatic (treatment with lysozyme and proteinase K), and chemical (GuSCN, CTAB and KOH) treatments were tested. The evaluation of efficiency was performed using Real-time PCR. The best result was obtained for the combined method based on GuSCN lysis activity (lysis at 65 degrees C) followed by purification with phenol and chloroform.

  7. Variation in lipid extractability by solvent in microalgae. Additional criterion for selecting species and strains for biofuel production from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Héctor; Carmona, Laura; Assunção, Patricia; Freijanes, Karen; de la Jara, Adelina; Portillo, Eduardo; Torres, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    The lipid extractability of 14 microalgae species and strains was assessed using organic solvents (methanol and chloroform). The high variability detected indicated the potential for applying this parameter as an additional criterion for microalgae screening in industrial processes such as biofuel production from microalgae. Species without cell walls presented higher extractability than species with cell walls. Analysis of cell integrity by flow cytometry and staining with propidium iodide showed a significant correlation between higher resistance to the physical treatments of cell rupture by sonication and the lipid extractability of the microalgae. The results highlight the cell wall as a determining factor in the inter- and intraspecific variability in lipid extraction treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A new method for immediate derivatization of hydroxyl groups by fluoroalkyl chloroformates and its application for the determination of sterols and tocopherols in human serum and amniotic fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řimnáčová, L; Hušek, P; Šimek, P

    2014-04-25

    A new method has been described for efficient derivatization of secondary alicyclic hydroxyl groups in steroids by alkyl chloroformates (RCFs). Cholesterol, an essential human sterol and a steroid precursor in eukaryotic cells, was used as a model for treatment with various RCFs in an aqueous and non-aqueous environment. While the cholesterol hydroxyl group did not react completely with any of the tested RCFs reagents in the former case, trifluoroethyl chloroformate (TFECF) or heptafluorobutyl chloroformate (HFBCF) fully converts cholesterol and related metabolites into the corresponding mixed carbonates under anhydrous conditions in seconds. The acylation reaction was combined with liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) between isooctane and acetonitrile phase. The sample preparation requires just a stepwise addition of 50μl isooctane with 5μl of a pyridine catalyst, 100μl acetonitrile and 100μl isooctane with dissolved 5μl of the fluoroalkyl chloroformate reagent to a dried sample. The protocol developed in this study was successfully tested for GC-MS analysis of 12 important model steroids and four main tocopherols. Each analyte provided a single peak with excellent GC separation properties, well defined EI spectra containing diagnostic fragment ions suitable for their identification and quantitation. The new method was further validated for the determination of six diagnostic non-cholesterol sterols and four main tocopherols in human serum and in amniotic fluid. Satisfactory data were obtained in terms of calibration, quantitation limits (for sterols and tocopherols, 0.05 and 0.15μg/ml, respectively), within-run precision (0.9-19.5%) and between-run precision (0.2-19.0%), accuracy (82-115%) and recovery (90-110%). The validated method was successfully applied to GC-MS analysis of the analytes in woman sera and amniotic fluids and the results are well-comparable with those reported by other authors. The presented work demonstrates for the first time

  9. μ-Azido-κ2N1:N1-μ-chlorido-bis[(2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl-κ2C1,Npalladium(II] chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Mafud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the binuclear title complex, [Pd2(C11H13ClN2Cl(N3]·CHCl3, each PdII atom has a slightly distorted square-planar geometry being coordinated by a C and an N atom of the 2-chloro-3-dimethylamino-1-phenylpropyl ligand, a bridging Cl atom and an N atom of a bridging end-on azide group. There is a short intramolecular C—H...Cl contact in the complex molecule. In the crystal, the chloroform solvent molecule is linked to the complex via a C—H...π interaction.

  10. Phytochemical Screening, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Ajuga bracteosa Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Kokab; Andleeb, Saiqa; Ghousa, Tahseen; Mustafa, Rozina G; Naseer, Anum; Shafique, Irsa; Akhter, Kalsoom

    2017-01-01

    Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb, is used by local community to cure a number of diseases such as inflammation, jaundice bronchial asthma, cancer and diabetes. The aim of present work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential, in vitro antidiabetic and antimicrobial effects of A. bracteosa. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ajuga bracteosa roots, were prepared via maceration. Antibacterial activity was carried out by agar well diffusion method. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening was done. The antioxidant activity was determined by iron (II) chelating activity, iron reducing power, DPPH, and ABTS free radical scavenging methods, Antidiabetic activity was evaluated through inhibition of α-glucosidase assay. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, terpenoids, xanthoproteins, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, phytosterols and amino acids. DPPH and ABTS potential values were recorded as 61.92% to 88.84% and 0.11% to 38.82%, respectively. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were expressed as gallic acid and rutin equivalents. Total iron content was expressed as FeSO4 equivalents. Chloroform and n-hexane extracts showed significant enzyme inhibition potential with IC50 values of 29.92 μg/ml and 131.7 μg/ml respectively. Aqueous extract showed maximum inhibition of E. coli, S. typhimurium, E. amnigenus, S. pyogenes, and S. aureus, (18.0±1.0 mm, 12.5±0.7 mm, 17.0±0.0 mm, 11.0±0.0 mm and 15.3±2.0 mm mm), respectively. Similarly, n-hexane extract showed maximum inhibition of E. coli, E. amnigenus, S. aureus (11.6±1.5 mm; 11.3±1.5 mm; 13.3±0.5 mm). This study also shows that n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of A. bracteosa root possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and therefore it may be used as hypoglycemic agents in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Ajuga bracteosa root extracts may provide a

  11. A comparison of certain extracting agents for extraction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from microorganisms for use in the firefly luciferase ATP assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, E. A.; Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    Firefly luciferase ATP assay is used in clinical and industrial applications, such as determination of urinary infection levels, microbial susceptibility testing, and monitoring of yeast levels in beverages. Three categories of extractants were investigated for their extracting efficiency. They were ionizing organic solvents, nonionizing organic solvents, and inorganic acids. Dimethylsulfoxide and formamide represented the ionizing organic solvents, while n-butanol, chloroform, ethanol, acetone, and methylene chloride were used for the nonionizing organic solvents. Nitric acid and perchloric acid were chosen for the inorganic acids category. Pathogens were tested with each solvent. They included: Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. These results are shown in graphic representations.

  12. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of various solvents extracts of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunlian; Yang, Caixia; Zhang, Dexian; Han, Limei; Liu, Yaochuan; Guo, Wenjie; Fan, Ruiming; Liu, Mingchun

    2017-05-01

    This paper described the extraction procedure of six extracts from Abutilon theophrasti Medic. leaves and evaluated antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different extracts by hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical scavenging, broth micro-dilution and agar-well diffusion methods. The six extracts were prepared by the two extraction procedures: (I) water was the extraction solvent; (II) 90% alcohol extract was extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol in turn. Extract yields were 7.34%, 7.31%, 0.45%, 0.12%, 2.70% and 5.68% for extract I to VI. It was revealed that the various extracts had effective antibacterial activity against four test strains from Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus (ATCC 49619), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella (ATCC 01303); meanwhile, the six extracts demonstrated potent antioxidant activity, achieved by hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the bacterial species ranged from 2.21 to 539.46 mg/ml, diameter of inhibition zone ranged from 2.08 to 15.05mm. The scavenging •OH and DPPH• rates were 62.37% to 81.86% with the concentration 0.06 to 1.89mg/ml and 37.80% to 81.23% with the concentration 1.07 to 35.52mg/ml. According to the results, these extracts have antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In view of all the facts collectively, the six extracts will become natural and nontoxic antioxidant and antibacterial agent, and be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries for the prevention or treatment caused by microorganisms and free radicals.

  13. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  14. NMR-Based Identification of Metabolites in Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Avian Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Fariba; Brun, Antonio; Rott, Katherine H; Falco Cobra, Paulo; Tonelli, Marco; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H; Markley, John L

    2017-11-16

    Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1.7 mm cryogenic probe. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this protocol for metabolomics studies, we analyzed the metabolic profile of livers from house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings raised on two different diets: livers from 10 nestlings raised on a high protein diet (HP) for 4 d and livers from 12 nestlings raised on the HP diet for 3 d and then switched to a high carbohydrate diet (HC) for 1 d. The protocol enabled the detection of 52 polar and nine non-polar metabolites in ¹H NMR spectra of the extracts. We analyzed the lipophilic metabolites by one-way ANOVA to assess statistically significant concentration differences between the two groups. The results of our studies demonstrate that the protocol described here can be exploited for high-throughput screening of small quantities of liver tissue (approx. 100 mg wet mass) obtainable from small animals.

  15. Repellent, antifeedant, and toxic activities of Lantana camara leaf extract against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhonglin; Hu, Xing Ping

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated biological activity of chloroform extract of dry Lantana camara 'Mozelle' leaves against the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), an important structural pest. Repellent activity was assessed using a paper-disc choice test and a sand arena choice test. Antifeedant and toxic properties were assessed using a no-choice paper test and a topical application method. In the choice tests, significantly fewer termites made contact with treated paper-discs at test concentrations > or = 0.016 mg/cm2 (equivalent to 0.0023 wt:wt) or tunneled into treated sand at test concentrations > or = 0.125 mg/g, compared with control. In the no-choice tests, termite feeding activity was significantly reduced and termite mortality was greatly increased in treatments than control. Exposure to filter paper treated at 0.212 and 0.106 mg/cm2 (equivalent to 0.03 and 0.015 wt:wt) resulted in > 90% mortality and 78% reduction in feeding, and approximately 52% mortality and 40% reduction in feeding, respectively. Top-dorsal application led to > 60% mortality at 4 microg/termite. This study showed that the chloroform leaf extract of L. camara had excellent repellent and moderate toxic and antifeedant activities.

  16. Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

    2008-12-01

    Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats.

  17. KAJIAN PROSES EKSTRAKSI ION LOGAM Cu(II DAN Co(II DENGAN EKSTRAKTAN 1-fenil-3-metil-4-stearoilpirazol-5-on (HPMSP (STUDY ON THE EXTRACTION OF Cu(II AND Co(II WITH 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-stearoylpyrazol-5-one (HPMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Ali Kusrijadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cu(II and Co(II with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-stearoylpyrazol-5-one (HPMSP as the chelating ligand using chloroform solvent have been studied. The extraction mechanism of Cu(II and Co(II and the composition of extracted species has been determined. Cu(II and Co(II was extracted as Cu(PMSP2 and Co(PMSP2. The effect of concentration HPMSP and pH has also been investigated.

  18. Adaptation Method Bligh & Dyer a Lipid Extraction of Colomb ian Microalgas Biodiesel Production for Third Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Delgado Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the biodiesel production process from microalgae, the cell disruption and lipid extraction stages are important for obtaining triglycerides that can be transesterified to biodiesel and glycerol. In this work, the Bligh & Dyer method was adapted for lipid extraction from native microalgae using organosolv pretreatment or acid hydrolysis as cell disruption mechanism for improve the extraction process. Chloroform-methanol-water are the solvents employed in the Bligh & Dyer extraction method. The microalgae species Botryococcus braunii, Nannocloropsis, Closterium, Guinardia y Amphiprora were employed for the experimental part. Adaptation of the method was found the best extraction conditions, these were: 1:20 biomass/solvent ratio, initial ratio solvents CHCl3:CH3OH:H2O (1:2:0, stirring conditions of 5000 rpm for 14 minutes and centrifuge of 3400 rpm for 15 minutes. The cell disruption mechanisms allowed to obtain extracts with high lipid content after performing the extraction with Bligh & Dyer method, but decreases significantly the total extraction yield. Finally, the fatty acids profiles showed that Botryococcus braunii specie contains higher acylglycerol percentage area suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  19. Liquid - liquid extraction of matrine using TRPO/cyclohexane reverse micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Dong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reverse micellar extraction has been widely used in the purification of biomolecules. However, reverse micelles formed by ionic surfactants can only be employed for the extraction of biomolecules that are charged in the extraction system with the electrostatic interaction between surfactants and solutes as the driving force. In this study, the extraction of matrine by using reverse micelles formed by non-ionic TRPO surfactants was studied. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrated that the driving force of the extraction is the coordination forces between matrines and TRPOs. Using this coordination-based reverse micellar extraction, matrine can be efficiently separated from oxymatrine and other components in the raw matrine materials. Experimental studies showed that the factors affecting matrine extraction include pH value and TRPO concentration. The existence of ions in the system does not affect the partition coefficient significantly and the addition of a small amount of chloroform in the solution of reverse micelles was found to improve the extraction significantly.

  20. Phytochemical, anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, M; Kannappan, N; Santhiagu, A; Mathew, Ajith P

    2013-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, In vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P<0.05) when compared with paralytic (7.33±0.206) and death time (18.60±0.229) of standard piperazine citrate at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.