WorldWideScience

Sample records for water-electrolyte imbalance

  1. Water electrolyte transport through corrugated carbon nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi Kheirabadi, A; Moosavi, A

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the effect of wall roughness on water electrolyte transport characteristics at different temperatures through carbon nanotubes by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that shearing stress and the nominal viscosity increase with ion concentration in corrugated carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in contrast to cases in smooth CNTs. Also, the temperature increase leads to the reduction of shearing stress and the nominal viscosity at moderate degrees of wall roughness. At high degrees of wall roughness, the temperature increase will enhance radial movements and increases resistance against fluid motion. As the fluid velocity increases, the particles do not have enough time to fully adjust their positions to minimize system energy, which causes shearing stress and the nominal viscosity to increase. By increasing roughness amplitude or decreasing roughness wavelength, the shearing stress will increase. Synergistic effects of such parameters (wall roughness, velocity, ion concentration, and temperature) inside corrugated CNTs are studied and compared with each other. The molecular mechanisms are considered by investigating the radial density profile and the radial velocity profile of confined water inside modified CNT.

  2. Double Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The government has been introducing a string of policies to stabilize the economy and cushion the impact of the global eco-nomic slowdown since October.These policies are generally deemed"timely"and"necessary,"but not a long-term cure for problems in China’s economy.Renowned economist Wu Jinglian says the country must address its"double imbalance"and further reform its economic growth mode.He made his comments at the First Annual Global Management Forum on December 6 in Shanghai.Excerptsf ollow:

  3. Treatment of alternated water-electrolyte balance and endocrine status after removal of craniopharyngioma in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; ZHAO Shang-feng; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Mao-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Background Water-electrolyte disturbance and endocrine alterations are common complications of adult patients with craniopharygioma in the postoperative period and may affect their recovery and prognosis. Some of these complications even lead to death. Appropriate remedy based upon the status of water-electrolyte balance and the endocrine system is essential to good therapeutic results of adult patients with craniopharyngioma.Methods The alterations in water-electrolyte balance (117 patients) and endocrine status (42) of adult patients with craniopharyngioma after surgery were analyzed retrospectively.Results Most patients with craniopharyngioma experienced postoperative water-electrolyte disturbances and hypotonic dehydration. Moreover, the incidences of hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism were relatively high.Conclusion It is critical to deal with dehydration and endocrine disorders for a sound outcome of craniopharyngioma surgery.

  4. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is ...

  5. Earth's Energy Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.

    2013-12-01

    'Global warming' from increased greenhouse gases really refers to a global energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). TOA measurements of radiation from space can track changes over time but lack absolute accuracy. An inventory of energy shows that over 90% of the imbalance is manifested as ocean heat content (OHC). Here we use ORAS4 ocean reanalysis data and other OHC estimates to compare the OHC rates of change with model-based estimates of TOA energy imbalance (from CCSM4), and with TOA satellite measurements for the year 2000 onwards. Most of the ocean-only OHC analyses extend to only 700 m depth, have large discrepancies among the rates of change of OHC, and do not resolve interannual variability adequately to capture ENSO and volcanic eruption effects. For the first time we show that ORAS4 OHC quantitatively agrees with the radiative forcing estimates of impacts of the 3 major volcanic eruptions since 1960 (Mt. Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Mt. Pinatubo 1991). The natural variability of the energy imbalance is substantial from month-to-month associated with cloud and weather variations, and interannually mainly associated with ENSO, while the sun affects 15% of the climate change signal on decadal timescales. All estimates (OHC and TOA) show that over the past decade the energy imbalance ranges between about 0.5 and 1 W m-2. By using the full-depth ocean, there is a better overall accounting for energy, but discrepancies remain at interannual timescales between OHC and TOA radiation measurements, notably in 2008-09.

  6. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  7. Applications in spinal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Parent, H; Cavagna, R; Vital, J-M; Blamoutier, A; Violas, P

    2010-05-04

    The pelvis may be seen as a single vertebra, between the spine and the femurs. The anatomy of this pelvic vertebra has changed with the evolution of species, notably with the transition to bipedalism, with the consequent appearance of lumbar lordosis. The lumbosacral angle, almost non-existent in other mammals, is at its greatest in humans. Pelvic and spinal radiological parameters reflect the sagittal balance of the spine in bipedal humanity. Applications in the management of spinal imbalance are numerous. Arthrogenic or degenerative kyphosis is the stereotypic example of spinal aging. Postoperative flat back following spine surgery is hard to prevent. Scoliosis surgery in adults should now take greater account of the patient's individual sagittal balance, by analyzing the pelvic and spinal parameters. The extent of arthrodeses performed during adolescence to manage idiopathic scoliosis may also induce problems of balance in adulthood if these elements are not taken into account. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dijet imbalance in hadronic collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of dijets produced in hadronic collisions has been used to extract the average transverse momentum of partons inside the hadrons. In this paper we discuss new contributions to the dijet imbalance that could complicate or even hamper this extraction. They are due to polarization of init

  9. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  10. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  11. Inverse imbalance reconstruction in rotordynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlau, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Linz (Austria). Johann Radon Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Dicken, V. [MeVis GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Maass, P. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik; Streller, C. [Rolls-Royce Germany GmbH, Dahlewitz (Germany); Rienaecker, A. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of this work is to establish and compare algorithms for inverse imbalance reconstruction in aircraft turbines. Such algorithms are based on a validated whole engine model of a turbo engine under consideration. Base on the model, the impact of an imbalance distribution on the vibration behaviour of the turbine can be described as a matrix-vector multiplication Af = g, where f is the imbalance distribution and g the vibration response. It turns out that the matrix A is very ill-conditioned. As the measured data is highly affected with noise, we have to use regularization methods in order to stabilize the inversion. Our main interest was in the use of nonlinear regularization methods, in particular nonlinear filtered singular value decomposition and conjugate gradient regularization. (orig.)

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. What is Imbalance of Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Mother Nature is imbalanced at all. The Mother Nature is every moment new, never returns to previous condition. The gravity and magnetosphere are changeable and imbalanced. The Sun is changeable and imbalanced. The climate is changeable and imbalanced. The atmosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The ocean is changeable and imbalanced. The crust and deep interior are changeable and imbalanced. The cryosphere is changeable and imbalanced. The life is simultaneously as the creator and the result of the imbalance of Nature. The people society is changeable and imbalanced. All chemical, physical, social, and other phenomenons are changeable and imbalanced. It's just that each phenomenon of the Mother Nature has some personal time-scale: one change in a nanosecond, and looks like for us as instable, i.e. imbalanced; while others change over millions years and, therefore, to us looks like not changeable, i.e. balanced. The scientists who are studying the Nature have convinced that the real balance never exist in Nature. Sometimes we can see something that is stable, i.e. balanced. But on closer study it appears that we are witnessing is not eternal rest and balance, it is not eternal STOP, but it is the perpetual motion, changing, there are a lot of imbalances. The balance it can be some result of the temporary mutual compensation the imbalanced processes in opposite directions. The balance it can be also some result of the inaccurate measurement, misunderstanding of conception or even request from bosses. But if we start use more accurate measurements, improve the models and not fear the bosses, than usually we got some new details. These new details show thet under the balanced visibility in really is hiding the interaction of many imbalanced processes of different directions. The balanced logic usually answers to question: What is it? The balanced answers are approximate and it will be updated many times during the development of science and practice. The

  14. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...

  15. Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.

  16. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  17. Are chromosomal imbalances important in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Raymond L

    2007-06-01

    Tumor-specific patterns of large-scale chromosomal imbalances characterize most forms of cancer. Based on evidence primarily from neuroblastomas, it can be argued that large-scale chromosomal imbalances are crucial for tumor pathogenesis and have an impact on the global transcriptional profile of cancer cells, and that some imbalances even initiate cancer. The genes and genetic pathways that have been dysregulated by such imbalances remain surprisingly elusive. Many genes are affected by the regions of gain and loss, and there are complex interactions and relationships that occur between these genes, hindering their identification. The study of untranslated RNA sequences, such as microRNAs, is in its infancy, and it is likely that such sequences are also dysregulated by chromosomal imbalance, contributing to pathogenesis.

  18. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.58 ± 0.15 W m−2 during the 6-yr period 2005–2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be −1.6 ± 0.3 W m−2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

  19. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Improving observations of ocean temperature confirm that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 \\pm 0.15 W/m2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, provides fundamental verification of the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 \\pm 0.3 W/m2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. A recent decrease in ocean heat uptake ...

  20. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m−2 during the 6-year period 2005–2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be −1.6 ± 0.3 W m−2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

    Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007 reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007.

    The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases

  1. Trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-06-01

    Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, pself-image, or type of scoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk imbalance to be related with lower pain in logistic regression

  2. The Hegelian dialectics of global imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestin Monga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional narratives of external imbalances have focused on the analysis of national accounts, trade flows, and financial flows. They have generated two opposing views of the current situation of the world economy: on one side, a prudent, if not pessimistic view considers large imbalances as evidence of problems with the international monetary and financial system, and symptoms of domestic distortions (mainly in the United States and China. On the other side, a relaxed, if not optimistic view suggests that global imbalances are not anomalies but simply the predictable outcome of a world with increasingly globalized financial flows in search of the right mix of risks and returns. This paper offers a critical analysis of these competing explanations of the United States-China imbalances and suggests a way of reconciling them. The paper uses Hegel’s parable of the development of self-consciousness to explain the dynamics between the two countries. Hegel may not have been a great philosopher of history but his study of lordship and bondage provides a good framework for analyzing the dialectics of recognition and acknowledgement that currently characterizes the macroeconomic relationships between the United States and China.

  3. On the chiral imbalance and Weibel instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We study the chiral-imbalance and the Weibel instabilities in presence of the quantum anomaly using the Berry-curvature modified kinetic equation. We argue that in many realistic situations, e.g. relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both the instabilities can occur simultaneously. The Weibel instability depends on the momentum anisotropy parameter ξ and the angle (θn) between the propagation vector and the anisotropy direction. It has maximum growth rate at θn = 0 while θn = π / 2 corresponds to a damping. On the other hand the pure chiral-imbalance instability occurs in an isotropic plasma and depends on difference between the chiral chemical potentials of right and left-handed particles. It is shown that when θn = 0, only for a very small values of the anisotropic parameter ξ ∼ξc, growth rates of the both instabilities are comparable. For the cases ξc Weibel modes dominate over the chiral-imbalance instability if μ5 / T ≤ 1. However, when μ5 / T ≥ 1, it is possible to have dominance of the chiral-imbalance modes at certain values of θn for an arbitrary ξ.

  4. Education in the imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are two concepts understanding of the real Nature: balanced and imbalanced. The traditional balanced concept understanding of Nature was originated in prehistoric times to calm the frightened souls of prehistoric man and manage groups of people. The balanced concept presupposes that Nature is isotropic, balanced, etc. The balanced concept of understanding of Nature gradually has moved to science and technology. The balanced concept of understanding of Nature is dominating from the prehistoric time up to today. But always parallel and opposite was exists the concept imbalanced understanding of Nature, which presupposes that Nature is anisotropy, imbalanced, etc. The balanced concept is much simpler than Imbalanced. The balanced concept has given mankind a lot of rough description of Nature which helped to solve a lot of practical problems but with sufficient accuracy, i.e. approximately, but not with an absolute precision. While people were few, and a lot of resources, person could take from Nature only what Nature gave willingly. During this period, people feared and respected Nature and Nature was able easily compensate the activity of people. The high accuracy of the description of Nature was not needed when resources were plentiful and people were few. But now the situation is completely different. The population has become a very large and growing. Traditional resources are almost run out and the lack of resources escalates. People are not afraid of Nature and bravely try to take by force what Nature does not give voluntarily. People invaded into imbalance Nature, and Nature can no longer compensate activity of people. The era of global change is started, including those that man provokes. In the conditions of global changes is insufficiently of the approximate solutions of the traditional balanced concept. The balanced concept is exhausted, and increasingly misleads people. The balanced concept cannot solve the problems that arise in the global change

  5. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    OpenAIRE

    Olga E. Aftimichuk; Alexander V. Varvarich

    2013-01-01

    Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into acc...

  6. Global imbalances, saving glut and investment strike.

    OpenAIRE

    Moëc, G.; Frey, L

    2006-01-01

    The present state of the global economy is characterised by persistent and increasingly polarised current account imbalances, in a context of historically low long-term interest rates, which stand below the equilibrium levels proxied by potential growth and trend inflation. A comprehensive analysis by Ben Bernanke1 attributes those two phenomena to one common cause: a global saving glut outside the United States. The approach below is more pessimistic than the global saving glut theory as far...

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase imbalance in muscle disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, G; De Marzo, A; Marinosci, F; Antonaci, S

    2005-01-01

    Muscle atrophy commonly occurs as a consequence of prolonged muscle inactivity, as observed after cast immobilization, bed rest or space flights. The molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle atrophy are still unknown, but a role has been proposed for altered permeability of the sarcolemma and of the surrounding connective tissue. Matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes with proteolytic activity toward a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) components; they are inhibited by tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). In a rat tail-suspension experimental model, we show that after fourteen days of non-weight bearing there is increased expression of MMP-2 in the atrophic soleus and gastrocnemius and decreased expression of TIMP-2. In the same experimental model the expression of Collagen I and Collagen IV, two main ECM components present in the muscles, was reduced and unevenly distributed in unloaded animals. The difference was more evident in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius muscle. This suggests that muscle disuse induces a proteolytic imbalance, which could be responsible for the breakdown of basal lamina structures such as Collagen I and Collagen IV, and that this leads to an altered permeability with consequent atrophy. In conclusion, an MMP-2/TIMP-2 imbalance could have a role in the mechanism underlying muscle disuse atrophy; more studies are needed to expand our molecular knowledge on this issue and to explore the possibility of targeting the proteolytic imbalance with MMP inhibitors.

  8. On the Chiral imbalance and Weibel Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Kaw, Predhiman K

    2016-01-01

    We study the chiral-imbalance and the Weibel instabilities in presence of the quantum anomaly using the Berry-curvature modified kinetic equation. We argue that in many realistic situations, e.g. relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both the instabilities can occur simultaneously. The Weibel instability depends on the momentum anisotropy parameter $\\xi$ and the angle ($\\theta_n$) between the propagation vector and the anisotropy direction. It has maximum growth rate at $\\theta_n=0$ while $\\theta_n=\\pi/2$ corresponds to a damping. On the other hand the pure chiral-imbalance instability occurs in an isotropic plasma and depends on difference between the chiral chemical potentials of right and left-handed particles. It is shown that when $\\theta_n=0$, only for a very small values of the anisotropic parameter $\\xi\\sim \\xi_c$, growth rates of the both instabilities are comparable. For the cases $\\xi_c<\\xi\\ll1$, $\\xi\\approx 1$ or $\\xi \\geq 1$ at $\\theta_n=0$, the Weibel modes dominate over the chiral-imbalance ins...

  9. Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikarpova Olga S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro

  10. DMD transcript imbalance determines dystrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitali, Pietro; van den Bergen, Janneke C; Verhaart, Ingrid E C; Wokke, Beatrijs; Janson, Anneke A M; van den Eijnde, Rani; den Dunnen, Johan T; Laros, Jeroen F J; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke

    2013-12-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are caused by out-of-frame and in-frame mutations, respectively, in the dystrophin encoding DMD gene. Molecular therapies targeting the precursor-mRNA are in clinical trials and show promising results. These approaches will depend on the stability and expression levels of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscles and heart. We report that the DMD gene is more highly expressed in heart than in skeletal muscles, in mice and humans. The transcript mutated in the mdx mouse model shows a 5' to 3' imbalance compared with that of its wild-type counterpart and reading frame restoration via antisense-mediated exon skipping does not correct this event. We also report significant transcript instability in 22 patients with Becker dystrophy, clarifying the fact that transcript imbalance is not caused by premature nonsense mutations. Finally, we demonstrate that transcript stability, rather than transcriptional rate, is an important determinant of dystrophin protein levels in patients with Becker dystrophy. We suggest that the availability of the complete transcript is a key factor to determine protein abundance and thus will influence the outcome of mRNA-targeting therapies.

  11. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Hoan Lim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.MethodsIn a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses.ResultsIn patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46, 26.9% (n=21, 35.9% (n=28, 47.4% (n=37, and 23.1% (n=18, respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all P<0.05. Levels of potassium in serum were positively correlated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and growth hormone (GH levels (all P<0.05. Levels of inorganic phosphate in serum were positively correlated with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH (all P<0.05, and levels of magnesium in serum were positively correlated with delta ACTH (P<0.01.ConclusionElectrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease.

  12. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  13. Muscular Imbalance Correction in the Power Fitness Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Aftimichuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscular imbalance is one of the manifestations of pathological-biomechanical changes in muscular-skeletal system. It is the result of tonus-power imbalance of short and relaxed muscles. Muscle shortening is the most striking sign of muscular imbalance. Hypodynamia and passive lifestyle can cause such results. The paper justifies the experimental technique of women muscular imbalances correction by means of power training. Selection of exercises, weights and machines was made, taking into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the body of women of second maturity. The indexes, obtained as a result of fitness programs testing, developed within the frameworks of correctional methods.

  14. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  15. Imbalance of Water as an Example of Fundamental Imbalance of Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechayev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is one of the main attributes of the world around us. Turning into ice or water vapor it controls a wide range of natural phenomena. It is one of the most moving substances of Earth and in it as in a mirror all imbalance of the Nature reflects. The laws that govern the water are above all the laws of classical physics, laws of motion and conservation. They determine an equilibrium state and out of it when the balance of forces, flows and energy is disturbed. Volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, hurricane or tornado formation are the extreme form of imbalance of Nature. Unfortunately they are involved in it as a genetic feature. Mass and energy flows pervade the natural world. The structure of the space makes them come into conflict. Internal stress increase, there is an imbalance resulting in the fast, catastrophic events. Whether it is possible to understand the reasons of similar imbalance and to find its critical conditions? The water in their states shows the most striking examples of imbalance of Nature. If the equilibrium of forces and flows is disturbed the nature of movement can fundamentally change. The dependence of the total flux I flowing through the structure of the pressure drop Δp causing this flow can serve as an important informative characteristic for the imbalance phenomena connected with water. This «flow - forcing» characteristic I(Δp) qualitatively changes its form with changes of so-called bifurcation parameter. From monotonous it can become S- or N-shaped. The approach to the analysis of Nature imbalance phenomenon can be illustrated by geyser eruption mechanism which is theoretically described in (Nechayev, 2012). One-dimensional motion of water flow in the geyser conduit obeys the Navier-Stokes equation. The influx of masses of water vapor due to water boiling in an underground chamber creates increasing overpressure. Bifurcation parameter is the volume of this chamber. There is a critical value of this volume (as compared

  16. Allelic imbalance in hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, B.; Houwelingen, K.P. van; Ruijter, T.E.G.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluate the pattern of allelic imbalance (AI) in both sporadic prostate cancer (SPC) and hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) at loci that frequently show allelic imbalance in sporadic prostate cancer, or are believed to have a putative role in the disease. METHODS: DNA ob

  17. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  18. Population and mass imbalance in atomic Fermi gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, J E; Gubbels, K.B.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an accurate theory of resonantly interacting Fermi mixtures with both spin and mass imbalance. We consider Fermi mixtures with arbitrary mass imbalances but focus, in particular, on the experimentally available Li6-K40 mixture. We determine the phase diagram of the mixture for different i

  19. Laterality and imbalance of muscle stiffness relate to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Kumano, Hiroaki; Minoda, Keiji; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Fukudo, Shin

    2004-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to test the hypothesis that laterality and imbalance of muscle stiffness relate to personality. The authors selected 23 healthy volunteers and divided them into two groups based on the predominance of muscle stiffness on the left or right side. Imbalance of muscle stiffness was calculated as the absolute value of the difference of muscle stiffness between the right and left sides. The authors evaluated personality with the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Subjects with left predominant muscle stiffness of the rectal abdominis had significantly higher neuroticism score than those with right predominant muscle stiffness. Subjects with more imbalance of muscle stiffness in the latissimus dorsi and in the trapezius had significantly higher neuroticism and psychoticism scores than those with less imbalance. The findings suggest that laterality and imbalance of muscle stiffness relate to personality.

  20. 颅咽管瘤术后水电解质紊乱的临床特点及预后%The clinical characteristics and prognosis of postoperative water-electrolyte disorders following craniopharyngioma surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟庆丽; 冯凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨成人颅咽管瘤术后水电解质紊乱的临床特点、治疗以及预后.方法 根据术后血钠的变化情况,对57例成人颅咽管瘤术后水电解质紊乱的临床特点和治疗进行了分析.结果 除20例(35.1%)患者术后水电解质正常外,37例(64.9%)患者在术后出现了不同程度和不同类型的水电解质紊乱.其中低渗性脱水(血清钠150 mmol/L)7例(18.9%),等渗性脱水3例(8.1%),典型的"三期"变化6例(16.2%),高钠-低钠交替出现4例(10.8%).结论 颅咽管瘤术后水电解质异常纠正是颅咽管瘤治疗和患者恢复过程中非常重要的方面,需要及时监测其变化并给予针对性的治疗.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of water-electrolyte disorders following adult craniopharyngioma surgery. Methods The alterations of water-electrolyte balance in 57 cases were retrospectively analyzed according to the serum sodium level after adult craniopharyngioma surgery. Results Most patients developed water-electrolyte disorders of different extents and types after craniopharyngioma surgery. Except 20 (35. 0% ) patients, the other 37 (65. 0% ) patients developed various types and degrees of postoperative water-electrolyte disturbances. There were hypotonic dehydration (serum sodium 150mmol/L) in 7 patients ( 18. 9% ) , isotonic dehydration in 3 patients (8. 1% ) , typical triphasic alterations in 6 patients( 16. 2% ) , and alternation between high and low sodium levels in 4 patients( 10. 8% ). Conclusion It is critical for a sound outcome of craniopharyngioma surgery to manage dehydration and endocrine disorders.

  1. Current account imbalances in the euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the current account balance for the euro area as a whole has been in balance, divergences in current account positions among the euro-area members have widened since the introduction of the common currency euro. During the last 13 years Portugal, Greece and Spain have run large and persistent current account deficits, whereas Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Finland or Germany have displayed during the same period large and persistent surpluses. However, there is no unambiguous agreement among economists, whether this divergence of current account positions of the euro-area countries mirrors growing intra-euro-area imbalances (Gros, 2012 or just reflects proper functioning of the European integration process (Schmitz and von Hagen, 2009. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to estimate equilibrium current account position for each of the original 12 euro area countries so that it is possible to assess whether the divergence of intra-euro current account balances could be explained on the basis of economic fundamentals or it just reflects misallocation of resources and thus macroeconomic imbalances. The equilibrium current account balance is estimated using a panel-econometric technique for a sample of 30 industrial countries, which represent euro-area member states and their main business partners, over the period 1993–2011. Economic fundamentals affecting the equilibrium current account position are selected on the basis of the saving-investment balance, the trade balance and the net income balance, to ensure that we take into an account all theoretically important explanatory variables. We find that the main determinants of current account norms in our sample are fiscal balance, a country’s net international investment position, oil balance and a country’s stage of economic development. The major part of the euro-area countries exhibits current account positions close to their equilibrium levels with the exception of the Netherlands and

  2. Golden Jubilee Photos: A Universal Imbalance

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ View along the NA48 beamline with the detector in the distance. No one is sure why the Universe wound up the way it has: all matter and no antimatter. According to prevailing theories, the early universe had equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However, whenever such opposites meet, they annihilate and become a burst of energy. This would seem to leave the Universe with neither matter nor antimatter - and thus no stars, planets, or physicists. If nature shows a bias for matter over antimatter, this could explain why the Universe is all matter. To see what might be missing from the theories, physicists search for the rare cases in which matter and antimatter behave differently. One such imbalance, called direct CP violation, showed up in the NA 31 experiment at CERN. The results from this experiment, first presented in 1993, showed that when K mesons and their antimatter cousins decay, they show a slight preference for matter over antimatter. Later experiments with neutral K mes...

  3. Large Genomic Imbalances in Brugada Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riuró, Helena; Mates, Jesus; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Coll, Mònica; Porres, José Manuel; del Olmo, Bernat; Iglesias, Anna; Selga, Elisabet; Picó, Ferran; Pagans, Sara; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Sarquella-Brugada, Geòrgia; Arbelo, Elena; Cesar, Sergi; Brugada, Josep; Campuzano, Óscar; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a form of cardiac arrhythmia which may lead to sudden cardiac death. The recommended genetic testing (direct sequencing of SCN5A) uncovers disease-causing SNVs and/or indels in ~20% of cases. Limited information exists about the frequency of copy number variants (CNVs) in SCN5A in BrS patients, and the role of CNVs in BrS-minor genes is a completely unexplored field. Methods 220 BrS patients with negative genetic results were studied to detect CNVs in SCN5A. 63 cases were also screened for CNVs in BrS-minor genes. Studies were performed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Results The detection rate for CNVs in SCN5A was 0.45% (1/220). The detected imbalance consisted of a duplication from exon 15 to exon 28, and could potentially explain the BrS phenotype. No CNVs were found in BrS-minor genes. Conclusion CNVs in current BrS-related genes are uncommon among BrS patients. However, as these rearrangements may underlie a portion of cases and they undergo unnoticed by traditional sequencing, an appealing alternative to conventional studies in these patients could be targeted NGS, including in a single experiment the study of SNVs, indels and CNVs in all the known BrS-related genes. PMID:27684715

  4. Measuring Earth's Radiation Imbalance using Cubesat Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. D.; Courtade, S.; Immel, T. J.; Feldman, D.; Lorentz, S. R.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    At present, the global annual-mean Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) is estimated to be of order 1 W/m2, although the uncertainty in ERI is much larger than this estimate. The best current satellite-only observational determinations of ERI range from -2 to +7 W/m2 unless major adjustments are made using ocean observations. Since measurements of ERI accurate to better than 0.5 W/m2 are essential for understanding and predicting changes in our climate, new missions to determine ERI in conjunction with ongoing ocean observations are urgently needed. These missions should reliably determine Earth's radiation balance at the temporal and spatial scales sufficient for relating ERI to the physical processes responsible for variability. The compelling objective of measuring ERI can be met using a constellation of satellites making global, high-frequency radiation measurements of the solar energy reflected and infrared energy radiated back to space with sufficient accuracy to determine the ERI to within 0.5 W/m2. In this presentation, we discuss the reasons and prospects for deploying a Cubesat constellation to realize this objective, simulations of the data that could be produced by this constellation, and the advantages of the spatial coverage and high temporal frequency afforded by the constellation. These advantages apply both to estimating long-term ERI and to quantifying the radiation budgets of individual synoptic-scale weather systems. The innovations in this system involve both the use of Cubesats and of compact, continuously calibrated wide-field-of-view radiometers. We demonstrate the feasibility of such a constellation using the ongoing proof-of-concept deployment of the target radiometers onboard the upcoming NASA RAVAN (Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes) mission.

  5. Imbalance of endogenous prostanoids in moderate-to-severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takemura

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: An imbalance in production, breakdown, or both between prostaglandin E2 and other prostanoids possibly due to epithelial damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of moderate-to-severe asthma.

  6. An Analysis of Public Service Structural Imbalances in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林万龙

    2008-01-01

    Rectifying the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services can effectively boost the efficiency of public funds utilization and the level of public service provision. Based on the findings of a field survey, this article presents a summary of the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services. This paper holds that the structural imbalance is primarily reflected in the dislocation between provision and demand, the unsuitable mode of provision, the monolithic provision mechanism, the excessive focus on construction at the expense of governance and the overemphasis of counties and townships at the cost of villages. Such structural imbalance is principally because of the limited financial strength of government at the grass-roots level due to treasury centralization and the over-dependence of public services on special funds allocated by government at or above provincial level.

  7. Effort-reward imbalance and depression in Japanese medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yumi; Wada, Koji; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The effort-reward imbalance is an important psychosocial factor which is related to poor health among employees. However, there are few studies that have evaluated effort-reward imbalance among medical residents. The present study was done to determine the association between psychosocial factors at work as defined by the effort-reward imbalance model and depression among Japanese medical residents. We distributed a questionnaire to 227 medical residents at 16 teaching hospitals in Japan at the end of August 2005. We asked participants to answer questions which included demographic information, depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance, over-commitment and social support. Depression was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The effort-reward imbalance and over-commitment were assessed by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire which Siegrist developed. Social support was determined on a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found in 35 (29.2%) 1st-year residents and 21 (27.6%) 2nd-year residents. The effort-reward ratio >1 (OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.87-27.12) and low social support score (OR, 2.77, 95% CI, 1.36-5.64) were associated with depressive symptoms among medical residents. Effort-reward imbalance was independently related to depression among Japanese medical residents. The present study suggests that balancing between effort and reward at work is important for medical residents' mental health.

  8. Early Proximal Junctional Failure in Patients with Preoperative Sagittal Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Study Type Retrospective review. Introduction Sagittal imbalance has been associated with lower health-related quality of life outcomes, and restoration of imbalance is associated with improved outcomes.1 2 3 The long constructs used in adult spinal deformity have potential consequences such as proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). Clinically, the development of PJK may not be as important as failure of the construct or vertebrae at the proximal end. As PJK does not lead to worse clinical outco...

  9. Chiral Imbalance in QCD and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under extreme conditions of high temperature and/or large quark (baryon density, the vacuum of QCD changes its properties, and deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration as well as chiral symmetry breaking take place. These transitions (phases are accompanied by the rapid change in the rate and nature of topological transitions connecting different topological sectors. The heavy ion collisions (HIC program opens a possibility to study these phenomena in so-called non-Abelian Quark-gluon plasma (QGP. In these phases the currents of light quarks (vector and axial-vector can be independently examined for right-handed (RH and left-handed (LH quarks. To describe such a quark matter chiral chemical potential can be introduced to quantify the presence of chirality imbalance (ChI i.e. the difference between the average numbers of RH and LH quarks in the fireball after HIC. In this review talk we will focus our attention on the discussion of the ChI related developments in heavy ion physics at central collisions and the plans for the future experiments aimed at establishing (or falsifying the presence of Local spacial Parity Breaking (LPB in heavy ion data. We describe some of experimental observables in detecting the signal of LPB. A number of measurements is proposed that allow to reach a definite conclusion on the occurrence of LPB effects in non-Abelian QGP produced in central heavy ion collisions and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. Based on the effective meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is found that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. Moreover a resonance broadening occurs that leads to an increase of spectral contribution to the dilepton production as compared to the vacuum state. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the

  10. Chiral Imbalance in QCD and its consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexander; Andrianov, Vladimir; Espriu, Domenec

    2016-10-01

    Under extreme conditions of high temperature and/or large quark (baryon) density, the vacuum of QCD changes its properties, and deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration as well as chiral symmetry breaking take place. These transitions (phases) are accompanied by the rapid change in the rate and nature of topological transitions connecting different topological sectors. The heavy ion collisions (HIC) program opens a possibility to study these phenomena in so-called non-Abelian Quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In these phases the currents of light quarks (vector and axial-vector) can be independently examined for right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) quarks. To describe such a quark matter chiral chemical potential can be introduced to quantify the presence of chirality imbalance (ChI) i.e. the difference between the average numbers of RH and LH quarks in the fireball after HIC. In this review talk we will focus our attention on the discussion of the ChI related developments in heavy ion physics at central collisions and the plans for the future experiments aimed at establishing (or falsifying) the presence of Local spacial Parity Breaking (LPB) in heavy ion data. We describe some of experimental observables in detecting the signal of LPB. A number of measurements is proposed that allow to reach a definite conclusion on the occurrence of LPB effects in non-Abelian QGP produced in central heavy ion collisions and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. Based on the effective meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is found that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. Moreover a resonance broadening occurs that leads to an increase of spectral contribution to the dilepton production as compared to the vacuum state. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton

  11. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  12. Different Approaches in Addressing Internal and External Economic Imbalances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树清

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the internal and external imbalances of China’s economy from a global perspective. The author believes that trade surplus and savings surplus are not the absolute metrics to define a country’s economic strength. China’s balance of payments has continued to maintain a big surplus, which shows China’s unique economic structure and growth model and exposes deep contradictions in income distribution, factor prices and resource allocation. While stimulating rapid growth, the imbalance of China’s economy, at the same time, has long delayed the upgrading of industrial structure, aggravating the threat of inflation and heightening concerns of an asset bubble. Although the external and internal imbalances are closely linked to each other, they are quite different in nature. This similar global economic imbalance has existed for a long time, and to a great extent, is inevitable and rational. However, internal imbalances caused by its own systems and policies, if lasted, would have severe and negative impacts not only on China’s economy, but on the global economy as a whole.

  13. Neoliberalism, trade imbalances, and economic policy in the Eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelbert Stockhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causes of the Eurozone crisis. In doing so, it carefully surveys authors from different economic schools of thought. The paper discusses competing explanations for European current account imbalances. Remarkably, opposing views on the relative importance of cost developments and demand developments in explaining current account imbalances can be found in both heterodox and orthodox economics. Regarding the assessment of fiscal and monetary policy there is a clearer polarisation, with heterodox analysis regarding austerity as unhelpful and most of orthodox economics endorsing it. We advocate a post-Keynesian view, which holds that current account imbalances are not a fundamental cause of the sovereign debt crisis. Rather, the economic policy architecture of the Eurozone, which aims at restricting the role of fiscal and monetary policy, is the key to understanding the crisis in Europe.

  14. Mass and Aerodynamic Imbalance Estimates of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Niebsch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its effect on the operation time of wind turbines, rotor imbalances of a wind turbine have to be detected early enough. We present a method that determines inhomogeneous mass distributions of the rotor as well as deviations in the pitch angles of the rotor blades from vibrational data only. To this end, a mathematical model connecting the load caused by the imbalances to the resulting vibrations was developed. After discretization, the resulting vibration equation was solved analytically. The inverse problem, i.e., the calculation of the mass and aerodynamic imbalance from vibrational data, was solved by using nonlinear regularization theory. Numerical simulations were performed using artificial vibration data.

  15. How gender disparities drive imbalances in health care leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoss MAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann Keogh Hoss1, Paula Bobrowski2, Kathryn J McDonagh3, Nancy M Paris41Health Services Administration, Eastern Washington University, College of Business and Public Administration, Spokane, WA, USA; 2College of Liberal Arts, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 3Executive Relations, Hospira Inc, Lake Forest, IL, USA; 4Georgia Center for Oncology Research and Education, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Low female representation in US hospital chief executive officer positions has persisted for decades. This article addresses gender disparity in professional development, the rationale for gender differences, and practical strategies to address this imbalance. The health care workforce consists of 75% women, but according to two recent surveys, ie, a state survey and a survey of the top 100 US hospitals, women hold only about 12% of chief executive officer positions in US hospitals. Significant and dedicated efforts by both individuals and organizations are necessary to rectify this imbalance.Keywords: gender, imbalance, leadership, United States, hospitals

  16. Adjustment of Global Imbalances and Its Impact on China's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhuai Shi

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses ways of adjusting the imbalances of the global economy and its impact on China's economy. The analysis in the paper shows that the cut of US fiscal deficits and the appreciation of the currencies of East Asia, including China ' s RMB, are necessary for a smooth adjustment of the global imbalances. The adjustments will have a positive impact on China's economy and will help China realize its external balance. The increase in public spending on the service sector along with the appreciation of RMB will help China realize the internal balance too. The adjustment of the global imbalances will create opportunities and an external pushing force for China in its industrial restructuring and shift in the model of economic growth.

  17. Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Killmer, C H; Siegrist, J; Schaufeli, W B

    2000-04-01

    This study among a sample of 204 German nurses tested the hypothesis that an imbalance of high extrinsic efforts spent (i.e. job demands) and low extrinsic rewards obtained (e.g. poor promotion prospects) are associated with the burnout syndrome: the depletion of nurses' emotional resources. The results of a series of analyses of variances confirmed this hypothesis, by showing that those nurses who experienced an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) reported higher levels on two of the three core dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) than those who did not experience such an imbalance. Moreover - as additionally hypothesized - significant interaction effects indicated that burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment) was particularly prevalent among those nurses who experienced ERI and put relatively high intrinsic effort into their jobs, as reflected by their strong tendency to be personally in control over job conditions.

  18. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  19. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  20. Shoulder muscle imbalance and subacromial impingement syndrome in overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Phil

    2011-03-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohumeral instability and muscle imbalance. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of muscle imbalance in subacromial impingement in order to guide sports physical therapy evaluation and interventions.

  1. In-phase and quadrature imbalance modeling, estimation, and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yabo

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a unified IQ imbalance model and systematically reviews the existing estimation and compensation schemes. It covers the different assumptions and approaches that lead to many models of IQ imbalance. In wireless communication systems, the In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator and demodulator are usually used as transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), respectively. For Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) limited systems, such as multi-giga-hertz bandwidth millimeter-wave systems, using analog modulator and demodulator is still a low power and l

  2. The U.S. Dollar and Global Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai; Zhou, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Global Imbalances are mainly featured by the massive and long-lasting U.S. trade deficit. Since the Breton Woods system collapsed and was replaced by the Jamaica Agreement, the U.S. trade deficit has been lasting for about 40 years. This paper proves that permanent global imbalances can be sustainable due to the special role of the U.S. dollar, by building a two-country cash-in-advance growth model with a dollar standard in the international trade. The permanent U.S. trade deficit is an incre...

  3. GLOBAL IMBALANCES, CRISIS AND THE LACK OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA GIANINA DRAGOTĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While briefly shrinking during the global crisis, global imbalances in trade and financial flows and their underlying systemic causes have not gone away. The current monetary non-order causes developing countries to adopt defensive strategies against fickle markets and allows developed countries to engage in beggar-thy-neighbour strategies, with a reliance on exports serving to offset their failure to manage domestic demand. Global imbalances are a symptom of existing systemic governance shortcomings. They can only be properly addressed by global governance reform and proper international policy coordination.

  4. AllelicImbalance: An R/ bioconductor package for detecting, managing, and visualizing allele expression imbalance data from RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gådin, Jesper R.; van't Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Eriksson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background: One aspect in which RNA sequencing is more valuable than microarray-based methods is the ability to examine the allelic imbalance of the expression of a gene. This process is often a complex task that entails quality control, alignment, and the counting of reads over heterozygous single......-nucleotide polymorphisms. Allelic imbalance analysis is subject to technical biases, due to differences in the sequences of the measured alleles. Flexible bioinformatics tools are needed to ease the workflow while retaining as much RNA sequencing information as possible throughout the analysis to detect and address...... the possible biases. Results: We present AllelicImblance, a software program that is designed to detect, manage, and visualize allelic imbalances comprehensively. The purpose of this software is to allow users to pose genetic questions in any RNA sequencing experiment quickly, enhancing the general utility...

  5. Addressing the pressing need to reduce global and European imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Giovanni; McKinley, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This Policy Brief is focused on the need to reduce macroeconomic imbalances both globally and within Europe. In doing so, it employs the CAM global macroeconometric model to make projections of trends over roughly the next ten years, i.e., through 2025.

  6. Private consumption-savings behavior and macroeconomic imbalances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro Campos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Between the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1991 and 2007 many of the existing macroeconomic theories were applied to support the claim that the euro area was an optimal currency union and to argue that increasing macroeconomic imbalances were a logical part of the financial integration process.

  7. Global Imbalance:Onus On the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the China-U.S. Business Forum held in Beijing February 14-15, Xia Bin, Director of the Financial Research Institute of the Development Research Center under the State Council, makes a speech on the United States' responsibility for global economic imbalances. His main ideas as reported in the China Business News, follow:

  8. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean varian

  9. Subacromial impingement syndrome: the role of posture and muscle imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeremy S; Green, Ann; Wright, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Changes in upper body posture, colloquially termed forward head posture (FHP), are considered to be an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). The literature suggests that postural deviations associated with FHP follow distinct patterns involving an increase in the thoracic kyphosis angle and a downwardly rotated, anteriorly tilted, and protracted scapula, which in turn leads to increased compression in the subacromial space. These postural changes are thought to occur concurrently with an imbalance of the musculature, and conservative rehabilitation commonly involves addressing both posture and muscle imbalance. There is a paucity of evidence supporting the hypothesis that posture and muscle imbalance are involved in the etiology of SIS. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FHP was associated with an increased thoracic kyphosis, an altered position of the scapula; and a reduction in glenohumeral elevation range. Selected sagittal and frontal plane postural measurements were made in 60 asymptomatic subjects and 60 subjects with SIS. The findings suggested that upper body posture does not follow the set patterns described in the literature, and further research is required to determine whether upper body and scapular posture and muscle imbalance are involved in the pathogenesis of SIS.

  10. Balance Responsibility and Imbalance Settlement in Northern Europe: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, balance responsibility and imbalance settlement are two closely related elements that constitute the heart of a balancing market (which is actually an institutional arrangement establishing market-based balancing). This paper aims to compare balance responsibility and i

  11. REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN DISTRIBUTION OF BULGARIAN HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rohova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many factors influencing health inequities; health workforce availability and skill mix are among them. Regional distribution of health workers determines access to health services. The aim of this study is to analyse and to assess the distribution of health professionals among the statistical regions and districts in Bulgaria. Methods and materials: The current study uses health professionals to population ratio, Gini index and Lorenz curve to measure and assess the proportionality of health workers distribution. Data are provided from the National Statistical Institute and European Health for All databases. Results and discussion: In Bulgaria, health professionals per population ratio are comparable with the EU average except for the nurses. Beside the shortage of nursing professionals, geographically uneven distribution of health workers is among the main challenges in human resource management.Regional imbalances are significant among the districts in the country. More than half of the physicians are concentrated in 6 districts. The analysis shows an upward trend in imbalances, expressed as absolute or relative differences.The distribution of dentists is much more variant and diverse than this of physicians. The values of Gini index for specialised medical care also reveal considerable imbalances. Conclusions: Differet coefficients have proved the unequal distribution of health workers among the districts.Regional imbalances are not the only reason for health inequities in Bulgaria but they have significant influence in rural and remote areas and in regions with high unemployment, low incomes and ageing population.

  12. The Application of PBL Teaching Method in Water-electrolyte Metabolism and Acid-base Balance Teaching%PBL教学法在水、电解质和酸碱平衡教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶俊; 章宏伟; 黄华兴

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantage of PBL teaching method in water-electrolyte metabolism and acid-base balance teaching. Method:Choose 6 classes of students from Nanjing medical university and randomly divided into experimental group (n=79) and control group (n=78), the experimental group using PBL teaching method and the control group using traditional LBL teaching method, evaluating these two methods by analyze the average scores of the test and the survey. Results:The average scores of experimental group were higher than that in the control group (p=0.026). The survey showed that the experimental group was better in autonomous learning, case analysis, teamwork and using the theoretical knowledge and clinical cases than control group. Conclusion:PBL teaching method was much better than LBL in water-electrolyte metabolism and acid-base balance teaching.%目的::探讨PBL(problem-based learning)教学法在水、电解质和酸碱平衡教学中的应用优势。方法:选取南京医科大学2011级临床医学七年制6个班级的学生,按自然班随机分为实验组(n=79)和对照组(n=78),实验组采用PBL教学模式,对照组采用传统教学模式(LBL),通过调查问卷及课后测试对两种教学模式进行综合评价。结果:实验组理论测试成绩明显优于对照组(p=0.026),调查问卷显示:PBL组在自主学习能力、病例分析能力、团队协作能力以及在掌握理论知识与临床疾病的联系方面均优于LBL组。结论:与LBL教学法相比,PBL教学法在水、电解质和酸碱平衡教学中应用效果更好,优势更明显。

  13. Thermodynamics of quark matter with a chiral imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ricardo L. S.; Duarte, Dyana C.; Krein, Gastão; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2016-10-01

    We show how a scheme of rewriting a divergent momentum integral can conciliate results obtained with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and recent lattice results for the chiral transition in the presence of a chiral imbalance in quark matter. Purely vacuum contributions are separated from medium-dependent regularized momentum integrals in such a way that one is left with ultraviolet divergent momentum integrals that depend on vacuum quantities only. The scheme is applicable to other commonly used effective models to study quark matter with a chiral imbalance, it allows us to identify the source of their difficulties in reproducing the qualitative features of lattice results, and enhances their predictability and uses in other applications.

  14. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance.

  15. Progress Towards a Quantum Degenerate Mixture with Extreme Mass Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, B. J.; Johansen, Jacob; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We report experimental progress towards a quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of 133 Cs and 6 Li. Beyond providing the largest mass imbalance of any bi-alkali mixture, this system exhibits multiple interspecies Feshbach resonances allowing wide tuning of the interaction strength and Efimov resonances potentially inducing three-body interactions. The use of a dual-color optical dipole trap in our experiment overcomes the large differential gravitational sag due to the mass imbalance and facilitates mixing the species nano-Kelvin temperatures allowing precision studies of interspecies interactions. Turning from few-body physics to many-body, we will present our efforts to reach simultaneous quantum degeneracy as well as discuss prospects of high resolution imaging of both species.

  16. Spinal pedicle subtraction osteotomy for fixed sagittal imbalance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yongjung J; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2013-11-16

    In addressing spinal sagittal imbalance through a posterior approach, the surgeon now may choose from among a variety of osteotomy techniques. Posterior column osteotomies such as the facetectomy or Ponte or Smith-Petersen osteotomy provide the least correction, but can be used at multiple levels with minimal blood loss and a lower operative risk. Pedicle subtraction osteotomies provide nearly 3 times the per-level correction of Ponte/Smith-Petersen osteotomies; however, they carry increased technical demands, longer operative time, and greater blood loss and associated significant morbidity, including neurological injury. The literature focusing on pedicle subtraction osteotomy for fixed sagittal imbalance patients is reviewed. The long-term overall outcomes, surgical tips to reduce the complications and suggestions for their proper application are also provided.

  17. Blind I/Q imbalance compensation technique for direct-conversion digital radio transceivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available novel I/Q imbalance extraction technique that uses a Cholesky decomposition of the received signal’s covariance matrix to extract the exact imbalances of the front-end. An analysis is also presented on extracting and separating the imbalances of a...

  18. Yule-generated trees constrained by node imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, Filippo; Schlizio, Anna; Wiehe, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The Yule process generates a class of binary trees which is fundamental to population genetic models and other applications in evolutionary biology. In this paper, we introduce a family of sub-classes of ranked trees, called Ω-trees, which are characterized by imbalance of internal nodes. The degree of imbalance is defined by an integer 0 ≤ ω. For caterpillars, the extreme case of unbalanced trees, ω = 0. Under models of neutral evolution, for instance the Yule model, trees with small ω are unlikely to occur by chance. Indeed, imbalance can be a signature of permanent selection pressure, such as observable in the genealogies of certain pathogens. From a mathematical point of view it is interesting to observe that the space of Ω-trees maintains several statistical invariants although it is drastically reduced in size compared to the space of unconstrained Yule trees. Using generating functions, we study here some basic combinatorial properties of Ω-trees. We focus on the distribution of the number of subtrees with two leaves. We show that expectation and variance of this distribution match those for unconstrained trees already for very small values of ω.

  19. Money and age in schools: Bullying and power imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Castellanos, Melisa

    2015-05-01

    School bullying continues to be a serious problem around the world. Thus, it seems crucial to clearly identify the risk factors associated with being a victim or a bully. The current study focused in particular on the role that age and socio-economic differences between classmates could play on bullying. Logistic and multilevel analyses were conducted using data from 53,316 5th and 9th grade students from a representative sample of public and private Colombian schools. Higher age and better family socio-economic conditions than classmates were risk factors associated with being a bully, while younger age and poorer socio-economic conditions than classmates were associated with being a victim of bullying. Coming from authoritarian families or violent neighborhoods, and supporting beliefs legitimizing aggression, were also associated with bullying and victimization. Empathy was negatively associated with being a bully, and in some cases positively associated with being a victim. The results highlight the need to take into account possible sources of power imbalances, such as age and socio-economic differences among classmates, when seeking to prevent bullying. In particular, interventions focused on peer group dynamics might contribute to avoid power imbalances or to prevent power imbalances from becoming power abuse. Aggr. Behav. 41:280-293, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Positional Nystagmus in Patients Evaluated for Dizziness and Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is variability in the literature regarding the presence of positional nystagmus in healthy participants with reportedly normal vestibular and central nervous system function. This ranges from 7.5% to 88% and raises an important clinical question. If 88% of healthy participants have positional nystagmus then how is the clinician to interpret the presence of positional nystagmus in a patient presenting with dizziness and/or disequilibrium? The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of positional nystagmus in patients evaluated specifically for dizziness and imbalance. Data was collected using retrospective chart review. 200 charts were randomly selected from all patients seen for evaluation of dizziness and imbalance over a period of eight months. Clinicians independently reviewed the data from positional testing for each chart. Nystagmus was present if there was a clear slow and fast phase component and there were three beats in a 10 s time window. Nystagmus direction and intensity data were collected. Results indicate positional nystagmus is present in 10.5% to 21% of patients evaluated for dizziness and imbalance. Use of liberal criteria for determining presence of positional nystagmus (i.e., 3 beats in 20 sec may account for higher prevalence rates across other studies.

  1. Comparison of muscle strength imbalance in powerlifters and jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Hui-Ying; Winter, Christa; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Thompson, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the bilateral and unilateral force production difference in powerlifters (bilateral) and field jumpers (unilateral) to determine the existence of leg dominance. Nineteen powerlifters (PL; n = 11) and field jumpers (J; n = 8) were included in the study. Five different no arm swing countermovement jumps were randomized for testing: (a) double-leg jump; (b) dominant leg-specified double-leg jump; (c) nondominant leg-specified double-leg jump; (d) dominant leg-specified single-leg jump; and (e) nondominant leg-specified single-leg jump. The force, velocity, and power were measured via a forceplate. The Limb Symmetry Index (LSI% = (1 - ND limb/D limb) × 100%) was calculated for force imbalance between the dominant (N) and nondominant (ND) limb between PL and J. Based on the analysis, PL (mean = 2.75 ± 2.45%) had a lower LSI (p imbalance force production between limbs. This phenomenon is important for the strength coach to acknowledge, to perform an appropriate strength balance test during the off-season, and to implement a training program to reduce the force disparity between limbs. Neglecting the development of force imbalance between limbs may predispose healthy players to injury.

  2. Grayscale imbalance correction in real-time phase measuring profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Cao, Yiping; He, Dawu; Chen, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Grayscale imbalance correction in real-time phase measuring profilometry (RPMP) is proposed. In the RPMP, the sufficient information is obtained to reconstruct the 3D shape of the measured object in one over twenty-four of a second. Only one color fringe pattern whose R, G and B channels are coded as three sinusoidal phase-shifting gratings with an equivalent shifting phase of 2π/3 is sent to a flash memory on a specialized digital light projector (SDLP). And then the SDLP projects the fringe patterns in R, G and B channels sequentially onto the measured object in one over seventy-two of a second and meanwhile a monochrome CCD camera captures the corresponding deformed patterns synchronously with the SDLP. Because the deformed patterns from three color channels are captured at different time, the color crosstalk is avoided completely. But due to the monochrome CCD camera's different spectral sensitivity to R, G and B tricolor, there will be grayscale imbalance among these deformed patterns captured at R, G and B channels respectively which may result in increasing measuring errors or even failing to reconstruct the 3D shape. So a new grayscale imbalance correction method based on least square method is developed. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. What is the Imbalance of Water in Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Look at any lake. Water comes into the lake from the atmosphere, from surface and groundwater sources. Water leaves the lake to the atmosphere, surface and underground drains, as well as for consumption by human society, wild plants and animals if they are within the boundaries of the lake's system. If quantity of water coming into the lake is equally of the quantity of water which flow from the lake, so the lake level has not changed and we have a state of equilibration or balance. The bookkeeper's book also has name "balance". But this is just a play on words. If the water is coming into the lake more than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will increase and we have a state of the imbalance of the increase type. If the water is coming into the lake less than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will decrease and we have a state of the imbalance of the decrease type. Everyone knows that the lake level rises or falls, for example during the year. Sometimes it is happened some balance. But the state of balance is rare and in of the short duration. The lake is of most the time in the conditions of the imbalance increases or the imbalance decreases type. The balance as a state of equilibrium, in the language of mathematics, is the point of the extremum between the periods of rise and fall. The balance is a special condition, which is existing very rare and a very short period of time. The people sometimes to do the great efforts for maintain the constant level of the lakes. But these facts don't change the situation. On the contrary, the human's struggle for maintain the lake in constant level just shows how difficult and expensive to go against the natural laws of Nature. When water was plentiful, these facts could be ignored. But now when the global water shortage is quickly growing, many previously ignored details are becoming crucial. There are very important to do the correct definitions of the borders and

  4. Examining Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions with Transverse Kinematic Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Luke

    We present a Monte Carlo truth study examining nuclear effects in charged-current neutrino interactions using observables constructed in the transverse plane. Three distributions are introduced that show very weak dependence on neutrino flux and its associated uncertainty. Measurements comparing these distributions between quasi-elastic-like and single charged pion final states will provide new constraints of nuclear effects. It is suggested that the on-axis position in the NuMI beam provides the correct flux to take advantage of this reduced energy dependence in measuring nuclear effect-generated transverse imbalances.

  5. Early proximal junctional failure in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Micah W; Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

    2013-10-01

    Study Type Retrospective review. Introduction Sagittal imbalance has been associated with lower health-related quality of life outcomes, and restoration of imbalance is associated with improved outcomes.123 The long constructs used in adult spinal deformity have potential consequences such as proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). Clinically, the development of PJK may not be as important as failure of the construct or vertebrae at the proximal end. As PJK does not lead to worse clinical outcomes,45 we define the term early proximal junctional failure (EPJF) as fracture, implant failure, or myelopathy due to stenosis at the upper instrumental vertebra (UIV) or UIV + 1 within 6 months of surgery. Objective The purpose of this study is to report the incidence of EPJF in patients who are sagittally imbalanced preoperatively and to identify risk factors postoperatively that correlate with EPJF using commonly reported sagittal balance parameters. Methods We reviewed 197 patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance by at least one of the following: sagittal vertical axis more than 5 cm, global sagittal alignment more than 45 degrees, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis more than 10 degrees, or spine-sacral angle less than 120 degrees. Radiographic measurements also included proximal junctional angle, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic parameters, and sagittal balance parameters/formulas, as well as UIV angle, UIV spinosacral angle, and UIV plumb line to assess as potential risk factors. EPJF incidence was calculated postoperatively for each of the accepted sagittal balance parameters/formulas. Results EPJF was observed in 49 of 197 patients (25%) with preoperative sagittal imbalance and was more common in fusions with UIV in the lower thoracic spine (TS) (35%) than in those with UIV in the upper TS (10%) or lumbar (25%) (p = 0.007). Of the 49 EPJF patients, 16 patients (33%) required revision surgery within the first year, for an overall early revision

  6. Behavior of Poverty in Mexico: A Review of the Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Barrón-Pérez, María Antonieta

    2015-01-01

    Behavior of Poverty in Mexico: A Review of the Imbalances AbstractIntroduction: The persistence of poverty in Mexico leads to the question, what are the elements that keep 53.3 million people, accounting for 45.5% of the population, at some level of poverty? The purpose of this article is therefore to show how social spending in Mexico has been unable to reduce poverty levelsin the country’s most backward entities, which is directly related to the criteria for allocation of social spending an...

  7. Does Specialization Matter for Trade Imbalance at Industry Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the source of bilateral trade imbalance at industry level. We build a simple model based on gravity theory and derive the prediction that the bilateral trade balance in an industry is increasing in the difference between trading partners in the output share of the industry. We test this prediction and find that the difference in industry share is highly significant in predicting both the sign and the magnitude of trade balance at industry level. We also find that FTAs tend to enlarge trade imbalance at industry level. However, the overall predictive power of the model is rather limited, suggesting that factors other than production specialization are important in determining trade balance at industry level. Another finding of the paper is that the influence of the difference in industry share on trade balance increases as we move to industries that produce more homogeneous products. This finding calls into question monopolistic competition as the main driver of gravity in international trade.

  8. TEMPOL increases NAD+ and improves redox imbalance in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Yamato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy conversion is controlled by reduction–oxidation (redox processes. NAD+ and NADH represent an important redox couple in energy metabolism. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL is a redox-cycling nitroxide that promotes the scavenging of several reactive oxygen species (ROS and is reduced to hydroxylamine by NADH. TEMPOL is also involved in NAD+ production in the ascorbic acid–glutathione redox cycle. We utilized the chemical properties of TEMPOL to investigate the effects of antioxidants and NAD+/NADH modulators on the metabolic imbalance in obese mice. Increases in the NAD+/NADH ratio by TEMPOL ameliorated the metabolic imbalance when combined with a dietary intervention, changing from a high-fat diet to a normal diet. Plasma levels of the superoxide marker dihydroethidium were higher in mice receiving the dietary intervention compared with a control diet, but were normalized with TEMPOL consumption. These findings provide novel insights into redox regulation in obesity.

  9. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult.

  10. Online Feature Selection of Class Imbalance via PA Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Han; Yun-Kun Tan; Jin-Hui Zhu; Yong Guo; Jian Chen; Qing-Yao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Imbalance classification techniques have been frequently applied in many machine learning application domains where the number of the majority (or positive) class of a dataset is much larger than that of the minority (or negative) class. Meanwhile, feature selection (FS) is one of the key techniques for the high-dimensional classification task in a manner which greatly improves the classification performance and the computational efficiency. However, most studies of feature selection and imbalance classification are restricted to off-line batch learning, which is not well adapted to some practical scenarios. In this paper, we aim to solve high-dimensional imbalanced classification problem accurately and efficiently with only a small number of active features in an online fashion, and we propose two novel online learning algorithms for this purpose. In our approach, a classifier which involves only a small and fixed number of features is constructed to classify a sequence of imbalanced data received in an online manner. We formulate the construction of such online learner into an optimization problem and use an iterative approach to solve the problem based on the passive-aggressive (PA) algorithm as well as a truncated gradient (TG) method. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms based on several real-world datasets, and our experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in comparison with the baselines.

  11. Shoulder strength imbalances as injury risk in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, P; Degache, F; Oullion, R; Plessis, J-Y; Gleizes-Cervera, S; Calmels, P

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to analyze whether internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator shoulder muscles weakness and/or imbalance collected through a preseason assessment could be predictors of subsequent shoulder injury during a season in handball players. In preseason, 16 female elite handball players (HPG) and 14 healthy female nonathletes (CG) underwent isokinetic IR and ER strength test with use of a Con-Trex® dynamometer in a seated position with 45° shoulder abduction in scapular plane, at 60, 120 and 240°/s in concentric and at 60°/s in eccentric, for both sides. An imbalanced muscular strength profile was determined using -statistically selected cut-offs from CG values. For HPG, all newly incurred shoulder injuries were reported during the season. There were significant differences between HPG and CG only for dominant eccentric IR strength, ER/IR ratio at 240°/s and for IRecc/ERcon ratio. In HPG, IR and ER strength was higher, and ER/IR ratios lower for dominant than for nondominant side. The relative risk was 2.57 (95%CI: 1.60-3.54; Pmuscle strength increases on the dominant side without ER/IR imbalances; and higher injury risk was associated with imbalanced muscular strength profile.

  12. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  13. Effects of imbalance and geometric error on precision grinding machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    To study balancing in grinding, a simple mechanical system was examined. It was essential to study such a well-defined system, as opposed to a large, complex system such as a machining center. The use of a compact, well-defined system enabled easy quantification of the imbalance force input, its phase angle to any geometric decentering, and good understanding of the machine mode shapes. It is important to understand a simple system such as the one I examined given that imbalance is so intimately coupled to machine dynamics. It is possible to extend the results presented here to industrial machines, although that is not part of this work. In addition to the empirical testing, a simple mechanical system to look at how mode shapes, balance, and geometric error interplay to yield spindle error motion was modelled. The results of this model will be presented along with the results from a more global grinding model. The global model, presented at ASPE in November 1996, allows one to examine the effects of changing global machine parameters like stiffness and damping. This geometrically abstract, one-dimensional model will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of an abstract approach for first-order understanding but it will not be the main focus of this thesis. 19 refs., 36 figs., 10 tables.

  14. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Hassan; Vakili, Vahid Tabataba

    2009-12-01

    Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs), such as inphase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA) linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs). In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD), and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  15. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zareian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs, such as inphase and quadrature (IQ imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs. In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD, and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  16. Effects of specific muscle imbalance improvement training on the balance ability in elite fencers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taewhan; Kil, Sekee; Chung, Jinwook; Moon, Jeheon; Oh, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The lunge Motion that occurs frequently in fencing training and matches results in imbalance of the upper and lower limbs muscles. This research focuses on the improvement of the imbalance that occurs in the national team fencers of the Republic of Korea through specific muscle imbalance improvement training. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were limited to right-handed male fencers. Nine male, right-handed national fencing athletes were selected for this study (4 epee, 5 sa...

  17. Study on Relation between Dynamic Imbalance Degree and Product of Inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-ming; WANG Li-ming; LIU Jian-he; ZHOU Hua-wen

    2008-01-01

    Based on the study of the relation between the dynamic imbalance degree and the product of inertia, a new static test method of the dynamic imbalance degree is presented. It is theoretically proved that the essence of the imbalance degree test for projectile body is the test of its product of inertia. A more precise calculation formula of dynamic imbalance degree is also given. The experiment results show that this method can not only reduce the cost of equipment, simplify the test procedures, save human resource, but also has more reliable test precision.

  18. A case of myotonic dystrophy with electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Weon-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Yeol; Kim, So-Mi; Hong, Seung-Jae; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Song, Ran; Yang, Hyung-In; Lee, Yeon-Ah

    2013-07-01

    Type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder with a multisystem involvement, caused by an abnormal expansion of the CTG sequence of the dystrophic myotonia protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DM1 is a variable multisystem disorder with muscular and nonmuscular abnormalities. Increasingly, endocrine abnormalities, such as gonadal, pancreatic, and adrenal dysfunction are being reported. But, Electrolytes imbalance is a very rare condition in patients with DM1 yet. Herein we present a 42-yr-old Korean male of DM1 with abnormally elevated serum sodium and potassium. The patient had minimum volume of maximally concentrated urine without water loss. It was only cured by normal saline hydration. The cause of hypernatremia was considered by primary hypodipsia. Hyperkalemic conditions such as renal failure, pseudohyperkalemia, cortisol deficiency and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis were excluded. Further endocrine evaluation suggested selective hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism as a cause of hyperkalemia.

  19. Momentum Imbalance Observables as a Probe of Gluon TMDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The unpolarized and linearly polarized gluon TMDs can be directly probed in heavy quark and jet pair production in unpolarized electron-proton collisions by looking at observables, like transverse momentum distributions and azimuthal asymmetries, depending on the momentum imbalance of the pair. Analytical expressions are presented for these observables and for analogous ones in Higgs plus jet and quarkonium plus photon production in unpolarized proton-proton scattering experiments. It is shown how the proposed measurements, to be performed at a future EIC and at the LHC, could provide important information on the size and shape of gluon TMDs, as well as on other fundamental properties such as their process and energy scale dependences.

  20. Bose polaron problem: Effect of mass imbalance on binding energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, L. A. Peña; Giorgini, S.

    2016-12-01

    By means of quantum Monte Carlo methods we calculate the binding energy of an impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate at T =0 . The focus is on the attractive branch of the Bose polaron and on the role played by the mass imbalance between the impurity and the surrounding particles. For an impurity resonantly coupled to the bath, we investigate the dependence of the binding energy on the mass ratio and on the interaction strength within the medium. In particular, we determine the equation of state in the case of a static (infinite mass) impurity, where three-body correlations are irrelevant and the result is expected to be a universal function of the gas parameter. For the mass ratio corresponding to 40K impurities in a gas of 87Rb atoms, we provide an explicit comparison with the experimental findings of a recent study carried out at JILA.

  1. Redox Imbalance in T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveria Pastore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin is permanently exposed to physical, chemical, and biological aggression by the environment. In addition, acute and chronic inflammatory events taking place in the skin are accompanied by abnormal release of pro-oxidative mediators. In this paper, we will briefly overview the homeostatic systems active in the skin to maintain the redox balance and also to counteract abnormal oxidative stress. We will concentrate on the evidence that a local and/or systemic redox dysregulation accompanies the chronic inflammatory disorder events associated to psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. We will also discuss the fact that several well-established treatments for the therapy of chronic inflammatory skin disorders are based on the application of strong physical or chemical oxidants onto the skin, indicating that, in selected conditions, a further increase of the oxidative imbalance may lead to a beneficial outcome.

  2. FDI Inflows and Trade Imbalances: Evidence from Developing Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Anh-Dao Tran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the effects of FDI inflows on external imbalances in the developing and transition countries in Asia during the period 1991-2011. To this end, we extend the conventional trade balance model by reformulating the determinants of exports and imports. Our empirical findings suggest that current FDI inflows increase trade deficits, leading to negative consequences for the host country’s macroeconomic stability. However, the coefficient estimated becomes negative when we lag the FDI variable, implying that FDI inflows worsen the trade balance first and then improve it. We also find that a real depreciation tends to worsen trade balances because the usual Marshall-Lerner constraint is magnified by the import content of exports. Lastly, higher domestic absorption and larger productive capacity in the manufacturing sector improve the trade balance. Thelatter result supports the export-investment nexus, one of the most distinctive features of Asia.

  3. Interaction between Current Imbalance and Magnetization in LHC Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Kuijper, A; den Ouden, A; ten Haken, B; ten Kate, H H J

    2001-01-01

    The quality of the magnetic field in superconducting accelerator magnets is associated with the properties of the superconducting cable. Current imbalances due to coupling currents DI, as large as 100 A, are induced by spatial variations of the field sweep rate and contact resistances. During injection at a constant field all magnetic field components show a decay behavior. The decay is caused by a diffusion of coupling currents into the whole magnet. This results in a redistribution of the transport current among the strands and causes a demagnetization of the superconducting cable. As soon as the field is ramped up again after the end of injection, the magnetization rapidly recovers from the decay and follows the course of the original hysteresis curve. In order to clarify the interactions between the changes in current and magnetization during injection we performed a number of experiments. A magnetic field with a spatially periodic pattern was applied to a superconducting wire in order to simulate the cou...

  4. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  5. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre eCornier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR or obesity-prone (OP based on self-identification, BMI, and personal/family weight history. 25 OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF and overfed (OF as compared to eucaloric (EU conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3 day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF, and a test day. On the test day fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 minutes after a test meal while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 minutes after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  6. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Three to five million children from among one billion with gastroenteritis die annually worldwide. The etiologic agent in developed countries is viral in 15-60% of cases, while in developing countries, bacteria and parasites are frequently reported as the etiologic factors. Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion. During a case-control study, 100 patients with gastroenteritis were enrolled into the case and control groups on the basis of convulsion or no convulsion development, respectively. This study was conducted in Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2004 to March 2007. The age of patients ranged from 2 months to 7 years, and the groups were age- and sex-matched. Body temperature (BT), severity and type of dehydration, stool exam and culture, past history of convulsion in the patient and first-degree relatives, electrolyte imbalance, and short-term prognosis were studied and compared. The mean weight of groups was not different, while the frequency of fever at the time of admission, past history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives and severity of dehydration were significantly higher in the case group (p convulsion in the patient, shigellosis and antibiotic usage were also significantly higher in the case group (p = 0.025, p = 0.014 and p = 0.001). Convulsion mostly occurred in mild gastroenteritis accompanied with fever and positive history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives. History of febrile convulsion in the patient and shigellosis were associated with development of convulsion in patients with gastroenteritis. No significant electrolyte imbalance was observed in patients with gastroenteritis experiencing febrile convulsion.

  7. Theoretical predictions of transverse kinematic imbalance in neutrino-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Distributions of transverse kinematic imbalance in neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV regime are sensitive to nuclear effects. We present a study comparing the latest predictions of transverse kinematic imbalance from the interaction simulations, NuWro and GENIE. We dis- cuss the differences between the model predictions.

  8. A comparison of imbalance settlement designs and results of Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Abbasy, A.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Imbalance settlement is a vital part of the balancing market, i.e. the institutional arrangement that establishes market-based balance management in liberalized electricity markets. We investigate the impact of the imbalance settlement design on the behaviour of Balance Responsible Parties and there

  9. The state line of solution of imbalances problem the wholesale electricity market of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.S. Kolesnichenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of formation and dynamics of imbalances of the wholesale electricity market (WEM of Ukraine. The features and prospects of imbalance control in the context of reforming the wholesale electricity market are analyzed.

  10. Muscle activation imbalance and low-back injury in varsity athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, N Peter; Cholewicki, Jacek; Silfies, Sheri P

    2006-06-01

    There are conflicting findings in the literature regarding erector spinae activation imbalance in people with low-back pain (LBP). Some studies have found asymmetric recruitment between muscle pairs in people with LBP, whilst other studies have not; some reported people with LBP recruit more lumbar muscles whilst other have reported greater thoracic activity. Using 242 varsity athletes, EMG activity of thoracic and lumbar erector spinae pairs was recorded during an isometric trunk extension. Activation imbalance among muscle pairs and levels was compared between athletes with and without a history of low-back injury (HxLBI). There were no group differences in the imbalance between sides, but the HxLBI group had greater activation imbalance between lumbar and thoracic levels than the No HxLBI group. Activation imbalance between levels was similar for individuals with No HxLBI and those who sustained first time injury suggesting that imbalance does not cause LBI. There was no difference between the athletes with single and multiple episode LBI, nor between short and long symptom duration suggesting that the presence of imbalance is not an impairment. Interestingly, activation imbalance occurred in both directions, meaning more thoracic activity for some, and more lumbar activity for others, which might be a functional adaptation related to pathology.

  11. A comparison between the effort-reward imbalance and demand control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Aleck S; Kelly, Shona; Demers, Paul A; Mustard, Cameron; Hertzman, Clyde

    2003-02-27

    To compare the predictive validity of the demand/control and reward/imbalance models, alone and in combination with each other, for self-reported health status and the self-reported presence of any chronic disease condition. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions were obtained in a sample of sawmill workers using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. The relative predictive validity of task-level control was compared with effort/reward imbalance. As well, the predictive validity of a model developed by combining task-level control with effort/reward imbalance was determined. Logistic regression was utilized for all models. The demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models independently predicted poor self-reported health status. The effort-reward imbalance model predicted the presence of a chronic disease while the demand/control model did not. A model combining effort-reward imbalance and task-level control was a better predictor of self-reported health status and any chronic condition than either model alone. Effort reward imbalance modeled with intrinsic effort had marginally better predictive validity than when modeled with extrinsic effort only. Future work should explore the combined effects of these two models of psychosocial stress at work on health more thoroughly.

  12. Chromosomal imbalances revealed in primary rhabdomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-xin; LIU Chun-xia; CHUN Cai-pu; QI Yan; CHANG Bin; LI Xin-xia; CHEN Yun-zhao; NONG Wei-xia; LI Hong-an; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations varied among the throe subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma. We profiled chromosomal imbalances in the different subtypes and investigated the relationships between clinical parameters and genomic aberrations.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate genomic imbalances in 25 cases of primary rhabdomyosarcomas and two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Specimens were reviewed to determine histological type, pathological grading and clinical staging.Results Changes involving one or more regions of the genome were seen in all rhabdomyosarcomal patients. For rhabdomyosarcoma, DNA sequence gains were most frequently (>30%) seen in chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p,2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q; losses from 3p, 11p and 6p. In aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were seen on chromosomes 12q, 2p, 6p, 2q, 4q, 10q and 15q; losses from 3p, 6p, 1q and 5q. For embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were on 7p, 9q, 2p, 18q, 1p and 8q; losses only from 11p. Frequently gained chromosome arms of translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 12q, 2, 6, 10q, 4q and 15q; losses from 3p,6p and 5q. The frequently gained chromosome arms of nontranslocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 2p,9q and 18q, while 11p and 14q were the frequently lost chromosome arms. Gains on chromosome 12q were significantly correlated with translocation type. Gains on chromosome 9q were significantly correlated with clinical staging. Conclusions Gains on chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p, 2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q and losses on chromosomes 3p, 11p and 6p may be related to rhabdomyosarcomal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, gains on chromosome 12q may be correlated with translocation and gains on chromosome 9q with the early stages of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  13. The man-made creators of the imbalance of water in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    At 2011 we have described the imbalance of water in Nature as the system [1]. At 2012 we have described water and carbon and the glaciers [2], [3] as creators of the imbalance of Nature. Now we are describing some man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis is a powerful creator of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis significantly increases the complexity of the structures and reduces the entropy. Earth's hydrosphere contains water less than it was flowed via photosynthesis. This is an example of the imbalance of involving when the return of water has delayed because water is involved into the processes of life and other processes. People widely use photosynthesis and create not only an additional man-made imbalance of water in Nature, but also the man-made changing the albedo, and a lot of other important parameters of the planet of Earth. All of these processes are significantly imbalanced. The fossil hydrocarbons have accumulated during millions of years, but now are burned. This is an example of the imbalance delay by time. The man-made burning of the hydrocarbons is creating the imbalances of impact or explosive type, because of the burning processes is in millions of times faster than the accumulation processes. Please pay attention to the imbalance of redeployment by places. For example, oil and gas are extracted in one places, and burned in others. During combustion is standing out not only water, but energy, and other components. The temperature in the centers of big cities is always higher and there is dominating the rising air. It pollutes the environment, changes circulations, create greenhouse effect, etc. Other examples of the imbalance of relocation are shown in the production and consumption of food. The irrigation systems transfer water from one place to another. This transfer of water creates a lot of imbalances in change climate, ecosystems, etc in places where water was took and where the water was brought. Usually

  14. Does observation of postural imbalance induce a postural reaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banty Tia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition, an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects.

  15. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination.

  16. Mnesic imbalance: a cognitive theory about autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Munguía Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity and behavioral flexibility. Some cognitive theories can be useful for finding a relationship between these irregularities and the biological mechanisms that may give rise to this disorder. Among such theories are mentalizing deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction, but none of them has been able to explain all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning. In keeping with this view, one may postulate the possibility that declarative memory replaces faulty procedural memory in some of its functions, which implies making conscious efforts in order to perform actions that are normally automatic. This may disturb cognitive development, resulting in autism symptoms. Furthermore, this mnesic imbalance is probably involved in all autism spectrum disorders. In the present work, this theory is expounded, including preliminary supporting evidence.

  17. Homeostatic Imbalance in Epithelial Ducts and Its Role in Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Rejniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial duct is a well-defined multicellular structure composed of tightly packed cells separating and protecting body compartments that are used for enzyme secretion and its transport across the internal. The structural and functional integrity (homeostasis of such ducts is vital in carrying many life functions (breathing, lactation, production of hormones. However, the processes involved in maintaining the homeostatic balance are not yet fully understood. On the other hand, the loss of epithelial tissue architecture, such as filled lumens or ductal disorganization, are among the first symptoms of the emerging epithelial tumors (carcinomas. Using the previously developed biomechanical model of epithelial ducts: IBCell, we investigated how different signals and mechanical stimuli imposed on individual epithelial cells can impact the homeostatic (imbalance and integrity of the whole epithelial tissue. We provide a link between erroneous responses of individual epithelial cells to specific signals and the emerging ductal morphologies characteristic for preinvasive cancers observed in pathology specimens, or characteristic for multicellular structures arising from mutated cells cultured in vitro. We summarize our finding in terms of altered properties of epithelial cell polarization, and discuss the relative importance of various polarization signals on the formation of tumor-like multicellular structures.

  18. Homeostatic imbalance in epithelial ducts and its role in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A

    2012-01-01

    An epithelial duct is a well-defined multicellular structure composed of tightly packed cells separating and protecting body compartments that are used for enzyme secretion and its transport across the internal. The structural and functional integrity (homeostasis) of such ducts is vital in carrying many life functions (breathing, lactation, production of hormones). However, the processes involved in maintaining the homeostatic balance are not yet fully understood. On the other hand, the loss of epithelial tissue architecture, such as filled lumens or ductal disorganization, are among the first symptoms of the emerging epithelial tumors (carcinomas). Using the previously developed biomechanical model of epithelial ducts: IBCell, we investigated how different signals and mechanical stimuli imposed on individual epithelial cells can impact the homeostatic (im)balance and integrity of the whole epithelial tissue. We provide a link between erroneous responses of individual epithelial cells to specific signals and the emerging ductal morphologies characteristic for preinvasive cancers observed in pathology specimens, or characteristic for multicellular structures arising from mutated cells cultured in vitro. We summarize our finding in terms of altered properties of epithelial cell polarization, and discuss the relative importance of various polarization signals on the formation of tumor-like multicellular structures.

  19. Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard P; Liu, Chunlei; Loeb, Norman G; Palmer, Matthew D; Roberts, Malcolm; Smith, Doug; Vidale, Pier-Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Combining satellite data, atmospheric reanalyses, and climate model simulations, variability in the net downward radiative flux imbalance at the top of Earth's atmosphere (N) is reconstructed and linked to recent climate change. Over the 1985–1999 period mean N (0.34 ± 0.67 Wm−2) is lower than for the 2000–2012 period (0.62 ± 0.43 Wm−2, uncertainties at 90% confidence level) despite the slower rate of surface temperature rise since 2000. While the precise magnitude of N remains uncertain, the reconstruction captures interannual variability which is dominated by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Monthly deseasonalized interannual variability in N generated by an ensemble of nine climate model simulations using prescribed sea surface temperature and radiative forcings and from the satellite-based reconstruction is significantly correlated (r∼0.6) over the 1985–2012 period. PMID:25821270

  20. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  1. A Rare Chromosome 3 Imbalance and Its Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sims

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The duplication of chromosome 3q is a rare disorder with varying chromosomal breakpoints and consequently symptoms. Even rarer is the unbalanced outcome from a parental inv(3 resulting in duplicated 3q and a deletion of 3p. Molecular karyotyping should aid in precisely determining the length and breakpoints of the 3q+/3p− so as to better understand a child’s future development and needs. We report a case of an infant male with a 57.5 Mb duplication from 3q23-qter. This patient also has an accompanying 1.7 Mb deletion of 3p26.3. The duplicated segment in this patient encompasses the known critical region of 3q26.3-q27, which is implicated in the previously reported 3q dup syndrome; however, the accompanying 3p26.3 deletion is smaller than the previously reported cases. The clinical phenotype of this patient relates to previously reported cases of 3q+ that may suggest that the accompanying 1.7 Mb heterozygous deletion is not clinically relevant. Taken together, our data has refined the location and extent of the chromosome 3 imbalance, which will aid in better understanding the molecular underpinning of the 3q syndrome.

  2. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEES WITH TERTIARY EDUCATION OCCUPATIONAL IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei B. Ankudinov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High percentage of graduates (among the highest in the world with university degrees combined with unacceptably low level of utilization of acquired qualifications and generally low quality of education in the majority of Russian universities result in huge structural imbalances. The article presents quantitative estimates of disproportions between the educational levels of employees with higher education and their professional occupation for different branches of economy. A logit models based analysis is performed of how much the professional functions performed by employees match their professional qualifications, levels of education and the extent to which their previously acquired expertise and skills are put into use. The sample used represents working population of Russia with tertiary education. The results obtained allow to the conclusion that worst disproportions between education levels attained and job requirements are observed in trade and services sector, transport and communications, housing and utilities, consumer goods and food industries. The matters are compounded by inert and informationally inefficient labor market, incapable of sending proper signals to national system of tertiary education.

  3. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic Children Under Anticonvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad TORKAMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ravi Torkaman M, Amirsalari S, Saburi A. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic ChildrenUnder Anticonvulsive Therapy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:43-44. Dear Editor,There have been many studies regarding the impact of antiepileptic drugs(AEDs on thyroid function. There are some challenging scopes which must beconsidered for conducting the study adressing the focused question. “Which oneof the thyroid hormones is related to the AEDs consumption?”. Some studiesdemonstrated that there may be alterations in all thyroid function tests (T3, T4 andTSH after antiepileptic therapy in children (1. Some studies concluded that longtermprescription of anticonvulsive medications resulted in a decline in serum T4levels, although it had no effect on serum TSH levels. However, changes in serumT3 level was challenging and it must be investigated further (2.There were some confounding factors which may interfere with the conclusion.One of them is the type of the study. There are various study plans for this purposesuch as cross-sectional, case-control, experimental, self-controlled cohort anddouble-blind randomized clinical trial studies. It seems that the proper protocol ofstudy for this propose is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. By usingother designs, the authors cannot interpret the effect of AEDs on thyroid function;however, they can discuss the prevalence of thyroid hormone imbalance and thecoordination among T3, T4 and TSH.Moreover, one of the confounding factors is the thyroid binding globulin (TBGeffect. It has appeared that some of the AEDs may change the amount of TBGand in this way may affect the amount of thyroid hormones (3. Clonazepamand valproic acid do not have any enzyme inducing effects, but phenobarbital,carbamazepine, phenytoin and primidone may induce the hepatic enzyme (4-6. Therefore, it seems necessary to analyze each group of patients based on thetype of drug which is

  4. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...

  5. The psychological costs of social support imbalance: Variation across relationship context and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Diana; Gruenewald, Tara

    2017-02-01

    Psychological well-being benefits of receiving social support are well-established. Growing evidence also suggests parallel benefits of giving support. However, much less attention has been given to understanding the psychological correlates of imbalance in giving and receiving social support. We examined associations between social support (given, received, and imbalance) and psychological well-being in multiple relationship types (friends, family, and spouse). Greater levels of both receiving and giving social support were independently associated with more favorable psychological well-being, while imbalance in the ratio of support given and received was associated with poorer psychological well-being. Findings varied between relationship types and across age.

  6. An importance of the muscular imbalance in the context of functional disorders of the spine

    OpenAIRE

    JOZOVÁ, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT A topic of my thesis is an importance of the muscular imbalance in the context of functional disorders of the spine. The topic has been very up-to-date, because a large proportion of the population suffers from vertebral disorders of functional nature, which are just caused by muscular imbalances. A goal of the first part of the thesis was a theoretic analysis of the problem of muscular imbalances and functional disorders of the spine. A content of that chapter is an introduction to ...

  7. Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in overt hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avupati Naga Syamsunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidities have been reported in hypothyroidism. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the link of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI to cardiovascular risks (CVRs and the plausible mechanisms of CVR in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Age-matched 104 females (50 controls, 54 hypothyroids were recruited and their body mass index (BMI, cardiovascular parameters, autonomic function tests by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, heart rate response to standing, deep breathing and blood pressure response to isometric handgrip were studied. Thyroid profile, lipid profile, immunological and inflammatory markers were estimated and their association with low-frequency to the high-frequency ratio (LF-HF of HRV, the marker of SVI was assessed by multivariate regression. Results: Increased diastolic pressure, decreased HRV, increased LF-HF, dyslipidemia and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were observed in hypothyroid patients and all these parameters had significant correlation with LF-HF. BMI had no significant association with LF-HF. Atherogenic index (β 1.144, P = 0.001 and hsCRP (b 0.578, P = 0.009 had independent contribution to LF-HF. LF-HF could significantly predict hypertension status (odds ratio 2.05, confidence interval 1.110-5.352, P = 0.008 in hypothyroid subjects. Conclusions: SVI due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal occurs in hypothyroidism. Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, but not obesity contribute to SVI and SVI contributes to cardiovascular risks.

  8. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, CHENGGONG; LIAO, QIANDE; HU, YIHE; ZHONG, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25452811

  9. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggong; Liao, Qiande; Hu, Yihe; Zhong, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

  10. Imbalance aware lithography hotspot detection: a deep learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyu; Luo, Luyang; Su, Jing; Lin, Chenxi; Yu, Bei

    2017-03-01

    With the advancement of VLSI technology nodes, light diffraction caused lithographic hotspots have become a serious problem affecting manufacture yield. Lithography hotspot detection at the post-OPC stage is imperative to check potential circuit failures when transferring designed patterns onto silicon wafers. Although conventional lithography hotspot detection methods, such as machine learning, have gained satisfactory performance, with extreme scaling of transistor feature size and more and more complicated layout patterns, conventional methodologies may suffer from performance degradation. For example, manual or ad hoc feature extraction in a machine learning framework may lose important information when predicting potential errors in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit masks. In this paper, we present a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) targeting representative feature learning in lithography hotspot detection. We carefully analyze impact and effectiveness of different CNN hyper-parameters, through which a hotspot-detection-oriented neural network model is established. Because hotspot patterns are always minorities in VLSI mask design, the training data set is highly imbalanced. In this situation, a neural network is no longer reliable, because a trained model with high classification accuracy may still suffer from high false negative results (missing hotspots), which is fatal in hotspot detection problems. To address the imbalance problem, we further apply minority upsampling and random-mirror flipping before training the network. Experimental results show that our proposed neural network model achieves highly comparable or better performance on the ICCAD 2012 contest benchmark compared to state-of-the-art hotspot detectors based on deep or representative machine leaning.

  11. Targeting lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial imbalance in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeti, Rosella; Uzun, Ebru; Renganathan, Indhushri; Honda, Tadashi; Pook, Mark A; Giunti, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by reduced levels of the protein frataxin. This protein is located in the mitochondria, where it functions in the biogenesis of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), which are important for the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, disruption in iron biogenesis may lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be the cause and/or the consequence of mitochondrial energy imbalance, leading to cell death. Fibroblasts from two FRDA mouse models, YG8R and KIKO, were used to analyse two different categories of protective compounds: deuterised poly-unsaturated fatty acids (dPUFAs) and Nrf2-inducers. The former have been shown to protect the cell from damage induced by lipid peroxidation and the latter trigger the well-known Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Our results show that the sensitivity to oxidative stress of YG8R and KIKO mouse fibroblasts, resulting in cell death and lipid peroxidation, can be prevented by d4-PUFA and Nrf2-inducers (SFN and TBE-31). The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of YG8R and KIKO fibroblasts revealed a difference in their mitochondrial pathophysiology, which may be due to the different genetic basis of the two models. This suggests that variable levels of reduced frataxin may act differently on mitochondrial pathophysiology and that these two cell models could be useful in recapitulating the observed differences in the FRDA phenotype. This may reflect a different modulatory effect towards cell death that will need to be investigated further.

  12. Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoharu Tsutsui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between genes and the environment are now regarded as the most probable explanation for autism. In this review, we summarize the results of a metallomics study in which scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements were examined for 1,967 autistic children (1,553 males and 414 females aged 0–15 years-old, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic roles of infantile mineral imbalances in the pathogenesis of autism. In the 1,967 subjects, 584 (29.7% and 347 (17.6% were found deficient in zinc and magnesium, respectively, and the incidence rate of zinc deficiency was estimated at 43.5% in male and 52.5% in female infantile subjects aged 0–3 years-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%, 168 (8.5% and 94 (4.8% individuals were found to suffer from high burdens of aluminum, cadmium and lead, respectively, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic. High toxic metal burdens were more frequently observed in the infants aged 0–3 years-old, whose incidence rates were 20.6%, 12.1%, 7.5%, 3.2% and 2.3% for aluminum, cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury, respectively. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may be critical and induce epigenetic alterations in the genes and genetic regulation mechanisms of neurodevelopment in the autistic children, and demonstrate that a time factor “infantile window” is also critical for neurodevelopment and probably for therapy. Thus, early metallomics analysis may lead to early screening/estimation and treatment/prevention for the autistic neurodevelopment disorders.

  13. Carbon and nutrient use efficiencies optimally balance stoichiometric imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Čapek, Petr; Lindahl, Björn; Mooshammer, Maria; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Decomposer organisms face large stoichiometric imbalances because their food is generally poor in nutrients compared to the decomposer cellular composition. The presence of excess carbon (C) requires adaptations to utilize nutrients effectively while disposing of or investing excess C. As food composition changes, these adaptations lead to variable C- and nutrient-use efficiencies (defined as the ratios of C and nutrients used for growth over the amounts consumed). For organisms to be ecologically competitive, these changes in efficiencies with resource stoichiometry have to balance advantages and disadvantages in an optimal way. We hypothesize that efficiencies are varied so that community growth rate is optimized along stoichiometric gradients of their resources. Building from previous theories, we predict that maximum growth is achieved when C and nutrients are co-limiting, so that the maximum C-use efficiency is reached, and nutrient release is minimized. This optimality principle is expected to be applicable across terrestrial-aquatic borders, to various elements, and at different trophic levels. While the growth rate maximization hypothesis has been evaluated for consumers and predators, in this contribution we test it for terrestrial and aquatic decomposers degrading resources across wide stoichiometry gradients. The optimality hypothesis predicts constant efficiencies at low substrate C:N and C:P, whereas above a stoichiometric threshold, C-use efficiency declines and nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies increase up to one. Thus, high resource C:N and C:P lead to low C-use efficiency, but effective retention of nitrogen and phosphorus. Predictions are broadly consistent with efficiency trends in decomposer communities across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children's Rights in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa's "power cube" that describes different facets of power - including spaces, levels, and forms - is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society.

  15. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  16. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  18. A single-to-differential low-noise amplifier with low differential output imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Lian; Huang Wei; Ma Chengyan; He Xiaofeng; Jin Yuhua; Ye Tianchun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a single-ended input differential output low-noise amplifier intended for GPS applications.We propose a method to reduce the gain/amplitude and phase imbalance of a differential output exploiting the inductive coupling of a transformer or center-tapped differential inductor.A detailed analysis of the theory of imbalance reduction,as well as a discussion on the principle of choosing the dimensions of a transformer,are given.An LNA has been implemented using TSMC 0.18μm technology with ESD-protected.Measurement on board shows a voltage gain of 24.6 dB at 1.575 GHz and a noise figure of 3.2 dB.The gain imbalance is below 0.2 dB and phase imbalance is less than 2 degrees.The LNA consumes 5.2 mA from a 1.8 V supply.

  19. On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Haslwanter, Alois; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Jasoni, Richard L; Fenstermaker, Lynn F; Arnone, John A; Hammerle, Albin

    2009-09-01

    The Penman-Monteith combination equation, which is most frequently used to derive the surface conductance to water vapour (Gs), implicitly assumes the energy balance to be closed. Any energy imbalance (positive or negative) will thus affect the calculated Gs. Using eddy covariance energy flux data from a temperate grassland and a desert shrub ecosystem we explored five possible approaches of closing the energy imbalance and show that calculated Gs may differ considerably between these five approaches depending on the relative magnitudes of sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the magnitude and sign of the energy imbalance. Based on our limited understanding of the nature of the energy imbalance, we tend to favour an approach which preserves the Bowen-ratio and closes the energy balance on a larger time scale.

  20. Benchmarking binary classification models on data sets with different degrees of imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ligang ZHOU; Kin Keung LAI

    2009-01-01

    In practice, there are many binary classification problems, such as credit risk assessment, medical testing for determining if a patient has a certain disease or not, etc.However, different problems have different characteristics that may lead to different difficulties of the problem. One important characteristic is the degree of imbalance of two classes in data sets. For data sets with different degrees of imbalance, fire the commonly used binary classification methods still feasible? In this study, various binary classifi-cation models, including traditional statistical methods andnewly emerged methods from artificial intelligence, such as linear regression, discriminant analysis, decision tree, neural network, support vector machines, etc., are reviewed, and their performance in terms of the measure of classification accuracy and area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are tested and compared on fourteen data sets with different imbalance degrees. The results help to select the appropriate methods for problems with different degrees of imbalance.

  1. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated.......Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  2. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  3. Comprehensive Investigation on Current Imbalance among Parallel Chips inside MW-Scale IGBT Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Smirnova, Liudmila; Wang, Huai

    2015-01-01

    With the demands for increasing the power rating and improving reliability level of the high power IGBT modules, there are further needs of understanding how to achieve stable paralleling and identical current sharing between the chips. This paper investigates the stray parameters imbalance among...... parallel chips inside the 1.7 kV/1 kA high power IGBT modules at different frequencies by Ansys Q3D parastics extractor. The resulted current imbalance is further confirmed by experimental measurement....

  4. Cenozoic carbon cycle imbalances and a variable weathering feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Jeremy K.; Jost, Adam B.; Lau, Kimberly V.; Maher, Kate

    2016-09-01

    The long-term stability of Earth's climate and the recovery of the ocean-atmosphere system after carbon cycle perturbations are often attributed to a stabilizing negative feedback between silicate weathering and climate. However, evidence for the operation of this feedback over million-year timescales and in response to tectonic and long-term climatic change remains scarce. For example, the past 50 million years of the Cenozoic Era are characterized by long-term cooling and declining atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). During this interval, constant or decreasing carbon fluxes from the solid Earth to the atmosphere suggest that stable or decreasing weathering fluxes are needed to balance the carbon cycle. In contrast, marine isotopic proxies of weathering (i.e., 87Sr/86Sr, δ7 Li , and 187Os/188Os) are interpreted to reflect increasing weathering fluxes. Here, we evaluate the existence of a negative feedback by reconstructing the imbalance in the carbon cycle during the Cenozoic using the surface inventories of carbon and alkalinity. Only a sustained 0.25-0.5% increase in silicate weathering is necessary to explain the long-term decline in pCO2 over the Cenozoic. We propose that the long-term decrease in pCO2 is due to an increase in the strength of the silicate weathering feedback (i.e., the constant of proportionality between the silicate weathering flux and climate), rather than an increase in the weathering flux. This increase in the feedback strength, which mirrors the marine isotope proxies, occurs as transient, 1 million year timescales remains invariant to match the long-term inputs of carbon. Over the Cenozoic, this results in stable long-term weathering fluxes even as pCO2 decreases. We attribute increasing feedback strength to a change in the type and reactivity of rock in the weathering zone, which collectively has increased the reactivity of the surface of the Earth. Increasing feedback strength through the Cenozoic reconciles mass balance in the carbon cycle with

  5. Effects of specific muscle imbalance improvement training on the balance ability in elite fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewhan; Kil, Sekee; Chung, Jinwook; Moon, Jeheon; Oh, Eunyoung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The lunge Motion that occurs frequently in fencing training and matches results in imbalance of the upper and lower limbs muscles. This research focuses on the improvement of the imbalance that occurs in the national team fencers of the Republic of Korea through specific muscle imbalance improvement training. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were limited to right-handed male fencers. Nine male, right-handed national fencing athletes were selected for this study (4 epee, 5 sabre; age 28.2 ± 2.2 years; height 182.3 ± 4.0 cm; weight 76.5 ± 8.2 kg; experience 12.4 ± 3.0 years). [Methods] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program was performed for 12 weeks and Pre-Post tests were to evaluate its effect on the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, test of balance, and movement analysis. [Results] After the training program, mediolateral sway of the nondominant lower limb and the balance scale showed statistically significant improvement. [Conclusion] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program used in this research was proven to be effective for improving the muscle imbalance of elite fencers.

  6. Wide brick tunnel randomization - an unequal allocation procedure that limits the imbalance in treatment totals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-04-30

    In open-label studies, partial predictability of permuted block randomization provides potential for selection bias. To lessen the selection bias in two-arm studies with equal allocation, a number of allocation procedures that limit the imbalance in treatment totals at a pre-specified level but do not require the exact balance at the ends of the blocks were developed. In studies with unequal allocation, however, the task of designing a randomization procedure that sets a pre-specified limit on imbalance in group totals is not resolved. Existing allocation procedures either do not preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation or do not include all allocation sequences that comply with the pre-specified imbalance threshold. Kuznetsova and Tymofyeyev described the brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every step and, in the two-arm case, includes all sequences that satisfy the smallest possible imbalance threshold. This article introduces wide brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that allows all allocation sequences with imbalance not exceeding any pre-specified threshold while preserving the allocation ratio at every step. In open-label studies, allowing a larger imbalance in treatment totals lowers selection bias because of the predictability of treatment assignments. The applications of the technique in two-arm and multi-arm open-label studies with unequal allocation are described.

  7. Social Management of Gender Imbalance in China: A Holistic Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuzhuo, Li; Zijuan, Shang; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the sex ratio at birth (abbreviated as SRB) in China has been rising and has remained extremely high. With rapid social transition, gender imbalance has become one of the most significant issues of China's social management and has raised many problems and challenges. Innovation in the management principles and public policies of social management urgently needs a new perspective of holistic governance framework. Based on the latest trends in gender imbalance, using data from China's 2010 Population Census, this paper firstly reviews China's strategic policy responses and actions concerning the governance of the male-skewed SRB. With holistic governance theory, we focus on China's “Care for Girls” campaign to analyze the current public policy system. This paper then reveals fragmentation in the current management of China's gender imbalance. Finally we propose a social management framework for addressing China's gender imbalance. The public system needs to be strengthened, and the Chinese government should focus more on vulnerable groups such as forced bachelors in rural areas, and try to bring those groups into the policy framework for governance of gender imbalance. The proposed theoretical framework may help Chinese governments at various levels to design and implement improved social management of gender imbalance issues. PMID:26663948

  8. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Outage Analysis of PLNC Based Bidirectional Relay Network in the presence of I/Q Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N.Senthil Kumaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional relay network consists of two sources and a relay, where each node has a single antenna and operates in half duplex mode. The PLNC based OFDM system transmits numerous high data streams through narrow band flat fading subchannels to achieve high spectral efficiency over wide band channels. However in practice, I/Q imbalance is introduced at the radio frequency sections of the nodes affects the orthogonality among the subcarriers. In this paper, the bidirectional relay network is modelled with I/Q imbalance and the outage performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM based bidirectional relay network which employs physical layer network coding (PLNC is analyzed in the presence of In-phase and Quadrature (I/Q imbalance at both the time slots.

  10. New Fuzzy Support Vector Machine for the Class Imbalance Problem in Medical Datasets Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In medical datasets classification, support vector machine (SVM is considered to be one of the most successful methods. However, most of the real-world medical datasets usually contain some outliers/noise and data often have class imbalance problems. In this paper, a fuzzy support machine (FSVM for the class imbalance problem (called FSVM-CIP is presented, which can be seen as a modified class of FSVM by extending manifold regularization and assigning two misclassification costs for two classes. The proposed FSVM-CIP can be used to handle the class imbalance problem in the presence of outliers/noise, and enhance the locality maximum margin. Five real-world medical datasets, breast, heart, hepatitis, BUPA liver, and pima diabetes, from the UCI medical database are employed to illustrate the method presented in this paper. Experimental results on these datasets show the outperformed or comparable effectiveness of FSVM-CIP.

  11. Asynchronous Cholinergic Drive Correlates with Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance via a Neuronal Ca2+ Sensor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-inhibition imbalance in neural networks is widely linked to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, how genetic factors alter neuronal activity, leading to excitation-inhibition imbalance, remains unclear. Here, using the C. elegans locomotor circuit, we examine how altering neuronal activity for varying time periods affects synaptic release pattern and animal behavior. We show that while short-duration activation of excitatory cholinergic neurons elicits a reversible enhancement of presynaptic strength, persistent activation results to asynchronous and reduced cholinergic drive, inducing imbalance between endogenous excitation and inhibition. We find that the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-2 is required for asynchronous cholinergic release in an activity-dependent manner and dampens excitability of inhibitory neurons non-cell autonomously. The function of NCS-2 requires its Ca2+ binding and membrane association domains. These results reveal a synaptic mechanism implicating asynchronous release in regulation of excitation-inhibition balance.

  12. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Influence of Motor Program on Correct Posture and Muscular Imbalance Correction in Pupils of Primary Schools (1-4 Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bartík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research, focused on evaluation and development of correct posture and muscular imbalance correction in pupils of primary schools. The research involved 58 pupils of the fourth grade of primary school. The main method was educational experiment and tests for the evaluation of muscular imbalance and posture. We used the motor program, involving yoga exercises and fitball exercises in the experimental group. After the educational experiment, the posture and muscular imbalance in the experimental group improved if compared to the initial measurements. The research showed the positive effect of motor program on the posture and muscular imbalance.

  14. Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Austic, R E

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the influence of Phe imbalance and excess on Phe-pyruvate aminotransferase (PAT) activity in the chick. Five replicates of 3 chicks (experiment 1) or 2 chicks (experiment 2) of a commercial brown egg layer strain were fed a semipurified diet for 1 wk and then received experimental diets for 10 d. Three diets were used in experiment 1: the basal diet contained 0.46% Phe; the imbalance diet was similar to the basal diet except that it contained a 10% mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to create a Phe imbalance; the imbalance corrected diet was similar to the imbalance diet except that it was supplemented with 1.12% Phe to correct the imbalance. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in experiment 2 provided 3 dietary levels (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) of Phe and either no supplement or 10% supplement of IAA - Phe. Nonfasted chicks were killed and livers were sampled in experiment 1, and livers, kidneys, brains, and pectoralis major muscles were sampled in experiment 2. In experiment 1, liver PAT activity per gram of liver was 80 and 55% higher (P PAT per gram of tissue per minute and per milligram of tissue protein extract per minute than chicks that did not receive IAA - Phe (P PAT activity was detected (P > 0.05). Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity appears to be regulated in response to dietary content of indispensable amino acids but not by the dietary level of Phe.

  15. In Operation Detection and Correction of Rotor Imbalance in Jet Engines Using Active Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchala, Daniel W.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Brown, Gerald V.; Lawrence, Charles; Klusman, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Jet Engines may experience severe vibration due to the sudden imbalance caused by blade failure. This research investigates employment of on board magnetic bearings or piezoelectric actuators to cancel these forces in flight. This operation requires identification of the source of the vibrations via an expert system, determination of the required phase angles and amplitudes for the correction forces, and application of the desired control signals to the magnetic bearings or piezo electric actuators. This paper will show the architecture of the software system, details of the control algorithm used for the sudden imbalance correction project described above, and the laboratory test results.

  16. Probing nuclear effects using single-transverse kinematic imbalance with MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X. -G. [Oxford U.; Betancourt, M. [Fermilab

    2016-08-15

    Kinematic imbalance of the final-state particles in the plane transverse to the neutrino direction provides a sensitive probe of nuclear effects. In this contribution, we report the MINERvA measurement of the single-transverse kinematic imbalance in neutrino charged-current quasielastic-like events on CH targets. To improve the momentum measurements of the final-state particles, we develop a method to select elastically scattering contained (ESC) protons and a general procedure to correct the transverse momentum scales.

  17. Probing nuclear effects using single-transverse kinematic imbalance with MINERvA

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, X -G

    2016-01-01

    Kinematic imbalance of the final-state particles in the plane transverse to the neutrino direction provides a sensitive probe of nuclear effects. In this contribution, we report the MINERvA measurement of the single-transverse kinematic imbalance in neutrino charged-current quasielastic-like events on CH targets. To improve the momentum measurements of the final-state particles, we develop a method to select elastically scattering contained (ESC) protons and a general procedure to correct the transverse momentum scales.

  18. Altered elemental profile as indicator of homeostatic imbalance in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Das, Arabinda K; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2002-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potential precancerous condition of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The etiopathogenesis of this complex precancerous condition is still obscure. In addition to deleterious oral habits, malnutrition, and possible genetic predisposition, altered bioelemental status is also likely to play an important role in its pathogenesis. The present study analyzed 68 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy in oral mucosa of normal and OSF individuals and some interesting alterations in elemental profile in the diseased tissue have been noted, indicating a homeostatic imbalance. These bioelemental alterations leading to homeostatic imbalance might be considered as an important biological event in the pathogenesis of OSF.

  19. The role of hormonal imbalance in the development of autoimmune dacryoadenitis in endocrine orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed the hormonal profile of patients with Graves’ disease and endocrine orbitopathy with or without autoimmune dacryoadenitis. Presented compelling evidence about the role of hormonal imbalance between thyreoglobulines and thyroidstimulating hormones in the development of autoimmune dacryoadenitis. The availability of this kind of imbalance increases the risk of involvement of lacrimal gland in the pathological process with 12.3 % up to 64.3 % in the population with Graves’ disease and endocrine orbitopathy.

  20. In Operation Detection and Correction of Rotor Imbalance in Jet Engines Using Active Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchala, Daniel W.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Brown, Gerald V.; Lawrence, Charles; Klusman, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Jet Engines may experience severe vibration due to the sudden imbalance caused by blade failure. This research investigates employment of on board magnetic bearings or piezoelectric actuators to cancel these forces in flight. This operation requires identification of the source of the vibrations via an expert system, determination of the required phase angles and amplitudes for the correction forces, and application of the desired control signals to the magnetic bearings or piezo electric actuators. This paper will show the architecture of the software system, details of the control algorithm used for the sudden imbalance correction project described above, and the laboratory test results.

  1. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BettyAnn A. Chodkowski

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.

  2. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in Ir

  3. Cognitive vulnerability and implicit emotional processing : imbalance in frontolimbic brain areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Renken, Remco J.; Opmeer, Esther M.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; de Jonge, Peter; Aleman, Andre; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that the neural basis for cognitive vulnerability to depression involves an imbalance in frontolimbic activity during the processing of cues with a negative affective value. Although the question is central to cognitive theory, whether this association is amplified by diagnosis

  4. Effort reward imbalance is associated with vagal withdrawal in Danish public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Blønd, Morten; Nielsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The current study analyzed the relationship between psychosocial work environment assessed by the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERI-model) and heart rate variability (HRV) measured at baseline and again, two years later, as this relationship is scarcely covered by the literature....

  5. Analysis of the impact of imbalance settlement design on market behaviour in electricity balancing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Abbasy, A.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The imbalance settlement design is the part of an electricity balancing market design that stimulates so-called Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) to balance their electricity production and consumption portfolio and to stick to their energy schedules by penalizing any deviations from these schedule

  6. Is Visuospatial Hemineglect Longitudinally Associated With Postural Imbalance in the Postacute Phase of Stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, Ilse J. W.; van Kessel, Marlies E.; Schils, Fanny; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to determine the longitudinal association of visuospatial hemineglect with postural imbalance in postacute stroke patients and to establish whether this relationship is confounded by other determinants. Methods. A prospective cohort study of 53 postacute s

  7. Money Overhang, Credit Overhang and Financial Imbalances in the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; de Regt, E.; van Veen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on the relation between external imbalances and domestic money and credit growth in the euro area. We compute money and credit overhang both for the euro area as a whole and for individual member countries. Our results show that both aggregate money and credit overhang have

  8. ICI mitigation in concurrent multi-band receiver due to the phase noise and IQ imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Kyu; Ryu, Heung-Gyoon

    2012-06-01

    For the next generation long-term evolution (LTE) advanced mobile communication system, 100 MHz bandwidth and 1 Gbit/s data speed are needed. However, there is not enough and wide vacant frequency band. Therefore, spectrum aggregation method has been studied to extend available frequency bands. Frequency synthesiser and power amplifier of transceiver should cover this wide bandwidth. The phase noise and In-phase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance would increase, which would be a serious problem in this transceiver. Also, signal-to-noise ratio becomes degraded because of nonlinearity and the quantisation noises of the Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in the receiver. Uplink of LTE-advanced uses Aggregated DFT-spread (NxDFT-S) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Since the effect of the phase noise and IQ imbalance are more serious in the multi-band Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-spreading OFDM system, we like to analyse the effect of inter-carrier interference in frequency domain of receiver and the degradation of bit error rate (BER) performance. Also, by the channel response in frequency domain of the uplink system, we separate phase noise and IQ imbalance effect. Finally, we like to propose a compensation method that estimates the channel exactly and removes IQ imbalance and phase noise. Simulation result shows that the proposed method achieves the 2 dB performance gain of BER = 10-4.

  9. Homeostatic imbalance of regulatory and effector T cells due to IL-2 deprivation amplifies murine lupus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jens Y. Humrich; Henner Morbach; Reinmar Undeutsch; Philipp Enghard; Stefan Rosenberger; Olivia Weigert; Lutz Kloke; Juliane Heimann; Timo Gaber; Susan Brandenburg; Alexander Scheffold; Jochen Huehn; Andreas Radbruch; Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester; Gabriela Riemekasten

    2010-01-01

    ...) are poorly understood. In the (NZBxNZW) F 1 mouse model of lupus, we found that CD4 + Foxp3 + Treg failed to maintain a competitive pool size in the peripheral lymphoid organs resulting in a progressive homeostatic imbalance of CD4...

  10. Reverse knowledge and technology transfer: imbalances caused by cognitive barriers in asymmetric relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, Chong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    An imbalance exists in almost any type of knowledge and technology transfer due to the information asymmetry of the relationship. However, this is especially the case for reverse technology and knowledge transfer which is epitomised for us by "transfers from an MNC's subsidiary to its headquarters".

  11. SCOREBOARD AND THE POSSIBILITY OF EARLY STAGE IDENTIFICATION OF IMBALANCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius, Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In late 2011, the European Union (EU Council and European Parliament adopted a series of new rules on economic governance, perfecting the process begun in 2010 to strengthen the monitoring and prevention of macroeconomic imbalances, fiscal and competitiveness disparities among EU countries. In the same direction, of strengthening fiscal surveillance under the Stability and Growth Pact, also goes the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, through the fiscal Compact. Thus, the macroeconomic imbalances procedure provided in the new legislation requires as a first step the realization of a scoreboard consisting of 10 indicators, which, according to promoters, allow an early identification of imbalances, of both short-term, as well as structural, of longer-term. European Commission reports and statistics for EU Member States in 2010 and 2011, indicate that in the post-crisis period there has been a pronounced adjustment of external imbalances, but a number of countries continue to record higher values than indicative levels in the dashboard .

  12. Structural imbalance promotes behavior analogous to aesthetic preference in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual images may be judged 'aesthetic' when their positioning appears imbalanced. An apparent imbalance may signify an as yet incomplete action or event requiring more detailed processing. As such it may refer to phylogenetically ancient stimulus-response mechanisms such as those mediating attentional deployment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied preferences for structural balance or imbalance in week-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus, using a conditioning procedure to reinforce pecking at either "aligned" (balanced or "misaligned" (imbalanced training stimuli. A testing phase with novel balanced and imbalanced stimuli established whether chicks would retain their conditioned behavior or revert to chance responding. Whereas those trained on aligned stimuli were equally likely to choose aligned or misaligned stimuli, chicks trained on misaligned stimuli maintained the trained preference. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the idea that the coding of structural imbalance is primary and even overrides classical conditioning. Generalized to the humans, these results suggest aesthetic judgments based upon structural imbalance may be based on evolutionarily ancient mechanisms, which are shared by different vertebrate species.

  13. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  14. Socio-Cultural Imbalances in AIED Research: Investigations, Implications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates international representations in the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research field. Its methodological and theoretical groundings are inspired by Arnett (2008) and Henrich et al. (2010a) who addressed the same issue in psychology, and respectively a) discovered massive imbalances in representation in top-tier…

  15. Effort-Reward Imbalance for Learning Is Associated with Fatigue in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Yamano, Emi; Joudoi, Takako; Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawatani, Junko; Takano, Miyuki; Tomoda, Akemi; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Miike, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We examined relationships among fatigue, sleep quality, and effort-reward imbalance for learning in school children. We developed an effort-reward for learning scale in school students and examined its reliability and validity. Self-administered surveys, including the effort reward for leaning scale and fatigue scale, were completed by 1,023…

  16. The Mental Effort-Reward Imbalances Model and Its Implications for Behaviour Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alison; Whale, Samina; Robinson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The Mental Effort Reward Imbalances Model (MERIM) explains this observational association as follows: in ADHD a disproportionate level of mental effort is required for sustaining concentration for achievement; in ODD the subjective…

  17. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An accurate autonomous islanding microgrid reactive power, imbalance power and harmonic power sharing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    To address inaccurate power sharing problems in autonomous islanding microgrids, an enhanced droop control method through adaptive virtual impedance adjustment is proposed. First, a term associated with DG reactive power, imbalance power or harmonic power is added to the conventional real power...

  19. Imbalance of Ecosystems and the Modified Newton's 3 Laws of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability calls for the unity of human knowledge that bridges the present "two cultures" gulf between the sciences and the humanities, and the transition from the age of machine to the age of the environment quests for harmony with nature (so-called eco-civilization). Ecosystems are fundamentally different from machines, where individual components contain complex organisms instead of identical nonliving entities. Because of heterogeneity, diversity, self-organization, and openness, imbalances abound in nature. These are reflected in entropy increase over time (S > 0) and gradient persistence over space (F > 0). In this paper, three modified Newton's laws of change for ecosystems are suggested, and examples of imbalances from landscape-soil-water-ecosystem-climate will be illustrated. ● Newton's 1st law of motion: ∑F=0 → dv/dt=0. i.e., if net force acting on an object is zero, then the object's velocity remains unchanged. Modified Newton's 1st law of change (imbalance #1): ∑F>0 → dv/dt≥0. i.e., unavoidable forcing exists in nature (∑F>0), thus change always happens; however, with inertia/resistance in some systems or minimum threshold needed to change, dv/dt≥0. ● Newton's 2nd law of motion: ∑F=ma. i.e., acceleration is inversely proportional to body mass. Modified Newton's 2nd law of change (imbalance #2): ∑F≠ma. i.e., either 1) it is hard to make change because of resilience, self-adjustment, nonlinearity of interactions-feedbacks in living systems (∑F≥ma), or 2) there is possible threshold behavior or sudden collapse of a system (∑Fchange (imbalance #3): ∑F(a,b)≠-∑F(b,a). i.e., to every action, there is an opposite but not necessarily equal reaction (because of energy dissipation and/or self-organization, among other factors).

  20. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  1. Anterior elongation as a minimally invasive alternative for sagittal imbalance-a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Amaral, Rodrigo; Castro, Carlos; Coutinho, Thiago; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-07-01

    Degenerative and iatrogenic conditions may lead to flat back or even to kyphotic deformity, and sagittal imbalance can cause significant clinical impairment. Minor imbalance cases are usually treated with conservative care. Among currently popular surgical techniques for the correction of sagittal imbalance are posterior-based procedures, which are associated with access-related risks (mostly neurological) and postoperative morbidity risks. This study aims to report a minimally invasive lateral approach using hyperlordotic cages in the treatment of mild sagittal imbalance. Radiological correction, clinical improvement, and safety will be analyzed. Eight patients (mean age 71.8 years, SD 7.8; mean BMI 27.5, SD 2.3) with symptomatic sagittal imbalance were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases were treated by anterior interbody fusion with lordotic cages. A minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal approach was used in the surgical procedures, with or without percutaneous pedicle screw supplementation. No major complications occurred and just one case needed revision for direct decompression. Clinical outcomes Visual Analog Scale score changed from 88 at preoperative visit to 51 at 1-week visit, and Oswestry Disability Index score decreased from 82 at preoperative visit to 44 at 6-week visit. The 6-month radiological assessment revealed improvement in spinopelvic parameters: Focal lordosis improved from 2.3° ± 7.7 to 27.1° ± 6.7. Sagittal vertical alignment improved from 11.7 ± 5.3 to 6.2 ± 4.0 cm. Preoperative sacral slope improved from 20.1° ± 5.8 to 29.4° ± 10.3 and preoperative pelvic tilt improved from 35.2° ± 5.2 to 23.8° ± 4.3. Short-term results indicate that the minimally invasive lateral approach can be applied to the treatment of mild sagittal imbalance, with special advantage in elderly patients or those in which posterior approaches are relatively contraindicated.

  2. [Development and practice evaluation of blood acid-base imbalance analysis software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Haiying; Zhou, Qiang; Peng, Shan; Jia, Hongyu; Ji, Tianxing

    2014-11-01

    To develop a blood gas, acid-base imbalance analysis computer software to diagnose systematically, rapidly, accurately and automatically determine acid-base imbalance type, and evaluate the clinical application. Using VBA programming language, a computer aided diagnostic software for the judgment of acid-base balance was developed. The clinical data of 220 patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. The arterial blood gas [pH value, HCO(3)(-), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO₂)] and electrolytes included data (Na⁺ and Cl⁻) were collected. Data were entered into the software for acid-base imbalances judgment. At the same time the data generation was calculated manually by H-H compensation formula for determining the type of acid-base imbalance. The consistency of judgment results from software and manual calculation was evaluated, and the judgment time of two methods was compared. The clinical diagnosis of the types of acid-base imbalance for the 220 patients: 65 cases were normal, 90 cases with simple type, mixed type in 41 cases, and triplex type in 24 cases. The accuracy of the judgment results of the normal and triplex types from computer software compared with which were calculated manually was 100%, the accuracy of the simple type judgment was 98.9% and 78.0% for the mixed type, and the total accuracy was 95.5%. The Kappa value of judgment result from software and manual judgment was 0.935, P=0.000. It was demonstrated that the consistency was very good. The time for software to determine acid-base imbalances was significantly shorter than the manual judgment (seconds:18.14 ± 3.80 vs. 43.79 ± 23.86, t=7.466, P=0.000), so the method of software was much faster than the manual method. Software judgment can replace manual judgment with the characteristics of rapid, accurate and convenient, can improve work efficiency and quality of clinical doctors and has great

  3. Computational study of effects of tension imbalance on phonation in a three-dimensional tubular larynx model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The present study explores the use of a continuum-based computational model to investigate the effect of left-right tension imbalance on vocal fold (VF) vibrations and glottal aerodynamics, as well as its implication on phonation. The study allows us to gain new insights into the underlying physical mechanism of irregularities induced by VF tension imbalance associated with unilateral cricothyroid muscle paralysis. A three-dimensional simulation of glottal flow and VF dynamics in a tubular laryngeal model with tension imbalance was conducted by using a coupled flow-structure interaction computational model. Tension imbalance was modeled by reducing by 20% the Young's modulus of one of the VFs, while holding VF length constant. Effects of tension imbalance on vibratory characteristic of the VFs and on the time-varying properties of glottal airflow as well as the aerodynamic energy transfer are comprehensively analyzed. The analysis demonstrates that the continuum-based biomechanical model can provide a good description of phonatory dynamics in tension imbalance conditions. It is found that although 20% tension imbalance does not have noticeable effects on the fundamental frequency, it does lead to a larger glottal flow leakage and asymmetric vibrations of the two VFs. A detailed analysis of the energy transfer suggests that the majority of the energy is consumed by the lateral motion of the VFs and the net energy transferred to the softer fold is less than the one transferred to the normal fold. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal sagittal imbalance in patients with lumbar disc herniation: its spinopelvic characteristics, strength changes of the spinal musculature and natural history after lumbar discectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chen; Sun, Jianmin; Cui, Xingang; Jiang, Zhensong; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal sagittal imbalance is a widely acknowledged problem, but there is insufficient knowledge regarding its occurrence. In some patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), their symptom is similar to spinal sagittal imbalance. The aim of this study is to illustrate the spinopelvic sagittal characteristics and identity the role of spinal musculature in the mechanism of sagittal imbalance in patients with LDH. Methods Twenty-five adults with spinal sagittal imbalance who initially ...

  5. Profile and imbalance cost of wind energy in 2012; Profiel- en onbalanskosten van windenergie in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Lensink, S. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-28

    This paper describes the method to determine the profile and imbalance costs of wind energy under the SDE+ scheme (Renewable Energy Incentive Plus). This method was first applied in the advice on the final correction figures for 2012. For 2012, the sum of profile and imbalance charges is set at 12.4% of the market index. This implies a slight increase with respect to the percentage in previous years (11%) [Dutch] Deze notitie beschrijft de methode om de profiel- en onbalanskosten van windenergie te bepalen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie Plus). Deze methode is voor het eerst toegepast in het advies over de definitieve correctiebedragen 2012. Voor 2012 is de som van profiel- en onbalanskosten bepaald op 12,4% van de marktindex. Dit impliceert een geringe stijging ten opzichte van het percentage in voorgaande jaren (11%)

  6. Blind estimation of carrier frequency offset, I/Q imbalance and DC offset for OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Hanzhang

    2012-12-01

    Sensitivity to carrier frequency offset (CFO) is one of the biggest drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. A lot of CFO estimation algorithms had been studied for compensation of CFO in OFDM system. However, with the adoption of direct-conversion architecture (DCA), which introduces additional impairments such as dc offset (DCO) and in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) imbalance in OFDM system, the established CFO estimation algorithms suffer from performance degradation. In our previous study, we developed a blind CFO, I/Q imbalance and DCO estimation algorithm for OFDM systems with DCA. In this article, we propose an alternative algorithm with reduced computation complexity and better accuracy. Performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by simulations.

  7. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  8. Scanogram for sagittal imbalance of the spine: low dose alternative for a safer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M; Albury, W R; Houang, M D; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Fixed Sagittal Imbalance (FSI), previously known as Flat Back Syndrome, requires the measurement of spinal curvatures on a lateral radiograph in the standing position (C7-S1). It can be difficult to position a spastic patient, sometimes repeated exposure are required, at separate thoracic and lumbar levels, increasing the radiation dosage. CT Scanography is suggested as an alternative radiological diagnostic method since it is rapid to perform. The patient is comfortably positioned (horizontal) and it combines both prone and supine positions, therefore acting as a functional examination. This test was performed on 34 consecutive patients with fractured vertebrae (lumbar, dorsal) and with back pain persisting beyond the bone healing period. The functional scanogram was found to be accurate in diagnosing sagittal imbalances, but more importantly it offered reduction in radiation: in Entrance dose; in Effective dose and Absorption dose. Scanogram is therefore proposed as an alternative method for the diagnosis of FSI.

  9. A Novel Algorithm for Imbalance Data Classification Based on Neighborhood Hypergraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification problem for imbalance data is paid more attention to. So far, many significant methods are proposed and applied to many fields. But more efficient methods are needed still. Hypergraph may not be powerful enough to deal with the data in boundary region, although it is an efficient tool to knowledge discovery. In this paper, the neighborhood hypergraph is presented, combining rough set theory and hypergraph. After that, a novel classification algorithm for imbalance data based on neighborhood hypergraph is developed, which is composed of three steps: initialization of hyperedge, classification of training data set, and substitution of hyperedge. After conducting an experiment of 10-fold cross validation on 18 data sets, the proposed algorithm has higher average accuracy than others.

  10. Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Nyberg, Solja T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance...... between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. METHODS: This multicohort study (the "IPD-Work" consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease...... at baseline was assessed by validated effort-reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, 31.7% of study...

  11. Spectral imbalance in the inertial range dynamics of decaying rotating turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Valente, Pedro C

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of homogeneous decaying turbulence with mild background rotation show the existence of a systematic and significant imbalance between the non-linear energy cascade to small scales and its dissipation. By starting the decay from a statistically stationary and fully developed rotating turbulence state, where the dissipation and the energy flux are approximately equal, the data shows a growing imbalance between the two until a maximum is reached when the dissipation is about twice the energy flux. This dichotomy of behaviours during decay is reminiscent of the non-equilibrium and the equilibrium regions previously reported for non-rotating turbulence [P.C. Valente, J.C. Vassilicos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 108} 214503 (2012)]. Note, however, that for decaying rotating turbulence the classical scaling of the dissipation rate $\\epsilon \\propto u'^3/L$ (where $u'$ and $L$ are the root mean square fluctuating velocity and the integral length scale, respectively) does not appear to hold duri...

  12. The impact of labour market imbalances on regional disparities in the post-crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine how existing imbalances in the labour market influence regions’ future development and to formulate a series of recommendations that will allow that catching up process to be done in an sustainable manner.Basically, the objective refers to the integration of the development and restructuring strategy of the labour market policy to strengthen regional competitive advantage.Our intentions is to stress the fact that between labour market imbalances and regional disparities exists a bi-univocal relationship, both manifested in a complex external environment, dominated by variable factors and uncertainty.To achieve paper’ objectives scientific methods like: descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and aggregate indexes are applied.The main results are focused on formulating a set of scientifically based recommendations that can be used to conceive strategies whose overall objective is the reduction of economic disparities existing in certain regions through training and proper human resources development.

  13. Effects of gear box vibration and mass imbalance on the dynamics of multistage gear transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission system, with the effects of gear-box-induced vibrations and rotor mass-imbalances is analyzed. The model method, using undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degree-of-freedom of the system. The various rotor-bearing stages as well as lateral and torsional vibrations of each individual stage are coupled through localized gear-mesh-tooth interactions. Gear-box vibrations are coupled to the gear stage dynamics through bearing support forces. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domain. A typical three-staged geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass-imbalance and gear box vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  14. Imbalance of group velocities for amplitude and phase pulses propagating in a resonant atomic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalaev, M. Yu.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of light pulses with amplitude and phase modulations is investigated for a medium of resonant two-level atoms. It is shown that the pulse-like variations of the phase can be also described in terms of group velocity. It is found that in the nonlinear regime of atom-field interaction, the group velocities of amplitude and phase pulses can have a large imbalance. Namely, amplitude pulses travel at a velocity less than c , whereas the group velocity of phase pulses is greater than the velocity of light in free space or it is even negative. The predicted imbalance of the group velocities can be important in the case of chirped pulses propagating in a resonant medium.

  15. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    H. The experiments were carried out in lab-scale thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating livestock waste. The imbalances included inhibition by long chain fatty acids (LCFA), inhibition by ammonia, organic overloading with proteins and organic overloading with industrial waste, i.e. meat...... out on the basis of the methane production or on the basis of fluctuations in the concentration of propionate. The experiment confirmed that propionate is a useful parameter for (1) indication of process imbalances and (2) for regulation and optimization of the anaerobic digestion process in CSTRs....... In order to gain a better insight in the activity of the propionate degraders under different operational conditions the kinetic parameters of propionate degradation by biomass from 10 CSTRs differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrates were estimated in batch substrate...

  16. Analysis and measurement of the electrolyte imbalance in a vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsai, Kittima; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2015-05-01

    Electrolyte imbalance in vanadium redox flow batteries is an important problem for its long-term operation as it leads to loss of energy. To address this problem, a modified open circuit voltage (OCV) cell is developed by adding a middle half cell between the negative and positive half cells of a conventional OCV cell and used to predict the oxidation state of vanadium in the electrolyte solution from the measured voltage in each side of the electrolyte (positive and negative). The correlation between the oxidation state of vanadium and cell voltage is explained by a basic electrochemical principle and the Nernst equation. The experimental results show that at different oxidation states of vanadium, the predicted OCV agrees reasonably with the experimental data. In addition, the effect of the state of charge (SOC) and electrolyte imbalance on the energy capacity of a cell is discussed.

  17. Compensation for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity and in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems. Specifically, we propose a compensation method for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance together in MIMO TB systems. The performance of the MIMO TB system under study is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability (SEP) and system capacity, considering transmission over uncorrelated frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several system parameters, such as the HPA parameters, image-leakage ratio, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, length of pilot symbols, and modulation order of phase-shift keying (PSK), on performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  18. Molecular Cytogenetics: Genomic Imbalances in Colorectal Cancer and their Clinical Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Grade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal aberrations play a dominant role in colorectal carcinogenesis. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH based techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed that colorectal carcinomas are characterized by a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances which sequentially accumulate during cancer progression. This review aims to summarize molecular cytogenetic studies, provides a background on the functional relevance of chromosomal aberrations for colorectal cancer progression and discusses their potential clinical impact.

  19. The effect of load imbalances on the performance of Monte Carlo algorithms in LWR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, A.R., E-mail: siegela@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Division (United States); Smith, K., E-mail: kord@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (United States); Romano, P.K., E-mail: romano7@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (United States); Forget, B., E-mail: bforget@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering (United States); Felker, K., E-mail: felker@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Division (United States)

    2013-02-15

    A model is developed to predict the impact of particle load imbalances on the performance of domain-decomposed Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithms. Expressions for upper bound performance “penalties” are derived in terms of simple machine characteristics, material characterizations and initial particle distributions. The hope is that these relations can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among different memory decomposition strategies in next generation Monte Carlo codes, and perhaps as a metric for triggering particle redistribution in production codes.

  20. Naturopathy and yoga in ameliorating multiple hormonal imbalance: a single case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep M.K Nair

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal imbalances are common among the women who are in the halfway of their reproductive age. There are lot of factors like stress, diet, lifestyle etc. which contributes to this hormonal dysfunctions. However these factors are merely addressed by the existing management strategies. A 37 year old female presented with hypothyroidism and associated hyperprolactinemia had undergone Naturopathy and yoga interventions for a period of 18 months. Her baseline TSH and prolactin levels were 9.2 U/...

  1. Postoperative shoulder imbalance in Lenke Type 1A adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Kawakami, Noriaki; Tsuji, Taichi; Uno, Koki; Suzuki, Teppei; Ito, Manabu; Yanagida, Haruhisa; Minami, Shohei; Akazawa, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and factors associated with postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) in Lenke type 1A curve. Methods This study included 106 patients with Lenke Type 1A curve who were followed up more than two years after posterior correction surgery. Pedicle screw (PS) constructs were used in 84 patients, and hybrid constructs in 22. The upper instrumented vertebra was rostral to the upper-end vertebra (UEV) in 70 patients, at UEV in 26, ...

  2. Subfunctionalization reduces the fitness cost of gene duplication in humans by buffering dosage imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driven essentially by random genetic drift, subfunctionalization has been identified as a possible non-adaptive mechanism for the retention of duplicate genes in small-population species, where widespread deleterious mutations are likely to cause complementary loss of subfunctions across gene copies. Through subfunctionalization, duplicates become indispensable to maintain the functional requirements of the ancestral locus. Yet, gene duplication produces a dosage imbalance in the encoded proteins and thus, as investigated in this paper, subfunctionalization must be subject to the selective forces arising from the fitness bottleneck introduced by the duplication event. Results We show that, while arising from random drift, subfunctionalization must be inescapably subject to selective forces, since the diversification of expression patterns across paralogs mitigates duplication-related dosage imbalances in the concentrations of encoded proteins. Dosage imbalance effects become paramount when proteins rely on obligatory associations to maintain their structural integrity, and are expected to be weaker when protein complexation is ephemeral or adventitious. To establish the buffering effect of subfunctionalization on selection pressure, we determine the packing quality of encoded proteins, an established indicator of dosage sensitivity, and correlate this parameter with the extent of paralog segregation in humans, using species with larger population -and more efficient selection- as controls. Conclusions Recognizing the role of subfunctionalization as a dosage-imbalance buffer in gene duplication events enabled us to reconcile its mechanistic nonadaptive origin with its adaptive role as an enabler of the evolution of genetic redundancy. This constructive role was established in this paper by proving the following assertion: If subfunctionalization is indeed adaptive, its effect on paralog segregation should scale with the dosage

  3. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lu-zhu; Zhao, Shui-ping; Huang, Xian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1) control group; (2) SA (stable angina) group; and (3) ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day) and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day) group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  4. ?Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis? Is Not Byword for Degenerative Sagittal Imbalance: Time to Replace a Misconception

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Jang, Jee-Soo; Kim, Sung-Min; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flat-back syndrome and is most commonly caused by unique life styles, such as a prolonged crouched posture during agricultural work and performing activities of daily living on the floor. Unfortunately, LDK has been used as a byword for degenerative sagittal imbalance, and this sometimes causes confusion. The aim of this review was to evaluate the exact territory of LDK, and to introduce another appropriate term for degenerative sagittal...

  5. Correlation between localization, age, and chromosomal imbalances in ependymal tumours as detected by CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Judith W M; Sprenger, Sandra H E; Gilhuis, Job; Teepen, Hans L J M; Grotenhuis, Andre J; Wesseling, Pieter

    2002-06-01

    Ependymal tumours (ETs) are gliomas that arise from the ependymal lining of the cerebral ventricles and from the remnants of the central canal of the spinal cord. Both clinical and genetic studies suggest that distinct genetic subtypes of ETs exist, the subtypes being correlated with patient age and/or tumour site. In the present study, the tumour genome of 20 ETs (15 adult and five paediatric cases) was screened for chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The most frequently detected imbalances were -22q (75%), -10q (65%), -21 (50%), -16p (50%), -1p (45%), +4q (45%), -10p (45%), -2q (40%), -6 (40%), -19 (40%), -2p (35%), -3p (35%), and -16q (35%). Comparison of the chromosomal imbalances detected in ETs with those previously reported in oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumours revealed that in this respect ETs show similarities to these other gliomas. By combining these results with those of a recent study of Zheng et al. and Hirose et al., it was found that although ETs from different sites and from adult and paediatric patients show overlap at the CGH level, some chromosomal imbalances occur predominantly in a certain category. In adult patients, spinal ETs relatively often showed +2, +7, +12, and -14q; infratentorial ETs -22; and supratentorial ETs -9. In addition, in posterior fossa ETs, -6 and +9 were much more frequent in adults than in children. It is concluded that the genetic background of ETs is complex and partly determined by tumour site, histopathological subtype, and age of the patient.

  6. Imbalance in the Hydrologic Cycle-Open Systems, Ebbs and Flows, and Multi-Stable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrosphere is characterized by extraordinarily large-scale chemostasis and hydrostasis. The interconnected oceans hold >95% of the planetary water in circulation and have not greatly changed in volume since the Proterozoic, despite tectonic motions of super-continental proportions. Similarly, the chemistry of the ocean has remained relatively constant since the proliferation of widespread multicellular life and abundant oxygen some 0.6 billion years ago. Ancient humans recognized that "All rivers runneth to the sea, yet the sea doth not filleth up." The solution to this paradox is the 17th-century paradigm of the hydrologic cycle; however, the commonly made corollary assumption of hydrologic balance disappears upon analysis across the entire range of observations available through ground-based networks, satellite imaging, and proxy data on paleo-hydrologic states (chemical, isotopic, tree-rings, speleothems, etc.). Water imbalance as the normative state is supported by theoretical consideration of hydrologic responses to superimposed steady-, periodic-, and irregular forcings such as geothermal gradients, diurnal and annual cycles, and orbital irregularities. Hydrologic systems are open across all scales with respect to thermal-energy throughput and are often far from equilibrium. Temporal-spatial variations of thermal inputs and stores coupled with feedbacks from interacting biologic and geologic processes lead to chaotically punctuated water imbalances with profound consequences for ecosystem succession, water resources, long-term agricultural sustainability, and acute risk from floods and droughts. Imbalance in hydrologic systems through time is evident from studies of soils and sediments and from data on deep unsaturated zones in tropical to arid regions; these studies reveal repeated cycles of salinity accumulation and pluvial flushing and shifting frequencies of floods and droughts. Anthropogenic intensification of the hydrologic cycle-with attendant

  7. Relaxation of the chiral imbalance in dense matter of a neutron star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvornikov Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the quantum field theory methods, we calculate the helicity flip of an electron scattering off protons in dense matter of a neutron star. The influence of the electroweak interaction between electrons and background nucleons on the helicity flip is examined. We also derive the kinetic equation for the chiral imbalance. The derived kinetic equation is compared with the results obtained by other authors.

  8. For Public Service or Money : Understanding Geographical Imbalances in the Health Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Serneels, Pieter; Lindelöw, Magnus; Garcia-Montalvo, Jose; Barr, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    Geographical imbalances in the health workforce have been a consistent feature of nearly all health systems, especially in developing countries. The authors investigate the willingness to work in a rural area among final year nursing and medical students in Ethiopia. Analyzing data obtained from contingent valuation questions, they find that household consumption and the student's motivation to help the poor, which is their proxy for intrinsic motivation, are the main determinants of willingn...

  9. For public service or money: Understanding geographical imbalances in the health workforce in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Serneels, Pieter; Lindelow, Magnus; Garcia Montalvo, José; Barr, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Geographical imbalances in the health workforce have been a consistent feature of nearly all health systems, and especially in developing countries. In this paper we investigate the willingness to work in a rural area among final year nursing and medical students in Ethiopia. Analyzing data obtained from contingent valuation questions, we find that household consumption and the student’s motivation to help the poor, which is our proxy for intrinsic motivation, are the main determinants of wil...

  10. Steering neuronal growth cones by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, Takuro; Itofusa, Rurika; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-21

    Extracellular molecular cues guide migrating growth cones along specific routes during development of axon tracts. Such processes rely on asymmetric elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations across the growth cone that mediates its attractive or repulsive turning toward or away from the side with Ca(2+) elevation, respectively. Downstream of these Ca(2+) signals, localized activation of membrane trafficking steers the growth cone bidirectionally, with endocytosis driving repulsion and exocytosis causing attraction. However, it remains unclear how Ca(2+) can differentially regulate these opposite membrane-trafficking events. Here, we show that growth cone turning depends on localized imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis and identify Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways mediating such imbalance. In embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, repulsive Ca(2+) signals promote clathrin-mediated endocytosis through a 90 kDa splice variant of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1γ (PIPKIγ90). In contrast, attractive Ca(2+) signals facilitate exocytosis but suppress endocytosis via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) that can inactivate PIPKIγ90. Blocking CaMKII or Cdk5 leads to balanced activation of both exocytosis and endocytosis that causes straight growth cone migration even in the presence of guidance signals, whereas experimentally perturbing the balance restores the growth cone's turning response. Remarkably, the direction of this resumed turning depends on relative activities of exocytosis and endocytosis, but not on the type of guidance signals. Our results suggest that navigating growth cones can be redirected by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis, highlighting the importance of membrane-trafficking imbalance for axon guidance and, possibly, for polarized cell migration in general.

  11. Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available Inflammation can be activated as a defensive response by the attack of acute coronary syndrome (ACS for ischemic tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of ACS-activated inflammation on adipokine imbalance and the effects of statins on the crosstalk between inflammation and adipokine imbalance during ACS. In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1 control group; (2 SA (stable angina group; and (3 ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations were positively correlated with resistin but negatively with adiponectin levels in humans. Our animal findings indicated higher circulating hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels in AMI mice. Atorvastatin pre-treatment dose-dependently decreased hs-CRP and resistin levels but increased adiponectin levels in mice. The consistent findings were observed about the adipose expressions of resistin and adiponectin in mice. In study in vitro, ox-LDL increased cellular resistin expressions and otherwise for adiponectin expressions, which dose-dependently reversed by the addition of atorvastatin. Therefore, our study indicates that the ACS attack activates inflammation leading to adipokine imbalance that can be ameliorated by anti-inflammation of atorvastatin.

  12. Comparison of Three Methods of Assessing Muscle Strength and Imbalance Ratios of the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Crayton L.; Wright, P. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Three strength measurement methods for determining muscle strength and imbalance ratios of the knee were compared in 41 (23 female, 18 male) NCAA Division I track and field athletes. Peak quadriceps extensions and hamstring flexions were measured isotonically, isometrically, and isokinetically. Isokinetic measurements were performed on a Cybex II at 60°/s. Isometric extension and flexion measurements were performed using the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester (Lafayette Instruments; Lafayette, Ind...

  13. Naturopathy and yoga in ameliorating multiple hormonal imbalance: a single case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep M.K Nair

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal imbalances are common among the women who are in the halfway of their reproductive age. There are lot of factors like stress, diet, lifestyle etc. which contributes to this hormonal dysfunctions. However these factors are merely addressed by the existing management strategies. A 37 year old female presented with hypothyroidism and associated hyperprolactinemia had undergone Naturopathy and yoga interventions for a period of 18 months. Her baseline TSH and prolactin levels were 9.2 U/...

  14. Outpatient management of electrolyte imbalances associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ann F

    2005-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are eating disorders with significant morbidity that often go undetected. Nurses and primary care providers are encouraged to recognize the early signs and symptoms of these disorders and to intervene appropriately. Several case reports in this article describe patients with these disorders and various related electrolyte abnormalities. Understanding electrolyte imbalances associated with both disorders may lead to earlier effective intervention and overall improved health outcomes.

  15. Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among German nurses in medical compared with psychiatric hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Heins, C; Wehlitz, L; Löhr, M; Driessen, M; Behrens, J; Wingenfeld, K

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nurses' efforts and rewards, as well as the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout, differ between subjects working in psychiatric vs. medical hospitals and between nurses under education and examined nurses respectively. Furthermore, the relationship between ERI and burnout was evaluated. Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Burnout and a negative ERI can result in high absenteeism and turnover and have been identified as reasons why nurses leave their profession. In the last decade, working conditions of the nursing profession have changed in Germany, but somatic and psychiatric hospitals developed in different ways. This development may lead to different profiles. A sample of 389 nurses (78.8% female) in four German hospitals was investigated. A total of 147 nurses worked in psychiatric hospitals and 236 nurses worked in medical (somatic) hospitals. Fifty participants were still under education. The Effort-Reward Imbalance Inventory measures effort, reward and overcommitment at job and provides an imbalance score between effort and reward. The Maslach Burnout Inventory with the subscales, emotional exhaustion, lack of accomplishment and depersonalization, was also used. Nurses working in medical hospitals reported more burnout and had higher ERI scores. Subjects under education were comparable to examined nurses in terms of burnout but had lower ERI scores. Multiple regression analyses showed all ERI scales to be significant predictors for emotional exhaustion, while age, field of work and educational status further predict effort or ERI respectively. At present, the working situation of nurses in different settings appears to be characterized by a perceived imbalance of effort and reward and is associated with a high risk of developing burnout symptoms.

  16. Effect of complex amino acid imbalance on growth of tumor in tumor-bearing rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Cheng He; Yuan-Hong Wang; Jun Cao; Ji-Wei Chen; Ding-Yu Pan; Ya-Kui Zhou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of complex amino acid imbalance on the growth of tumor in tumor-bearing (TB) rats.METHODS: Sprague-Dawlley (SD) rats underwent jejunostomy for nutritional support. A suspension of Walker256 carcinosarcoma cells was subcutaneously inoculated.TB rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C and D according to the formula of amino acids in enteral nutritional solutions, respectively. TB rats received jejunal feedings supplemented with balanced amino acids (group A),methionine-depleted amino acids (group B), valine-depleted amino acids (group C) and methionine- and valine-depleted complex amino acid imbalance (group D) for 10 days. Tumor volume, inhibitory rates of tumor, cell cycle and life span of TB rats were investigated.RESULTS: The G0/G1 ratio of tumor cells in group D (80.5±9.0) % was higher than that in groups A, B and C which was 67.0±5.1 %, 78.9±8.5 %, 69.2±6.2 %, respectively (P<0.05). The ratio of S/G2M and PI in group D were lower than those in groups A, B and C. The inhibitory rate of tumor in groups B, C and D was 37.2 %, 33.3 % and 43.9 %,respectively (P<0.05). The life span of TB rats in group D was significantly longer than that in groups B, C, and A.CONCLUSION: Methionine/valine-depleted amino acid imbalance can inhibit tumor growth. Complex amino acids of methionine and valine depleted imbalance have stronger inhibitory effects on tumor growth.

  17. Imbalances in the Development of Chinese Culture------about the traditional Chinese culture influenced by the west

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉晨

    2014-01-01

    During the development of Chinese culture, it absorbs a lot of exotic new things from the west. This situation directly induced two imbalances in the structure of our culture nowadays. One of these imbalances is between the Chinese traditional culture and the western culture, and the other one is the humanity culture and the science culture. Both these imbalances are rooted in the relationship between the eastern and western cultures, which are combining, interweaving and conflicting during the developing process. The differences between these two cultures and the influences from the western one determine the current imbalanced pattern of Chinese culture.

  18. Socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Eidenzon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of current socio-economic and environmental aspects of the industry imbalances in the regional economy by the example of Ural Federal District and Siberian Federal District. The main aim of it is to identify the actual socio-economic problems in the development of the regional economies. The authors analyze the economic, ecological and social aspects in the development of regional economies by the examples. They investigate the specifics of the correlation between industrial development, ecological problems and health problems of the local population. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of correlations between the mortality of the population and industrial pollution of air and water. The analysis has resulted in making proposals for optimization of the regional policy in the field of investments, manufacturing and ecology. The special attention is given to environment-oriented projects. The most practicable way in solving the problem of these regional industry imbalances would be the development of regional diversification programs of the Siberia and the Ural economies. It has to support manufacturing and the largest public-private investment projects for the foundation of enterprises in agriculture, food and other industries. The most prosperous among them is the direction of bioenergy and forest-engineering-oriented businesses. The results of the research can be useful in solving the problem of the industry imbalances in the regional economic policy of the Russian Federation.

  19. Botulinum toxin injection to facilitate rehabilitation of muscle imbalance syndromes in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D M; Boyle, J J W; Silbert, P L; Singer, B J; Singer, K P

    2007-12-15

    Intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin to produce reduction of focal muscle overactivity, and localized muscle spasm, has been utilized therapeutically for almost two decades. Muscle overactivity in neurologically normal muscle, where an imbalance exists between a relatively overactive muscle and its less active synergist or antagonist, can inhibit control of the antagonist producing a functional muscle imbalance. This brief review provides an overview of the role of muscle imbalance in sports-related pain and dysfunction, and outlines the potential for intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin to be used as an adjunct to specific muscle re-education and functional rehabilitation in this patient group. A comprehensive understanding of normal movement and the requirements of the sporting activity are essential to allow accurate diagnosis of abnormal motor patterns and to re-educate more appropriate movement strategies. Therapeutic management of co-impairments may include stretching of tight soft tissues, specific re-education aimed at isolation of the non-dominant weak muscles and improvement in their activation, 'unlearning' of faulty motor patterns, and eventual progression onto functional exercises to anticipate gradual return to sporting activity. Intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin, in carefully selected cases, provides short term reduction of focal muscle overactivity, and may facilitate activation of relatively 'inhibited' muscles and assist the restoration of more appropriate motor patterns.

  20. Wladimir Andreff (Ed., Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas SCELLES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The economics of professional team sport leagues has been built on three main pillars in the US literature: economic equilibrium for the product market and labour market for talent; profit maximisation; and competitive balance between teams (sporting equilibrium. The European literature has brought a fourth pillar: win maximisation with a hard budget constraint (break-even accounting rule. These four pillars have remained little questioned until recently. This emerging literature is one of the motivations for launching a book dealing with disequilibrium. Another is the editor’s conviction that the reality in team sport leagues does not fit with general equilibrium solutions. The first chapter introduces the previous elements and more generally the book while the seven following chapters develop a specific aspect related to disequilibrium: an attempt at modelling; a dynamic non-equilibrium simulation; the metrics of competitive imbalance; gender imbalance on the sports programme market; and the last three chapters on soft budget constraints with three different focuses (comparison between European and US leagues; governance and agency problem; regulation regarding the new UEFA club licensing and Financial Fair Play. As a whole, the book provides an original and realistic view that can and perhaps even must shape the future of sports economics.Keywords. Disequilibrium Sports Economics; Competitive Imbalance; Budget Constraints.JEL. Z20, L83, D50, L50, P20.

  1. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  2. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players’ knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p training programs could provide additional benefits to traditional strength training protocols to improve muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players. PMID:26630271

  3. Imbalance of predator and prey armament: geographic clines in phenotypic interface and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-01-01

    The escalation of defensive/offensive arms is ubiquitous in prey-predator evolutionary interactions. However, there may be a geographically varying imbalance in the armaments of participating species that affects the outcome of local interactions. In a system involving the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica) and its obligate seed predator, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), we investigated the geographic variation in physical defensive/offensive traits and that in natural selection on the plant's defense among 17 populations over a 700-km-wide area in Japan. The sizes of the plant defensive apparatus (pericarp thickness) and the weevil offensive apparatus (rostrum length) clearly correlated with each other across populations. Nevertheless, the balance in armaments between the two species was geographically structured. In the populations for which the balance was relatively advantageous for the plant's defense, natural selection on the trait was stronger because in the other populations, most plant individuals were too vulnerable to resist the attacks of the weevil, and their seeds were infested independent of pericarp thickness. We also found that the imbalance between the defensive/offensive armaments and the intensity of natural selection showed clear latitudinal clines. Overall, our results suggest that the imbalance of armament between sympatric prey and predator could determine the strength of local selection and that climatic conditions could affect the local and overall trajectory of coevolutionary arms races.

  4. Upper limb muscle imbalance in tennis elbow: a functional and electromyographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Frostick, Simon P

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate strength, fatigability, and activity of upper limb musculature to elucidate the role of muscular imbalance in the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Sixteen patients clinically diagnosed with tennis elbow, recruited from a university hospital upper limb orthopedic clinic, were compared with 16 control subjects with no history of upper limb musculoskeletal problem, recruited from university students and staff. Muscle strength was measured for grip, metacarpophalangeal, wrist, and shoulder on both sides. Electromyographic activity (RMS amplitude) and fatigue characteristics (median frequency slope) of five forearm and two shoulder muscles were measured during isometric contraction at 50% maximum voluntary contraction. All strength measurements showed dominance difference in C, but none in TE. In tennis elbow compared to controls, hand/wrist and shoulder strength and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) activity were reduced (p imbalance among forearm muscles (reduced extensor carpi radialis activity) in tennis elbow, probably due to protective pain-related inhibition, could lead to a widespread upper limb muscle imbalance.

  5. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players' knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players.

  6. Genomic imbalances in 5918 malignant epithelial tumors: an explorative meta-analysis of chromosomal CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudis Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with most human malignancies, with gains and losses on some genomic regions associated with particular entities. Methods Of the 15429 cases collected for the Progenetix molecular-cytogenetic database, 5918 malignant epithelial neoplasias analyzed by chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH were selected for further evaluation. For the 22 clinico-pathological entities with more than 50 cases, summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case specific data and analyzed. Results With large variation in overall genomic instability, recurring genomic gains and losses were prominent. Most entities showed frequent gains involving 8q2, while gains on 20q, 1q, 3q, 5p, 7q and 17q were frequent in different entities. Loss "hot spots" included 3p, 4q, 13q, 17p and 18q among others. Related average imbalance patterns were found for clinically distinct entities, e.g. hepatocellular carcinomas (ca. and ductal breast ca., as well as for histologically related entities (squamous cell ca. of different sites. Conclusion Although considerable case-by-case variation of genomic profiles can be found by CGH in epithelial malignancies, a limited set of variously combined chromosomal imbalances may be typical for carcinogenesis. Focus on the respective regions should aid in target gene detection and pathway deduction.

  7. Can an energy balance model provide additional constraints on how to close the energy imbalance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Widmoser, Peter

    2013-02-15

    Elucidating the causes for the energy imbalance, i.e. the phenomenon that eddy covariance latent and sensible heat fluxes fall short of available energy, is an outstanding problem in micrometeorology. This paper tests the hypothesis that the full energy balance, through incorporation of additional independent measurements which determine the driving forces of and resistances to energy transfer, provides further insights into the causes of the energy imbalance and additional constraints on energy balance closure options. Eddy covariance and auxiliary data from three different biomes were used to test five contrasting closure scenarios. The main result of our study is that except for nighttime, when fluxes were low and noisy, the full energy balance generally did not contain enough information to allow further insights into the causes of the imbalance and to constrain energy balance closure options. Up to four out of the five tested closure scenarios performed similarly and in up to 53% of all cases all of the tested closure scenarios resulted in plausible energy balance values. Our approach may though provide a sensible consistency check for eddy covariance energy flux measurements.

  8. The immediate effect of kinesiology taping on muscular imbalance for infants with congenital muscular torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhman, Anna M

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of kinesiology taping (KT) on muscular imbalance in the lateral flexors of the neck. A retrospective study. Twenty-eight infants with congenital muscular torticollis and muscular imbalance in the lateral flexors of the neck were chosen consecutively. Data regarding the Muscle Function Scale (MFS) score before and after the first taping session were obtained from the records. A significant decrease in the difference between the MFS scores was found after KT was applied (P < .001). Significantly greater scores were noted on the unaffected side after KT (P = .02) and significantly lower scores were noted on the affected side after KT (P = .003). Multiple regression demonstrated that the MFS score on the unaffected side (P < .001) and use of the muscle-relaxing technique (P = .009) were significantly associated with a decrease in the difference between the MFS scores of the 2 sides. KT has an immediate effect on muscular imbalance in infants with congenital muscular torticollis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural imbalances as a key factor of unemployment in the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.

  10. Asymmetric osteotomy of the spine for coronal imbalance: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambiraj, Sathya; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2012-05-01

    Technical report on the surgical technique of asymmetric osteotomy of the spine for coronal imbalance. To describe a successful method of performing asymmetrical pedicle subtraction osteotomy (APSO) through a posterior only approach. Rigid coronal deformity of the spine can be sharply angulated and can create significant coronal imbalance. Surgical correction is the only definitive treatment of restoring the balance as bracing is unhelpful. Corrective surgery can be anterior or posterior. The literature on the methods of surgical correction of rigid coronal deformities of the spine is limited. Unlike osteotomies for sagittal imbalance, blunt dissection of the anterior cortex is necessary in asymmetrical osteotomy to allow resection of the anterior cortex for closure of the wedge. We describe a method by which we performed this in the thoracic and lumbar spine with case examples. After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomy and unilateral facetectomy of the proposed level of osteotomy is performed. Next, dissection lateral to the pedicle and vertebral body is performed bluntly with mastoids to reach the front of the anterior cortex and confirmed with fluoroscopy. An oblique osteotomy including the lateral and posterior cortex is performed above and below the pedicle under imaging. The osteotomy site is closed through unilateral compression. Satisfactory correction of coronal deformity can be achieved with APSO from an isolated posterior approach. In contrast to sagittal osteotomies, blunt dissection along the anterior cortex is necessary to allow safe resection of anterior cortical bone for closure of the wedge.

  11. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Siegrist, J; Landre, M F; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A

    2000-10-01

    Two main models are currently used to evaluate psychosocial factors at work: the Job Strain model developed by Karasek and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. A French version of the first model has been validated for the dimensions of psychological demands and decision latitude. As regards the second one evaluating three dimensions (extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort), there are several versions in different languages, but until recently there was no validated French version. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity, and discriminant validity. The present study was based on the GAZEL cohort and included the 10 174 subjects who were working at the French national electric and gas company (EDF-GDF) and answered the questionnaire in 1998. A French version of Effort-Reward Imbalance was included in this questionnaire. This version was obtained by a standard forward/backward translation procedure. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the three scales of extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort: Cronbach's Alpha coefficients higher than 0.7 were observed. A one-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of the scale of extrinsic effort. A three-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of reward, and these dimensions were interpreted as the factor analysis of intrinsic effort did not support the expected four-dimension structure. The analysis of discriminant validity displayed significant associations between measures of Effort-Reward Imbalance and the variables of sex, age, education level, and occupational grade. This study is the first one supporting satisfactory psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. However, the factorial validity of intrinsic effort could be questioned. Furthermore, as most previous studies were based on male samples

  12. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  13. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Analysis and Compensation of Transmitter and Receiver I/Q Imbalances in Space-Time Coded Multiantenna OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yaning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The combination of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques has been widely considered as the most promising approach for building future wireless transmission systems. The use of multiple antennas poses then big restrictions on the size and cost of individual radio transmitters and receivers, to keep the overall transceiver implementation feasible. This results in various imperfections in the analog radio front ends. One good example is the so-called I/Q imbalance problem related to the amplitude and phase matching of the transceiver I and Q chains. This paper studies the performance of space-time coded (STC multiantenna OFDM systems under I/Q imbalance, covering both the transmitter and the receiver sides of the link. The challenging case of frequency-selective I/Q imbalances is assumed, being an essential ingredient in future wideband wireless systems. As a practical example, the Alamouti space-time coded OFDM system with two transmit and M receive antennas is examined in detail and a closed-form solution for the resulting signal-to-interference ratio (SIR at the detector input due to I/Q imbalance is derived. This offers a valuable analytical tool for assessing the I/Q imbalance effects in any STC-OFDM system, without lengthy data or system simulations. In addition, the impact of I/Q imbalances on the channel estimation in the STC-OFDM context is also analyzed analytically. Furthermore, based on the derived signal models, a practical pilot-based I/Q imbalance compensation scheme is also proposed, being able to jointly mitigate the effects of frequency-selective I/Q imbalances as well as channel estimation errors. The performance of the compensator is analyzed using extensive computer simulations, and it is shown to virtually reach the perfectly matched reference system performance with low pilot overhead.

  15. Analysis and Compensation of Transmitter and Receiver I/Q Imbalances in Space-Time Coded Multiantenna OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques has been widely considered as the most promising approach for building future wireless transmission systems. The use of multiple antennas poses then big restrictions on the size and cost of individual radio transmitters and receivers, to keep the overall transceiver implementation feasible. This results in various imperfections in the analog radio front ends. One good example is the so-called I/Q imbalance problem related to the amplitude and phase matching of the transceiver I and Q chains. This paper studies the performance of space-time coded (STC multiantenna OFDM systems under I/Q imbalance, covering both the transmitter and the receiver sides of the link. The challenging case of frequency-selective I/Q imbalances is assumed, being an essential ingredient in future wideband wireless systems. As a practical example, the Alamouti space-time coded OFDM system with two transmit and M receive antennas is examined in detail and a closed-form solution for the resulting signal-to-interference ratio (SIR at the detector input due to I/Q imbalance is derived. This offers a valuable analytical tool for assessing the I/Q imbalance effects in any STC-OFDM system, without lengthy data or system simulations. In addition, the impact of I/Q imbalances on the channel estimation in the STC-OFDM context is also analyzed analytically. Furthermore, based on the derived signal models, a practical pilot-based I/Q imbalance compensation scheme is also proposed, being able to jointly mitigate the effects of frequency-selective I/Q imbalances as well as channel estimation errors. The performance of the compensator is analyzed using extensive computer simulations, and it is shown to virtually reach the perfectly matched reference system performance with low pilot overhead.

  16. Duality in binocular rivalry: distinct sensitivity of percept sequence and percept duration to imbalance between monocular stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is usually stable and accurate. However, when the two eyes are simultaneously presented with conflicting stimuli, perception falls into a sequence of spontaneous alternations, switching between one stimulus and the other every few seconds. Known as binocular rivalry, this visual illusion decouples subjective experience from physical stimulation and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural correlates of consciousness. The temporal properties of this alternating perception have been intensively investigated for decades, yet the relationship between two fundamental properties - the sequence of percepts and the duration of each percept - remains largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine the relationship between the percept sequence and the percept duration by quantifying their sensitivity to the strength imbalance between two monocular stimuli. We found that the percept sequence is far more susceptible to the stimulus imbalance than does the percept duration. The percept sequence always begins with the stronger stimulus, even when the stimulus imbalance is too weak to cause a significant bias in the percept duration. Therefore, introducing a small stimulus imbalance affects the percept sequence, whereas increasing the imbalance affects the percept duration, but not vice versa. To investigate why the percept sequence is so vulnerable to the stimulus imbalance, we further measured the interval between the stimulus onset and the first percept, during which subjects experienced the fusion of two monocular stimuli. We found that this interval is dramatically shortened with increased stimulus imbalance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that in binocular rivalry, the strength imblanace between monocular stimuli has a much greater impact on the percept sequence than on the percept duration, and increasing this imbalance can accelerate the process responsible for the percept sequence.

  17. Influence of Motor Program on Correct Posture and Muscular Imbalance Correction in Pupils of Primary Schools (1-4 Grades)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavol Bartík

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the research, focused on evaluation and development of correct posture and muscular imbalance correction in pupils of primary schools. The research involved 58 pupils of the fourth grade of primary school. The main method was educational experiment and tests for the evaluation of muscular imbalance and posture. We used the motor program, involving yoga exercises and fitball exercises in the experimental group. After the educational experiment, the posture and...

  18. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. [Methods] Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping...

  19. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  20. Framework for interpretation of trypsin-antitrypsin imbalance and genetic heterogeneity in pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early intracellular premature trypsinogen activation was interpreted as the key initiator of pancreatitis. When the balance in the homeostasis of trypsin and antitrypsin system is disequilibrated, elevated aggressive enzymes directly attack the pancreatic tissue, which leads to pancreatic destruction and inflammation. However, trypsin alone is not enough to cause complications in pancreatitis, which may play a crucial role in modulating signaling events in the initial phase of the disease. NFκB activation is the major inflammatory pathway involved in the occurrence and development of pancreatitis and it can be induced by intrapancreatic activation of trypsinogen. Synthesis of trypsinogen occurs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and ER stress is an important early acinar cell event. Components of ER stress response are known to be able to trigger cell death as well as NFκB signaling cascade. The strongest evidence supporting the trypsin-centered theory is that gene mutations, which lead to the generation of more trypsin, or reduce the activity of trypsin inhibitors or trypsin degradation, are associated with pancreatitis. Thus, trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance may be the first step leading to pancreatic autodigestion and inducing other pathways. Continued experimental studies are necessary to determine the specific relationships between trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and genetic heterogeneity in pancreatitis. In this article, we review the latest advances that contributed to the understanding of the basic mechanisms behind the occurrence and development of pancreatitis with a focus on the interpretation of trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and their relationships with other inflammation pathways. We additionally highlight genetic predispositions to pancreatitis and possible mechanisms associated with them.

  1. Neuropeptides function in a homeostatic manner to modulate excitation-inhibition imbalance in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Zhou, Keming; Jin, Yishi

    2013-05-01

    Neuropeptides play crucial roles in modulating neuronal networks, including changing intrinsic properties of neurons and synaptic efficacy. We previously reported a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, acr-2(gf), that displays spontaneous convulsions as the result of a gain-of-function mutation in a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. The ACR-2 channel is expressed in the cholinergic motor neurons, and acr-2(gf) causes cholinergic overexcitation accompanied by reduced GABAergic inhibition in the locomotor circuit. Here we show that neuropeptides play a homeostatic role that compensates for this excitation-inhibition imbalance in the locomotor circuit. Loss of function in genes required for neuropeptide processing or release of dense core vesicles specifically modulate the convulsion frequency of acr-2(gf). The proprotein convertase EGL-3 is required in the cholinergic motor neurons to restrain convulsions. Electrophysiological recordings of neuromuscular junctions show that loss of egl-3 in acr-2(gf) causes a further reduction of GABAergic inhibition. We identify two neuropeptide encoding genes, flp-1 and flp-18, that together counteract the excitation-inhibition imbalance in acr-2(gf) mutants. We further find that acr-2(gf) causes an increased expression of flp-18 in the ventral cord cholinergic motor neurons and that overexpression of flp-18 reduces the convulsion of acr-2(gf) mutants. The effects of these peptides are in part mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, NPR-1 and NPR-5. Our data suggest that the chronic overexcitation of the cholinergic motor neurons imposed by acr-2(gf) leads to an increased production of FMRFamide neuropeptides, which act to decrease the activity level of the locomotor circuit, thereby homeostatically modulating the excitation and inhibition imbalance.

  2. Imbalances in T Cell-Related Transcription Factors Among Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Vahid; Alijani, Ebrahim; Nemati, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Imbalances in effector T cell functioning have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). Differentiation of effector T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lymphocytes is regulated by transcription factors, including Th1-specific T box (T-bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA3), retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-α and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). This study aimed to investigate Th1/Th2, Th1/Treg, Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg balances at the level of these transcription factors. Methods This study took place between October 2015 and August 2016. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from a control group of 40 healthy women recruited from the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, and a patient group of 40 women with HT referred to the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital, Zahedan. Total ribonucleic acid extraction was performed and the gene expression of transcription factors was quantitated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results Expression of T-bet and GATA3 was significantly elevated, while FOXP3 expression was significantly diminished among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P = 0.03, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Expression of RORα was higher among HT patients, although this difference was not significant (P = 0.15). Expression of T-bet/FOXP3, GATA3/FOXP3 and RORα/FOXP3 ratios were increased among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P <0.02, <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusion These results indicate that HT patients have imbalances in Th1/Treg, Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg lymphocytes at the level of the transcription factors, deviating towards Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Correction of these imbalances may therefore be therapeutic. PMID:28690889

  3. Class imbalance in unsupervised change detection - A diagnostic analysis from urban remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtle, Tobias; Geiß, Christian; Lakes, Tobia; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2017-08-01

    Automatic monitoring of changes on the Earth's surface is an intrinsic capability and simultaneously a persistent methodological challenge in remote sensing, especially regarding imagery with very-high spatial resolution (VHR) and complex urban environments. In order to enable a high level of automatization, the change detection problem is solved in an unsupervised way to alleviate efforts associated with collection of properly encoded prior knowledge. In this context, this paper systematically investigates the nature and effects of class distribution and class imbalance in an unsupervised binary change detection application based on VHR imagery over urban areas. For this purpose, a diagnostic framework for sensitivity analysis of a large range of possible degrees of class imbalance is presented, which is of particular importance with respect to unsupervised approaches where the content of images and thus the occurrence and the distribution of classes are generally unknown a priori. Furthermore, this framework can serve as a general technique to evaluate model transferability in any two-class classification problem. The applied change detection approach is based on object-based difference features calculated from VHR imagery and subsequent unsupervised two-class clustering using k-means, genetic k-means and self-organizing map (SOM) clustering. The results from two test sites with different structural characteristics of the built environment demonstrated that classification performance is generally worse in imbalanced class distribution settings while best results were reached in balanced or close to balanced situations. Regarding suitable accuracy measures for evaluating model performance in imbalanced settings, this study revealed that the Kappa statistics show significant response to class distribution while the true skill statistic was widely insensitive to imbalanced classes. In general, the genetic k-means clustering algorithm achieved the most robust results

  4. 'Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis' Is Not Byword for Degenerative Sagittal Imbalance: Time to Replace a Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Jang, Jee-Soo; Kim, Sung-Min; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flat-back syndrome and is most commonly caused by unique life styles, such as a prolonged crouched posture during agricultural work and performing activities of daily living on the floor. Unfortunately, LDK has been used as a byword for degenerative sagittal imbalance, and this sometimes causes confusion. The aim of this review was to evaluate the exact territory of LDK, and to introduce another appropriate term for degenerative sagittal deformity. Unlike what its name suggests, LDK does not only include sagittal balance disorder of the lumbar spine and kyphosis, but also sagittal balance disorder of the whole spine and little lordosis of the lumbar spine. Moreover, this disease is closely related to the occupation of female farmers and an outdated Asian life style. These reasons necessitate a change in the nomenclature of this disorder to prevent misunderstanding. We suggest the name "primary degenerative sagittal imbalance" (PDSI), which encompasses degenerative sagittal misalignments of unknown origin in the whole spine in older-age patients, and is associated with back muscle wasting. LDK may be regarded as a subgroup of PDSI related to an occupation in agriculture. Conservative treatments such as exercise and physiotherapy are recommended as first-line treatments for patients with PDSI, and surgical treatment is considered only if conservative treatments failed. The measurement of spinopelvic parameters for sagittal balance is important prior to deformity corrective surgery. LDK can be considered a subtype of PDSI that is more likely to occur in female farmers, and hence the use of LDK as a global term for all degenerative sagittal imbalance disorders is better avoided. To avoid confusion, we recommend PDSI as a newer, more accurate diagnostic term instead of LDK.

  5. Neuropeptides function in a homeostatic manner to modulate excitation-inhibition imbalance in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M Stawicki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides play crucial roles in modulating neuronal networks, including changing intrinsic properties of neurons and synaptic efficacy. We previously reported a Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, acr-2(gf, that displays spontaneous convulsions as the result of a gain-of-function mutation in a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. The ACR-2 channel is expressed in the cholinergic motor neurons, and acr-2(gf causes cholinergic overexcitation accompanied by reduced GABAergic inhibition in the locomotor circuit. Here we show that neuropeptides play a homeostatic role that compensates for this excitation-inhibition imbalance in the locomotor circuit. Loss of function in genes required for neuropeptide processing or release of dense core vesicles specifically modulate the convulsion frequency of acr-2(gf. The proprotein convertase EGL-3 is required in the cholinergic motor neurons to restrain convulsions. Electrophysiological recordings of neuromuscular junctions show that loss of egl-3 in acr-2(gf causes a further reduction of GABAergic inhibition. We identify two neuropeptide encoding genes, flp-1 and flp-18, that together counteract the excitation-inhibition imbalance in acr-2(gf mutants. We further find that acr-2(gf causes an increased expression of flp-18 in the ventral cord cholinergic motor neurons and that overexpression of flp-18 reduces the convulsion of acr-2(gf mutants. The effects of these peptides are in part mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, NPR-1 and NPR-5. Our data suggest that the chronic overexcitation of the cholinergic motor neurons imposed by acr-2(gf leads to an increased production of FMRFamide neuropeptides, which act to decrease the activity level of the locomotor circuit, thereby homeostatically modulating the excitation and inhibition imbalance.

  6. Can ankle imbalance be a risk factor for tensor fascia lata muscle weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampagni, Maria L; Corazza, I; Molgora, A Paladini; Marcacci, M

    2009-08-01

    Risk factors that can determine knee and ankle injuries have been investigated and causes are probably multifactorial. A possible explanation could be related by the temporary inhibition of muscular control following an alteration of proprioceptive regulation due to the ankle imbalance pathology. The purpose of our study was to validate a new experimental set up to quantify two kinesiologic procedures (Shock Absorber Test (SAT) and Kendall and Kendall's Procedure (KKP)) to verify if a subtalus stimulus in an ankle with imbalance can induce a non-appropriate response of controlateral tensor fascia lata muscle (TFL). Fifteen male soccer players with ankle imbalance (AIG) and 14 healthy (CG) were tested after (TEST) before (NO-TEST) a manual percussion in subtalus joint (SAT). A new tailor-made device equipped with a load cell was used to quantify TFL's strength activation in standardized positions. Two trials for each subject were performed, separated by at least one 4-min resting interval. In NO-TEST conditions both AIG and CG showed a progressive adaptation of the subject to the force imposed by operator. No reduction in mean force, mean peak force, and muscle force duration (p>0.5). AIG presented significant differences (mean difference 0.92+/-0.46 s; p=0.000) in muscle force duration in TEST conditions. Our results indicated that "wrong" proprioceptive stimuli coming from the subtalus joint in AIG might induce inhibition in terms of duration of TFL muscle altering the knee stability. This kinesiological evaluation might be useful to prevent ankle and knee injuries.

  7. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players' knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p < 0.05. There were statistically significant changes in RTEG (p < 0.05 related to PT for the hamstrings in both legs, which in turn resulted in an increase in the conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q. It is interesting that the statistically significant (p < 0.05 changes were noted only for the dominant leg. No statistically significant changes in bilateral differences (BD were noted in either group. These results indicate that individualized resistance training programs could provide additional benefits to traditional strength training protocols to improve muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players.

  8. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Guelaguetza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. Methods We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. Results All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Conclusions Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma.

  9. Autonomic Imbalance as a Predictor of Metabolic Risks, Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson R; Horn, Paul S; Perry, Jennifer L; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2015-06-01

    Identifying novel early predictors of metabolic disorders is essential to improving effective primary prevention. The objectives were to examine the contribution of two measures of autonomic imbalance, resting heart rate (RHR) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the development of five metabolic risk outcomes, and on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and early mortality. This study was a secondary analysis of prospective data from Offspring Cohort participants (N = 1882) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Participants at FHS Exam 3 (1983-1987) with 1) age years 18 or older, and 2) data on RHR, HRV, and five measures of metabolic risk (blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and body mass index [BMI]) at three follow-up visits over 12 years. We conducted a backward elimination variable selection procedure on a logistic regression model, using baseline RHR, HRV, age, sex, and smoking status to predict the odds of developing a specific metabolic risk. Measures included hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high BMI over 12 years; incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality over 20 years. RHR and HRV, along with sex, age, and smoking were significant predictors of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and a diagnosis of diabetes within 12 years. RHR and HRV also predicted the development of cardiovascular disease and early mortality for most of the sample. In this community sample two measures of autonomic imbalance predicted multiple poor metabolic outcomes and mortality, making autonomic imbalance a potentially worthy target for intervention studies to reduce risks for cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and early death.

  10. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  11. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate on the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...

  12. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel direct bonded copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...

  13. Specific chromosomal imbalances in human papillomavirus-transfected cells during progression toward immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas-Toldo, Sabina; Dürst, Matthias; Lichter, Peter

    1997-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) known to be closely associated with cervical cancer, such as HPV16 and HPV18, have the potential to immortalize human epithelial cells in culture. Four lines of HPV-transfected keratinocytes were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization at different time points after transfection. A number of chromosomal imbalances was found to be highly characteristic for the cultures progressing toward immortality. Whereas several of these were new and previously not found as recurrent aberrations in cervical tumors, some were identical to chromosomal changes observed during cervical carcinogenesis. The data put new emphasis on the studied cell system as a relevant model for HPV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:9108068

  14. Current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-09-01

    The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.

  15. Current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Physical Technical Institute, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru; Mahfouzi, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-01

    The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.

  16. Estimations of climate sensitivity based on top-of-atmosphere radiation imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Large climate feedback uncertainties limit the accuracy in predicting the response of the Earth's climate to the increase of CO2 concentration within the atmosphere. This study explores a potential to reduce uncertainties in climate sensitivity estimations using energy balance analysis, especially top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation imbalance. The time-scales studied generally cover from decade to century, that is, middle-range climate sensitivity is considered, which is directly related to the climate issue caused by atmospheric CO2 change. The significant difference between current analysis and previous energy balance models is that the current study targets at the boundary condition problem instead of solving the initial condition problem. Additionally, climate system memory and deep ocean heat transport are considered. The climate feedbacks are obtained based on the constraints of the TOA radiation imbalance and surface temperature measurements of the present climate. In this study, the TOA imbalance value of 0.85 W/m2 is used. Note that this imbalance value has large uncertainties. Based on this value, a positive climate feedback with a feedback coefficient ranging from −1.3 to −1.0 W/m2/K is found. The range of feedback coefficient is determined by climate system memory. The longer the memory, the stronger the positive feedback. The estimated time constant of the climate is large (70~120 years mainly owing to the deep ocean heat transport, implying that the system may be not in an equilibrium state under the external forcing during the industrial era. For the doubled-CO2 climate (or 3.7 W/m2 forcing, the estimated global warming would be 3.1 K if the current estimate of 0.85 W/m2 TOA net radiative heating could be confirmed. With accurate long-term measurements of TOA radiation, the analysis method suggested by this study provides a great potential in the

  17. Industrial and Employment Structural Imbalance in Northeast China and Agricultural Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Suping; WANG Yalin; ZHU Yong

    2009-01-01

    Balanced development between industrial and employment structures are important indicators of regional economic and social health. By introducing indicators such as industrial structure deviation, comparative labor productivity, international comparison of relative labor productivity as well as employment elasticity, the paper further probed into intricate causes for the imbalance between industrial and employment structures in this specific region from a new angle which based on the evolution process analyses of both industrial and employment structures in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang in Northeast China. The paper also suggested policy measures to strengthen agricultural developments and to facilitate the balance between industrial and employment structures.

  18. Homeostasis balance, homeostasis imbalance or distinct motivational processes? Comments on Marks (2015) 'Homeostatic Theory of Obesity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Luc G; Guertin, Camille; Pope, J Paige; Rocchi, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    In his article, 'Homeostatic theory of obesity', Marks suggested that imbalances in homeostatic processes could explain weight gain and obesity. He proposes that over-consumption of high-caloric, low-nutrient and low satiating foods, combined with a stressful environment, is the origin of weight gain. Once weight gain occurs, individuals may develop body dissatisfaction and negative affect, leading to continued over-consumption, which sets in motion a system of feedback loops that leads to a Circle of Discontent and further weight gain. In this article, we attempt to clarify certain problematic aspects of Marks framework and identify specific directions that researchers should pursue to address these shortcomings.

  19. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front......, it is shown that, by applying the widely linear complex analysis, one can derive a complex-valued adaptive equalizer structure which is able to compensate for linear IQ-mixing effects at the receiver front-end. By extensive numerical simulations, the performance versus complexity of the proposed equalizer...

  20. Evidence of redox imbalance in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency is not completely understood. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathology, and low reduced glutathione levels have been demonstrated in mice, but no studies have been reported in humans. We report on a patient with SSADH deficiency in whom we found low levels of blood reduced glutathione (GSH, and elevations of dicarboxylic acids in urine, suggestive of possible redox imbalance and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, targeting the oxidative stress axis may be a potential therapeutic approach if our findings are confirmed in other patients.

  1. Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, M; Hiwatashi, N; Liu, Z.; Toyota, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α and TNF-β are soluble ligands binding to TNF receptors with similar activities; soluble TNF receptors neutralise TNF activity by acting as inhibitors. Little is known about the cytokine/soluble receptor role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 
Aims—To test the hypothesis that an imbalance in secretion between TNF and TNF inhibitors plays a role in gut inflammation in patients with IBD. 
Methods—The secretion of TNF-α, TNF-β, and...

  2. Communication: Dissolution DNP reveals a long-lived deuterium spin state imbalance in methyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhajharia, Aditya; Weber, Emmanuelle M. M.; Kempf, James G.; Abergel, Daniel; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Kurzbach, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We report the generation and observation of long-lived spin states in deuterated methyl groups by dissolution DNP. These states are based on population imbalances between manifolds of spin states corresponding to irreducible representations of the C3v point group and feature strongly dampened quadrupolar relaxation. Their lifetime depends on the activation energies of methyl group rotation. With dissolution DNP, we can reduce the deuterium relaxation rate by a factor up to 20, thereby extending the experimentally available time window. The intrinsic limitation of NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar spins by short relaxation times can thus be alleviated.

  3. Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...... in other cases, it exhibits a plateau. Remarkably, this plateau extends from the deeply degenerate to the high temperature classical regime of the light species. Many of these scaling laws are analogous to what is found in very different systems, including dirty metals, liquid metals, and high temperature...

  4. Development of muscular imbalance in the shoulder girdle in volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    VRBOVÁ, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor?s thesis deals with the development of muscular imbalance in the shoulder girdle in volleyball players. The volleyball player?s shoulder is the most exposed and vulnerable joint. In addition, the way the sport has developed, the pressure on this joint has grown. Shoulder pain limits the player?s most important move: the strength and the power of the smash and the smash serve. This thesis consists of two parts: theoretical and a practical. The theoretical part deals with the anat...

  5. Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...... plasmas. The Fermi mixtures can in this sense span a whole range of seemingly diverse and separate physical systems. Our results are derived in the weakly interacting limit, making them quantitatively reliable. The different regimes can be detected with radio-frequency spectroscopy....

  6. Phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and expression in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, F M; Austic, R E

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the activity of hepatic Phe hydroxylase (PAH) and plasma amino acid concentrations under conditions of Phe imbalance or toxicity in chicks fed on experimental diets from 7 to 14 or 16 d of age. In experiment 1, Phe imbalance was created by adding 10% of a mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to a basal diet containing 0.46% Phe. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by the imbalance. Correcting the imbalance by adding 1.12% Phe to the diet prevented the growth impairment and increased the activity of PAH. In experiment 2, growth was reduced by the addition of excess (2%) Phe to the basal diet. Correcting the excess by adding the IAA - Phe to the diet prevented the growth reduction. The activity of PAH was not significantly affected by 2% Phe, but it increased in chicks fed the corrected diet. The levels of PAH mRNA were not affected by the dietary treatments. A factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 dietary levels of Phe (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) with or without the IAA - Phe was used in experiment 3. The effects on growth were similar to those of the same treatments in experiments 1 and 2. The addition of Phe significantly increased hepatic PAH activity, but there was no detectable main effect of the IAA - Phe and no interaction. Plasma Phe concentration was increased by dietary Phe and decreased by the IAA - Phe mixture. We conclude that hepatic PAH activity in chicks variably increases in response to Phe or a 10% dietary supplement of indispensable amino acids including Phe but does not increase in response to IAA - Phe when the amino acids are added to a diet that is marginally adequate in Phe. The increased activity does not involve changes in PAH mRNA. The effects of IAA - Phe on plasma Phe concentrations appear to be independent of hepatic PAH activity as measured in vitro.

  7. “Lock-in Effect” to Be Blamed for Regional Development Imbalances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞翔; 黎开颜; 刘佳

    2008-01-01

    Reform and opening up has made China’s economy develop faster than ever. But it has not succeeded in changing the regional disparity in China. In this article, we establish a model factor input called the "lock-in effect" and analyze the channel of the lock-in effect and how it influences the regional economy. On the analyses of thirty provinces’ panel data in China from 1990 to 2005, we find that the lock-in effect of factor inputs further exacerbates the developmental imbalance among regions.

  8. Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barbosa de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a two-country stock-flow consistent model by com- bining a debt-led economy that emits the international reserve currency with an export-led economy. The model has two major implications. First, an initial trade deficit in the debt-led country leads to a perma- nent imbalance in the current account, even when the exchange rate is at parity. Second, different re-balancing mechanisms, namely a currency depreciation or the reduction of the propensity to import in the debt-led c...

  9. Assessment and implication of prognostic imbalance in randomized controlled trials with a binary outcome--a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chance imbalance in baseline prognosis of a randomized controlled trial can lead to over or underestimation of treatment effects, particularly in trials with small sample sizes. Our study aimed to (1 evaluate the probability of imbalance in a binary prognostic factor (PF between two treatment arms, (2 investigate the impact of prognostic imbalance on the estimation of a treatment effect, and (3 examine the effect of sample size (n in relation to the first two objectives. METHODS: We simulated data from parallel-group trials evaluating a binary outcome by varying the risk of the outcome, effect of the treatment, power and prevalence of the PF, and n. Logistic regression models with and without adjustment for the PF were compared in terms of bias, standard error, coverage of confidence interval and statistical power. RESULTS: For a PF with a prevalence of 0.5, the probability of a difference in the frequency of the PF≥5% reaches 0.42 with 125/arm. Ignoring a strong PF (relative risk = 5 leads to underestimating the strength of a moderate treatment effect, and the underestimate is independent of n when n is >50/arm. Adjusting for such PF increases statistical power. If the PF is weak (RR = 2, adjustment makes little difference in statistical inference. Conditional on a 5% imbalance of a powerful PF, adjustment reduces the likelihood of large bias. If an absolute measure of imbalance ≥5% is deemed important, including 1000 patients/arm provides sufficient protection against such an imbalance. Two thousand patients/arm may provide an adequate control against large random deviations in treatment effect estimation in the presence of a powerful PF. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of prognostic imbalance in small trials can be substantial. Covariate adjustment improves estimation accuracy and statistical power, and hence should be performed when strong PFs are observed.

  10. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. [Methods] Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop. To examine the moment difference due to an interaction of ATCN3 polymorphism and muscle imbalance, all participants were divided into 4 groups (R+MB, R+MIB, X+MB, and X+MIB). [Results] There was no significant difference of hip, knee, and ankle joint moment in R allele and X allele during V-cut jumping and stop based on ACTN3 gene polymorphism. Otherwise, muscle imbalance of knee moment in X-axis and ground reaction force of knee in Z-axis showed a higher significance in muscle imbalance during V-cut jumping and stop compared to muscle balance (p<0.05). In addition, joint analysis showed that muscle imbalance in X allele group had significantly higher knee moment of V-cut ground reaction force in X-axis and higher ankle moment of jumping ground reaction force in X and Z-axis compared to muscle balance with R and/or X group (p <0.05). [Conclusion] This study confirmed that muscle imbalance in lower extremity of combat athletes might induce higher risk factors of sports injury incidence than genetic factor and training might reduce the ratio of sports injury risk incidence. PMID:27508148

  11. Obesity does not Lead to Imbalance Between Myocardial Phospholamban Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paccielli Freire

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA and leads to phospholamban (PLB phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. Objective: To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14, fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13, fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1, PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16 were assessed by Western blot. Results: Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Conclusion: Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system.

  12. Imbalance in the sensitivity to different types of rewards in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sescousse, Guillaume; Barbalat, Guillaume; Domenech, Philippe; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by a persistent and compulsive desire to engage in gambling activities. This maladaptive behaviour has been suggested to result from a decreased sensitivity to experienced rewards, regardless of reward type. Alternatively, pathological gambling might reflect an imbalance in the sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives. To directly test these two hypotheses, we examined how the brain reward circuit of pathological gamblers responds to different types of rewards. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain responses of 18 pathological gamblers and 20 healthy control subjects while they engaged in a simple incentive task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards. During reward anticipation, the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers showed a differential response to monetary versus erotic cues, essentially driven by a blunted reactivity to cues predicting erotic stimuli. This differential response correlated with the severity of gambling symptoms and was paralleled by a reduced behavioural motivation for erotic rewards. During reward outcome, a posterior orbitofrontal cortex region, responding to erotic rewards in both groups, was further recruited by monetary gains in pathological gamblers but not in control subjects. Moreover, while ventral striatal activity correlated with subjective ratings assigned to monetary and erotic rewards in control subjects, it only correlated with erotic ratings in gamblers. Our results point to a differential sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary rewards in pathological gambling, both at the motivational and hedonic levels. Such an imbalance might create a bias towards monetary rewards, potentially promoting addictive gambling behaviour.

  13. Asymmetries and imbalances of global development: theoretical, fundamental and ideological principles of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kravchuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There was touched upon the problem of correlation of the notions of ‘immanent’ and ‘transcendental’ in the global development. There have been singled out ideological and theoretical dominants and fundamental backgrounds which define logic and outlooks of intersystem constructive changes on the new turn of human civilization development. On this background there was substantiated the objective necessity of producing of conceptual categorical apparatus adequate to these changes (first of all we are speaking about asymmetries and imbalances as well as updating of logical and substantial theories and conceptions, their organization and systematization into the concept of a particular paradigm. There has been revealed the philosophic content and methodological status of asymmetry as a “multi-dimension system of reflection of profound world’s parts” and momentum of global development. There was suggested a definitional range which encompasses the majority of interpretations of this phenomenon in theory and practice. In the framework of “disciplinary matrix” (a specific set of a priori convictions and fundamental metaphysical guidelines there were specified theoretical, methodological and axiological directives of determinism paradigm and synergetic paradigm that served as an initial methodological basis of conceptualization of asymmetries and imbalances of the global development.

  14. Selecting the Optimal Combination Model of FSSVM for the Imbalance Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuandong Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced data learning is one of the most active and important fields in machine learning research. The existing class imbalance learning methods can make Support Vector Machines (SVMs less sensitive to class imbalance; they still suffer from the disturbance of outliers and noise present in the datasets. A kind of Fuzzy Smooth Support Vector Machines (FSSVMs are proposed based on the Smooth Support Vector Machine (SSVM of O. L. Mangasarian. SSVM can be computed by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS algorithm or the Newton-Armijo algorithm easily. Two kinds of fuzzy memberships and three smooth functions can be chosen in the algorithms. The fuzzy memberships consider the contribution rate of each sample to the optimal separating hyperplane. The polynomial smooth functions can make the optimization problem more accurate at the inflection point. Those changes play the active effects on trials. The results of the experiments show that the FSSVMs can gain the better accuracy and the shorter time than the SSVMs and some of the other methods.

  15. Nutritional Imbalance – Dominant Consumption Behaviour of Young People from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Vicenţiu Popescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The alert lifestyle, the great availability and accessibility of foodstuff and the powerful pressure exercised by the food industry by means of mass-media, in order to encourage overconsumption, have disturbed all the elements of food consumers’ behaviour, causing them to miss the nutritional landmarks obtained within family education. Adopting a diet based on quantity instead of quality, due to a bad nutritional education, the modern consumers are both overfed and underfed, two features rarely found in the same body throughout the history. In this context, in order to prevent the nutrition and metabolic disorders, there is the need, more than ever before, of awareness for connecting nutrition and health („you are what you eat” and the necessity to adopt especially by the new generation of consumers, the basic principles of a balanced diet. With the main aim to highlight the characteristics of food consumption behaviour for the new generation of Romanian consumers, the authors carried out an exploratory research, based on the technique of the food diary through estimation. As for highlighting the potential nutritional imbalances, the authors analysed the medium allowance of energy and macronutrients of the respondents’ diet. Also, it would be a fulfilment that the research results to lead to the subsequent elaboration of a guide for redirecting the food behaviour of young consumers, in order to avoid the nutritional imbalances and to prevent serious illnesses.

  16. NPY antagonism reduces adiposity and attenuates age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjoon; Fujishita, Chika; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Chiba, Takuya; Mori, Ryoichi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-12-01

    An orexigenic hormone, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plays a role not only in the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, but also in the peripheral regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by NPY to regulate lipid metabolism are poorly understood. Here we report that NPY deficiency reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism in mice. Gene expression involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis was found to decrease, whereas proteins involved in lipolysis increased in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of NPY-knockout mice. These changes were associated with an activated SIRT1- and PPARγ-mediated pathway. Moreover, the age-related decrease of de novo lipogenesis in gWAT and thermogenesis in inguinal WAT was inhibited by NPY deficiency. Further analysis using 3T3-L1 cells showed that NPY inhibited lipolysis through the Y1 receptor and enhanced lipogenesis following a reduction in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and SIRT1 protein expression. Therefore, NPY appears to act as a key regulator of adipose tissue metabolism via the CREB-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, NPY deficiency reduces adiposity and ameliorates the age-related imbalance of adipose tissue metabolism, suggesting that antagonism of NPY may be a promising target for drug development to prevent age-related metabolic diseases.

  17. Imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation during early stages of mammary gland carcinogenesis in ACI rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Koturbash, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada); Bronson, Roderick T. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kovalchuk, Olga, E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K3M4 (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Estrogen and ionizing radiation are well-documented human breast carcinogens, yet the exact mechanisms of their deleterious effects on mammary gland remain to be discerned. Here we analyze the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen and X-ray radiation and the combined action of these carcinogenic agents. For the first time, we show that combined exposure to estrogen and radiation has a synergistic effect on cell proliferation in the mammary glands of ACI rats, as evidenced by a substantially greater magnitude of cell proliferation, especially after 12 and 18 weeks of treatment, when compared to mammary glands of rats exposed to estrogen or radiation alone. We also demonstrate that an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, rather than enhanced cell proliferation or apoptosis suppression alone, may be a driving force for carcinogenesis. Our studies further suggest that compromised functional activity of p53 may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance. In sum, the results of our study indicate that evaluation of the extent of cell proliferation and apoptosis before the onset of preneoplastic lesions may be a potential biomarker of breast cancer risk after exposure to breast carcinogens.

  18. Growth rate and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B

    2017-03-01

    The effects of resource stoichiometry and growth rate on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how growth rate and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution rates and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum growth rate, P availability and dilution rate had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration rate, and growth efficiency. In contrast, at faster growth rates, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both growth rate and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and growth rates are high, but at low growth rates resource imbalance is relatively more important than growth rate in controlling bacterial biomass composition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. The Molecular and Cellular Effect of Homocysteine Metabolism Imbalance on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Škovierová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine (Hcy is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans. The aberrant Hcy metabolism could lead to the redox imbalance and oxidative stress resulting in elevated protein, nucleic acid and carbohydrate oxidation and lipoperoxidation, products known to be involved in cytotoxicity. Additionally, we examine the role of Hcy in thiolation of proteins, which results in their molecular and functional modifications. We also highlight the relationship between the imbalance in Hcy metabolism and pathogenesis of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease, bone tissue damages, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, and congenital defects.

  20. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2012-09-30

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  1. Counteracting Rotor Imbalance in a Bearingless Motor System with Feedforward Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter Eugene; Jansen, Ralph H.; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    In standard motor applications, traditional mechanical bearings represent the most economical approach to rotor suspension. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without bearing contact is either required or highly beneficial. Such applications include very high speed, extreme environment, or limited maintenance access applications. This paper extends upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor is achieved using two motors with opposing conical air-gaps. By leaving the motors' pole-pairs unconnected, different d-axis flux in each pole-pair is created, generating a flux imbalance which creates lateral force. Note this is approach is different than that used in previous bearingless motors, which use separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper will examine the use of feedforward control to counteract synchronous whirl caused by rotor imbalance. Experimental results will be presented showing the performance of a prototype bearingless system, which was sized for a high speed flywheel energy storage application, with and without feedforward control.

  2. Variations of cervical lordosis and head alignment after pedicle subtraction osteotomy surgery for sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, R; Langella, F; Bassani, R; Sansone, V; Lamartina, C; Berjano, P

    2014-10-01

    The variations of the cervical lordosis after correction of sagittal imbalance have been poorly studied. The aim of our study is to verify whether the cervical lordosis changes after surgery for sagittal imbalance. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvic and lower-limb sagittal parameters were recorded. The cranial alignment was measured by the newly described Cranial Slope. The global cervical kyphosis (preop -43°, postop -31.5°) and the upper (preop -24.1°, postop -20.2°) and lower cervical kyphosis (preop -18.1°, postop -9.2°) were significantly reduced after surgical realignment of the trunk. A positive linear correlation was observed between the changes in T1 slope and the lower cervical lordosis, and between T1 slope and the global cervical alignment. The cervical lordosis is reduced by surgical correction of malalignment of the trunk, suggesting an adaptive role to maintain the head's neutral position.

  3. Ankyrin-G isoform imbalance and interneuronopathy link epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A Y; Wang, X; Xu, M; Maheshwari, A; Curry, D; Lam, S; Adesina, A M; Noebels, J L; Sun, Q-Q; Cooper, E C

    2016-12-13

    ANK3, encoding the adaptor protein Ankyrin-G (AnkG), has been implicated in bipolar disorder by genome-wide association studies. ANK3 has multiple alternative first exons, and a bipolar disorder-associated ANK3 variant has been shown to reduce the expression of exon 1b. Here we identify mechanisms through which reduced ANK3 exon 1b isoform expression disrupts neuronal excitation-inhibition balance. We find that parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and principal cells differentially express ANK3 first exon subtypes. PV interneurons express only isoforms containing exon 1b, whereas excitatory principal cells express exon 1e alone or both 1e and 1b. In transgenic mice deficient for exon 1b, PV interneurons lack voltage-gated sodium channels at their axonal initial segments and have increased firing thresholds and diminished action potential dynamic range. These mice exhibit an Ank3 gene dosage-dependent phenotype including behavior changes modeling bipolar disorder, epilepsy and sudden death. Thus ANK3's important association with human bipolar susceptibility may arise from imbalance between AnkG function in interneurons and principal cells and resultant excessive circuit sensitivity and output. AnkG isoform imbalance is a novel molecular endophenotype and potential therapeutic target.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.233.

  4. Cylinder Imbalance Detection of Six Cylinder DI Diesel Engine Using Pressure Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.Gawande

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper a simplified methodology is presented to detect cylinder imbalance in operating sixcylinder DI diesel engine. The detailed torsional vibration analysis helps to find vibratory frequencies, mode shapes, and vibratory stresses to provide constraints on critical speed in operating engine. The crank shaft is considered to be a rigid body so that the variation of the angular speed could be directly correlated to the cylinder pressure. Actuallythe variation of crank shaft speed has a complex function being influence by torsional stiffness of crank shaft, the mass moment of inertia of reciprocating and rotating masses and the average speed and load on the engine. The information carried by the harmonic order permits to established correlation between measurement and average gaspressure of the engine and to detect torque imbalance and identify faulty cylinder. In this work the detail pressure variation study is carried out on operating six cylinder engine of type SL90 Engine-SL8800TA model manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Pune.

  5. Caveolin-1 Promotes the Imbalance of Th17/Treg in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nina; Wei, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingluan; Cheng, Zhaozhong; Sun, Weihong

    2016-12-01

    The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been regarded as a potential critical regulatory protein in pathological mechanisms of chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether the loss of Cav-1 is involved in the homeostasis of Th17/Treg cells in COPD. We examined the expressions of plasma Cav-1 and circulating Th17, Treg cells, and the related cytokines in patients with COPD. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses showed a significant reduction of plasma Cav-1 levels in patients with stable COPD (SCOPD) and acutely exacerbated COPD (AECOPD) compared to smokers without COPD. This loss was associated with an increase in frequency of Treg and decreased in frequency of Th17 cells. To further identify the role of Cav-1, we studied the effects of Cav-1 overexpression or downregulation on frequencies of Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects. Interestingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulation of Cav-1 was accompanied by an augmentation of Treg and reduction of Th17 expression. Together, our study demonstrated that the loss of Cav-1 contributed to the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in patients with COPD.

  6. Homeostatic imbalance of regulatory and effector T cells due to IL-2 deprivation amplifies murine lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrich, Jens Y; Morbach, Henner; Undeutsch, Reinmar; Enghard, Philipp; Rosenberger, Stefan; Weigert, Olivia; Kloke, Lutz; Heimann, Juliane; Gaber, Timo; Brandenburg, Susan; Scheffold, Alexander; Huehn, Jochen; Radbruch, Andreas; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2010-01-05

    The origins and consequences of a regulatory T cell (Treg) disorder in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are poorly understood. In the (NZBxNZW) F(1) mouse model of lupus, we found that CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg failed to maintain a competitive pool size in the peripheral lymphoid organs resulting in a progressive homeostatic imbalance of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg and CD4(+)Foxp3(-) conventional T cells (Tcon). In addition, Treg acquired phenotypic changes that are reminiscent of IL-2 deficiency concomitantly to a progressive decline in IL-2-producing Tcon and an increase in activated, IFN-gamma-producing effector Tcon. Nonetheless, Treg from lupus-prone mice were functionally intact and capable to influence the course of disease. Systemic reduction of IL-2 levels early in disease promoted Tcon hyperactivity, induced the imbalance of Treg and effector Tcon, and strongly accelerated disease progression. In contrast, administration of IL-2 partially restored the balance of Treg and effector Tcon by promoting the homeostatic proliferation of endogenous Treg and impeded the progression of established disease. Thus, an acquired and self-amplifying disruption of the Treg-IL-2 axis contributed essentially to Tcon hyperactivity and the development of murine lupus. The reversibility of this homeostatic Treg disorder provides promising approaches for the treatment of SLE.

  7. Metabolomic anatomy of an animal model revealing homeostatic imbalances in dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooga, Takushi; Sato, Hajime; Nagashima, Atsushi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Ohashi, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging technology that reveals homeostatic imbalances in biological systems. Global determination of metabolite concentrations in body fluid and tissues provides novel anatomical aspects of pathological conditions that cannot be obtained from target-specific measurements. Here, we characterised metabolic imbalance in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits as a model of hypercholesterolaemia. Using a mass spectrometry-based system, we measured a total of 335 metabolites in plasma and tissues (liver, aorta, cardiac muscle, and brain) from WHHL and healthy control rabbits. From the comparison between two metabolomic profiles, pathophysiological features including glutathione and phosphatidylcholine metabolism indicated the occurrence of oxidative stress in several tissues. Especially for the liver, imbalanced purine catabolism shed light on the transcriptional activation of xanthine oxidase, which is thought to act in absorbing or possibly triggering oxidative stress. We also applied this system to assess the therapeutic effects of simvastatin administration. After the treatment, a portion of the metabolomic features in pathological conditions showed alterations suggesting restoration of metabolism to the healthy condition. These changes were considered to be due to the pleiotropic action of statin, including antioxidant effects, rather than its main inhibitory action on cholesterol biosynthesis.

  8. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  9. A Dynamic Ensemble Framework for Mining Textual Streams with Class Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Textual stream classification has become a realistic and challenging issue since large-scale, high-dimensional, and non-stationary streams with class imbalance have been widely used in various real-life applications. According to the characters of textual streams, it is technically difficult to deal with the classification of textual stream, especially in imbalanced environment. In this paper, we propose a new ensemble framework, clustering forest, for learning from the textual imbalanced stream with concept drift (CFIM. The CFIM is based on ensemble learning by integrating a set of clustering trees (CTs. An adaptive selection method, which flexibly chooses the useful CTs by the property of the stream, is presented in CFIM. In particular, to deal with the problem of class imbalance, we collect and reuse both rare-class instances and misclassified instances from the historical chunks. Compared to most existing approaches, it is worth pointing out that our approach assumes that both majority class and rareclass may suffer from concept drift. Thus the distribution of resampled instances is similar to the current concept. The effectiveness of CFIM is examined in five real-world textual streams under an imbalanced nonstationary environment. Experimental results demonstrate that CFIM achieves better performance than four state-of-the-art ensemble models.

  10. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  11. Obesity does not Lead to Imbalance Between Myocardial Phospholamban Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paula Paccielli, E-mail: freirepp@hotmail.com; Alves, Carlos Augusto Barnabe; Deus, Adriana Fernandes de [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Leopoldo, Ana Paula Lima; Leopoldo, André Soares [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel de; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14), fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13), fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1), PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16) were assessed by Western blot. Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system.

  12. Superoxide-hydrogen peroxide imbalance interferes with colorectal cancer cells viability, proliferation and oxaliplatin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolin, Verônica Farina; Cadoná, Francine Carla; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Berto, Maiquidieli Dal; Barbisan, Fernanda; Dornelles, Eduardo Bortoluzzi; Glanzner, Werner Giehl; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard; Bica, Claudia Giugliano; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2016-04-01

    The role of superoxide dismutase manganese dependent enzyme (SOD2) in colorectal cancer is presently insufficiently understood. Some studies suggest that high SOD2 levels found in cancer tissues are associated with cancer progression. However, thus far, the role of colorectal cancer superoxide-hydrogen peroxide imbalance has not yet been studied. Thus, in order to address this gap in extant literature, we performed an in vitro analysis using HT-29 colorectal cell line exposed to paraquat, which generates high superoxide levels, and porphyrin, a SOD2 mimic molecule. The effect of these drugs on colorectal cancer cell response to oxaliplatin was evaluated. At 0.1 μM concentration, both drugs exhibited cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect on colorectal cancer cells. However, this effect was more pronounced in cells exposed to paraquat. Paraquat also augmented the oxaliplatin cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects by increasing the number of apoptosis events, thus causing the cell cycle arrest in the S and M/G2 phases. The treatments were also able to differentially modulate genes related to apoptosis, cell proliferation and antioxidant enzyme system. However, the effects were highly variable and the results obtained were inconclusive. Nonetheless, our findings support the hypothesis that imbalance caused by increased hydrogen peroxide levels could be beneficial to cancer cell biology. Therefore, the use of therapeutic strategies to decrease hydrogen peroxide levels mainly during oxaliplatin chemotherapy could be clinically important to the outcomes of colorectal cancer treatment.

  13. THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION OF CHARGE IMBALANCE AT A SUPERCONDUCTOR-NORMAL METAL INTERFACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Harlingen, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The thermoelectric voltage produced across a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) sandwich by an applied heat current has been measured in Pb-Cu-PbBi and In-Al-Sn as a function of temperature. The observed divergence of the thermoelectric voltage near T{sub c} is attributed to a charge imbalance region decaying into the superconductor from the NS interface over the quasiparticle diffusion length {lambda}{sub Q*}. The charge imbalance is generated by thermoelectrically driven quasiparticle currents in the superconductor. It contributes a voltage per unit heat power given by V{sub s}/P = {lambda}{sub Q*}S/{kappa}A, where A is the sample cross-sectional area, and S and {kappa} are the thermopower and the thermal conductivity of quasiparticles in the superconductor. For Pb and In, we find the measured thermopower in the superconducting state to be slowly-varying with temperature near T{sub c} and consistent in magnitude with normal state values. This result is in agreement with theoretical predictions of thermoelectric effects in superconductors but contrary to previous experimental results obtained by other methods.

  14. Regions of micro-calcifications clusters detection based on new features from imbalance data in mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keju; Dong, Min; Yang, Zhen; Guo, Yanan; Ma, Yide

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Micro-calcification cluster on X-ray mammogram is one of the most important abnormalities, and it is effective for early cancer detection. Surrounding Region Dependence Method (SRDM), a statistical texture analysis method is applied for detecting Regions of Interest (ROIs) containing microcalcifications. Inspired by the SRDM, we present a method that extract gray and other features which are effective to predict the positive and negative regions of micro-calcifications clusters in mammogram. By constructing a set of artificial images only containing micro-calcifications, we locate the suspicious pixels of calcifications of a SRDM matrix in original image map. Features are extracted based on these pixels for imbalance date and then the repeated random subsampling method and Random Forest (RF) classifier are used for classification. True Positive (TP) rate and False Positive (FP) can reflect how the result will be. The TP rate is 90% and FP rate is 88.8% when the threshold q is 10. We draw the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) value reaches 0.9224. The experiment indicates that our method is effective. A novel regions of micro-calcifications clusters detection method is developed, which is based on new features for imbalance data in mammography, and it can be considered to help improving the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis breast cancer.

  15. Force-velocity profile: imbalance determination and effect on lower limb ballistic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samozino, P; Edouard, P; Sangnier, S; Brughelli, M; Gimenez, P; Morin, J-B

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to lend experimental support to the theoretical influence of force-velocity (F-v) mechanical profile on jumping performance independently from the effect of maximal power output (P max ). 48 high-level athletes (soccer players, sprinters, rugby players) performed maximal squat jumps with additional loads from 0 to 100% of body mass. During each jump, mean force, velocity and power output were obtained using a simple computation method based on flight time, and then used to determine individual linear F-v relationships and P max values. Actual and optimal F-v profiles were computed for each subject to quantify mechanical F-v imbalance. A multiple regression analysis showed, with a high-adjustment quality (r²=0.931, Pperformance (Pballistic performance depends, in addition to P max , on the F-v profile of lower limbs. This adds support to the actual existence of an individual optimal F-v profile that maximizes jumping performance, a F-v imbalance being associated to a lower performance. These results have potential strong applications in the field of strength and conditioning.

  16. Gene dosage imbalance during DNA replication controls bacterial cell-fate decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoshin, Oleg

    Genes encoding proteins in a common regulatory network are frequently located close to one another on the chromosome to facilitate co-regulation or couple gene expression to growth rate. Contrasting with these observations, here we demonstrate a functional role for the arrangement of Bacillus subtilis sporulation network genes on opposite sides of the chromosome. We show that the arrangement of two sporulation network genes, one located close to the origin, the other close to the terminus leads to a transient gene dosage imbalance during chromosome replication. This imbalance is detected by the sporulation network to produce cell-cycle coordinated pulses of the sporulation master regulator Spo0A~P. This pulsed response allows cells to decide between sporulation and continued vegetative growth during each cell-cycle spent in starvation. Furthermore, changes in DNA replication and cell-cycle parameters with decreased growth rate in starvation conditions enable cells to indirectly detect starvation without the need for evaluating specific metabolites. The simplicity of the uncovered coordination mechanism and starvation sensing suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grants MCB-1244135, EAGER-1450867, MCB-1244423, NIH NIGMS Grant R01 GM088428 and HHMI International Student Fellowship.

  17. Does a water-training macrocycle really create imbalances in swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Garrido, Nuno; Silva, António J

    2015-01-01

    The continuous execution of swimming techniques may cause muscle imbalances in shoulder rotators leading to injury. However, there is a lack of published research studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a competitive swim period on the shoulder rotator-cuff balance in young swimmers. A randomized controlled pretest-posttest design was used, with two measurements performed during the first macrocycle of the swimming season (baseline and 16 weeks). Twenty-seven young male swimmers (experimental group) and 22 male students who were not involved in swim training (control group) with the same characteristics were evaluated. Peak torque of shoulder internal and external rotators was assessed. Concentric action at 1.04 rad s(-1) (3 repetitions) and 3.14 rad s(-1) (20 repetitions) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3). External/internal rotators strength ratios were also obtained. For both protocols, there were significant training effects on internal rotator strength and external/internal rotator ratios (p ≤ .05). This trend was the same for both shoulders. Within-group analysis showed significant changes from baseline to 16 weeks for internal rotators strength and unilateral ratios of the experimental group. Swimmers' internal rotator strength levels increased significantly. In contrast, a significant decrease of the unilateral ratios was observed. Findings suggest that a competitive swim macrocycle leads to an increase in muscular imbalances in the shoulder rotators of young competitive swimmers. Swimming coaches should consider implementing a compensatory strength-training program.

  18. Hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength and size ratios of male professional soccer players with muscle imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; de Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Camarda, Sérgio Ricardo de Abreu; Ribeiro, Leandro; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength (Hcon :Qcon ) and cross-sectional area ratios (Hcsa :Qcsa ) in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance. Nine male professional soccer players (25·3 ± 4·1 years) performed five maximal concentric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) at 60 s(-1) to assess Hcon :Qcon . The test was performed using the dominant (preferred kicking), and non-dominant limb with a 5-min recovery period was allowed between them. Only players with Hcon :Qcon muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of KE and KF was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The correlations between Hcon :Qcon and Hcsa :Qcsa in the dominant leg (r = -0·33), non-dominant leg (r = 0·19) and in the both legs combined (r = 0·28) were not statistically significant (P>0·05). Thus, the Hcon :Qcon seems not to be determined by Hcsa :Qcsa in professional soccer players with Hcon :Qcon imbalance.

  19. Enhanced apoptosis during early neuronal differentiation in mouse ES cells with autosomal imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiteru Kai; Teruhiko Wakayama; Mitsuo Oshimura; Chi Chiu Wang; Satoshi Kishigami; Yasuhiro Kazuki; Satoshi Abe; Masato Takiguchi; Yasuaki Shirayoshi; Toshiaki Inoue; Hisao Ito

    2009-01-01

    Although particular chromosomal syndromes are phenotypically and clinically distinct, the majority of individuals with autosomai imbalance, such as aneuploidy, manifest mental retardation. A common abnormal phenotype of Down syndrome (DS), the most prevalent autosomal aneuploidy, shows a reduction in both the number and the density of neurons in the brain. As a DS model, we have recently created chimeric mice from ES cells containing a single human chromosome 21. The mice mimicked the characteristic phenotypic features of DS, and ES cells showed a higher incidence of apoptosis during early neuronal differentiation in vitro. In this study, we examined the induction of anomalous early neural development by aneuploidy in mouse ES cells by transferring various human chromosomes or additional mouse chromosomes. Results showed an elevated incidence of apoptosis in all autosome-aneuploid clones examined during early neuronal differentiation in vitro. Further, cDNA microarray analysis revealed a common cluster of down-regulated genes, of which eight known genes are related to cell proliferation, neurite outgrowth and differentiation. Importantly, targeting of these genes by siRNA knockdown in normal mouse ES cells led to enhanced apoptosis during early neuronal differentiation. These findings strongly suggest that autosomal imbalance is associated with general neuronal loss through a common molecular mechanism for apoptosis.

  20. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  1. Evaluation of somatic genomic imbalances in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin by CGH-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Allegri, Lorenzo; Passon, Nadia; Lepore, Saverio M; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2017-09-07

    Application of distinct technologies of cancer genome analysis has provided important information for the molecular characterization of several human neoplasia, including follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma. Among them, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based procedures have been extensively applied to evaluate genomic imbalances present in these tumours, obtaining data leading to an increase in the understanding of their complexity and diversity. In this review, after a brief overview of the most commonly used CGH-based technichs, we will describe the major results deriving from the most influential studies in the literature which used this approach to investigate the genomic aberrations of thyroid cancer cells. In most studies a small number of patients have been analyzed. Deletions and duplications at different chromosomal regions were detected in all investigated cohorts. A higher number of genomic imbalances has been detected in anaplastic or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas compared to well differentiated ones. Limitations in the interpretation of the results, as well the potential impact in the clinical practice are discussed. Though a quite heterogeneous picture arises from results so far available, CGH array, combined with other methodologies as well as an accurate clinical management, may offer novel opportunities for a better stratification of thyroid cancer patients.

  2. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  3. Application of the Lighthill-Ford Theory of Spontaneous Imbalance to Clear-Air Turbulence Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pd; Knox, Ja; McCann, Dw

    2009-09-01

    A new method of clear-air turbulence (CAT) forecasting based on the Lighthill-Ford theory of spontaneous imbalance and emission of inertia-gravity waves has been derived and applied on episodic and seasonal time scales. A scale analysis of this shallow-water theory for midlatitude synoptic-scale flows identifies advection of relative vorticity as the leading-order source term. Examination of leading- and second-order terms elucidates previous, more empirically inspired CAT forecast diagnostics. Application of the Lighthill-Ford theory to the Upper Mississippi and Ohio Valleys CAT outbreak of 9 March 2006 results in good agreement with pilot reports of turbulence. Application of Lighthill-Ford theory to CAT forecasting for the 3 November 2005-26 March 2006 period using 1-h forecasts of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) 2 1500 UTC model run leads to superior forecasts compared to the current operational version of the Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG1) algorithm, the most skillful operational CAT forecasting method in existence. The results suggest that major improvements in CAT forecasting could result if the methods presented herein become operational. Reference Knox, J.A., D.W. McCann, and P.D. Williams, 2008: Application of the Lighthill-Ford Theory of Spontaneous Imbalance to Clear-Air Turbulence Forecasting. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3292-3304.

  4. An Efficient Cost-Sensitive Feature Selection Using Chaos Genetic Algorithm for Class Imbalance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, feature selection is an essential process in machine learning. Although the class imbalance problem has recently attracted a great deal of attention, little effort has been undertaken to develop feature selection techniques. In addition, most applications involving feature selection focus on classification accuracy but not cost, although costs are important. To cope with imbalance problems, we developed a cost-sensitive feature selection algorithm that adds the cost-based evaluation function of a filter feature selection using a chaos genetic algorithm, referred to as CSFSG. The evaluation function considers both feature-acquiring costs (test costs and misclassification costs in the field of network security, thereby weakening the influence of many instances from the majority of classes in large-scale datasets. The CSFSG algorithm reduces the total cost of feature selection and trades off both factors. The behavior of the CSFSG algorithm is tested on a large-scale dataset of network security, using two kinds of classifiers: C4.5 and k-nearest neighbor (KNN. The results of the experimental research show that the approach is efficient and able to effectively improve classification accuracy and to decrease classification time. In addition, the results of our method are more promising than the results of other cost-sensitive feature selection algorithms.

  5. Tumor transcriptome sequencing reveals allelic expression imbalances associated with copy number alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Brian B; Laborde, Rebecca R; Xu, Xing; Gu, Jian; Chung, Christina B; Monighetti, Cinna K; Stanley, Sarah J; Olsen, Kerry D; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Moore, Eric J; Broomer, Adam J; Tan, Ruoying; Brzoska, Pius M; Muller, Matthew W; Siddiqui, Asim S; Asmann, Yan W; Sun, Yongming; Kuersten, Scott; Barker, Melissa A; De La Vega, Francisco M; Smith, David I

    2010-02-19

    Due to growing throughput and shrinking cost, massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to microarrays for the genome-wide study of gene expression and copy number alterations in primary tumors. The sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq) should offer several advantages over microarray-based methods, including the ability to detect somatic mutations and accurately measure allele-specific expression. To investigate these advantages we have applied a novel, strand-specific RNA-Seq method to tumors and matched normal tissue from three patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, to better understand the genomic determinants of the gene expression changes observed, we have sequenced the tumor and normal genomes of one of these patients. We demonstrate here that our RNA-Seq method accurately measures allelic imbalance and that measurement on the genome-wide scale yields novel insights into cancer etiology. As expected, the set of genes differentially expressed in the tumors is enriched for cell adhesion and differentiation functions, but, unexpectedly, the set of allelically imbalanced genes is also enriched for these same cancer-related functions. By comparing the transcriptomic perturbations observed in one patient to his underlying normal and tumor genomes, we find that allelic imbalance in the tumor is associated with copy number mutations and that copy number mutations are, in turn, strongly associated with changes in transcript abundance. These results support a model in which allele-specific deletions and duplications drive allele-specific changes in gene expression in the developing tumor.

  6. Reviewing the effort-reward imbalance model: drawing up the balance of 45 empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Bosma, Hans; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2005-03-01

    The present paper provides a review of 45 studies on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model published from 1986 to 2003 (inclusive). In 1986, the ERI Model was introduced by Siegrist et al. (Biological and Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Springer, Berlin, 1986, pp. 104-126; Social Science & Medicine 22 (1986) 247). The central tenet of the ERI Model is that an imbalance between (high) efforts and (low) rewards leads to (sustained) strain reactions. Besides efforts and rewards, overcommitment (i.e., a personality characteristic) is a crucial aspect of the model. Essentially, the ERI Model contains three main assumptions, which could be labeled as (1) the extrinsic ERI hypothesis: high efforts in combination with low rewards increase the risk of poor health, (2) the intrinsic overcommitment hypothesis: a high level of overcommitment may increase the risk of poor health, and (3) the interaction hypothesis: employees reporting an extrinsic ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. The review showed that the extrinsic ERI hypothesis has gained considerable empirical support. Results for overcommitment remain inconsistent and the moderating effect of overcommitment on the relation between ERI and employee health has been scarcely examined. Based on these review results suggestions for future research are proposed.

  7. A learning method for the class imbalance problem with medical data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Der-Chiang; Liu, Chiao-Wen; Hu, Susan C

    2010-05-01

    In medical data sets, data are predominately composed of "normal" samples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" ones, leading to the so-called class imbalance problems. In class imbalance problems, inputting all the data into the classifier to build up the learning model will usually lead a learning bias to the majority class. To deal with this, this paper uses a strategy which over-samples the minority class and under-samples the majority one to balance the data sets. For the majority class, this paper builds up the Gaussian type fuzzy membership function and alpha-cut to reduce the data size; for the minority class, we use the mega-trend diffusion membership function to generate virtual samples for the class. Furthermore, after balancing the data size of classes, this paper extends the data attribute dimension into a higher dimension space using classification related information to enhance the classification accuracy. Two medical data sets, Pima Indians' diabetes and the BUPA liver disorders, are employed to illustrate the approach presented in this paper. The results indicate that the proposed method has better classification performance than SVM, C4.5 decision tree and two other studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Selective Dynamic Sampling Back-Propagation Approach for Handling the Two-Class Imbalance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed a Selective Dynamic Sampling Approach (SDSA to deal with the class imbalance problem. It is based on the idea of using only the most appropriate samples during the neural network training stage. The “average samples”are the best to train the neural network, they are neither hard, nor easy to learn, and they could improve the classifier performance. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a successful method to deal with the two-class imbalance problem. It is very competitive with respect to well-known over-sampling approaches and dynamic sampling approaches, even often outperforming the under-sampling and standard back-propagation methods. SDSA is a very simple method for automatically selecting the most appropriate samples (average samples during the training of the back-propagation, and it is very efficient. In the training stage, SDSA uses significantly fewer samples than the popular over-sampling approaches and even than the standard back-propagation trained with the original dataset.

  9. Imbalance and Correction of the Rural Credit Cooperatives and Rural Economic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the manifestations of imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations: the rural credit cooperatives fail to effectively promote economic development in rural areas; the rural economy is also incapable of effectively promoting the development of the rural credit cooperatives. It analyses the reasons for imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations,including the direct reason (loss of function of the rural credit cooperatives) ,the fundamental reason (restricted economic development of agriculture and countryside and relative pauperization of farmers) ,and the deep-seated reason (sluggish rural economic development) . Corresponding countermeasures and proposals are put forward for promoting balanced development of the rural credit cooperatives and rural economy as follows: first, deepen reform of the rural credit cooperatives,strengthen the function of the rural credit cooperatives in serving the needs of agriculture; second, speed up economic development in rural areas,eliminate the economic constraints for the development of the rural credit cooperatives; third,transform the development pattern and the development strategies,foster the macro-institutional environment for balanced development of rural credit cooperatives and rural economy.

  10. The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-09-17

    We examined the influence of work-related effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort-reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort-reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported.

  11. Effect of recovery from muscle strength imbalance in lower limb using four point weight bearing reduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Kang, Seung Rok; Jeong, Ho Choon; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the improvement of muscle strength imbalance in the lower limbs using a four point weight bearing reduction system with a two-belt treadmill. Participants, each having differences in muscle function of the left and right legs of over 20%, were divided into two groups of ten. The participants were involved in experiments progressing 40 minutes per day, 3 days per week, during a period of 4 weeks. The maximal peak torque and average power were measured for testing joint torque in the hip, knee and ankle. The results showed the improvement of muscle imbalance as assessed by the maximal muscle strength was the most effective in the hip joint, while the improvement of muscular reaction was the most effective in the knee joint. We suggest that the method of weight bearing reduction could be sufficient to reduce muscle imbalance in the lower limbs.

  12. Estimations of climate sensitivity based on top-of-atmosphere radiation imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schuster

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large climate feedback uncertainties limit the accuracy in predicting the response of the Earth's climate to the increase of CO2 concentration within the atmosphere. This study explores a potential to reduce uncertainties in climate sensitivity estimations using energy balance analysis, especially top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation imbalance. The time-scales studied generally cover from decade to century, that is, middle-range climate sensitivity is considered, which is directly related to the climate issue caused by atmospheric CO2 change. The significant difference between current analysis and previous energy balance models is that the current study targets at the boundary condition problem instead of solving the initial condition problem. Additionally, climate system memory and deep ocean heat transport are considered. The climate feedbacks are obtained based on the constraints of the TOA radiation imbalance and surface temperature measurements of the present climate.

    Currently, there is a lack of high accuracy measurements of TOA radiation imbalance. Available estimations indicate that TOA net radiative heating to the climate system is about 0.85 W/m2. Based on this value, a positive climate feedback with a feedback coefficient ranging from −1.3 to −1.0 W/m2/K is found. The range of feedback coefficient is determined by climate system memory. The longer the memory, the stronger the positive feedback. The estimated time constant of the climate is large (70~120 years mainly owing to the deep ocean heat transport, implying that the system may be not in an equilibrium state under the external forcing during the industrial era. For the doubled-CO2 climate (or 3.7 W/m2 forcing, the estimated global warming would be 3.1 K if the current estimate of 0.85 W/m2 TOA net radiative heating could be confirmed. With accurate long-term measurements of TOA radiation, the

  13. Genomic imbalances in patients with a clinical presentation in the spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, growth and psychomotor developmental delay and skeletal defects. To date, causative mutations in the NIPBL (cohesin regulator) and SMC1A (cohesin structural subunit) genes account for > 50% and 6% of cases, respectively. Methods We recruited 50 patients with a CdLS clinical diagnosis or with features that overlap with CdLS, who were negative for mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A at molecular screening. Chromosomal rearrangements accounting for the clinical diagnosis were screened for using array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH). Results Four patients were shown to carry imbalances considered to be candidates for having pathogenic roles in their clinical phenotypes: patient 1 had a 4.2 Mb de novo deletion at chromosome 20q11.2-q12; patient 2 had a 4.8 Mb deletion at chromosome 1p36.23-36.22; patient 3 carried an unbalanced translocation, t(7;17), with a 14 Mb duplication of chromosome 17q24.2-25.3 and a 769 Kb deletion at chromosome 7p22.3; patient 4 had an 880 Kb duplication of chromosome 19p13.3, for which his mother, who had a mild phenotype, was also shown to be a mosaic. Conclusions Notwithstanding the variability in size and gene content of the rearrangements comprising the four different imbalances, they all map to regions containing genes encoding factors involved in cell cycle progression or genome stability. These functional similarities, also exhibited by the known CdLS genes, may explain the phenotypic overlap between the patients included in this study and CdLS. Our findings point to the complexity of the clinical diagnosis of CdLS and confirm the existence of phenocopies, caused by imbalances affecting multiple genomic regions, comprising 8% of patients included in this study, who did not have mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A. Our results suggests that analysis by aCGH should be recommended for CdLS spectrum cases with an

  14. The imbalance of helper T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute renal transplantation rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIANG; ZHI QIN TANG; LIN PENG; YU LIANG WANG; ZHI PING WANG

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the imbalance state of helper T lymphocytes (Th) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc) and the roles of Th1/Th2/Th3 and Tc1/Tc2 cells in renal transplantation rejection, the percentages of these cells in peripheral blood of 24 cases of renal transplantation recipients with acute rejection and the dynamic changes of the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined by flow cytometry analysis,while 30 cases of healthy individuals were set up as controls. In these healthy controls, the percentages of the Th1, Th2 and Th3 cells were (10.45±8.15)%, (5.05±4.15)% and (3.90±3.21)%,and those of Tc1 and Tc2 cells were (9.83±7.03)% and (4.51±2.17)%, respectively. However,the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells in peripheral blood of the stable recipients after transplantation were (7.29±5.62)% and (7.04±5.15)%, showing definite reduction, while those of Th2, Th3and Tc2 cells showed significant increase, (6.34±5.67)%, (4.94±4.14) % and ( 6.86 ±4.42) %, respectively. In case of recipients with acute rejection, the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells appeared to be (18.55±13.21)% and (15.84±11.72)%, also showing significant increase, but those of Th2,Th3 and Tc2 cells appeared to be reduced, (4.19±3.62)%, (3.02±2.83)% and (3.88±1.63) %, respectively. Significant differences could be detected among these three groups (P <0.05). The CD4/CD8 ratio in cases with acute rejection was higher than those of stable recipients (2.24±0.59 vs 1.95±0.45), but that of the stable recipients and healthy controls (1.98±0.31 )showed no any significant difference. From the above observation, it is evident that imbalance between Th1, Th2 and Th3 with Te1 and Tc2 cells may exist after renal transplantation and probably, the immune imbalance may be induced through the secretion of cytokines INF-γ by Th1 or Te1 cells , I1-4 by Th2 and Tc2 cells and TGF-β by Th3.

  15. Work-life balance/imbalance: the dominance of the middle class and the neglect of the working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    The paper was stimulated by the relative absence of the working class from work-life debates. The common conclusion from work-life studies is that work-life imbalance is largely a middle-class problem. It is argued here that this classed assertion is a direct outcome of a particular and narrow interpretation of work-life imbalance in which time is seen to be the major cause of difficulty. Labour market time, and too much of it, dominates the conceptualization of work-life and its measurement too. This heavy focus on too much labour market time has rendered largely invisible from dominant work-life discourses the types of imbalance that are more likely to impact the working class. The paper's analysis of large UK data-sets demonstrates a reduction in hours worked by working-class men, more part-time employment in working-class occupations, and a substantial growth in levels of reported financial insecurity amongst the working classes after the 2008-9 recession. It shows too that economic-based work-life imbalance is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction than is temporal imbalance. The paper concludes that the dominant conceptualization of work-life disregards the major work-life challenge experienced by the working class: economic precarity. The work-life balance debate needs to more fully incorporate economic-based work-life imbalance if it is to better represent class inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  16. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbo Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs, offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.

  17. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao

    2015-08-31

    Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs), offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.

  18. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (Pstress imbalance, exhibiting a significant influence on both SOD and MDA concentrations in the blood (Pstress. Recently infected horses (horses >5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals stress in horses.

  19. Mechanical overloading causes mitochondrial superoxide and SOD2 imbalance in chondrocytes resulting in cartilage degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Masato; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Muramatsu, Yuta; Kaneko, Haruka; Morikawa, Daichi; Kobayashi, Keiji; Saita, Yoshitomo; Sasho, Takahisa; Shirasawa, Takuji; Yokote, Koutaro; Kaneko, Kazuo; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-06-25

    Mechanical stress and aging are major risk factors of cartilage degeneration. Human studies have previously reported that oxidative damage increased, while SOD2 protein was reciprocally downregulated in osteoarthritic degenerated cartilage. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial superoxide imbalance in chondrocytes causes cartilage degeneration. We herein demonstrate that mechanical loading promoted mitochondrial superoxide generation and selective Sod2 downregulation in chondrocytes in vivo and that mitochondrial superoxide inducer also downregulated Sod2 expression in chondrocytes in vitro. A genetically manipulated model revealed that Sod2 deficiency in chondrocytes also resulted in mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and dysfunction, thus leading to cartilage degeneration. Intra-articular injection of a permeable antioxidant effectively suppressed the mechanical loading-induced mitochondrial superoxide generation and cartilage degeneration in mice. Our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial superoxide plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of osteoarthritis, and the mitochondrial superoxide balance may therefore be a promising target for the treatment of cartilage degeneration.

  20. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.

    2013-05-01

    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  1. The Risk of Imbalances in the Financing of Social Protection in the Context of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Voineagu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.

  2. Pyrimidine pool imbalance induced by BLM helicase deficiency contributes to genetic instability in Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabosseau, Pauline; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Lambert, Sarah; Debatisse, Michelle; Brison, Olivier; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2011-06-28

    Defects in DNA replication are associated with genetic instability and cancer development, as illustrated in Bloom syndrome. Features of this syndrome include a slowdown in replication speed, defective fork reactivation and high rates of sister chromatid exchange, with a general predisposition to cancer. Bloom syndrome is caused by mutations in the BLM gene encoding a RecQ helicase. Here we report that BLM deficiency is associated with a strong cytidine deaminase defect, leading to pyrimidine pool disequilibrium. In BLM-deficient cells, pyrimidine pool normalization leads to reduction of sister chromatid exchange frequency and is sufficient for full restoration of replication fork velocity but not the fork restart defect, thus identifying the part of the Bloom syndrome phenotype because of pyrimidine pool imbalance. This study provides new insights into the molecular basis of control of replication speed and the genetic instability associated with Bloom syndrome. Nucleotide pool disequilibrium could be a general phenomenon in a large spectrum of precancerous and cancer cells.

  3. Global imbalances,the financial crisis and China’s economic recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晶; 汤铎铎; 林跃勤

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inherent relationship between the global imbalance and the financial crisis from historical review and a survey of the literature.This paper sets up a two-country model featured by monetary hegemony showing that the financial crisis of 2008 is interrelated with the United States’ expansionary monetary policy and the hegemony of the U.S.dollar.This paper then analyses the impact of the crisis and the policy responses,focusing on the preconditions for China’s economic recovery.Through an international comparison,we argue that one of the Great Depression’s lessons is that the exorbitant government intervention in some areas was harmful and that the necessary condition for China’s recovery is economic flexibility,namely,resilient market mechanisms.

  4. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  5. Influence of dietary mineral imbalance on the incidence of urolithiasis in Egyptian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A S; Amer, H A; Ibrahim, I M

    1989-01-01

    The influence of certain dietary elements on the urolithiasis syndrome in cattle calves was elucidated. Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium measurements were conducted on feed rations as well as on serum and urine samples collected from affected and normal calves. Analysis of the rations given to the animals showed phosphorus at higher levels than calcium, indicating mineral imbalance. Serum and urine of urolithic calves were characterised by high phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, urea, and creatinine levels. Physical examination of urine of affected animals showed a high degree of turbidity, a large amount of calcium carbonate, and triple phosphate as well as abundant amount of pus cells and red blood cells. The characteristic clinical symptoms of urine retention were observed. Moreover, some animals were found to urinate through an opening in front of the scrotal region.

  6. The specific shapes of gender imbalance in scientific authorships: a network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences in collaborative research have received little attention when compared with the growing importance that women hold in academia and research. Unsurprisingly, most of bibliometric databases have a strong lack of directly available information by gender. Although empirical-based network approaches are often used in the study of research collaboration, the studies about the influence of gender dissimilarities on the resulting topological outcomes are still scarce. Here, networks of scientific subjects are used to characterize patterns that might be associated to five categories of authorships which were built based on gender. We find enough evidence that gender imbalance in scientific authorships brings a peculiar trait to the networks induced from papers published in Web of Science (WoS) indexed journals of Economics over the period 2010-2015 and having at least one author affiliated to a Portuguese institution. Our results show the emergence of a specific pattern when the network of co-occurr...

  7. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  8. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the risk of antidepressant treatment in the Danish workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Aust, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that high effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work is a risk factor for the onset of self-reported depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined whether ERI predicts risk of treatment with antidepressant medication in a representative sample of the Danish...... workforce. Methods: We linked survey data on ERI and covariates of 4541 participants from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2000 with the Danish National Prescription Registry that includes all legally purchased prescription drugs at pharmacies in Denmark since 1995. Participants with a history...... of antidepressant treatment or with self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses we examined the prospective association between ERI at baseline and incident antidepressant treatment while adjusting for potential confounders. Time of follow-up was 5 years...

  9. Copper, zinc and selenium imbalance in Moroccan haemodialysis patients and its correlation to lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Eljaoudi

    2015-08-01

    Results: The study showed that, plasma Zn and Se concentrations were lower in haemodialysis patients compared to that of healthy controls, while plasma Cu, MDA and Cu/Zn ratio were higher. Plasma Cu/Zn ratios were positively correlated to MDA and weakly correlated to hs-CRP levels whereas plasma Se concentrations were inversely correlated to MDA. In addition, MDA levels increased after haemodialysis session. Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study regarding the imbalance of trace elements in haemodialysis patients, it seems reasonable to periodically assess the trace elements status and consider possible correctional therapy in case of deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2079-2085

  10. An Enhanced Islanding Microgrid Reactive Power, Imbalance Power, and Harmonic Power Sharing Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Lin, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    To address inaccurate power sharing problems in autonomous islanding microgrids, an enhanced droop control method through online virtual impedance adjustment is proposed. First, a term associated with DG reactive power, imbalance power, or harmonic power is added to the conventional real power...... be realized at the steady state. In order to activate the compensation scheme in multiple DG units in a synchronized manner, a low-bandwidth communication bus is adopted to send the compensation command from a microgrid central controller to DG unit local controllers, without involving any information from DG...... unit local controllers. The feasibility of the proposed method is verified by simulated and experimental results from a low-power three-phase microgrid prototype....

  11. Antioxidant effect of simvastatin throught oxidative imbalance caused by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Eger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to directly investigate the behavioral and antioxidant effects of simvastatin in a model of bipolar mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with simvastatin. On the 24th day after the start of treatment, each rat was administered lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for 7 days. The results suggest that simvastatin combined with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate induced a significant increased locomotion and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate administration causes an oxidative imbalance determined by an increment in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain areas; moreover, in the presence of simvastatin, most of these effects were prevented. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, associated with increased oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymatic defense. In view of the central role played by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the established antioxidant effect of simvastatin therapy is of major interest.

  12. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-06

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  13. Probing Nuclear Effects at the T2K Near Detector Using Transverse Kinematic Imbalance

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In this work we utilise variables characterising kinematic imbalance in the plane transverse to an incoming neutrino, which have recently been shown to act as a direct probe of nuclear effects (such as final state interactions, Fermi motion and multi-nucleon processes) in $\\mathcal{O}$(GeV) neutrino scattering. We present a methodology to measure the charged current differential cross-section with no final state pions and at least one final state proton ($CC0\\pi+Np, N \\geq 1$) in these variables at the near detector of the T2K experiment (ND280), using the upstream Fine Grained Detector (FGD1) as a hydrocarbon target. Overall these measurements will allow us to better understand the impact of nuclear effects on the observables in neutrino scattering, providing valuable constraints on the systematic uncertainties associated with neutrino oscillation and scattering measurements for both T2K and other experiments with similar energy neutrino beams.

  14. Di-Jet Imbalance Measurements at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, D M; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Ashraf, M U; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Brown, D; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elsey, N; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Ewigleben, J; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jowzaee, S; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, C; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Luo, S; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Miller, Z W; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Nonaka, T; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Ray, R L; Reed, R; Rehbein, M J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roth, J D; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, A; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shi, Z; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sugiura, T; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, Z; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, F; Wang, J S; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, H; Xu, Y F; Xu, Z; Xu, J; Xu, N; Yang, S; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J; Zhang, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-01-01

    We report the first di-jet transverse momentum asymmetry measurements from Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC. The two highest-energy back-to-back jets reconstructed from fragments with transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c display a significantly stronger momentum imbalance in heavy-ion collisions than in the p+p reference. When re-examined with correlated soft particles included, we observe that these di-jets then exhibit a unique new feature -- momentum balance is restored to that observed in p+p for a jet resolution parameter of R=0.4, while re-balancing is not attained with a smaller value of R=0.2.

  15. Linkage Between External and Internal Imbalance – The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Živkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After a while almost all transition and emerging countries that have entered into the process of economic reforms became attractive for foreign direct investments and foreign loans. Consequently, huge amount of capital inflow lead to the surpluses in the financial-capital account. Capital that has entered the system usually converts into the local currency and thus contributes to the growth of money supply in the system. However, high level of money supply leads to internal imbalances such as relatively high inflation and unstable exchange rate. In this paper we will try to give an answer to whether above described scenario is characteristic for Serbian transition economy. In this process we will use linear regression, vector auto-regression (VAR and error correction model.

  16. Pair formation in Fermi systems with population imbalance in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrouni, George

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss pairing in fermionic systems in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with population imbalance. This will be done in the context of the attractive fermionic Hubbard model using the Stochastic Green Function algorithm in d=1 while for d=2 we use Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo. This is the first exact QMC study examining the effects of finite temperature which is very important in experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Our results show that, in the ground state, the dominant pairing mechanism is at nonzero center of mass momentum, i.e. FFLO. I will then discuss the effect of finite temperature in the uniform and confined systems and present finite temperature phase diagrams. The numerical results will be compared with experiments. With M. J. Wolak (CQT, National University of Singapore) and V. G. Rousseau (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University).

  17. Momentum imbalance of isolated photon-tagged jet production at RHIC and LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Vitev, Ivan; Zhang, Ben-Wei

    2013-04-05

    In collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei, photon-tagged jets provide a unique opportunity to compare jet production and modification due to parton shower formation and propagation in strongly interacting matter at vastly different center-of-mass energies. We present first results for the cross sections of jets tagged by an isolated photon to O(α(em)α(s)(2)) in central Au+Au reactions with sqrt[s(NN)] = 200 GeV at RHIC and central Pb + Pb reactions with sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV at LHC. We evaluate the increase in the transverse momentum imbalance of the observed γ + jet state, induced by the dissipation of the parton shower energy due to strong final-state interactions. Theoretical predictions to help interpret recent and upcoming experimental data are presented.

  18. Sex steroid imbalances in the muricid Stramonita haemastoma from TBT contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, M; Castro, I B; Paganini, C L; Colares, E P; Fillmann, G; Pinho, G L L

    2016-04-01

    Imposex incidence, organotin tissue levels, and sex steroid (free and esterified testosterone and estradiol) levels were assessed in Stramonita haemastoma from Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil). The imposex levels showed a reduction when compared to a previous evaluation performed in the same area. In spite of that, the detected imposex incidence indicated the occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) inputs that were still able to produce endocrine disruption in local gastropods. In addition, a high level of organotins was observed in tissues of imposexed females. These females also showed a hormonal imbalance, especially in the total testosterone/total estradiol ratio. These findings obtained under realistic field conditions suggest that the steroid pathway could be responsible by the imposex induction after exposure to TBT. In this case, measurements of sex steroid levels can be an additional evidence for monitoring sites and impose affected gastropod populations.

  19. Chromosomal imbalances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of comparative genomic hybridization results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a highly prevalent disease in Southeast Asia and its prevalence is clearly affected by genetic background. Various theories have been suggested for its high incidence in this geographical region but to these days no conclusive explanation has been identified. Chromosomal imbalances identifiable through comparative genomic hybridization may shed some light on common genetic alterations that may be of relevance to the onset and progression of NPC. Review of the literature, however, reveals contradictory results among reported findings possibly related to factors associated with patient selection, stage of disease, differences in methodological details etc. To increase the power of the analysis and attempt to identify commonalities among the reported findings, we performed a meta-analysis of results described in NPC tissues based on chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. This meta-analysis revealed consistent patters in chromosomal abnormalities that appeared to cluster in specific "hot spots" along the genome following a stage-dependent progression.

  20. Malignant Tumor and Emotional Imbalance%恶性肿瘤与情志失调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉华

    2009-01-01

    Malignant tumor severely endangers the health of people. Scholars in and abroad believed that the causes of malignant tumor are related to people's mental disorder. Emotional imbalance had immediate influences in the whole process of tumor, including the occurrence, progressing, treatment, and recovery. Therefore, we should pay more attention to regulate the emotion for the patients with malignant tumor.%恶性肿瘤严重危害人类健康.国内外学者均认为肿瘤的发病原因与精神因素有关.情志失调直接影响到肿瘤发生、进展、治疗和康复的全过程,因此,应重视对肿瘤患者的情志调节.

  1. Redundant drive current imbalance problem of the Automatic Radiator Inspection Device (ARID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino, Carl D.

    1992-09-01

    The Automatic Radiator Inspection Device (ARID) is a 4 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robot with redundant drive motors at each joint. The device is intended to automate the labor intensive task of space shuttle radiator inspection. For safety and redundancy, each joint is driven by two independent motor systems. Motors driving the same joint, however, draw vastly different currents. The concern was that the robot joints could be subjected to undue stress. It was the objective of this summer's project to determine the cause of this current imbalance. In addition it was to determine, in a quantitative manner, what was the cause, how serious the problem was in terms of damage or undue wear to the robot and find solutions if possible. It was concluded that most problems could be resolved with a better motor control design. This document discusses problems encountered and possible solutions.

  2. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF IMMUNE IMBALANCE AND AUTOIMMUNITY IN NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS (NSDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra K. SINGH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the role of immune imbalance and autoimmunity has been experimentally demonstrated in nervous system disorders (NSDs that include Alzheimer’s disease, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, tics and Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, and some other NSDs. And yet, these NSDs are never counted as autoimmune diseases. Deriving from the rapidly expanding knowledge of neuro-immunology and auto-immune diseases, for example multiple scle-rosis (MS, the author of this mini-review strongly recommends that these NSDs should be included while tallying the number of autoimmune diseases. This effort will help create an updated global database of all autoimmune diseases as well as it should help treat millions of patients who are suffering from debilitating NSDs for which there is no known cure or treatment currently.

  3. Probing Nuclear Effects at the T2K Near Detector Using Single-Transverse Kinematic Imbalance

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Stephen; Pickering, Luke; Vladisavljevic, Tomislav; Weber, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In order to make precision measurements of neutrino oscillations using few-GeV neutrino beams a detailed understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino scattering is essential. Recent studies have revealed that single-transverse kinematic imbalance (STKI), defined in the plane transverse to an incoming neutrino beam, can act as a unique probe of these nuclear effects. This work first illustrates that an exclusive measurement of STKI at the off-axis near detector of the T2K experiment (ND280) is expected to distinguish the presence of multi-nucleon correlations producing a two proton final state (2p-2h) from alterations of the predominant underlying cross-section parameter ($M_A$ - the nucleon axial mass). Such a measurement is then demonstrated with fake data, showing substantial nuclear model separation potential.

  4. Compensating active power imbalances in power system with large-scale wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2016-01-01

    penetration. This paper evaluates the impact oflarge-scale wind power integration on future power systems.An active power balance control methodology is usedfor compensating the power imbalances between thedemand and the generation in real time, caused by windpower forecast errors. The methodology......Large-scale wind power penetration can affectthe supply continuity in the power system. This is a matterof high priority to investigate, as more regulating reservesand specified control strategies for generation control arerequired in the future power system with even more highwind power...... for the balancepower control of future power systems with large-scalewind power integration is described and exemplified consideringthe generation and power exchange capacities in2020 for Danish power system....

  5. Does equity sensitivity moderate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Lior; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah

    2013-01-01

    The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) received considerable research attention in the job stress literature. However, very scarce research investigated individual differences as moderators between ERI and stress. The present study is aimed at examining the combined effects of ERI, overcommitment (OVC), and the interaction between ERI and overcommitment on burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy) and the moderating role of equity sensitivity. A questionnaire measuring ERI, burnout, and equity sensitivity was administered to 159 employees. Regression analyses were conducted to test the proposed relations and moderating hypotheses. ERI was negatively related to inefficacy and overcommitment was positively related to emotional exhaustion and cynicism. In addition, equity sensitivity was found to moderate the effect of overcommitment on emotional exhaustion and inefficacy. The findings emphasize the detrimental effect overcommitment may have on employee's mental health and suggest that the ERI model components may be closely related to perceptions of organizational justice.

  6. Imbalance of Nature due to Contaminant Loads in the Culiacan River Watershed, Sinaloa, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Páez, F.; Ley-Aispuro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Culiacan River discharges runoff from a large agricultural watershed into the wetlands at Ensenada de Pabellones ranked as a priority marine region of Mexico due to its high biodiversity and the economic importance of its fishing resources. This research estimated potential contaminant loads for BOD5, TSS, N and P from stormwater runoff and associated land use in the watershed. Previous studies had demonstrated the imbalance of nature due to land use change causing contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, sediment, phosphorus and eutrophication (Lopez and Osuna, 2002; Green and Paez, 2004, Gonzalez et al., 2006; Osuna et al., 2007). The methodology included: Characterizing the watershed according to land use, soil, vegetation, annual runoff and population density by sub-watershed; estimating the potential contaminant load and annual average concentrations of contaminants using the PLOAD program, comparing the result with monitored contaminant concentrations; and identifying the impact of pollutant loads in the watershed and coastal ecosystems and proposing management strategies to reduce or reverse the imbalance of nature caused by contamination in the Culiacan River watershed. Calculated contaminant loads in tonne/year were 13,682.4 of BOD5; 503,621.8 of TSS; 5,975.7 of N and 1,789.1 of P. The Tamazula and Humaya rivers watersheds provide 72% of the total load of BOD5, 68.5% of TSS, 77.6% of N and 62.7% of P discharged to the wetlands. Monitored results include: 89% of temperature observations were above 21°C, which is stressful to aquatic life due to a subsequent decrease in dissolved oxygen; 100% of the observations of P exceeded the ecological criteria for water quality; 71.5% of the observations for DO from 2001 to 2011, were above the ecological criteria for protection of aquatic life and 91.5% met the criteria for use in drinking water; 100% of the observations for BOD5 values remained in the range of Excellent to Good; 22% of the observations for the

  7. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  8. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization detection of chromosomal imbalances in uterine cervix carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García José

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH has been applied to all stages of cervical carcinoma progression, defining a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in this tumor. However, given its limited spatial resolution, chromosomal CGH has offered only general information regarding the possible genetic targets of DNA copy number changes. Methods In order to further define specific DNA copy number changes in cervical cancer, we analyzed 20 cervical samples (3 pre-malignant lesions, 10 invasive tumors, and 7 cell lines, using the GenoSensor microarray CGH system to define particular genetic targets that suffer copy number changes. Results The most common DNA gains detected by array CGH in the invasive samples were located at the RBP1-RBP2 (3q21-q22 genes, the sub-telomeric clone C84C11/T3 (5ptel, D5S23 (5p15.2 and the DAB2 gene (5p13 in 58.8% of the samples. The most common losses were found at the FHIT gene (3p14.2 in 47% of the samples, followed by deletions at D8S504 (8p23.3, CTDP1-SHGC- 145820 (18qtel, KIT (4q11-q12, D1S427-FAF1 (1p32.3, D9S325 (9qtel, EIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4q24, RB1 (13q14, and DXS7132 (Xq12 present in 5/17 (29.4% of the samples. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in cervical carcinoma and define specific targets that are suffering DNA copy number changes in this neoplasm.

  9. Basal ganglia disorders associated with imbalances in the striatal striosome and matrix compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Crittenden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles and input-output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include 1 those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, 2 those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and 3 those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input-output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in

  10. Mangiferin Attenuates Th1/Th2 Cytokine Imbalance in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthmatic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guang-Han; Du, Jun; Huang, Xin; Lu, Yi; Keller, Evan T.; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Mangiferin is a major bioactive ingredient in Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) leaves. Aqueous extract of such leaves have been used as an indigenous remedy for respiratory diseases like asthma and coughing in traditional Chinese medicine. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of mangiferin on anti-asthma remain unclear. In our present study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effect of mangiferin on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and explored its underlying immunoregulatory mechanism in mouse model of allergic asthma. Mangiferin significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell counts and eosinophil infiltration, decreased the production of ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum and PGD2 in BALF. The antibody array analysis showed that mangiferin down-regulated the levels of one group of cytokines/chemokines including Th2-related IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and others IL-3, IL-9, IL-17, RANTES, TNF-α, but simultaneously up-regulated Th1-related IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 and IL-12 expression in serum. Thus it attenuates the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells ratio by diminishing the abnormal mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Finally, mangiferin substantially inhibited the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in excised lung tissues. Our results suggest that mangiferin can exert anti-asthmatic effect. The underlying mechanism may attribute to the modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance via inhibiting the STAT6 signaling pathway. PMID:24955743

  11. Mangiferin attenuates TH1/TH2 cytokine imbalance in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Guo

    Full Text Available Mangiferin is a major bioactive ingredient in Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae leaves. Aqueous extract of such leaves have been used as an indigenous remedy for respiratory diseases like asthma and coughing in traditional Chinese medicine. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of mangiferin on anti-asthma remain unclear. In our present study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effect of mangiferin on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and explored its underlying immunoregulatory mechanism in mouse model of allergic asthma. Mangiferin significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell counts and eosinophil infiltration, decreased the production of ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum and PGD2 in BALF. The antibody array analysis showed that mangiferin down-regulated the levels of one group of cytokines/chemokines including Th2-related IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and others IL-3, IL-9, IL-17, RANTES, TNF-α, but simultaneously up-regulated Th1-related IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 and IL-12 expression in serum. Thus it attenuates the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells ratio by diminishing the abnormal mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Finally, mangiferin substantially inhibited the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in excised lung tissues. Our results suggest that mangiferin can exert anti-asthmatic effect. The underlying mechanism may attribute to the modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance via inhibiting the STAT6 signaling pathway.

  12. Imbalance Between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells During Monophasic Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis.

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    Zhang, Lian; Wan, Fangzhu; Song, Jike; Tang, Kai; Zheng, Fengming; Guo, Junguo; Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes in IL-17-expressing T cells (Th17)/Treg expression in monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis (mEAU). mEAU was induced in Lewis rats with IRBP1177-1191 peptide and evaluated clinically and pathologically on days 9, 13, 18, 23, 28, 35, and 48. Lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes were subjected to flow cytometry to analyze the frequency of Th17/Treg cells. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was used for measuring the levels of IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and Foxp3. Clinical and histopathologic assessment showed that mEAU began on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 18. The frequency of Th17 cells increased obviously on day 9, peaking on day 13, while the frequency of Treg cells increased on day 13, peaked on day 18, and remained at a high level until day 48. In the serum, the levels of IL-17 and IL-6 peaked on day 9 and gradually decreased to normal on day 28. The level of TGF-β increased on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 35. Meanwhile, the level of IL-10 increased on day 9 and stayed at a high level until day 48. Additionally, the above results were further confirmed by RT-PCR. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells contributes to the onset and progression of mEAU, and a compartmental imbalance of Treg over Th17 exists in the recovery phase of mEAU.

  13. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

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    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  14. Sources and implications of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance in diabetes and its complications

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    Wu J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinzi Wu,1Zhen Jin,1Hong Zheng,1,2Liang-Jun Yan1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 2Department of Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Basic Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: NAD+ is a fundamental molecule in metabolism and redox signaling. In diabetes and its complications, the balance between NADH and NAD+ can be severely perturbed. On one hand, NADH is overproduced due to influx of hyperglycemia to the glycolytic and Krebs cycle pathways and activation of the polyol pathway. On the other hand, NAD+ can be diminished or depleted by overactivation of poly ADP ribose polymerase that uses NAD+ as its substrate. Moreover, sirtuins, another class of enzymes that also use NAD+ as their substrate for catalyzing protein deacetylation reactions, can also affect cellular content of NAD+. Impairment of NAD+ regeneration enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and complex I in mitochondria can also contribute to NADH accumulation and NAD+ deficiency. The consequence of NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is initially reductive stress that eventually leads to oxidative stress and oxidative damage to macromolecules, including DNA, lipids, and proteins. Accordingly, redox imbalance-triggered oxidative damage has been thought to be a major factor contributing to the development of diabetes and its complications. Future studies on restoring NADH/NAD+ redox balance could provide further insights into design of novel antidiabetic strategies. Keywords: mitochondria, complex I, reactive oxygen species, polyol pathway, poly ADP ribosylation, sirtuins, oxidative stress, oxidative damage

  15. Detecting shifts in tropical moisture imbalances with satellite-derived isotope ratios in water vapor

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    Bailey, A.; Blossey, P. N.; Noone, D.; Nusbaumer, J.; Wood, R.

    2017-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, regional differences in evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) are likely to become more disparate, causing the drier E-dominated regions of the tropics to become drier and the wetter P-dominated regions to become wetter. Models suggest that such intensification of the water cycle should already be taking place; however, quantitatively verifying these changes is complicated by inherent difficulties in measuring E and P with sufficient spatial coverage and resolution. This paper presents a new metric for tracking changes in regional moisture imbalances (e.g., E-P) by defining δDq—the isotope ratio normalized to a reference water vapor concentration of 4 mmol mol-1—and evaluates its efficacy using both remote sensing retrievals and climate model simulations in the tropics. By normalizing the isotope ratio with respect to water vapor concentration, δDq isolates the portion of isotopic variability most closely associated with shifts between E- and P-dominated regimes. Composite differences in δDq between cold and warm phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) verify that δDq effectively tracks changes in the hydrological cycle when large-scale convective reorganization takes place. Simulated δDq also demonstrates sensitivity to shorter-term variability in E-P at most tropical locations. Since the isotopic signal of E-P in free tropospheric water vapor transfers to the isotope ratios of precipitation, multidecadal observations of both water vapor and precipitation isotope ratios should provide key evidence of changes in regional moisture imbalances now and in the future.

  16. Role of the glomerular-tubular imbalance with tubular predominance in the arterial hypertension pathophysiology.

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    Fox, María Ofelia Barber; Gutiérrez, Ernesto Barber

    2013-09-01

    In previous investigations we caused renal tubular reabsorption preponderance relating to the glomerular filtration (Glomerular-tubular imbalance) and we observed that this fact conducted to volume expansion and development of arterial hypertension, in rats that previously were normotens. We based on this evidence and other which are reflected in the literature arrived at the following hypothesis: a greater proportion of tubular reabsorption relating to the filtered volume is the base of the establishment of the glomerular-tubular imbalance with tubular predominance (GTI-T), which favors to the Na(+)-fluid retention and volume expansion. All of which conduced to arterial hypertension. These facts explain a primary hypertensive role of the kidney, consistent with the results of renal transplants performed in different lines of hypertensive rats and their respective controls and in humans: hypertension can be transferred with the kidney. GTI-T aims to be, a common phenomenon involved in the hypertension development in the multiple ways which is manifested the hypertensive syndrome. In secondary hypertension, GTI-T is caused by significant disruptions of hormone secretions that control renal function, or obvious vascular or parenchymal damage of these organs. In primary hypertension the GTI-T has less obvious causes inherently developed in the kidney, including humoral, cellular and subcellular mechanisms, which may insidiously manifest under environmental factors influence, resulting in insidious development of hypertension. This would explain the state of prehypertension that these individuals suffer. So it has great importance to study GTI-T before the hypertension is established, because when hypertensive state is established, other mechanisms are installed and they contribute to maintain the hypertension. Our hypothesis may explaining the inability of the kidneys to excrete salt and water in hypertension, as Guyton and colleagues have expressed and constitutes a

  17. Adverse drug events associated with vitamin K antagonists: factors of therapeutic imbalance

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    El-Helou N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nancy El-Helou, Amal Al-Hajje, Rola Ajrouche, Sanaa Awada, Samar Rachidi, Salam Zein, Pascale SalamehClinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Adverse drug events (ADE occur frequently during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (AVK and contribute to increase hemorrhagic risks.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 2 years. Patients treated with AVK and admitted to the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital in Beirut were included. The aim of the study was to identify ADE characterized by a high international normalized ratio (INR and to determine the predictive factors responsible for these events. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical package.Results: We included 148 patients. Sixty-seven patients (47.3% with an INR above the therapeutic range were identified as cases. The control group consisted of 81 patients (54.7% with an INR within the therapeutic range. Hemorrhagic complications were observed in 53.7% of cases versus 6.2% of controls (P < 0.0001. No significant difference was noticed between cases and controls regarding the indication and the dose of AVK. Patients aged over 75 years were more likely to present an INR above the therapeutic range (58.2%, P = 0.049. Recent infection was present in 40.3% of cases versus 6.2% of controls (P < 0.0001 and hypoalbuminemia in 37.3% of cases versus 6.1% of controls (P < 0.0001. Treatment with antibiotics, amiodarone, and anti-inflammatory drugs were also factors of imbalance (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Many factors may be associated with ADE related to AVK. Monitoring of INR and its stabilization in the therapeutic range are important for preventing these events.Keywords: adverse drug events, vitamin K antagonists, bleeding risks, therapeutic imbalance

  18. Density imbalances and free energy of lipid transfer in supported lipid bilayers

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    Xing, Chenyue; Faller, Roland

    2009-11-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability and at the same time have a fundamental structure approximating cell membranes. However, in computer simulations these systems have been studied only rarely up to now. An important property, which cannot be easily determined by molecular dynamics or experiments, is the unsymmetrical density profiles of bilayer leaflets (density imbalance) inflicted on the membrane by the support. This imbalance in the leaflets composition has consequences for membrane structure and phase behavior, and therefore we need to understand it in detail. The free energy can be used to determine the equilibrium structure of a given system. We employ an umbrella sampling approach to obtain the free energy of a lipid crossing the membrane (i.e., lipid flip-flop) as a function of bilayer composition and hence the equilibrium composition of the supported bilayers. In this paper, we use a variant of the coarse-grained Martini model. The results of the free energy calculation lead to a 5% higher density in the proximal leaflet. Recent data obtained by large scale modeling using a water free model suggested that the proximal leaflet had 3.2% more lipids than the distal leaflet [Hoopes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 175102 (2008)]. Our findings are in line with these results. We compare results of the free energy of transport obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences, but the overall picture is consistent. We additionally characterize the intermediate states, which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation. Calculations on unsupported bilayers are used to validate the approach and to determine the barrier to flip-flop in a free membrane.

  19. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization detection of chromosomal imbalances in uterine cervix carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Baudis, Michael; Petersen, Iver; Arreola, Hugo; Piña, Patricia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Hernández, Dulce; González, José; Lazos, Minerva; López, Ricardo; Pérez, Carlos; García, José; Vázquez, Karla; Alatorre, Brenda; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    Background Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) has been applied to all stages of cervical carcinoma progression, defining a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in this tumor. However, given its limited spatial resolution, chromosomal CGH has offered only general information regarding the possible genetic targets of DNA copy number changes. Methods In order to further define specific DNA copy number changes in cervical cancer, we analyzed 20 cervical samples (3 pre-malignant lesions, 10 invasive tumors, and 7 cell lines), using the GenoSensor microarray CGH system to define particular genetic targets that suffer copy number changes. Results The most common DNA gains detected by array CGH in the invasive samples were located at the RBP1-RBP2 (3q21-q22) genes, the sub-telomeric clone C84C11/T3 (5ptel), D5S23 (5p15.2) and the DAB2 gene (5p13) in 58.8% of the samples. The most common losses were found at the FHIT gene (3p14.2) in 47% of the samples, followed by deletions at D8S504 (8p23.3), CTDP1-SHGC- 145820 (18qtel), KIT (4q11-q12), D1S427-FAF1 (1p32.3), D9S325 (9qtel), EIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4q24), RB1 (13q14), and DXS7132 (Xq12) present in 5/17 (29.4%) of the samples. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances in cervical carcinoma and define specific targets that are suffering DNA copy number changes in this neoplasm. PMID:16004614

  20. Redox imbalance mediates entomotoxic effects of the conifer Araucaria angustifolia in Anticarsia gemmatalis velvetbean caterpillar

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    Cátia dos Santos Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the most important pests of soybean crops in tropical America. By feeding on leaves, significant defoliation occurs resulting in reduced photosynthetic capacity required for plants’ maintenance and growth, which subsequently can lead to crop losses and reduced agricultural productivity. Many studies have sought to look for compounds that have insecticidal effects. One class of compounds is phenolics, which are produced by plants and have been found to influence the behavior and development of defoliators, representing an important alternative approach to many synthetic insecticides. Particularly, Araucaria angustifolia is a plant rich in polyphenols, which are compounds able to alter cellular dynamics through modulating redox status. In this study, A. angustifolia extract (AAE was added to the artificial diet of A. gemmatalis. The results demonstrated that AAE was able to reduce larval viability by inducing morphological changes and a delay in the insect’s development. In addition, AAE was found to induce oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, as well as increased nitric oxide levels in A. gemmatalis larvae. AAE treatments also decreased the antioxidant defense systems, leading to a redox imbalance. The reduction in viability in A. gemmatalis was positively correlated with oxidative markers, suggesting that redox imbalance can lead to larvae’s death. These results suggest that AAE possess insecticidal potential through the mechanisms of action of altering cellular redox state. Though further studies are required to confirm this, our study nevertheless contributes to a better understanding of AAE’s mechanisms of action as potential biopesticides in pest management, opening new perspectives on the development of compounds with insecticidal action.

  1. Measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Massive Constellation of Flux Radiometers

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    Wiscombe, W. J.; Chiu, J.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Barker, H.; Han, S.; Lorentz, S. R.; Schwartz, S. E.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    The most important climate variable that is not now measured from space with sufficient accuracy (not even one significant digit on any time scale) is Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI), a subject of much discussion lately in relation to the "global warming hiatus". The greatest temporal challenges for ERI measurements are very long (decadal) and very short (diurnal) time scales. The decadal challenge is mainly one of calibration and continuity, whereas the diurnal challenge is mainly one of temporal coverage. ERI measurements must meet both challenges. We discuss here a massive constellation of flux radiometers in Low Earth Orbit that is capable of meeting both challenges. At least 30-40 satellites are required for diurnal coverage, an order of magnitude more than in any previous Earth science mission. This same diurnal coverage would make possible, for the first time, the use of ERI measurements in data assimilation, as well as providing a much more temporally resolved dataset for tuning and evaluating climate models. Although a large number of instruments on many satellites might seem to pose a gargantuan calibration challenge, actually, the more satellites, the better the intercalibration: satellites can not only follow each other closely in the same orbit plane, viewing exactly the same scene a few minutes apart, but they can engage in a spider web of crossovers in the polar regions, allowing many further such intercalibrations. Furthermore, keystone satellites can roll over to obtain an absolute calibration from the Sun and deep space, which can then be transferred to the other satellites. Simulations of ERI from such a constellation will be shown, along with the tradeoffs necessary to create an optimal configuration and to mitigate the problems experienced by previous generations of Earth radiation budget radiometers. A tentative instrument design will also be described.Constellation of flux radiometers for measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance

  2. Connexin hemichannels explain the ionic imbalance and lead to atrophy in denervated skeletal muscles.

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    Cisterna, Bruno A; Vargas, Aníbal A; Puebla, Carlos; Sáez, Juan C

    2016-11-01

    Denervated fast skeletal muscles undergo atrophy, which is associated with an increase in sarcolemma permeability and protein imbalance. However, the mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain largely unknown. Recently, a close association between de novo expression of hemichannels formed by connexins 43 and 45 and increase in sarcolemma permeability of denervated fast skeletal myofibers was demonstrated. However, it remains unknown whether these connexins cause the ionic imbalance of denervates fast myofibers. To elucidate the latter and the role of hemichannels formed by connexins (Cx HCs) in denervation-induced atrophy, skeletal myofibers deficient in Cx43 and Cx45 expression (Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl):Myo-Cre mice) and control (Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl) mice) were denervated and several muscle features were systematically analyzed at different post-denervation (PD) times (1, 3, 5, 7 and 14days). The following sequence of events was found in denervated myofibers of Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl) mice: 1) from day 3 PD, increase in sarcolemmal permeability, 2) from day 5 PD, increases of intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) signals as well as a significant increase in protein synthesis and degradation, yielding a negative protein balance and 3) from day 7 PD, a fall in myofibers cross-section area. All the above alterations were either absent or drastically reduced in denervated myofibers of Cx43(fl/fl)Cx45(fl/fl):Myo-Cre mice. Thus, the denervation-induced Cx HCs expression is an early event that precedes the electrochemical gradient dysregulation across the sarcolemma and critically contributes to the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy. Consequently, Cx HCs could be a therapeutic target to drastically prevent the denervation-induced atrophy of fast skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice.

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    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-04-01

    Agmatine has been recently emerged as a novel candidate to assist the conventional pharmacotherapy of depression. The acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation that may cause depressive-like behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated the potential antidepressant-like effect of agmatine (10mg/kg, administered acutely by oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in non-stressed mice, as well as its ability to abolish the depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by ARS. Agmatine reduced the immobility time in the mouse FST (1-100mg/kg) in non-stressed mice. ARS caused an increase in the immobility time in the FST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, as well as hippocampal lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced catalase (CAT) activity and increased SOD/CAT ratio, an index of pro-oxidative conditions. Agmatine was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by ARS and to prevent the ARS-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in SOD, GR and CAT activities and in SOD/CAT activity ratio. Hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not altered by any experimental condition. In conclusion, the present study shows that agmatine was able to abrogate the ARS-induced depressive-like behavior and the associated redox hippocampal imbalance observed in stressed restraint mice, suggesting that its antidepressant-like effect may be dependent on its ability to maintain the pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis in the hippocampus.

  4. Tumor transcriptome sequencing reveals allelic expression imbalances associated with copy number alterations.

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    Brian B Tuch

    Full Text Available Due to growing throughput and shrinking cost, massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to microarrays for the genome-wide study of gene expression and copy number alterations in primary tumors. The sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq should offer several advantages over microarray-based methods, including the ability to detect somatic mutations and accurately measure allele-specific expression. To investigate these advantages we have applied a novel, strand-specific RNA-Seq method to tumors and matched normal tissue from three patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, to better understand the genomic determinants of the gene expression changes observed, we have sequenced the tumor and normal genomes of one of these patients. We demonstrate here that our RNA-Seq method accurately measures allelic imbalance and that measurement on the genome-wide scale yields novel insights into cancer etiology. As expected, the set of genes differentially expressed in the tumors is enriched for cell adhesion and differentiation functions, but, unexpectedly, the set of allelically imbalanced genes is also enriched for these same cancer-related functions. By comparing the transcriptomic perturbations observed in one patient to his underlying normal and tumor genomes, we find that allelic imbalance in the tumor is associated with copy number mutations and that copy number mutations are, in turn, strongly associated with changes in transcript abundance. These results support a model in which allele-specific deletions and duplications drive allele-specific changes in gene expression in the developing tumor.

  5. Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance.

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    Samsam, Mohtashem; Ahangari, Raheleh; Naser, Saleh A

    2014-08-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that begin in early childhood and are characterized by impairment of social communication and behavioral problems including restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Several genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD, most of them are involved in neuronal synaptogenesis. A number of environmental factors and associated conditions such as gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and immune imbalance have been linked to the pathophysiology of ASD. According to the March 2012 report released by United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of ASD has sharply increased during the recent years and one out of 88 children suffers now from ASD symptoms. Although there is a strong genetic base for the disease, several associated factors could have a direct link to the pathogenesis of ASD or act as modifiers of the genes thus aggravating the initial problem. Many children suffering from ASD have GI problems such as abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, and intestinal infections. A number of studies focusing on the intestinal mucosa, its permeability, abnormal gut development, leaky gut, and other GI problem raised many questions but studies were somehow inconclusive and an expert panel of American Academy of Pediatrics has strongly recommended further investigation in these areas. GI tract has a direct connection with the immune system and an imbalanced immune response is usually seen in ASD children. Maternal infection or autoimmune diseases have been suspected. Activation of the immune system during early development may have deleterious effect on various organs including the nervous system. In this review we revisited briefly the GI and immune system abnormalities and neuropeptide imbalance and their role in the pathophysiology of ASD and discussed some future research directions.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy of angiopathic changes in patients with inherited gene imbalance

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    Brkić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Phenotype match inherited by genes is in most cases present in monozygotic twins. Their phenotypic resemblance is unfortunately characterized by strong susceptibility for the development of chronic non-infectious diseases. One of the most common non-infectious chronic diseases that are phenotipically represented in twins is diabetes mellitus. Genetic imbalance is, in most cases, placed in 2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 12, 19 and 20 chromosomal pair of the human genome. CASE OUTLINE This study describes a pair of monozygotic twins, aged 54, who were diagnosed for diabetes type 2 ten years earlier. The first patient had trophic changes of muscles and skin tissues of the lower limb, and a necrotic wound on his right leg tibial region with the claudication distance of 50 m. After arteriography, he was referred by a vascular surgeon for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO. HBO protocol implied 70 min. application of 100% oxygen at 2.5 absolute atmospheres. After the first series of HBO therapies consisting of 20 HBO treatments, claudication was eliminated and the necrotic wound healed. Next, surgical aortofemoral bypass was done. During the second HBO treatment, his monozygotic twin brother presented with angiopathic changes due to diabetes. In both patients, biochemical parameters corresponded to the expected level for diabetes type 2 imbalance, and the localization of the chromosomal defect (placed on 3, 11 and 19 chromosomal pair was also in accordance with the respective disorder. After they were included into next 10 HBO treatments, Doppler imaging of the major arteries of limbs revealed normal findings. Conclusion Identical genetic impairment in monozygotic twins can lead to identical somatic changes with resultant consequences. HBO treatment of such patients associated with other therapeutic procedures (conducted by diabetologist, vascular surgeon and physiatrist can postpone or prevent irreversible changes occurring due to blood vessel disorders.

  7. 不同健脾方对脾虚模型大鼠水盐代谢及水转运的作用比较%Comparative Study of Effects of Spleen-strengthening Recipes on Water-Electrolyte Metabolism and Water Transport in Rats with Spleen-deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广霞; 赵静; 刘碧原; 张媛凤; 谢鸣

    2016-01-01

    【目的】观察比较健脾—健脾渗湿—健脾升阳方对脾虚证模型大鼠水盐代谢状态的影响。【方法】选用雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组、脾虚模型组,采用过度疲劳+饮食失节的方法复制脾虚证模型,造模2周后随机分为脾虚模型组、补中益气汤组、四君子汤组、参苓白术散组。于造模第15天,给药各组大鼠按4.05 g·kg-1·d-1剂量给予补中益气汤、四君子汤、参苓白术散灌胃;模型组和正常组给予等量蒸馏水,连续14 d。测定各组大鼠血清中Na+、 K+、抗利尿激素(ADH)、醛固酮(ALD)、结肠和小肠段水通道蛋白-3(AQP3)及肾脏水通道蛋白-2(AQP2)。【结果】与正常组比较,脾虚模型组大鼠血中Na+、 ALD、 ADH均显著性升高(P<0.01),肾脏AQP2显著升高,血K+及结肠和小肠段中AQP3显著降低(P<0.01)。与模型组比较,3方干预组大鼠血中Na+、 ALD、 ADH及肾脏AQP2均显著性降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),血K+及降结肠和小肠段AQP3显著性升高(P<0.05或P<0.01)。补脾类方之间比较,参苓白术散组血中Na+、 ALD、 AVP均较其他2方组显著性降低(P<0.01),血K+及降结肠段和小肠段AQP3较其他2方组显著升高(P<0.01);参苓白术散组和补中益气汤组的肾脏AQP2较四君子汤组显著性降低(P<0.05或P<0.01)。【结论】脾虚证模型大鼠存在水盐代谢及细胞水转运功能的异常,健脾—健脾渗湿—健脾升阳3方对脾虚证模型大鼠水液代谢失调均有不同程度的改善作用,其中以健脾渗湿方参苓白术散作用最优。%Objective To compare the effects of different spleen-strengthening recipes on water-electrolyte metabolism and water transport in rat model of spleen-deficiency syndrome. Methods The male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the normal group and spleen-deficiency model group. The rat model of spleen-deficiency was

  8. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: Effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N. van; Jonge, J. de; Meijer, T.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Aims of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). Background. The ERI model had been used as a

  9. Early obesity and age-related mimicry of metabolic syndrome in female mice with sex hormonal imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, M Ram; Wang, Min; Danilovich, Natalia; Javeshghani, Danesh; Maysinger, Dusica

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of early obesity to metabolic syndrome during sex hormonal imbalances in mutant female mice at different ages. Hormonal imbalances, accumulation and nature of adipose tissue, food intake, glucose tolerance, and expression of candidate genes and markers of inflammation were studied by comparing wild-type, null, and haploinsufficient follitropin receptor knockout female mice at different ages. Follitropin receptor deletion in mice produced null females that are infertile and haploinsufficient mice that undergo accelerated biological aging. Both types of mutants with sex hormonal imbalances have central obesity without hyperphagia, but circulating leptin is elevated. Adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy is attributed to elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression. Adiponectin protein levels increase in fat tissue and plasma. Only mutants but not controls acquire age-dependent decline in glucose tolerance with high insulin and altered pancreatic beta cells. Changes in inflammation markers, decreased muscle insulin receptor phosphorylation, and increase of the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B indicate insulin resistance. In this animal model, the chronological appearance of early obesity induced by hormonal imbalances culminates in characteristics that are attributable to metabolic syndrome, including cardiovascular abnormalities. Dissection of the depot-specific alterations and defining molecular interrelationships could help in developing targeted remedies and resolving complications and controversies related to health benefits and adversities of current hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Does calf muscle spasticity contribute to postural imbalance? A study in persons with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The contribution of spasticity to postural imbalance in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the responses to support-surface perturbations in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). These patients typically suffer from

  11. Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Sachiko; Takagai, Junko; Asanuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Kazuo; Kimura, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses' health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance.

  12. The short-term effects of effort-reward imbalance : Daily and within-day psychological and physiological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, E.K.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the present thesis, the short-term effects of Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) are studied by measuring indices of vagal control, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) activity and affect. The studies provide an illustration of recent developments in the field. Primarily, Ecological Momentary

  13. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Commitment: Exchange Imbalance as a Moderator of the Mediating Role of Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Vincent; Briner, Rob B.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the mediating role of violation in the relationship between breach and both affective and continuance commitment and the extent to which this mediating role is moderated by exchange imbalance amongst a sample of 103 sales personnel. Results suggest that violation mediated the relationship between breach and commitment. Also,…

  14. Effect of vibration on muscle strength imbalance in lower extremity using multi-control whole body vibration platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Seo, Shin Bae; Kang, Seung Rok; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the improvement of muscle activity and muscle strength imbalance in the lower extremities through independent exercise loads in vibration platform. Twenty females of age 20 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into WBV group, with more than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities, and control group, with less than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities. As the prior experiment showed, different exercise postures provide different muscular activities. As a result, the highest muscular activity was found to be in the low squat posture. Therefore, the LS posture was selected for the exercise in this experiment. Vibration intensities were applied to dominant muscle and non-dominant muscle, and the vibration frequency was fixed at 25Hz for the WBV group. The control group was asked to perform the same exercise as the WBV group, without stimulated vibration. This exercise was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. As a result, the WBV group which showed an average deviation of 16% before the experiment, tended to decrease approximately to 5%. In this study, vibration exercise using load deviation is shown to be effective in improving the muscle strength imbalance.

  15. Does calf muscle spasticity contribute to postural imbalance? A study in persons with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The contribution of spasticity to postural imbalance in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the responses to support-surface perturbations in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). These patients typically suffer from bila

  16. Distribution of Effort-Reward Imbalance in Denmark and Its Prospective Association With a Decline in Self-Rated Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Siegrist, Johannes; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bultmann, Ute; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Burr, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the distribution of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and to investigate its impact on self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: We studied 4977 employees who responded to a questionnaire in 2000, of which 3470 responded to a follow-up survey in

  17. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  18. Bayesian hierarchical models combining different study types and adjusting for covariate imbalances: a simulation study to assess model performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth McCarron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to combine evidence from different types of study designs. However, when combining evidence from randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, imbalances in patient characteristics between study arms may bias the results. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a proposed Bayesian approach to adjust for imbalances in patient level covariates when combining evidence from both types of study designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simulation techniques, in which the truth is known, were used to generate sets of data for randomised and non-randomised studies. Covariate imbalances between study arms were introduced in the non-randomised studies. The performance of the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for imbalances was assessed in terms of bias. The data were also modelled using three other Bayesian approaches for synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies. The simulations considered six scenarios aimed at assessing the sensitivity of the results to changes in the impact of the imbalances and the relative number and size of studies of each type. For all six scenarios considered, the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for differences within studies gave results that were unbiased and closest to the true value compared to the other models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where informed health care decision making requires the synthesis of evidence from randomised and non-randomised study designs, the proposed hierarchical Bayesian method adjusted for differences in patient characteristics between study arms may facilitate the optimal use of all available evidence leading to unbiased results compared to unadjusted analyses.

  19. Stroke Among Patients With Dizziness, Vertigo, and Imbalance in the Emergency Department: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance are common presenting symptoms in the emergency department. Stroke is a leading concern even when these symptoms occur in isolation. The objective of the present study was to determine the “real-world” proportion of stroke among patients presenting to the emergency department with these dizziness symptoms (DS). Methods From a population-based study, patients >44 years of age presenting with DS to the emergency department, or directly admitted to the hospital, were identified. Demographics, the frequency of new cerebrovascular events, and the frequency of isolated DS (ie DS with no other stroke screening term or accompanying neurologic signs or symptoms) were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of age, gender, ethnicity, and isolated DS with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA). The association of the presenting symptoms with stroke/TIA was also assessed. Results Stroke/TIA was diagnosed in 3.2% (53 of 1666) of all patients with DS. Only 0.7% (9 of 1297) of those with isolated DS had a stroke/TIA. Patients with stroke/TIA were slightly older than those without stroke/TIA (69.3±11.7 vs 65.3±12.9, P=0.02). Male gender was associated with stroke/TIA, whereas isolated DS was negatively associated with stroke/TIA. Patients with imbalance (dizziness as referent) were more likely to have stroke/TIA. Conclusions The proportion of cerebrovascular events in patients presenting with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance is very low. Isolated dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance strongly predicts a noncerebrovascular cause. The symptom of imbalance is a predictor of stroke/TIA. PMID:16946161

  20. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  1. Workaholism and work-life imbalance: does cultural origin influence the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Adkins, Carrie T; Walker, Alan G; Wuensch, Karl L

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, workaholism has become prevalent throughout organizations and has captured the attention of organizational leaders as well as the academic and scientific communities. Most research in this area has focused on the negative consequences of workaholism, specifically work-life imbalance. One area of research that has largely been ignored is the potential influence of demographic variables on the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance. Therefore, the current study focused on how cultural origin might influence the intensity of this relationship. Based on relative deprivation theory and previous empirical work, it was expected that cultural origin would moderate the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance. Specifically, it was predicted that Caucasian participants would score higher on levels of workaholism than Black participants, and that the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance would be stronger for Caucasians than for Blacks. The results revealed that high levels of workaholism were significantly correlated with high levels of work-life imbalance. However, results also indicated that cultural origin did not moderate the relationship between workaholism and work-life imbalance, and there was no significant mean difference between Caucasian and Black participants on our measure of workaholism. These findings are important in that it is essential for employers to be aware of workaholic tendencies so they can better handle the negative consequences that result for the organization, and to also help promote the well-being of their employees. En los últimos años la adicción al trabajo se ha vuelto muy popular en las organizaciones y ha capturado la atención tanto de líderes organizacionales, así como de las comunidades científicas y académicas. La mayoría de investigaciones en esta área se han focalizado en las consequencias negativas de la adicción al trabajo (workoholismo), espec

  2. Constraints on oceanic N balance/imbalance from sedimentary 15N records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Altabet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current best estimates, the modern ocean's N cycle is in severe deficit. N isotope budgeting provides an independent geochemical constraint in this regard as well as the only means for past reconstruction. Overall, it is the relative proportion of N2 fixation consumed by water column denitrification that sets average oceanic δ15N under steady-state conditions. Several factors (conversion of organic N to N2, Rayleigh closed and open system effects likely reduce the effective fractionation factor (ε for water column denitrification to about half the inherent microbial value for εden. If so, the average oceanic δ15N of ~5‰ is consistent with a canonical contribution from water column denitrification of 50% of the source flux from N2 fixation. If an imbalance in oceanic N sources and sinks changes this proportion then a transient in average oceanic δ15N would occur. Using a simple model, changing water column denitrification by ±30% or N2 fixation by ±15% produces detectable (>1‰ changes in average oceanic δ15N over one residence time period or more with corresponding changes in oceanic N inventory. Changing sedimentary denitrification produces no change in δ15N but does change N inventory. Sediment δ15N records from sites thought to be sensitive to oceanic average δ15N all show no detectible change over the last 3 kyr or so implying a balanced marine N budget over the latest Holocene. A mismatch in time scales is the most likely meaningful interpretation of the apparent conflict with modern flux estimates. Decadal to centennial scale oscillations between net N deficit and net surplus may occur but on the N residence timescale of several thousand years, net balance is achieved in sum. However, sediment δ15N records from the literature covering the period since the last glacial maximum show excursions of up to several ‰ that are consistent with sustained N deficit during the deglaciation followed by readjustment

  3. Postural loads during walking after an imbalance of occlusion created with unilateral cotton rolls

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    Saccucci Matteo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was showed that stomatognathic functions correlate with alterations in locomotion, that are detectable through the analysis of loading during walking. For example, subjects with symptoms of Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs showed a significant higher load pressure on the two feet, respect to health subjects, when cotton rolls were inserted. This previous study appeared to suggest that the alteration of postural loads associated to a particular alteration of stomatognathic condition (in this case, the cotton rolls inserted between the two dental arches is detectable only in TMD's subjects, while it resulted not detectable in health subjects, because in that study, health subjects did not show any significant alteration of postural loads related to the different stomatognathic tested conditions. In other words, in that previous study, in the group of health subjects, no significant difference in postural loads was observed among the different test conditions; while TMD subjects showed a significant higher load pressure on the two feet when cotton rolls were inserted, respect to all the other tested conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to better investigate these correlations in health subjects without TMD's symptoms, testing other different intra-oral conditions, and to verifywhether an experimentally induced imbalance of occlusion, obtained putting an unilateral cotton roll, could cause an alteration of postural loading on feet during walking. Findings In a sample of thirty Caucasian adult females (mean age 28.5 ± 4.5, asymptomatic for TMDs, when a cotton roll was positioned on the left or the right sides of dental arches, so causing a lateral shift of the mandible, the percentage of loading and the loading surface of the ipsi-lateral foot, left or right, were found to be significantly lower than in habitual occlusion (p Conclusions This study showed that in health subjects without TMD's symptoms, an experimentally

  4. THE ROLE OF SAVINGS RATE IN DEEPENING MACROECONOMIC IMBALANCES IN CHINA

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    Sarlea Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that China is a growing power and its impressive economic indicators have been the subject of numerous studies along the years. China’s impressive economics growth in the years 2000 based on one hand by an expansionary monetary policy, on other hand by promoting export growth had also brought into discussion another factor: that of the high savings rate. This article brings into light China’s high savings rate -household, corporate and governmental- each with its role played in the entire equation of China’s growth. There have been a lot of studies concentrating on this relationship between savings rate and economic growth. It appears that, in the case of China there is a positive relationship between high savings and high economic growth at least on the short run. This is due to the national savings rate which contributed to current account surplus that facilitated outflow and inflow of capital. Domestic investments and foreign growth had contributed to rapid economic growth despite the low level of consumption. If we add here the low demand for imported goods and the growth of households saving rate in the last year we have an image of deep macroeconomic imbalances. Furthermore, if we add to this analysis the idea of an external saving rate that proved to grow quicker than the world capacity to absorb this flows we have a vivid image of an empire as „rich country, poor population”. This high savings rate in the long run will deepen macroeconomic imbalances. As a spiral this would have to accelerate reforms in the field of pensions, healthcare, social security. On top they would have to encourage the development of the banking system in order to create an image of a powerful country also in the long run. With these internal reforms the savings rate for households will encourage consumption and a normal level of savings, for corporations it will boost investments and for government it will lead to a balance account

  5. Imbalance of endogenous homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide metabolic pathway in essential hypertensive children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; INGRID Sumou; DING Ya-guang; LIU Ying; QI Jian-guang; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common disease of the cardiovascular system. So far, the pathogenesis of primary hypertension remains unclear. The elaboration of its pathogenesis is an important topic in the field which calls for urgent resolution. The aim of this study was to probe into the metabolic imbalance of homocysteine (Hcy) and hydrogen sulfide(H2S) in children with essential hypertension, and its significance in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.Methods Twenty-five children with essential hypertension and 30 healthy children with normal blood pressure were enrolled in the study. The medical history was investigated and a physical examination was conducted on the subjects.Plasma Hcy content was examined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The plasma H2S level was detected by a modified method with a sulfide electrode. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. The t test was applied to the mean values of both groups. Pearson linear correlation analysis was applied to the plasma Hcy and H2S as well as to the systolic pressure against the plasma H2S/Hcy ratio.Results Plasma Hcy, an intermittent metabolite of the endogenous methionine pathway, was markedly increased but plasma H2S, a final product of this pathway was significantly decreased in hypertensive cases when compared with normal subjects ((Hcy: (12.68±9.69) μmol/L vs (6.62±4.79) μmol/L (t=2.996, P<0.01); H2S: (51.93±6.01) μmol/L vs(65.70±5.50) μmol/L) (t=-8.670, P<0.01)). The ratio of plasma H2S/Hcy in children with hypertension was 5.83±2.91,while that of the control group was 11.60±3.30, and the difference is significant with a t=-6.610 and P<0.01. A negative correlation existed between plasma Hcy and H2S concentrations, r=-0.379, P<0.05. And a negative correlation was found between systolic blood pressure and the plasma H2S/Hcy ratio, r=-0.687, P<0.05.Conclusion There was a metabolic imbalance of homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide in essential

  6. Relation of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance with disease progression in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a chronic airway disorder which is associated to the inflammatory cells. Inflammatory and immune cells generate more reactive oxygen species in patients suffering from asthma which leads to tissue injury. Aims: To investigate the role of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in disease progression of asthmatic patients. Settings and Design: In this study, 130 asthmatic patients and 70 healthy controls were documented. Methods: For this malondialdehyde level, total protein carbonyls, sulfhydryls, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total blood glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity (FRAP were measured. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of the data was done using unpaired student t test and one-way ANOVA analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The present work showed that the systemic levels of MDA (4.19 ± 0.10 nmol/ml, P < 0.001 and protein carbonyls (1.13 ± 0.02 nmol/mg, P < 0.001 were found to be remarkably higher in asthmatic patients while protein sulfhydryls (0.55 ± 0.01 mmol/l, P < 0.05 decreased as compared to controls (2.84 ± 0.12 nmol/ml, 0.79 ± 0.02 nmol/mg and 0.60 ± 0.02 mmol/l, respectively. We also observed decrease in activities of SOD (2047 ± 50.34 U/g Hb, P < 0.05, catalase (4374 ± 67.98 U/g Hb, P < 0.01, and GPx (40.97 ± 1.05 U/g Hb, P < 0.01 in erythrocytes compared to control (2217 ± 60.11 U/g Hb, 4746 ± 89.94 U/g Hb, and 48.37 ± 2.47 U/g Hb, respectively. FRAP level (750.90 ± 21.22 ΅mol/l, P < 0.05 in plasma was decreased, whereas total blood glutathione increased (0.94 ± 0.02 mmol/l, P < 0.05 as seen in control (840.40 ± 28.39 ΅mol/l and 0.84 ± 0.04 mmol/l. Conclusions: This work supports and describes the hypothesis that an imbalance between oxidant-antioxidant is associated to the oxidative stress which plays a significant role in severity of the disease.

  7. Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Constellation of 66 Iridium Satellites: Climate Science Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W.; Chiu, CJ. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The "global warming hiatus" since the 1998 El Nino, highlighted by Meehl et al., and the resulting "missing energy" problem highlighted by Trenberth et al., has opened the door to a more fundamental view of climate change than mere surface air temperature. That new view is based on two variables which are strongly correlated: the rate of change of ocean heat content d(OHC)/dt; and Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) at the top of the atmosphere, whose guesstimated range is 0.4 to 0.9 Watts per square meters (this imbalance being mainly due to increasing CO2). The Argo float array is making better and better measurements of OHC. But existing satellite systems cannot measure ERI to even one significant digit. So, climate model predictions of ERI are used in place of real measurements of it, and the satellite data are tuned to the climate model predictions. Some oceanographers say "just depend on Argo for understanding the global warming hiatus and the missing energy", but we don't think this is a good idea because d(OHC)/dt and ERI have different time scales and are never perfectly correlated. We think the ERB community needs to step up to measuring ERI correctly, just as oceanographers have deployed Argo to measure OHC correctly. This talk will overview a proposed constellation of 66 Earth radiation budget instruments, hosted on Iridium satellites, that will actually be able to measure ERI to at least one significant digit, thus enabling a crucial test of climate models. This constellation will also be able to provide ERI at two-hourly time scales and 500-km spatial scales without extrapolations from uncalibrated narrowband geostationary instruments, using the highly successful methods of GRACE to obtain spatial resolution. This high time resolution would make ERI a synoptic variable like temperature, and allow studies of ERI's response to fast-evolving phenomena like dust storms and hurricanes and even brief excursions of Total Solar Irradiance. Time permitting, we

  8. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  9. Relationships between convective asymmetry, imbalance and intensity in numerically simulated tropical cyclones

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    David A. Schecter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationships between convective asymmetry (CA, imbalance and intensity in tropical cyclones (TCs that emerge from random winds on the periodic f-plane in a cloud-system-resolving numerical model. The model is configured with warm-rain microphysics and includes a basic parameterisation of long-wave radiation. Within the simulation set, the sea-surface temperature ranges from 26 to 32°C, and the Coriolis parameter f ranges from 10−5 to 10−4 s−1. The number of TCs that develop in a simulation increases rapidly with f and ranges from 1 to 18. Taken together, the simulations provide a diverse spectrum of vortices that can be used for a meaningful statistical study.Consistent with earlier studies, mature TCs with minimal asymmetry are found to have maximum wind speeds greater than the classic theoretical value derived by Emanuel under the assumptions of gradient-wind and hydrostatic balance. In a statistical sense, it is found that the degree of superintensity with respect to balance theory reliably decays with an increasing level of inner-core CA. It is verified that a more recent version of axisymmetric steady-state theory, revised to incorporate imbalance, provides a good approximation for the maximum (azimuthally averaged azimuthal wind speed V max when CA is relatively weak. More notably, this theory for axisymmetric vortices maintains less than 10% error as CA becomes comparable in magnitude to the symmetric component of inner-core convection. Above a large but finite threshold of CA, axisymmetric steady-state theory generally over-predicts V max. The underachievement of TCs in this parameter regime is shown to coincide with substantial violation of the theoretical assumption of slantwise convective neutrality in the main updraft of the basic state. Of further interest, a reliable curve-fit is obtained for the anticorrelation between a simple measure of CA and V max normalised to an estimate of its balanced

  10. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    ' symptom provocation preceded subsequent deactivation during avoidance and relief events, indicating a pivotal role of putamen in regulation of behaviour and habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effective connectivity analysis identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex as the main structure in this circuitry involved in the modulation of compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest an imbalance in circuitry underlying habitual and goal-directed action control, which may represent a fundamental mechanism underlying compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Our results complement current models of symptom generation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may enable the development of future therapeutic approaches that aim to alleviate this imbalance. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Thoracolumbar imbalance analysis for osteotomy planification using a new method: FBI technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Huec, J C; Leijssen, P; Duarte, M; Aunoble, S

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of spine imbalance by posterior osteotomy is a valuable technique. Several surgical techniques have been developed and proposed to redress the vertebral column in harmonious kyphosis in order to recreate correct sagittal alignment. Although surgical techniques proved to be adequate, preoperative planning still is mediocre. Multiple suggestions have been proposed, from cutting tracing paper to ingenious mathematical formulas and computerised models. The analysis of the pelvic parameters to try to recover the initial shape of the spine before the spine imbalance occurred is very important to avoid mistakes during the osteotomy planification. The authors proposed their method for the osteotomy planning paying attention to the pelvic, and spine parameters and in accordance with Roussouly's classification. The pre operative planning is based on a full-body X-ray including the spine from C1 to the femoral head and the first 10 cm of the femur shaft. Using all the balance parameters provided, a formula name FBI is proposed. Calculation of the osteotomy is basic goniometry, the midpoint of the C7 inferior plateau (point a) is transposed horizontally on the projected future C7 plumb line (point b) crossing posterior S1 plateau on a sagittal X-ray. These are the first two reference points. A third reference point is made on the anterior wall of the selected vertebra for osteotomy at mid height of the pedicle (point c) mainly L4 vertebra. These three points form a triangle with the tip being the third reference point. The angle represented by this triangle is the theoretical angle of the osteotomy. Two more angles should be measured and eventually added. The femur angulation measured as the inclination of the femoral axis to the vertical. And a third angle named the compensatory pelvic tilt to integrate the type of pelvis. If the pelvic tilt is between 15 and 25° or is higher than 25° you must add 5 or 10°, respectively. This compensatory tilt is based on a

  12. Current Imbalances and Main Adjustment Mechanisms in the European Monetary Union

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    Gheorghe Matei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the euro as a common currency in 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union was achieved in a process that did not strictly observe the recommendations of the economic theory of an optimal monetary area. The elimination of exchange rates before the establishment of European Monetary Union represented the renunciation of an automatic macroeconomic stabilization mechanism and generated major commercial and financial imbalances between the countries in the Eurozone. The emergence of the financial crisis in 2008 combined with the lack of mobility of the labor at European level and the lack of fiscal reforms in the less competitive countries led to the current situation of the unsustainable public debts. The measures envisaged with the purpose to address this crisis are different in terms of level of assistance the competitive countries have to give to the others, the duration and value of wealth transfers that should be made between the states and the limit from which they will affect the fundamental stability and prosperity policy objectives of the European project.

  13. The effect of cluster size imbalance and covariates on the estimation performance of quadratic inference functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Philip M; Braun, Thomas M

    2012-09-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are commonly used for the analysis of correlated data. However, use of quadratic inference functions (QIFs) is becoming popular because it increases efficiency relative to GEE when the working covariance structure is misspecified. Although shown to be advantageous in the literature, the impacts of covariates and imbalanced cluster sizes on the estimation performance of the QIF method in finite samples have not been studied. This cluster size variation causes QIF's estimating equations and GEE to be in separate classes when an exchangeable correlation structure is implemented, causing QIF and GEE to be incomparable in terms of efficiency. When utilizing this structure and the number of clusters is not large, we discuss how covariates and cluster size imbalance can cause QIF, rather than GEE, to produce estimates with the larger variability. This occurrence is mainly due to the empirical nature of weighting QIF employs, rather than differences in estimating equations classes. We demonstrate QIF's lost estimation precision through simulation studies covering a variety of general cluster randomized trial scenarios and compare QIF and GEE in the analysis of data from a cluster randomized trial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Imbalance between TNFα and progranulin contributes to memory impairment and anxiety in sleep-deprived mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Yu-jiao; Feng, Dan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ya-tao; Li, Xiang; Liu, Shui-bing; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorder is becoming a widespread problem in current society, and is associated with impaired cognition and emotional disorders. Progranulin (PGRN), also known as granulin epithelin precursor, promotes neurite outgrowth and cell survival, and is encoded by the GRN gene. It is a tumor necrosis factor α receptor (TNFR) ligand which is implicated in many central nervous system diseases. However, the role PGRN in sleep disorder remains unclear. In the present study, we found that sleep deprivation (S-DEP) impaired the memory and produced thigmotaxis/anxiety-like behaviors in mice. S-DEP increased the levels of TNFα but decreased PGRN levels in the hippocampus. The intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PGRN or intraperitoneal injection of TNFα synthesis blocker thalidomide (25 mg/kg), prevented the memory impairment and anxiety behaviors induced by S-DEP. PGRN treatment also restored dendritic spine density in the hippocampus CA1 region and neurogenesis in hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG). These results indicate that an imbalance between TNFα and PGRN contributes to memory impairment and thigmotaxis/anxiety caused by sleep deprivation. PMID:28300056

  15. The imbalance of glaciers after disintegration of Larsen-B ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

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    H. Rott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The outlet glaciers to the embayment of the Larsen-B Ice Shelf started to accelerate soon after the ice shelf disintegrated in March 2002. We analyse high resolution radar images of the TerraSAR-X satellite, launched in June 2007, to map the motion of outlet glaciers in detail. The frontal velocities are used to estimate the calving fluxes for 2008/2009. As reference for pre-collapse conditions, when the glaciers were in balanced state, the ice fluxes through the same gates are computed using ice motion maps derived from interferometric data of the ERS-1/ERS-2 satellites in 1995 and 1999. Profiles of satellite laser altimetry from ICESat, crossing the terminus of several glaciers, indicate considerable glacier thinning between 2003 and 2007/2008. This is taken into account for defining the calving cross sections. The difference between the pre- and post-collapse fluxes provides an estimate on the mass imbalance. For the Larsen-B embayment the 2008 mass deficit is estimated at 4.34 ± 1.64 Gt a−1, significantly lower than previously published values. The ice flow acceleration follows a similar pattern on the various glaciers, gradually decreasing in magnitude with distance upstream from the calving front. This suggests stress perturbation at the glacier front being the main factor for acceleration. So far there are no signs of slow-down indicating that dynamic thinning and frontal retreat will go on.

  16. Imbalance of Interleukin 18 and Interleukin 18 Binding Protein in Patients with Lupus Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liang; Wenfeng Ma; Cuiwei Yao; Huafeng Liu; Xiaowen Chen

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the balance status of interleukin 18 (IL-18) and interleukin 18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in circulation in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS), plasma levels as well as mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of IL-18 and IL-18BP were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. The ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was also calculated. Both plasma IL-18 and IL-18BP increased significantly in LN patients while only IL-18BP increased in PNS, which resulted in an elevated ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP in LN but not in PNS patients when compared with normal controls. In contrast, increased level of IL-18 mRNA was only detected in LN but not in PNS group, although IL-18BP mRNA expressions in PBMCs in both groups were higher than that in control. The imbalance of IL-18 and IL-18BP might be involved in the pathogenesis of LN, based on which a therapeutic approach is valuable to be developed for LN. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):303-306.

  17. Imbalance of Th17/Treg in Different Subtypes of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

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    Cui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To clarify the imbalance of Th17/Treg in different subtypes of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs including Graves' disease(GD, Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO. Methods: 47 patients with AITD (including 16 GD, 15 HT, and 16 GO and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, the ratio of Th17/Treg, as well as their related transcription factors RORγt and Foxp3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were measured by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR Results: Compared with those in control group, the percentage of CD4+IL-17+T cell(Th17 and the mRNA expression of its transcription factor RORγt were higher in PBMCs of AITDs (P+Foxp3+T (Treg cells and its transcription factor Foxp3 mRNA were significantly decreased in PBMCs of GD (PConclusion: Increased Th17 lymphocytes may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of HT and GO while decreased Treg may be greatly involved in GD.

  18. Oxidative status imbalance in patients with metabolic syndrome: role of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Lucas José Sá; Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Guedes, Glaucevane da Silva; Schettino-Silva, Glauber; Mota-Gomes, Marco Antônio; Rabelo, Luíza Antas

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the cardiometabolic and redox balance profiles in patients with Metabolic Syndrome compared to apparently healthy individuals, and the participation of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide axis in systemic lipid peroxidation. Twenty-four patients with Metabolic Syndrome and eighteen controls underwent a full clinical assessment. Venous blood samples were collected for general biochemical dosages, as well as for the oxidative stress analyses (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and arginase activities; and lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in plasma). Arterial stiffness was assessed by radial artery applanation tonometry. Plasma lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were shown to be increased in Metabolic Syndrome patients, without significant differences for the other enzymes, plasma nitrite concentrations, and arterial stiffness. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive and significant correlation between lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase and also between this enzyme and hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, such correlation was not observed between lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide. In summary, Metabolic Syndrome patients exhibited evident systemic redox imbalance compared to controls, with the possible participation of the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide axis as a contributor in lipid peroxidation.

  19. Imbalance between Glutamate and GABA in Fmr1 Knockout Astrocytes Influences Neuronal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Shimeng; Yang, Liukun; Shi, Qixin; Li, Yujiao; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Le; Zhao, Minggao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation that results from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the product of the Fmr1 gene. Numerous studies have shown that FMRP expression in astrocytes is important in the development of FXS. Although astrocytes affect neuronal dendrite development in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, the factors released by astrocytes are still unclear. We cultured wild type (WT) cortical neurons in astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) from WT or Fmr1 KO mice. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were performed to detect the dendritic growth of both WT and KO neurons. We determined glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total neuronal dendritic length was reduced when cultured in the Fmr1 KO ACM. This neurotoxicity was triggered by an imbalanced release of glutamate and GABA from Fmr1 KO astrocytes. We found increased glutaminase and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) expression and decreased monoamine oxidase B expression in Fmr1 KO astrocytes. The elevated levels of glutamate contributed to oxidative stress in the cultured neurons. Vigabatrin (VGB), a GABA-T inhibitor, reversed the changes caused by glutamate and GABA release in Fmr1 KO astrocytes and the abnormal behaviors in Fmr1 KO mice. Our results indicate that the imbalance in the astrocytic glutamate and GABA release may be involved in the neuropathology and the underlying symptoms of FXS, and provides a therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:27517961

  20. Signs of cardiac autonomic imbalance and proarrhythmic remodeling in FTO deficient mice.

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    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have recently been associated with obesity. However, the physiological function of FTO is not well defined. Previous investigations in mice have linked FTO deficiency to growth retardation, loss of white adipose tissue, increased energy metabolism and enhanced systemic sympathetic activation. In this study we investigated for the first time the effects of global knockout of the mouse FTO gene on cardiac function and its autonomic neural regulation. ECG recordings were acquired via radiotelemetry in homozygous knockout (n = 12 and wild-type (n = 8 mice during resting and stress conditions, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. In the same animals, cardiac electrophysiological properties (assessed by epicardial mapping and structural characteristics were investigated. Our data indicate that FTO knockout mice were characterized by (i higher heart rate values during resting and stress conditions, (ii heart rate variability changes (increased LF to HF ratio, (iii larger vulnerability to stress-induced tachyarrhythmias, (iv altered ventricular repolarization, and (v cardiac hypertrophy compared to wild-type counterparts. We conclude that FTO deficiency in mice leads to an imbalance of the autonomic neural modulation of cardiac function in the sympathetic direction and to a potentially proarrhythmic remodeling of electrical and structural properties of the heart.

  1. The role of intracellular redox imbalance in nanomaterial induced cellular damage and genotoxicity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Chauché, Caroline; Brown, David M; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The terms oxidative stress, free radical generation, and intracellular antioxidant protection have become part of everyday nanotoxicology terminology. In recent years, an ever increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies have implicated disruptions to the redox balance and oxidative stress as one of the main contributors to nanomaterial (NM) induced adverse effects. One of the most important and widely investigated of these effects is genotoxicity. In general, systems that defend an organism against oxidative damage to DNA are very complex and include prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, neutralizing ROS (scavengers), enzymatic nucleotide pool sanitation, and DNA repair. This review discusses the importance of the maintenance of the redox balance in this context before examining studies that have investigated engineered NM induced redox imbalance and genotoxicity. Furthermore, we identify data gaps, and highlight a number of issues that exist with the methodologies that are routinely utilized to investigate intracellular ROS production or anti-oxidant depletion. We conclude that for a large number of engineered NM types changes in the redox balance toward oxidative stress are normally associated with DNA damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pathogenic triad in COPD: oxidative stress, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer BM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bernard M Fischer1, Elizabeth Pavlisko2, Judith A Voynow11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exhibit dominant features of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or asthma, with a common phenotype of airflow obstruction. COPD pulmonary physiology reflects the sum of pathological changes in COPD, which can occur in large central airways, small peripheral airways, and the lung parenchyma. Quantitative or high-resolution computed tomography is used as a surrogate measure for assessment of disease progression. Different biological or molecular markers have been reported that reflect the mechanistic or pathogenic triad of inflammation, proteases, and oxidants and correspond to the different aspects of COPD histopathology. Similar to the pathogenic triad markers, genetic variations or polymorphisms have also been linked to COPD-associated inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, in recent years, there have been reports identifying aging-associated mechanistic markers as downstream consequences of the pathogenic triad in the lungs from COPD patients. For this review, the authors have limited their discussion to a review of mechanistic markers and genetic variations and their association with COPD histopathology and disease status.Keywords: senescence, apoptosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, emphysema

  3. Power amplifier linearization technique with IQ imbalance and crosstalk compensation for broadband MIMO-OFDM transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan; Werner, Stefan; Riihonen, Taneli; Wichman, Risto

    2011-12-01

    The design of predistortion techniques for broadband multiple input multiple output-OFDM (MIMO-OFDM) systems raises several implementation challenges. First, the large bandwidth of the OFDM signal requires the introduction of memory effects in the PD model. In addition, it is usual to consider an imbalanced in-phase and quadrature (IQ) modulator to translate the predistorted baseband signal to RF. Furthermore, the coupling effects, which occur when the MIMO paths are implemented in the same reduced size chipset, cannot be avoided in MIMO transceivers structures. This study proposes a MIMO-PD system that linearizes the power amplifier response and compensates nonlinear crosstalk and IQ imbalance effects for each branch of the multiantenna system. Efficient recursive algorithms are presented to estimate the complete MIMO-PD coefficients. The algorithms avoid the high computational complexity in previous solutions based on least squares estimation. The performance of the proposed MIMO-PD structure is validated by simulations using a two-transmitter antenna MIMO system. Error vector magnitude and adjacent channel power ratio are evaluated showing significant improvement compared with conventional MIMO-PD systems.

  4. Allelic Imbalance of mRNA Associated with α2-HS Glycoprotein (Fetuin-A Polymorphism

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    Yoshihiko Inaoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG, also designated as fetuin-A, exhibits polymorphism in population genetics consisting of two major alleles of AHSG∗1 and AHSG∗2. The serum level in the AHSG∗1 homozygote is significantly higher than that of the AHSG∗2 homozygote. This study examined the molecular mechanism for the cis-regulatory expression. To quantitate allele-specific mRNA in intra-assays of the heterozygote, RT-PCR method employing primers that were incorporated to the two closely located SNPs was developed. The respective magnitudes of AHSG∗1 to AHSG∗2 in the liver tissues and hepatic culture cells of PLC/PRF/5 were determined quantitatively as 2.5-fold and 6.2-fold. The mRNA expressional difference of two major alleles was observed, which is consistent with that in the serum level. The culture cells carried heterozygous genotypes in rs4917 and rs4918, but homozygous one in rs2248690. It was unlikely that the imbalance was derived from the SNP located in the promotor site. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of mRNA degradation, RNA synthesis in the cell culture was inhibited potently by the addition of actinomycin-D. No marked change was apparent between the two alleles. The results indicated that the cis-regulatory expressional difference is expected to occur at the level of transcription or splicing of mRNA.

  5. Allelic Imbalance of mRNA Associated with α2-HS Glycoprotein (Fetuin-A) Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Osawa, Motoki; Mukasa, Nahoko; Miyashita, Keiko; Satoh, Fumiko; Kakimoto, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG), also designated as fetuin-A, exhibits polymorphism in population genetics consisting of two major alleles of AHSG(∗) 1 and AHSG(∗) 2. The serum level in the AHSG(∗) 1 homozygote is significantly higher than that of the AHSG(∗) 2 homozygote. This study examined the molecular mechanism for the cis-regulatory expression. To quantitate allele-specific mRNA in intra-assays of the heterozygote, RT-PCR method employing primers that were incorporated to the two closely located SNPs was developed. The respective magnitudes of AHSG(∗) 1 to AHSG(∗) 2 in the liver tissues and hepatic culture cells of PLC/PRF/5 were determined quantitatively as 2.5-fold and 6.2-fold. The mRNA expressional difference of two major alleles was observed, which is consistent with that in the serum level. The culture cells carried heterozygous genotypes in rs4917 and rs4918, but homozygous one in rs2248690. It was unlikely that the imbalance was derived from the SNP located in the promotor site. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of mRNA degradation, RNA synthesis in the cell culture was inhibited potently by the addition of actinomycin-D. No marked change was apparent between the two alleles. The results indicated that the cis-regulatory expressional difference is expected to occur at the level of transcription or splicing of mRNA.

  6. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26884314

  7. Imbalance of Excitation and Inhibition at Threshold Level In the Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at – 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic potential. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  8. Efimov physics in an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture with large mass imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    An ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture of Cs and Li atoms constitutes a prototypical system with large mass imbalance that allows the exploration of many intriguing phenomena in few- and many-body physics. One of such is the heteronuclear Efimov effect, due to which an infinite geometrical series of bound three-body states can be formed, given that the two-body interactions are resonant. Here we present the recent observations of consecutive Efimov resonances through measurements of three-body loss coefficients near the broad Feshbach resonance. A refined analysis of the Feshbach resonance allows us to obtain an improved determination of the scaling of the Efimov resonances, which slightly deviates from the predicted universal scaling factor for the LiCs system. In a recent study, we have determined the effect of the Cs-Cs scattering length on the three-body parameter of the Efimov resonances. Work supported in part by the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics and the Landesstiftung Baden-Wuerttemberg.

  9. HOCl-modified phosphatidylcholines induce apoptosis and redox imbalance in HUVEC-ST cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Pitt, Andrew R; Thakker, Alpesh; Armstrong, Richard A; Spickett, Corinne M; Soszyński, Mirosław

    2014-04-15

    Electrophilic attack of hypochlorous acid on unsaturated bonds of fatty acyl chains is known to result mostly in chlorinated products that show cytotoxicity to some cell lines and were found in biological systems exposed to HOCl. This study aimed to investigate more deeply the products and the mechanism underlying cytotoxicity of phospholipid-HOCl oxidation products, synthesized by the reaction of HOCl with 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylcholine. Phospholipid chlorohydrins were found to be the most abundant among obtained products. HOCl-modified lipids were cytotoxic towards HUVEC-ST (endothelial cells), leading to a decrease of mitochondrial potential and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. These effects were accompanied by an increase of the level of active caspase-3 and caspase-7, while the caspase-3/-7 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO dramatically decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Phospholipid-HOCl oxidation products were shown to affect cell proliferation by a concentration-dependent cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and activating redox sensitive p38 kinase. The redox imbalance observed in HUVEC-ST cells exposed to modified phosphatidylcholines was accompanied by an increase in ROS level, and a decrease in glutathione content and antioxidant capacity of cell extracts.

  10. Adenosine, dopamine and serotonin receptors imbalance in lymphocytes of Lesch-Nyhan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marta G; Puig, Juan G; Torres, Rosa J

    2012-11-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is caused by complete deficiency of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme. It is characterized by overproduction of uric acid, jointly with severe motor disability and self-injurious behaviour which physiopathology is unknown. These neurological manifestations suggest a dysfunction in the basal ganglia, and three neurotransmitters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease: dopamine, adenosine and serotonin. All of them are implicated in motor function and behaviour, and act by binding to specific G-protein coupled receptors in the synaptic membrane where they seem to be integrated through receptor-receptor interactions. In this work we have confirmed at protein level the previously reported increased expression of DRD5 and the variably aberrant expression of ADORA2A, in LND PBL respect to control PBL. We have also described, for the first time, a decreased expression and protein level of 5-HTR1A in LND PBL respect to control PBL. If these results were confirmed in the Lesch-Nyhan patients basal ganglia cells, this would support the hypothesis that pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of Lesch-Nyhan patients may be related to an imbalance of neurotransmitters, rather than to the isolated disturbance of one of the neurotransmitters, and this fact should be taken into account in the design of pharmacologic treatment for their motor and behavioural disturbances.

  11. Imbalance of excitation and inhibition at threshold level in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zizhen; Liu, Xiuping; Xiong, Colin; Xiao, Zhongju; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic current. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  12. Integrative Quantitative Proteomics Unveils Proteostasis Imbalance in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Developed on Nonfibrotic Livers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Luc; Taouji, Said; Arma, Daniela; Pallares-Lupon, Nestor; Leong, Kristen; Beausang, Lee Anne; Latterich, Martin; Bossé, Roger; Balabaud, Charles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jean; Chevet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics-based clinical studies represent promising resources for the discovery of novel biomarkers or for unraveling molecular mechanisms underlying particular diseases. Here, we present a discovery study of hepatocellular carcinoma developed on nonfibrotic liver (nfHCC) that combines complementary quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics approaches. Using both approaches, we compared a set of 24 samples (18 nfHCC versus six nontumor liver tissue). We identified 43 proteins (67 peptides) differentially expressed and 32 peptides differentially phosphorylated between the experimental groups. The functional analysis of the two data sets pointed toward the deregulation of a protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network including the up-regulation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) resident HSPA5, HSP90B1, PDIA6, and P4HB and of the cytosolic HSPA1B, HSP90AA1, HSPA9, UBC, CNDP2, TXN, and VCP as well as the increased phosphorylation of the ER resident calnexin at Ser583. Antibody-based validation approaches (immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, Alphascreen®, and AMMP®) on independent nfHCC tumor sets (up to 77 samples) confirmed these observations, thereby indicating a common mechanism occurring in nfHCC tumors. Based on these results we propose that adaptation to proteostasis imbalance in nfHCC tumors might confer selective advantages to those tumors. As such, this model could provide an additional therapeutic opportunity for those tumors arising on normal liver by targeting the tumor proteostasis network. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001253. PMID:25225353

  13. Integrative quantitative proteomics unveils proteostasis imbalance in human hepatocellular carcinoma developed on nonfibrotic livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Luc; Taouji, Said; Arma, Daniela; Pallares-Lupon, Nestor; Leong, Kristen; Beausang, Lee Anne; Latterich, Martin; Bossé, Roger; Balabaud, Charles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jean; Chevet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics-based clinical studies represent promising resources for the discovery of novel biomarkers or for unraveling molecular mechanisms underlying particular diseases. Here, we present a discovery study of hepatocellular carcinoma developed on nonfibrotic liver (nfHCC) that combines complementary quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics approaches. Using both approaches, we compared a set of 24 samples (18 nfHCC versus six nontumor liver tissue). We identified 43 proteins (67 peptides) differentially expressed and 32 peptides differentially phosphorylated between the experimental groups. The functional analysis of the two data sets pointed toward the deregulation of a protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network including the up-regulation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) resident HSPA5, HSP90B1, PDIA6, and P4HB and of the cytosolic HSPA1B, HSP90AA1, HSPA9, UBC, CNDP2, TXN, and VCP as well as the increased phosphorylation of the ER resident calnexin at Ser583. Antibody-based validation approaches (immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, Alphascreen(®), and AMMP(®)) on independent nfHCC tumor sets (up to 77 samples) confirmed these observations, thereby indicating a common mechanism occurring in nfHCC tumors. Based on these results we propose that adaptation to proteostasis imbalance in nfHCC tumors might confer selective advantages to those tumors. As such, this model could provide an additional therapeutic opportunity for those tumors arising on normal liver by targeting the tumor proteostasis network. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001253.

  14. Enhancing the Efimov correlation in Bose polarons with large mass imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyuan; Cui, Xiaoling

    2017-08-01

    We study the effect of Efimov physics (in the few-body sector) on the spectral response of the Bose polaron, a many-body system consisting of an impurity immersed in a bath of bosonic atoms. We find that the Efimov correlation can be greatly enhanced by increasing the mass ratio between the bosons and the impurity, which results in visible signatures in the rf spectrum of the polaron. Using a diagrammatic approach up to the third-order virial expansion, we show how the mass imbalance and the enhanced three-body effect modify the line shape and linewidth of the polaron spectrum. Moreover, we study the effect of a finite boson-boson interaction on the spectrum. Taking the realistic system of Li impurities immersed in Cs bosons with a positive Cs-Cs scattering length, we find a visible Efimov branch, which is associated with the second lowest Efimov trimer, in the polaron spectrum. In particular, by adjusting the boson density the Efimov branch can greatly hybridize with the attractive polaron branch, leading to spectrum broadening near their avoided level crossing. Our results can be directly probed in the cold atoms experiments on Li-Cs and Li-Rb Bose polarons.

  15. Seasonal Imbalances in Natural Gas Imports in Major Northeast Asian Countries: Variations, Reasons, Outlooks and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal imbalances and price premiums of natural gas imports (NGIs seriously affect the sustainability of these imports in major Northeast Asian countries, namely, China, Japan, and South Korea. Research on NGI seasonality might provide new insights that may help solve these issues. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, this paper examined the seasonalities of Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean NGIs using the X-12-ARIMA model to analyze monthly and quarterly data. The results suggest that Chinese NGIs lacks identifiable monthly or quarterly seasonality, while South Korea and Japan exhibit clearly identifiable seasonality. In Japan, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, July, August, September, and December; that is, Japan imports more natural gas during the winter and summer. In South Korea, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, March and December. In other words, South Korea typically imports more natural gas during the winter. The seasonal differences in NGIs among these countries might be explained by differences in natural gas consumption characteristics, domestic natural gas production capacity, NGI capacity, price sensitivity, and means of transportation. Based on seasonal differences and their probable causes, some suggestions are provided to promote the sustainable development of NGI.

  16. Goose broodiness is involved in granulosa cell autophagy and homeostatic imbalance of follicular hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Lou, Yaping; He, Ke; Yang, Songbai; Yu, Wensai; Han, Lu; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-05-01

    Broodiness is observed in most domestic fowls and influences egg production. The goose is one of the most important waterfowls, having strong broody behavior. However, whether autophagy and follicular internal environment play a role in the broodiness behavior of goose is unknown. In this report, we analyzed the follicular internal environment and granulosa cell autophagy of goose follicles. The results show that the contents of hormones, including prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2), increased in broody goose follicles. Most importantly, the level of granulosa cell autophagy in broody goose follicles was elevated, detected by electron microscopy and western blotting. Also, the expressions of positive regulators of autophagy, including miR-7, miR-29, miR-100, miR-181, PRLR, LC3, p53,Beclin1, Atg9, and Atg12, were up-regulated and the expressions of negative regulators of autophagy, including miR-34b and miR-34c, were down-regulated in broody goose follicles. Our results suggest that goose broodiness is involved in increased granulosa cell autophagy and homeostasis imbalance of internal environment in the follicles. This work contributes to our knowledge of goose broodiness and may influence egg production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Renegade homeostatic cytokine responses in T1D: drivers of regulatory/effector T cell imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shipra; Cerosaletti, Karen; Long, S Alice

    2014-04-01

    Homeostatic cytokines contribute to the balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs respectively) and are necessary to maintain peripheral tolerance. These cytokines include IL-2 that supports Treg and IL-7 and IL-15 that drive Teff. In overt settings of lost tolerance (i.e. graft rejection), IL-2 Treg signatures are decreased while IL-7 and IL-15 Teff signatures are often enhanced. Similar cytokine profile imbalances also occur in some autoimmune diseases. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), there are underlying defects in the IL-2 pathway and Teff cytokine blockade can prevent and treat diabetes in NOD mice. In this review, we summarize evidence of IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 genetic and cellular alterations in T1D patients. We then discuss how the combined effect of these cytokine profiles may together contribute to altered Treg/Teff ratios and functions in T1D. Implications for combination therapies and suggestions for integrated cytokine and Treg/Teff biomarker development are then proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging Xpd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Yoon; Cho, Mi-Ook; Leonard, Shanique; Calder, Brent; Mian, I Saira; Kim, Woo Ho; Wijnhoven, Susan; van Steeg, Harry; Mitchell, James; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Cohen, Pinchas; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2008-06-11

    Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD) mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing Xpd(TTD) mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the Xpd(TTD) mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the Xpd(TTD) mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis.

  19. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging Xpd mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yoon Park

    Full Text Available Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W, display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing Xpd(TTD mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the Xpd(TTD mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the Xpd(TTD mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis.

  20. [Skin necrosis with vitamin K antagonists: An imbalance between coagulant and anticoagulant factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildy, S; Osmaeva, K; Closs-Prophette, F; Maillard, H

    2017-02-01

    Skin necrosis with vitamin k antagonists are rare. They affect more frequently middle-aged and obese women, often within 10 days after initiating of treatment. They occur most often in a context of thrombophilia. An 18-year-old obese woman was treated with heparin and fluindione for a lower limb deep venous thrombosis. On day 5, the patient presented fever and skin necrosis, which extended rapidly. We identified an activated protein C resistance and a major inflammatory syndrome related to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The outcome was favorable after discontinuation of the fluindione, introduction of heparin and vitamin K, despite amputation of a toe. Skin necrosis is due to a transient hypercoagulable state during the initiation of vitamin K antagonist treatment due to an imbalance between pro- and anticoagulant factors. In our case, it was caused by an activated protein C resistance and an inflammatory syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy - significance of pelvic extensors in sagittal spinal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Sung; Kang, Suk Jung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-11-01

    Although facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common inherited myopathy, cases of infantile or early-childhood onset have rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe a case of early-onset FSHD with lumbar hyperlordosis, which shows the significance of the dynamic component of sagittal spinal imbalance. An 11-year-old girl presented with progressive gait disturbance and lumbar hyperlordosis. The motor power of her pelvic extensor muscles was grade 3. Pelvic tilt and hip flexion were markedly increased as determined by gait analysis. The most important factor in the development of hyperlordosis is the weakness of the pelvic extensor muscles, and the results of gait analysis exquisitely explain the pathophysiology. The patient stands with her spine hyperextended to maintain upright posture by a compensatory mechanism of relatively strong back extensor muscles. Corrective surgery for lumbar hyperlordosis was not considered because it could have eliminated the compensatory lumbar hyperextension, thus making the spine of the patient stoop forward through her hip joint during walking by the weakness of her pelvic extensor muscles. This FSHD case is an impressive example of a patient showing the concept that weak pelvic extensor muscles cannot keep the spine upright and balanced.

  2. Chloroplast Redox Imbalance Governs Phenotypic Plasticity: the Grand Design of Photosynthesis Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman eHuner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight, the ultimate energy source for life on our planet, enters the biosphere as a direct consequence of the evolution of photoautotrophy. Photoautotrophs must balance the light energy absorbed and trapped through extremely fast, temperature-insensitive photochemistry with energy consumed through much slower, temperature-dependent biochemistry and metabolism. The attainment of such a balance in cellular energy flow between chloroplasts, mitochondria and the cytosol is called photostasis. Photoautotrophs sense cellular energy imbalances through modulation of excitation pressure which is a measure of the relative redox state of QA, the first stable quinone electron acceptor of PSII reaction centers. High excitation pressure constitutes a potential stress condition that can be caused either by exposure to an irradiance that exceeds the capacity of C, N and S assimilation to utilize the electrons generated from the absorbed energy or by low temperature or any stress that decreases the capacity of the metabolic pathways downstream of photochemistry to utilize photosynthetically-generated reductants. The similarities and differences in the phenotypic responses between cyanobacteria, green algae, crop plants and variegation mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana as a function of cold acclimation and photoacclimation are reconciled in terms of differential responses to excitation pressure and the predisposition of photoautotrophs to maintain photostasis. The various acclimation strategies associated with green algae and cyanobacteria versus winter cereals and Arabidopsis thaliana are discussed in terms of retrograde regulation and the grand design of photosynthesis originally proposed by Daniel Arnon in 1982.

  3. Cytokine Imbalance as a Common Mechanism in Both Psoriasis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Qi, Qiu; Bai, Yanping; Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis (PS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Previous studies showed that these two diseases had a common pathogenesis, but the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was employed to explore both the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of 10 PS and 10 RA patients compared with those of 10 healthy volunteers and the shared DEGs between these two diseases. Bioinformatics network analysis was used to reveal the connections among the shared DEGs and the corresponding molecular mechanism. In total, 120 and 212 DEGs were identified in PS and RA, respectively, and 31 shared DEGs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the cytokine imbalance relevant to key molecules (such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and interferon gene (IFNG)) and canonical signaling pathways (such as the complement system, antigen presentation, macropinocytosis signaling, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, and IL-17 signaling) was responsible for the common comprehensive mechanism of PS and RA. Our findings provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PS and RA, suggesting potential strategies for treating and preventing both diseases. This study may also provide a new paradigm for illuminating the common pathogenesis of different diseases.

  4. Redox Imbalance and Morphological Changes in Skin Fibroblasts in Typical Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Sonia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ciccoli, Lucia; Renieri, Alessandra; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of oxidative stress has been reported in the blood of patients with Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. Little is known regarding the redox status in RTT cellular systems and its relationship with the morphological phenotype. In RTT patients (n = 16) we investigated four different oxidative stress markers, F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), F4-Neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs), nonprotein bound iron (NPBI), and (4-HNE PAs), and glutathione in one of the most accessible cells, that is, skin fibroblasts, and searched for possible changes in cellular/intracellular structure and qualitative modifications of synthesized collagen. Significantly increased F4-NeuroPs (12-folds), F2-IsoPs (7.5-folds) NPBI (2.3-folds), 4-HNE PAs (1.48-folds), and GSSG (1.44-folds) were detected, with significantly decreased GSH (−43.6%) and GSH/GSSG ratio (−3.05 folds). A marked dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, associated with several cytoplasmic multilamellar bodies, was detectable in RTT fibroblasts. Colocalization of collagen I and collagen III, as well as the percentage of type I collagen as derived by semiquantitative immunofluorescence staining analyses, appears to be significantly reduced in RTT cells. Our findings indicate the presence of a redox imbalance and previously unrecognized morphological skin fibroblast abnormalities in RTT patients. PMID:24987493

  5. Redox Imbalance and Morphological Changes in Skin Fibroblasts in Typical Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Signorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of oxidative stress has been reported in the blood of patients with Rett syndrome (RTT, a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. Little is known regarding the redox status in RTT cellular systems and its relationship with the morphological phenotype. In RTT patients (n = 16 we investigated four different oxidative stress markers, F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs, F4-Neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs, nonprotein bound iron (NPBI, and (4-HNE PAs, and glutathione in one of the most accessible cells, that is, skin fibroblasts, and searched for possible changes in cellular/intracellular structure and qualitative modifications of synthesized collagen. Significantly increased F4-NeuroPs (12-folds, F2-IsoPs (7.5-folds NPBI (2.3-folds, 4-HNE PAs (1.48-folds, and GSSG (1.44-folds were detected, with significantly decreased GSH (−43.6% and GSH/GSSG ratio (−3.05 folds. A marked dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, associated with several cytoplasmic multilamellar bodies, was detectable in RTT fibroblasts. Colocalization of collagen I and collagen III, as well as the percentage of type I collagen as derived by semiquantitative immunofluorescence staining analyses, appears to be significantly reduced in RTT cells. Our findings indicate the presence of a redox imbalance and previously unrecognized morphological skin fibroblast abnormalities in RTT patients.

  6. The geography of graduate medical education: imbalances signal need for new distribution policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Chen, Candice; Steinmetz, Erika

    2013-11-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) determines the overall number, specialization mix, and geographic distribution of the US physician workforce. Medicare GME payments-which represent the largest single public investment in health workforce development-are allocated based on an inflexible system whose rationale, effectiveness, and balance are increasingly being scrutinized. We analyzed Medicare cost reports from teaching hospitals and found large state-level differences in the number of Medicare-sponsored residents per 100,000 population (1.63 in Montana versus 77.13 in New York), total Medicare GME payments ($1.64 million in Wyoming versus $2 billion in New York), payments per person ($1.94 in Montana versus $103.63 in New York), and average payments per resident ($63,811 in Louisiana versus $155,135 in Connecticut). Ways to address these imbalances include revising Medicare's GME funding formulas and protecting those states that receive less Medicare GME support in case funding is decreased and making them a priority if it is increased. The GME system badly needs a coordinating body to deliberate and make policy about public investments in graduate medical education.

  7. Naturopathy and yoga in ameliorating multiple hormonal imbalance: a single case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep M.K. Nair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal imbalances are common among the women who are in the halfway of their reproductive age. There are lot of factors like stress, diet, lifestyle etc. which contributes to this hormonal dysfunctions. However these factors are merely addressed by the existing management strategies. A 37 year old female presented with hypothyroidism and associated hyperprolactinemia had undergone Naturopathy and yoga interventions for a period of 18 months. Her baseline TSH and prolactin levels were 9.2 U/ml and 34 ng/ml respectively. Her anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels also fell down to 0.3 ng/ml. Naturopathy and yoga based lifestyle interventions including hydrotherapy, mud therapy, yoga therapy and acupuncture were given for different durations has streamlined the hormone levels to normal range (TSH-4.6 U/ml, prolactin- 19.6 ng/ml, AMH-2.6 ng/ml. The results indicate that naturopathy and yoga has a positive role in reinstating the hormonal homeostasis. However large scale studies are warranted to bestow better care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 916-918

  8. Health workforce imbalances in times of globalization: brain drain or professional mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy

    2003-01-01

    The health workforce is of strategic importance to the performance of national health systems as well as of international disease control initiatives. The brain drain from rural to urban areas, and from developing to industrialized countries is a long-standing phenomenon in the health professions but has in recent years taken extreme proportions, particularly in Africa. Adopting the wider perspective of health workforce balances, this paper presents an analysis of the underlying mechanisms of health professional migration and possible strategies to reduce its negative impact on health services. The opening up of international borders for goods and labour, a key strategy in the current liberal global economy, is accompanied by a linguistic shift from 'human capital flight' and 'brain drain' to 'professional mobility' or 'brain circulation'. In reality, this mobility is very asymmetrical, to the detriment of less developed countries, which lose not only much-needed human resources, but also considerable investments in education and fiscal income. It is argued that low professional satisfaction and the decreasing social valuation of the health professionals are important determinants of the decreasing attraction of the health professions, which underlies both the push from the exporting countries, as well as the pull from the recipient countries. Solutions should therefore be based on this wider perspective, interrelating health workforce imbalances between, but also within developing and developed countries.

  9. Correlation between endothelia cells activation and imbalance of cytokines in pulmonary hypertension of congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between endothelia cells activation and cytokines (ET-1, NO) levels in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and to discuss their roles in the development of PH. Methods Twenty patients with simple ventricular septal defect (VSD) were chosen as controls, and 30 patients with PH were studied. Plasma levels of ET-1 and NO were measured by radioimmunoassay or colorimetric method. Before cardiopulmonary bypass was established, the specimens from right lung were fixed with formaldehyde solution, embedded with paraffin and stained by SP immunohistochemistry. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was measured through the determination of the light density with computer imaging technology. Results Compared with that of the patients with simple VSD, the light density of ICAM-1 and plasma level of ET-1 increased in patients with PH; but plasma level of NO decreased (P<0.05). Positive correlation was observed between ICAM-1 and ET-1/NO (P<0.05). Conclusion Endothelia cells activation and imbalance of ET-1/NO might play an important role in the development of PH.

  10. Imbalance between Glutamate and GABA in Fmr1 Knockout Astrocytes Influences Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a form of inherited mental retardation that results from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, the product of the Fmr1 gene. Numerous studies have shown that FMRP expression in astrocytes is important in the development of FXS. Although astrocytes affect neuronal dendrite development in Fmr1 knockout (KO mice, the factors released by astrocytes are still unclear. We cultured wild type (WT cortical neurons in astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM from WT or Fmr1 KO mice. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were performed to detect the dendritic growth of both WT and KO neurons. We determined glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The total neuronal dendritic length was reduced when cultured in the Fmr1 KO ACM. This neurotoxicity was triggered by an imbalanced release of glutamate and GABA from Fmr1 KO astrocytes. We found increased glutaminase and GABA transaminase (GABA-T expression and decreased monoamine oxidase B expression in Fmr1 KO astrocytes. The elevated levels of glutamate contributed to oxidative stress in the cultured neurons. Vigabatrin (VGB, a GABA-T inhibitor, reversed the changes caused by glutamate and GABA release in Fmr1 KO astrocytes and the abnormal behaviors in Fmr1 KO mice. Our results indicate that the imbalance in the astrocytic glutamate and GABA release may be involved in the neuropathology and the underlying symptoms of FXS, and provides a therapeutic target for treatment.

  11. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30,433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35,918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak.

  12. Foreign Value-added in China's Manufactured Exports: Implications for China's Trade Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Dongbo Tang; Yubo Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Economists have recently become interested in weighting how much domestic value-added is actually included in China' s exports.Formally,the proportion of foreign and domestic contents could be identified by calculating the vertical specialization share using noncompetitive input-output tables.Applying such a method to the Chinese case,however,would result in a big measurement bias because China has a large share of processing exports,which utilize a disproportionately high percentage of imported intermediates.This paper,by directly employing 2008 trade data for which imported intermediates in both processing and non-processing trade could be identified by means of various trade patterns,provides a simplified way to estimate the share of foreign/domestic value-added included in industry-level manufactured exports.This paper finds that the vertical specialization share of China 's processing exports was about 56percent in 2008,compared to about 10 percent for ordinary exports.It also finds that the sectors that experienced fast expansion of processing exports have a much higher share of foreign contents.Since processing exports accoant for about half of Chinese exports,the prevailing trade statistics,which focus on gross values rather than the value-added of exports and imports,has obviously overstated the bilateral trade imbalances,especially between China and the USA.

  13. Dijet imbalance in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2012-01-01

    We present the measurement of dijet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV that is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. We use data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-$\\rm k_T$ algorithm on particle flow objects. The dijet momentum balance and angular correlations are studied as a function of collision centrality and leading jet momentum. For the most peripheral PbPb collisions, good agreement of the dijet momentum balance distributions with pp data and reference calculations at the same collision energy is found. However, more central collisions show a strong imbalance of leading and subleading jet transverse momenta, confirming the previous observations made using a smaller dataset. The extended jet transverse momentum range significantly increases the discriminatory power of the measurement for different models of parton energy loss in hot QCD matter.

  14. [Different aspects of the cognitive activities of patients with schizophrenia. IV. Imbalance between assertions and negations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, G; Azorin, J M; Dufour, H; Tissot, R

    1990-12-01

    Not being able to equilibrate affirmations and negations, the schizophrenic patient accedes only exceptionally to the majoring equilibrations of the second and third levels. In the logico-mathematic field, he does not approach the constructive synthetizing generalisations of reasoning. Lacking reflective abstraction, he cannot balance his logico-mathematic reasoning and differentiate what is structurally possible from what is materially possible, thus explaining his inaccessibility to perceive logic necessities, contrasting with the certainties of his delirium. In the logico-experimental domain, he reaches only rarely clause reasoning generalisation, and relapses regularly to the level of inappropriate generalisations of the extended inductive type. It is useless to try to find the "primum movens" of his difficulties, either in his imbalance assimilation/accommodation, or in his impossibility to see his contradictions, or even in his incapacity to equilibrate affirmations and negations. The majoring equilibrations, of which he is unable, are the functional expression of structures which do not follow the linear causality of Laplace's determinism but the circular causality characteristic of teleonomic processes. After a month of neuroleptic treatment, the decompensated schizophrenic's balance between assimilation and accommodation is partially restored.

  15. Improving classification of mature microRNA by solving class imbalance problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaoye; Tao, Bairui

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~20–25 nucleotides non-coding RNAs, which regulated gene expression in the post-transcriptional level. The accurate rate of identifying the start sit of mature miRNA from a given pre-miRNA remains lower. It is noting that the mature miRNA prediction is a class-imbalanced problem which also leads to the unsatisfactory performance of these methods. We improved the prediction accuracy of classifier using balanced datasets and presented MatFind which is used for identifying 5‧ mature miRNAs candidates from their pre-miRNA based on ensemble SVM classifiers with idea of adaboost. Firstly, the balanced-dataset was extract based on K-nearest neighbor algorithm. Secondly, the multiple SVM classifiers were trained in orderly using the balance datasets base on represented features. At last, all SVM classifiers were combined together to form the ensemble classifier. Our results on independent testing dataset show that the proposed method is more efficient than one without treating class imbalance problem. Moreover, MatFind achieves much higher classification accuracy than other three approaches. The ensemble SVM classifiers and balanced-datasets can solve the class-imbalanced problem, as well as improve performance of classifier for mature miRNA identification. MatFind is an accurate and fast method for 5‧ mature miRNA identification.

  16. Imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes in mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tanino, Motohiko; Matoba, Ryo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-09-15

    Oocytes have unique characteristics compared with other cell types. In mouse and human oocytes, two X chromosomes are maintained in the active state. Previous microarray studies have shown that the balance of the expression state is maintained in haploid oocytes. Here, we investigated transcripts using RNA-sequence technology in mouse and human oocytes. The median expression ratio between X chromosome and autosomal genes (X:A) in immature mouse oocytes increased as the gene expression levels increased, reaching a value of 1. However, the ratio in mature oocytes was under 1 for all expression categories. Moreover, we observed a markedly low ratio resulting from the bimodal expression patterns of X-linked genes. The low X:A expression ratio in mature oocyte was independent of DNA methylation. While mature human oocytes exhibited a slightly low X:A expression ratio, this was the result of the skewed high frequency of lowly expressed X-linked genes rather than the bimodal state. We propose that this imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes is a feature of transcripts in mammalian oocytes lacking X-chromosome inactivation.

  17. Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David

    2013-12-01

    The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health.

  18. [Development of a questionnaire for measuring effort-reward imbalance in household and family work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Engelke, Sonja; Noeres, Dorothee; Collatz, Jürgen; Geyer, Siegfried

    2009-05-01

    Siegrists concept of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) had been shown to be associated with a broad range of health impairments, in particular cardiovascular diseases and depression. The original questionnaire was designed to assess ERI in the field of occupational work. This paper reports on a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of ERI in household and family work. Analogous to the original version, it is divided into two components: (i) dysbalance of effort and reward (extrinsic component), and (ii) over-commitment (intrinsic components). The questionnaire was tested with data drawn from a clinical sample of mothers (n = 567) in rehabilitation clinics. Factor analyses have reproduced the two main dimensions "effort" and "reward". Relevant aspects of reward at home were (i) meaningfulness, (ii) social gratification, (iii) appreciation from the spouse, and (iv) affection for the child. Finally a 19-item questionnaire for assessing ERI in household and family work (ERI-M) and a four-item measure for measuring parental over-commitment (Over-M) are available. The psychometric properties of both instruments are good to satisfactory.

  19. Classifier transfer with data selection strategies for online support vector machine classification with class imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Mario Michael; Wilshusen, Nils; Seeland, Anett; Kim, Su Kyoung

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Classifier transfers usually come with dataset shifts. To overcome dataset shifts in practical applications, we consider the limitations in computational resources in this paper for the adaptation of batch learning algorithms, like the support vector machine (SVM). Approach. We focus on data selection strategies which limit the size of the stored training data by different inclusion, exclusion, and further dataset manipulation criteria like handling class imbalance with two new approaches. We provide a comparison of the strategies with linear SVMs on several synthetic datasets with different data shifts as well as on different transfer settings with electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Main results. For the synthetic data, adding only misclassified samples performed astoundingly well. Here, balancing criteria were very important when the other criteria were not well chosen. For the transfer setups, the results show that the best strategy depends on the intensity of the drift during the transfer. Adding all and removing the oldest samples results in the best performance, whereas for smaller drifts, it can be sufficient to only add samples near the decision boundary of the SVM which reduces processing resources. Significance. For brain-computer interfaces based on EEG data, models trained on data from a calibration session, a previous recording session, or even from a recording session with another subject are used. We show, that by using the right combination of data selection criteria, it is possible to adapt the SVM classifier to overcome the performance drop from the transfer.

  20. Susceptibility to Heat-Related Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Heidari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.

  1. The Nano-filters as the tools for the management of the water imbalance in the human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Kontar, V.

    2011-12-01

    The imbalance of water in the human society there is some situation where the water demand is not equivalent to the water supply. We are talking now about the shortage of some clear water which suitable for human use, animals, plants, technologies etc. There are existing some various imbalances of water in the human society, but about this will be other publications. The humanity has have the millennial experience of the water imbalance management. The novelty of the matter is the new nano-materials which offer a lot of the new principles more effective management of the water imbalance in the human society. The nano-materials have typical pore size 0.001 micron (1 nano-meter). There are some metal-containing nano-particles, CNTs, fullerene, graphene, zeolites and dendrimers etc, The nano-materials have unique physicochemical properties due to their large surface areas, size and shape-dependent optical, electronic, and catalytic properties that make them very useful for separation components some various stuff and water also. They have ability to functionalize with various chemical groups to increase their affinity toward a desired compound. The silver nano-wires have established a variety of applications, including transparent conductive electrodes for solar cells and optoelectronic. The salt of silver i.e. bulk silver shows photo-catalytic properties. The gold decorated silver nano-wires film may clean the organic molecule while irradiated with either commercial bulb or sun light. The mat (membrane) papers of nano-wires may clean up spilled oil at sea and organic pollutants in water. Arsenic-poisoned drinking water is a global problem, affecting people in Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Europe. Tiny bits of iron oxide that are smaller than living cells known as nanorust, which naturally binds with arsenic, could be used as a low-cost means of removing arsenic from water. Nano-tea bag purifies water on a small scale. The sachets are made up from the

  2. Effects of gear box vibration and mass imbalance on the dynamics of multi-stage gear transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Fred K.; Tu, Yu K.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission system, with the effects of gear-box-induced vibrations and rotor mass-imbalances is analyzed. The model method, using undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degree-of-freedom of the system. The various rotor-bearing stages as well as lateral and torsional vibrations of each individual stage are coupled through localized gear-mesh-tooth interactions. Gear-box vibrations are coupled to the gear stage dynamics through bearing support forces. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domain. A typical three-staged geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass-imbalance and gear box vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  3. Delayed recovery due to exaggerated acid, base and electrolyte imbalance in prolonged laparoscopic repair of diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The acid, base and electrolyte changes are usually observed in the perioperative settings. We report a case of prolonged laparoscopic repair of left-sided diaphragmatic hernia which involved a lot of tissue handling and fluid replacement leading to acid, base and electrolyte imbalance. A 42-year-old male underwent prolonged laparoscopic repair under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, surgeon reported that contents of hernia includes bowel along with mesentery, spleen and lot of fatty tissue The blood loss was about 2 L which was replaced with 1 L of colloid and 7.5 L of lactated ringer. Near the end of surgery arterial blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hypocalcemia leading to delayed recovery. We conclude prolonged laparoscopic surgery involving lot of tissue handling including gut and fat should be monitored for acid, base, electrolyte imbalance and corrected timely to have uneventful rapid recovery.

  4. Detection of capacity imbalance in vanadium electrolyte and its electrochemical regeneration for all-vanadium redox-flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya; Herr, Tatjana; Küttinger, Michael; Fühl, Matthias; Noack, Jens; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A vanadium electrolyte for redox-flow batteries (VRFB) with different VIII and VIV mole fractions has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. Spectrophotometric detection enables a rough estimate of the VIV and VIII content, which can be used to detect an electrolyte capacity imbalance, i.e. a deviation in the mole fraction of VIV or VIII away from 50%. The isosbestic point at 600 nm can be used as a reference point in the analysis of common VRFB electrolyte batches. The VRFB electrolyte is observed to have an imbalance after prolonged storage (a couple of years) in a tank under ambient conditions. A regeneration procedure, which involves pre-charging the unbalanced electrolyte and mixing part of it with a portion of initial unbalanced electrolyte, has been tested. The resulting rebalanced electrolyte has been compared with a common electrolyte in a charge-discharge cell test and is shown to be suitable for cell operation.

  5. Efficiency of physical therapy on postural imbalance after stroke: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugues, A; Di Marco, J; Janiaud, P; Xue, Y; Pires, J; Khademi, H; Cucherat, M; Bonan, I; Gueyffier, F; Rode, G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke frequently results in balance disorders, leading to lower levels of activity and a diminution in autonomy. Current physical therapies (PT) aiming to reduce postural imbalance have shown a large variety of effects with low levels of evidence. The objectives are to determine the efficiency of PT in recovering from postural imbalance in patients after a stroke and to assess which PT is more effective. Methods and analysis We will search several databases from inception to October 2015. Only randomised controlled trials assessing PT to recover from poststroke postural imbalance in adults will be considered. Outcome measures will be the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), the ‘weight-bearing asymmetry’ (WBA), the ‘centre of pressure’ (COP) and the ‘limit of stability’ (LOS). WBA, COP and LOS are measured by a (sitting or standing) static evaluation on force plate or another device. Two independent reviewers will screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles, evaluate the risk of bias and will perform data extraction. In addition to the outcomes, measures of independence will be analysed. This study will aim at determining the effects of PT on the function (WBA, COP, LOS), the activity (BBS, PASS) and the independence of patients. Subgroup analyses will be planned according to the location of brain lesion (hemispheric, brainstem or cerebellum), the time since stroke (early, late, chronic), the PT (type, main aim (direct effect or generalisation), overall duration), the type of approaches (top-down or bottom-up) and the methodological quality of studies. Ethics and dissemination No ethical statement will be required. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This meta-analysis aims at managing the rehabilitation after postural imbalance by PT after a stroke. Trial registration number Prospero CRD42016037966;Pre-results. PMID:28137928

  6. Groin Pain and Muscular Imbalance of Quadriceps and Hamstrings in an Elite Soccer Player - A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, O; Kelm, J

    2016-08-01

    Soccer and football players are exposed to a high risk of groin pain. In some cases, the pubic symphysis is the origin of the problems.This article presents a case report of a young elite soccer player who, over a period of two years, suffered from pain in the groin and symphysis area. The right leg was the kicking leg. Imaging techniques did not reveal pathological findings. Sports hernia, osteomyelitis, enthesopathy, adductor tendonitis, and muscle sprains, as well as rheumatic or urogenital disorders were excluded.A 3 D posture analysis was performed to examine the statics of the body and pelvis. The maximum isometric strength of the left and right leg adductors and abductors, as well as the knee flexors and extensors were measured.We found a muscular imbalance resulting from the type of sport the athlete engaged in with an unfavourable ratio between the right knee extensor and flexor muscles. Comparing sides, an imbalance was also identified between the right and left knee extensor. This imbalance resulted in a one-sided forward tilt of the right hemi-pelvis. This pelvic torsion may lead to an increase in shear forces in the pubic symphysis, which we suspected to be the reason for the recurring problems.After three months of specific training exercises, the pelvic position was harmonised and the muscular imbalances were significantly reduced. Even 6 months after completion of the specific training exercises, the player remained without complaints despite his unvaried soccer training intensity.Causal treatment of functional pain in the groin or symphysis area should take into account the ipsilateral and contralateral strength ratios of the knee extensors and flexors as well as the three-dimensional position of the pelvis.

  7. Does occupational gender segregation influence the association of effort-reward imbalance with myocardial infarction in the SHEEP study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Richard; Hammarström, Anne; Hallqvist, Johan; Siegrist, Johannes; Theorell, Töres

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether occupational gender segregation moderates the association between job stress in terms of effort-reward imbalance and the risk of myocardial infarction. This analysis was conducted in 1,381 cases and 1,697 referents of the Swedish SHEEP case control study aged 45-70 years. Information on myocardial infarction and biological coronary risk factors (e.g. hypertension, blood lipids) was achieved from clinical screenings. Information on socio-demographic variables, effort-reward imbalance, behavioral coronary risk factors (e.g., smoking), and additional coronary risk factors (e.g., diabetes, family history of coronary heart disease) was derived from well-tested standardized questionnaires. After adjustment for confounders the strongest association between overcommitment (the intrinsic component of effort-reward imbalance) and risk of belonging to the myocardial infarction group was found among women in male-dominated jobs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.13-6.52) as compared to the remaining group (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.01-2.31). Moreover, a significant interaction between pronounced overcommitment and male domination in relation to myocardial infarction was observed among women (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.05-5.67). In men, an association between the ratio of effort and reward (the extrinsic component of the model) and risk of myocardial infarction was found for the majority, that is the group not working in women-dominated jobs (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.04-1.86). Despite methodological limitations, this study gives preliminary evidence of a moderating effect of occupational gender segregation on the association of effort-reward imbalance (i.e., the intrinsic model component overcommitment) with acute myocardial infarction risk among women, but not among men.

  8. Effect of intracranial hypertension on cerebral hemorrhage induced autonomic nerve imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelong Jin; Wenli Jing; Fengxia Yan; Zhaoqiang Zhang; Fengjun Lü; Shuiqing Jing; Na Sun; Kazushige Mizoguchi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause the imbalance of nerve function, whereas its mechanism and main impact factors are still not quite clear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the rules about the changes of intracranial pressure in brainstem hemorrhage and internal capsule hemorrhage, and analyze the role of intracranial hypertension in the changes of nerve function caused by cerebral hemorrhage.DESIGN: A self-controlled trial.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Tianjin Medical University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five healthy male Japanese white rabbits with long ears (1.5-1.8 kg) were supplied and fed by the Department of Animal Experiment of Tianjin Medical University. The RM6240B biological signal collecting and processing system was used.METHODS: The experiments were conducted in the Department of Physiology, Tianjin Medical University from August 2001 to May 2006. ① The rabbits were anesthetized, then fixed onto the brain stereotaxic apparatus, and afterwards fenestration on skull and intubation to lateral ventricle were performed. The dynamic changes of intracranial pressure were monitored continuously. Rabbits were infused with autologous arterial blood (0.3 mL) into midbrain corpora quadrigemina inferior colliculus to induce model of acute brainstem hemorrhage; models of internal capsule hemorrhage were established by infusing autologous arterial blood into internal capsule. ② The dynamic intracranial pressures under the above conditions were recorded continuously with the RM6240B biological signal collecting and processing system. ③ An animal model of persistent intracranial hypertension was established by infusion of physiologic saline into lateral ventricle. ④ The changes of the intensity of autonomic nerve discharge were analyzed, using the biological signal collecting and processing system before and after hemorrhage and under persistent intracranial hypertension. ⑤ Ten animal models of internal capsule hemorrhage and 10 of brainstem hemorrhage were selected

  9. Analysis of Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the NWPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Bayless, Rich; Symonds, Mark; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Wu, Di; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Kannberg, Landis D.; Guo, Tao; Dennison-Leonard , Sarah; Goodenough, Mike; Schellberg, Ron; Conger, Sid; Harris, Kevin; Rarity, Matt; Wallace, Steven; Austin, Jamie; Noteboom, Rod; Van Blaricom , Tim; McRunnel, Kim; Apperson, John; Empey, Marshall; Etingov, Pavel V.; Warady, Debra; Brush, Ray; Newkirk, Joshua; Williams, Peter; Landauer, Marv; Owen, Hugh; Morter, Wayne; Haraguchi, Keli; Portouw, Jim; Downey, kathryn; Sorey, Steve; Williams, Stan; Gossa, Teyent; Kalich, Clint; Damiano, Patrick; Macarthur, Clay; Martin, Tom; Hoerner, Joe; Knudsen, Steve; Johnson, Anders; Link, Rick; Holcomb, Dennis

    2013-10-18

    The Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) Market Assessment Committee (MC) Initiative, which was officially launched on March 19, 2012, set out to explore a range of alternatives that could help the Balancing Authorities and scheduling utilities in the NWPP area address growing operational and commercial challenges affecting the regional power system. The MC formed an Analytical Team with technical representatives from each of the member Balancing Areas in the NWPP and with staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This Analytical Team was instructed to conduct extensive studies of intra-hour operation of the NWPP system in the year 2020 and of the NWPP region with 14,671 MW of wind penetration. The effort utilized a sub-hourly production cost model (the PLEXOS® computer model) that inputs data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)-wide Production Cost Model (PCM) to evaluate potential production cost savings. The Analytical Team was given two general options to evaluate: •Energy Imbalance Market (EIM): establishment of an automated, organized NWPP area market for economically supplying energy imbalance within the hour. •Enhanced Market-Operational Tools (EMT) that might augment or replace an EIM. The Analytical The Analytical Team built on the WECC-wide PCM data from prior work done in the WECC and carried forward the evolution of the original WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) 2020 PC0 data base. A large number of modifications and improvements were made to this case and the data were subjected to extensive review by the team members to improve the model representation of the Northwest (NW). MC meetings that were open to the public were held for interested parties to review and provide input to the study. Results for the test, base, and sensitivity case studies performed by the MC Initiative Analytical Team indicate that there are a wide range of benefits that could be obtained from the operation of an EIM in

  10. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effort-reward imbalance at work is predicted by temporal and energetic characteristics of behavior: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Hintsa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Personality dispositions may influence perceptions of work stress. The paper examines the relationship between temperament in terms of Strelau's Regulative Theory of Temperament and the effort-reward imbalance and its components. Material and Methods: There were 890 participants (360 men aged 37.9 years on average. Temperament traits of briskness and perseveration (temporal characteristics of behavior, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance and activity (energetic characteristics of behavior were measured by Strelau & Zawadzki's Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI in 1997 and 2001. Effort and reward at work were assessed with the original effortreward imbalance (ERI questionnaire of 2007. Results: Higher ERI at work was predicted by higher emotional reactivity, higher perseveration, lower briskness, and lower endurance. Higher effort and lower rewards at work were predicted by higher perseveration and lower endurance. The FCB-TI temperament characteristics accounted for 5.2%, 4.8% and 6.5% of the variance in the ERI, effort and reward, respectively. Lower emotional reactivity, lower perseveration, higher briskness and higher endurance predicted higher esteem at work, job promotion and job security. Conclusions: Individual differences in arousability, reflected in temporal and energetic characteristics of behavior, may predispose to or to protect from an effort-reward imbalance at work. Individual differences should be acknowledged in work stress prevention and developing interventions.

  12. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  13. Subcutaneous vaccination with Porphyromonas gingivalis ameliorates periodontitis by modulating Th17/Treg imbalance in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linyuan; Guan, Ning; Jin, Ying; Lin, Xiaoping; Gao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    To date, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) vaccination has been studied only in animals, and no effective prophylactic human periodontal vaccine has been developed, with the reason for the failure of prophylactic human periodontal vaccines unknown. T helper 17 cell (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cell responses play an important role in the development of periodontitis, and a Th17/Treg imbalance causes the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, whether vaccination with P. gingivalis can prevent periodontitis through modulation of the Th17/Treg imbalance remains unknown. In this study, mice were subcutaneously vaccinated with formalin-killed P. gingivalis and then orally challenged with P. gingivalis. The vaccination protected the mice from alveolar bone resorption and inflammation. These protective effects might be ascribed to downregulation of Th17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17A production, upregulation of Treg and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)(+)CD4(+)T cells, and IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 production, and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. Our findings may provide a direction for the development of a vaccine or therapy against periodontitis by alteration of the Th17/Treg imbalance.

  14. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  15. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity and Children’s Rights in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Blay-Palmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa’s ‘power cube’ that describes different facets of power – including spaces, levels and forms – is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neo-liberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations and a novel governance initiative from the energy sector provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights based policy and action. Given increased global pressures towards more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protecting the most vulnerable in society.

  16. Neck strength imbalance correlates with increased head acceleration in soccer heading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezman, Zachary D W; Ledet, Eric H; Kerr, Hamish A

    2013-07-01

    Soccer heading is using the head to directly contact the ball, often to advance the ball down the field or score. It is a skill fundamental to the game, yet it has come under scrutiny. Repeated subclinical effects of heading may compound over time, resulting in neurologic deficits. Greater head accelerations are linked to brain injury. Developing an understanding of how the neck muscles help stabilize and reduce head acceleration during impact may help prevent brain injury. Neck strength imbalance correlates to increasing head acceleration during impact while heading a soccer ball. Observational laboratory investigation. Sixteen Division I and II collegiate soccer players headed a ball in a controlled indoor laboratory setting while player motions were recorded by a 14-camera Vicon MX motion capture system. Neck flexor and extensor strength of each player was measured using a spring-type clinical dynamometer. Players were served soccer balls by hand at a mean velocity of 4.29 m/s (±0.74 m/s). Players returned the ball to the server using a heading maneuver at a mean velocity of 5.48 m/s (±1.18 m/s). Mean neck strength difference was positively correlated with angular head acceleration (rho = 0.497; P = 0.05), with a trend toward significance for linear head acceleration (rho = 0.485; P = 0.057). This study suggests that symmetrical strength in neck flexors and extensors reduces head acceleration experienced during low-velocity heading in experienced collegiate players. Balanced neck strength may reduce head acceleration cumulative subclinical injury. Since neck strength is a measureable and amenable strength training intervention, this may represent a modifiable intrinsic risk factor for injury.

  17. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and video head impulse test in patients with vertigo, dizziness and imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Magdalena Krbot; Adamec, Ivan; Pavičić, Tin; Pavlović, Ivan; Ruška, Berislav; Crnošija, Luka; Habek, Mario

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and video head impulse test (vHIT) results in patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness. We retrospectively analyzed data of all patients with the chief complaint of vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance that underwent VEMP and vHIT from January 2015 to January 2016. A total of 117 patients (73 females, mean age 53.92±16.76) fulfilled inclusion criteria: group 1 included patients with the final diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) (N=31 (16 right and 15 left VN)), group 2 included patients with the final diagnosis of vertigo of central origin (N=23) and group 3 included patients with the final diagnosis of unspecified dizziness (N=63). There was significant correlation between oVEMP asymmetry and asymmetry of the lateral canals 60ms gains on vHIT (r=0.225, p=0.026). Significant correlation between oVEMP and vHIT asymmetry was present in VN patients (r=0.749, p<0.001), while no correlation was found in the groups 2 and 3. oVEMP and vHIT lateral canals asymmetries were significantly greater in patients with vestibular neuritis. Furthermore, positive correlations of oVEMP amplitudes with 60ms gain of the lateral semicircular canal and slope of the anterior semicircular canal on vHIT, and cVEMP with slope of the posterior semicircular canal on the vHIT were found. These changes were significantly more pronounced in patients with vestibular neuritis. In conclusion, VEMPs and vHIT data should be used complementarily; asymmetry on both tests strongly supports peripheral vestibular system involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential source of homeostatic imbalance markers associated with obesity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paula; Reynés, Bàrbara; Caimari, Antoni; Palou, Andreu

    2013-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have a great potential for nutrition and obesity studies. PBMC reflect the nutritional response of key organs involved in energy homeostasis maintenance, which is altered in the obese state. Here, we aimed to determine the usefulness of PBMC as a source of early markers of obesity. To that purpose, we analysed whether PBMC could reflect the insensitivity to changes in feeding conditions associated with obesity during the development of this pathology. Expression of key genes central to energy metabolism was measured by Q-PCR in PBMC samples of normoweight (control) and cafeteria-fed (obese) rats in feeding, fasting and refeeding conditions. Samples were obtained monthly from 2 (beginning of cafeteria diet-feeding) to 6 months of age. In general terms, expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Srebp1) and adipogenesis (Pparg) decreased with fasting and increased with refeeding. Conversely, the expression of a key gene regulating beta-oxidation (Cpt1a) and the gene for an orexigenic neuropeptide (Npy)-in accordance with their metabolic role-increased with fasting and decreased with refeeding. This expression pattern disappeared in obese rats, in which insensitivity to feeding conditions was observed after only 1 month of cafeteria diet-feeding. Thus, during development, PBMC accurately reflect nutritional regulation of energy homeostasic genes and the insensitivity to feeding associated with obesity, even in the earlier stages with a low degree of overweight. For this reason, this set of blood cells could constitute a potential source of biomarkers of early homeostatic imbalance which would be useful in nutrition studies that could help prevent the occurrence of obesity.

  19. Identification of the dynamic operating envelope of HCCI engines using class imbalance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Nguyen, XuanLong; Sterniak, Jeff; Assanis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a futuristic automotive engine technology that can significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. HCCI engine operation is constrained by combustion instabilities, such as knock, ringing, misfires, high-variability combustion, and so on, and it becomes important to identify the operating envelope defined by these constraints for use in engine diagnostics and controller design. HCCI combustion is dominated by complex nonlinear dynamics, and a first-principle-based dynamic modeling of the operating envelope becomes intractable. In this paper, a machine learning approach is presented to identify the stable operating envelope of HCCI combustion, by learning directly from the experimental data. Stability is defined using thresholds on combustion features obtained from engine in-cylinder pressure measurements. This paper considers instabilities arising from engine misfire and high-variability combustion. A gasoline HCCI engine is used for generating stable and unstable data observations. Owing to an imbalance in class proportions in the data set, the models are developed both based on resampling the data set (by undersampling and oversampling) and based on a cost-sensitive learning method (by overweighting the minority class relative to the majority class observations). Support vector machines (SVMs) and recently developed extreme learning machines (ELM) are utilized for developing dynamic classifiers. The results compared against linear classification methods show that cost-sensitive nonlinear ELM and SVM classification algorithms are well suited for the problem. However, the SVM envelope model requires about 80% more parameters for an accuracy improvement of 3% compared with the ELM envelope model indicating that ELM models may be computationally suitable for the engine application. The proposed modeling approach shows that HCCI engine misfires and high-variability combustion can be predicted ahead of time

  20. Enrichment of ultraconserved elements among genomic imbalances causing mental delay and congenital anomalies

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    Mayo Sonia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultraconserved elements (UCEs are defined as stretches of at least 200 base pairs of human DNA that match identically with corresponding regions in the mouse and rat genomes, albeit their real significance remains an intriguing issue. These elements are most often located either overlapping exons in genes involved in RNA processing or in introns or nearby genes involved in the regulation of transcription and development. Interestingly, human UCEs have been reported to be strongly depleted among segmental duplications and benign copy number variants (CNVs. However no comprehensive survey of a putative enrichment of these elements among pathogenic dose variants has yet been reported. Results A survey for UCEs was performed among the 26 cryptic genomic rearrangements detected in our series of 200 patients with idiopathic neurodevelopmental disorders associated to congenital anomalies. A total of 29 elements, out of the 481 described UCEs, were contained in 13 of the 26 pathogenic gains or losses detected in our series, what represents a highly significant enrichment of ultraconserved elements. In addition, here we show that these elements are preferentially found in pathogenic deletions (enrichment ratio 3.6 vs. 0.5 in duplications, and that this association is not related with a higher content of genes. In contrast, pathogenic CNVs lacking UCEs showed almost a threefold higher content in genes. Conclusions We propose that these elements may be interpreted as hallmarks for dose-sensitive genes, particularly for those genes whose gain or loss may be directly implied in neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, their presence in genomic imbalances of unknown effect might be suggestive of a clinically relevant condition.

  1. Imbalance of Fecal Microbiota at Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Chinese Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Juan Qi; Qian Zhang; Miao Yu; Jian-Ping Xu; Jia Zheng; Tong Wang; Xin-Hua Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Recent studies have indicated that an imbalance of gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and there is no literature regarding it in Chinese children yet.The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration of gut microbiota between children with newly diagnosed T 1DM and healthy controls and to determine if gut microbiota could partly explain the etiology of this disease.Methods:A case-control study was carried out with 15 children with T 1DM and 15 healthy children.The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene and analyzed by the estimators of community richness (Chao) indexes.Results:There was a notable lower richness of fecal bacteria in T 1DM group than controls (156.53 ± 36.96 vs.130.0 ± 32.85,P =0.047).At the genus level,the composition of Blautia was increased in T 1DM group than control group whereas the composition of Haemophilus,Lachnospira,Dialister,and Acidaminococcus was decreased.In addition,we found that the percentage of Blautia was correlated positively with HbAlc (p =0.40,P =0.031),the numbers of T1DM autoantibodies (p =0.42,P =0.023),and the titers of tyrosine phosphatase autoantibodies (IA-2) (p =0.82,P =0.000) in the study.Conclusions:This study showed that gut microbiota was associated with the development of T1DM by affecting the autoimmunity,and the results suggested a potential therapy for T1DM via modulating the gut microbiota.

  2. Imbalance of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of active tuberculosis patients

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    Jie Luo

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Maintaining a right balance between Th17 and Treg might be critical to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis (TB. This study aimed to assess whether the Th17/Treg balance is altered in active TB patients. Methods: 250 study subjects (90 active TB patients, 80 latent TB subjects, and 80 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The expression of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in the 250 subjects was investigated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of cytokines IL-17 and IL-10, which are related to Th17 and Treg, respectively, were determined by ELISA. Results: The percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs from active TB patients were significantly higher than those from latent TB or control groups (Th17: 4.31 ± 1.35% vs. 1.58 ± 0.71% or 1.15 ± 0.49%, p < 0.05; Treg: 11.44 ± 2.69% vs. 7.54 ± 1.56% or 4.10 ± 0.99%, p < 0.05. The expression of IL-17 and IL-10 was significantly increased in active TB patients in comparison to that in latent TB or control groups (IL-17: 16.85 ± 9.68 vs. 7.23 ± 5.19 or 8.21 ± 5.51 pg/mL, p < 0.05; IL-10: 28.70 ± 11.27 vs. 20.25 ± 8.57 or 13.94 ± 9.00 pg/mL, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an altered balance of Treg/Th17 in active TB patients, with higher percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs. Further research on this imbalance may offer a new direction for TB treatment.

  3. Whole-plant adjustments in coconut (Cocos nucifera) in response to sink-source imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Roupsard, O; Jourdan, C; Dingkuhn, M

    2008-08-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial tropical monocotyledon that produces fruit continuously. The physiological function of the large amounts of sucrose stored in coconut stems is unknown. To test the hypothesis that reserve storage and mobilization enable the crop to adjust to variable sink-source relationships at the scale of the whole plant, we investigated the dynamics of dry matter production, yield and yield components, and concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in a coconut plantation on Vanuatu Island in the South Pacific. Two treatments were implemented continuously over 29 months (April 2002 to August 2004): 50% leaf pruning (to reduce the source) and 100% fruit and inflorescence pruning (to reduce the sink). The pruning treatments had little effect on carbohydrate reserves because they affected only petioles, not the main reserve pool in the stem. Both pruning treatments greatly reduced dry matter production of the reproductive compartment, but vegetative growth and development were negligibly affected by treatment and season. Leaf pruning increased radiation-use efficiency (RUE) initially, and fruit pruning greatly reduced RUE throughout the experiment. Changes in RUE were negatively correlated with leaflet soluble sugar concentration, indicating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. We conclude that vegetative development and growth of coconut show little phenotypic plasticity, assimilate demand for growth being largely independent of a fluctuating assimilate supply. The resulting sink-source imbalances were partly compensated for by transitory reserves and, more importantly, by variable RUE in the short term, and by adjustment of fruit load in the long term. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed, as well as modeling concepts that may be applied to coconut and similar tree crops.

  4. Cytokine imbalance in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, M; Rezaei, N; Shafieyoun, A; McKernan, D P; Chang, L; Öhman, L; Quigley, E M; Schmulson, M; Sharkey, K A; Simrén, M

    2014-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology; although infection and inflammation have recently been considered as important etiologic agents. A recent meta-analysis showed correlations between cytokine [interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] gene polymorphisms and IBS; however, it is still unknown whether patients with IBS have different cytokine profiles compared to healthy population. To determine the relationships between serum/plasma levels or mucosal expression of IL-10/TNF-α and IBS, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis based on case-control studies retrieved from PubMed and EMBASE search through August 2013. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was generated by using the inverse variance method. Heterogeneity was assessed based on I(2) values. Serum/plasma levels of TNF-α tended to be higher in IBS vs controls (p = 0.09); this reached significance in IBS subtypes vs controls and in female patients with IBS. However, serum/plasma levels of IL-10 were not significantly different in IBS patients vs controls. Further analysis of serum/plasma IL-10 levels in IBS subtypes did not show any difference; however, analysis based on gender showed a significantly lower serum/plasma IL-10 levels in male patients with IBS vs male controls (p = 0.02). Colonic IL-10 mRNA had a significantly lower expression in IBS vs control (p = 0.001). There is an imbalance of proinflammatory TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory IL-10, cytokines in IBS. Stratifying IBS patients based on cytokine profile may represent an opportunity for personalized treatment of this condition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biosemiotic Entropy of the Genome: Mutations and Epigenetic Imbalances Resulting in Cancer

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    Samuel S. Shepard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosemiotic entropy involves the deterioration of biological sign systems. The genome is a coded sign system that is connected to phenotypic outputs through the interpretive functions of the tRNA/ribosome machinery. This symbolic sign system (semiosis at the core of all biology has been termed “biosemiosis”. Layers of biosemiosis and cellular information management are analogous in varying degrees to the semiotics of computer programming, spoken, and written human languages. Biosemiotic entropy — an error or deviation from a healthy state — results from errors in copying functional information (mutations and errors in the appropriate context or quantity of gene expression (epigenetic imbalance. The concept of biosemiotic entropy is a deeply imbedded assumption in the study of cancer biology. Cells have a homeostatic, preprogrammed, ideal or healthy state that is rooted in genomics, strictly orchestrated by epigenetic regulation, and maintained by DNA repair mechanisms. Cancer is an eminent illustration of biosemiotic entropy, in which the corrosion of genetic information via substitutions, deletions, insertions, fusions, and aberrant regulation results in malignant phenotypes. However, little attention has been given to explicitly outlining the paradigm of biosemiotic entropy in the context of cancer. Herein we distill semiotic theory (from the familiar and well understood spheres of human language and computer code to draw analogies useful for understanding the operation of biological semiosis at the genetic level. We propose that the myriad checkpoints, error correcting mechanisms, and immunities are all systems whose primary role is to defend against the constant pressure of biosemiotic entropy, which malignancy must shut down in order to achieve advanced stages. In lieu of the narrower tumor suppressor/oncogene model, characterization of oncogenesis into the biosemiotic framework of sign, index, or object entropy may allow for more

  6. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children’s Rights in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa’s “power cube” that describes different facets of power – including spaces, levels, and forms – is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society. PMID:27563642

  7. Occupational commitment and job satisfaction mediate effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Miho; Watanabe, Ikue; Asakura, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    Occupational commitment and job satisfaction are major predictors of the intention to continue nursing. This study's purpose was to verify the mediating effects of job satisfaction and three components of occupational commitment on the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing. A self-report questionnaire was distributed to 3977 nurses by the nursing department of 12 hospitals in the Tohoku and Kanto districts of Japan in 2013. Of these, 1531 (response rate: 38.5%) nurses returned the questionnaire by mail and the complete data that were provided by 1241 nurses (valid response rate: 31.2%) were analyzed. Structural equation modeling showed that the effort-reward ratio had negative effects on job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment. Job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment had positive effects on the intention to continue nursing, whereas the effort-reward ratio had no direct effect on the intention to continue nursing. Continuance occupational commitment was not a mediator, but it positively influenced the intention to continue nursing. The findings suggest that it is important to increase job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment in order to enhance their buffering effects on the relationship between job stress and the intention to continue nursing. Measures to increase continuance occupational commitment also would be an effective method of strengthening the intention to continue nursing. Improvements in these areas should contribute to an increase in nurses' intention to continue nursing and prevent the loss of this precious human resource from the health sector. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Identification of allelic imbalance with a statistical model for subtle genomic mosaicism.

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    Rui Xia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic heterogeneity in a mixed sample of tumor and normal DNA can confound characterization of the tumor genome. Numerous computational methods have been proposed to detect aberrations in DNA samples from tumor and normal tissue mixtures. Most of these require tumor purities to be at least 10-15%. Here, we present a statistical model to capture information, contained in the individual's germline haplotypes, about expected patterns in the B allele frequencies from SNP microarrays while fully modeling their magnitude, the first such model for SNP microarray data. Our model consists of a pair of hidden Markov models--one for the germline and one for the tumor genome--which, conditional on the observed array data and patterns of population haplotype variation, have a dependence structure induced by the relative imbalance of an individual's inherited haplotypes. Together, these hidden Markov models offer a powerful approach for dealing with mixtures of DNA where the main component represents the germline, thus suggesting natural applications for the characterization of primary clones when stromal contamination is extremely high, and for identifying lesions in rare subclones of a tumor when tumor purity is sufficient to characterize the primary lesions. Our joint model for germline haplotypes and acquired DNA aberration is flexible, allowing a large number of chromosomal alterations, including balanced and imbalanced losses and gains, copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH and tetraploidy. We found our model (which we term J-LOH to be superior for localizing rare aberrations in a simulated 3% mixture sample. More generally, our model provides a framework for full integration of the germline and tumor genomes to deal more effectively with missing or uncertain features, and thus extract maximal information from difficult scenarios where existing methods fail.

  9. Shoulder problems in high level swimmers--impingement, anterior instability, muscular imbalance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, S; Berninger, K; Hopf, T

    1995-11-01

    The objective was to study prevalence and underlying pathology of "swimmer's shoulder". Twenty-two competitive swimmers of national "D-Kader" (elite development swimmers) were evaluated by means of questionnaire, clinical examination and isokinetic testing of external rotation and internal rotation. At the examination current interfering pain necessitating a cessation or reduction of practice was found in 5 (23%) athletes. At isokinetic testing 8 (36%) athletes complained of shoulder pain. Any history of pain was seen in 14 (64%) swimmers. A positive impingement sign was noted in 11 (50%) athletes. Apprehension sign which is indicative of anterior instability was found in 11 (50%) swimmers. Clinical equivalents of dysfunction of scapulothoracic muscles such as scapular winging (5 athletes) and shoulder protraction (12 athletes) were noted. For comparison of results of isokinetic testing a control group of non-swimmers was selected matching the group of swimmers exactly in terms of age, sex and dominant side. External rotation/internal rotation ratio of peak torque and total work at 60 deg/sec and 180 deg/sec was significantly lower in swimmers than in controls. The ratio was independent of sex, dominant side, history of pain and pain at examination. During internal rotation competitive swimmers produced significantly higher peak torques and total work than controls. There was no significant difference in external rotation. In conclusion there are several different abnormalities of function contributing to the pathology of "swimmer's shoulder":--Laxity of anterior-inferior capsuloligamentous structures with atruamatic anterior instability due to repetitive overload.--Impingement with rotator cuff tendinitis.--Muscular imbalance of the rotator cuff muscles and scapulothoracic dysfunction.

  10. Imbalance in the intestinal microbiota as a risk factor of cardiometabolic diseases

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    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the role of the intestinal microflora in the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, overweight / obesity and diabetes. It is well known that consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and cholesterol (meat, egg yolk and milk products with high fat content is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, new studies show that the atherogenic properties of these products are also due to the high content of L-carnitine and its structural analog choline, which, after entering the body is metabolized by intestinal bacteria up to trimethylamine (TMA, and then converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO having direct atherogenic action. It was found that elevated levels of TMAO increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac failure and death, including the common causes. In the center of international attention is also the question of the role of the intestinal microbiota imbalance in the development of insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, increase of the adhesive properties of macrophages, the appearance of dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, overweight. Attention of the doctors is focused on the extremely importance of maintaining a normal balance of the intestinal microbiota to prevent cardiometabolic diseases apart from implementation of already well-known and generally accepted preventive measures.

  11. Effects of water-electrolyte metabolism related to renin-angiotensin system and imprinting in the offspring rats induced by maternal hypoxia during pregnancy%妊娠期母鼠缺氧对子代肾素-血管紧张素系统及其水盐代谢调控的“印迹”效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何睿; 曹莉; 李世刚; 陈宁静; 徐智策; 茅彩萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of perinatal exposure to hypoxia on water-electrolyte metabolism related to rennin-angiotensin system (HAS) and "imprinting" effects in the offspring. Methods SD pregnant rats were individed into two groups randomly and were given different treatments. Fetal body weight, brain weight were measured at gestation 21 day (GD21). Blood gases, electrolytes and plasma osmotic pressure of both fetus and five-month old offsprings were measured. Intake of the 1.8% NaCl and water was measured following subcutaneous injection hypertonic saline in the offsprings, and an-giotensin receptors in the brain were determined. Results Maternal hypoxia during gestation significantly decreased GD21 fetal body weight, brain weight and plasma PO,and S03% level, but there were no different in offsprings. And there was no different of blood Na + /K+ concentrations and plasma osmolality either in fetus or in adult offspring rats regardless of perinatal exposure to hypoxia. To the offsprings following perinatal exposure to hypoxia, their salt appetite was significantly increased by subcutaneous injection hypertonic saline. Furthermore, in the forebrain of the offsprings with perinatal exposure to hypoxia, expression of angiotensin AT2 R but AT, R was reduced, and the ratio of AT, R/AT2 R was significantly increased compared to control offspring. Conclusion The results showed that stimulated salt intake can be affected by exposure to hypoxia in fetal origins, and the changed behavior was associated with the remodeled expression of AT5 and AT2 receptors in the forebrain of the offspring.%目的 研究妊娠期母鼠缺氧对子代肾素-血管紧张素系统(RAS)及其调控的水盐代谢的“印迹”效应.方法 妊娠母鼠随机分成缺氧组和对照组,缺氧组于妊娠第4~21 d放入缺氧舱(10.5%O2),对照组同期放入缺氧舱(21%O2).在妊娠21 d(GD21)测量对照组和缺氧组胎鼠的脑质量、体质量及其血液电解质、血

  12. The rs1024611 regulatory region polymorphism is associated with CCL2 allelic expression imbalance.

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    Minh-Hieu T Pham

    Full Text Available CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 is the most potent monocyte chemoattractant and inter-individual differences in its expression level have been associated with genetic variants mapping to the cis-regulatory regions of the gene. An A to G polymorphism in the CCL2 enhancer region at position -2578 (rs1024611; A>G, was found in most studies to be associated with higher serum CCL2 levels and increased susceptibility to a variety of diseases such as HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, tuberculosis, and atherosclerosis. However, the precise mechanism by which rs1024611influences CCL2 expression is not known. To address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that rs1024611G polymorphism is associated with allelic expression imbalance (AEI of CCL2. We used haplotype analysis and identified a transcribed SNP in the 3'UTR (rs13900; C>T can serve as a proxy for the rs1024611 and demonstrated that the rs1024611G allele displayed a perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs13900T allele. Allele-specific transcript quantification in lipopolysaccharide treated PBMCs obtained from heterozygous donors showed that rs13900T allele were expressed at higher levels when compared to rs13900C allele in all the donors examined suggesting that CCL2 is subjected to AEI and that that the allele containing rs1024611G is preferentially transcribed. We also found that AEI of CCL2 is a stable trait and could be detected in newly synthesized RNA. In contrast to these in vivo findings, in vitro assays with haplotype-specific reporter constructs indicated that the haplotype bearing rs1024611G had a lower or similar transcriptional activity when compared to the haplotype containing rs1024611A. This discordance between the in vivo and in vitro expression studies suggests that the CCL2 regulatory region polymorphisms may be functioning in a complex and context-dependent manner. In summary, our studies provide strong functional evidence and a rational explanation for the phenotypic

  13. Plasma neutrophil elastase and elafin imbalance is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted an exploratory study of genome-wide gene expression in whole blood and found that the expression of neutrophil elastase inhibitor (PI3, elafin was down-regulated during the early phase of ARDS. Further analyses of plasma PI3 levels revealed a rapid decrease during early ARDS development. PI3 and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI are important low-molecular-weight proteinase inhibitors produced locally at neutrophil infiltration site in the lung. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an imbalance between neutrophil elastase (HNE and its inhibitors in blood is related to the development of ARDS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PI3, SLPI, and HNE were measured in plasma samples collected from 148 ARDS patients and 63 critical ill patients at risk for ARDS (controls. Compared with the controls, the ARDS patients had higher HNE, but lower PI3, at the onset of ARDS, resulting in increased HNE/PI3 ratio (mean = 14.5; 95% CI, 10.9-19.4, P<0.0001, whereas plasma SLPI was not associated with the risk of ARDS development. Although the controls had elevated plasma PI3 and HNE, their HNE/PI3 ratio (mean = 6.5; 95% CI, 4.9-8.8 was not significantly different from the healthy individuals (mean = 3.9; 95% CI, 2.7-5.9. Before the onset (7-days period prior to ARDS diagnosis, we only observed significantly elevated HNE, but the HNE-PI3 balance remained normal. With the progress from prior to the onset of ARDS, the plasma level of PI3 declined, whereas HNE was maintained at a higher level, tilting the balance toward more HNE in the circulation as characterized by an increased HNE/PI3 ratio. In contrast, three days after ICU admission, there was a significant drop of HNE/PI3 ratio in the at-risk controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma profiles of PI3, HNE, and HNE/PI3 may be useful clinical biomarkers in monitoring the development of ARDS.

  14. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

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    Ørntoft Torben

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1 or high grade of dysplasia are at "high risk" of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. Methods To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with "high-risk" non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years. We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays. Results Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a "high-risk" tumor. However, about 25% of the "high-risk" tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Conclusion Chromosomal instability (CI was associated with "high risk

  15. Imbalance in Spatial Accessibility to Primary and Secondary Schools in China: Guidance for Education Sustainability

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    Yuan Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory education is an important aspect of the societal development. Meanwhile, education equality safeguards the effectiveness of education systems and is an important part of social equality. This study analyzes the inequality of compulsory education from the perspective of imbalanced spatial distribution. Unlike previous studies that have measured the spatial distribution of education simply based on the spatial position of primary and secondary schools, we explore spatial accessibility based on the shortest travel distance from residents to schools, and then analyze the inequality of compulsory education through the distribution of spatial accessibility. We use 2873 Chinese counties as statistical units, and perform a statistical and graphical analysis of their spatial accessibility using the Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analyses. To analyze the differences in the spatial accessibility distribution on the national and regional levels, we use three partitioned modes: the terrain partitioned mode, the economic development partitioned mode, and the province-level partitioned mode. We then analyze the spatial agglomeration characteristics and distribution patterns of compulsory education accessibility through global autocorrelation, local autocorrelation, and hot-spot and cold-spot analysis. The results demonstrate an obvious imbalance in the distribution of spatial accessibility to compulsory education at the national level. Accessibility and equality in eastern and central regions are significantly better than those in the western region; both are significantly better in coastal regions than in inland regions; and equality alone is better in the municipalities, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing, than in other provinces and autonomous regions. The spatial pattern analysis shows significant global autocorrelation and obvious clusters. Counties in cold-spot areas (clusters of good spatial accessibility are large in number

  16. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources

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    Maria eMooshammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition towards their resource in a non-homeostatic behaviour. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake, such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization. Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems.

  17. Pelvis morphology, trunk posture and standing imbalance and their relations to the Cobb angle in moderate and severe untreated AIS.

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    Georges Dalleau

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and usually affects young girls. Studies mostly describe the differences between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls and focus primarily on a single set of parameters derived from spinal and pelvis morphology, posture or standing imbalance. No study addressed all these three biomechanical aspects simultaneously in pre-braced AIS girls of different scoliosis severity but with similar curve type and their interaction with scoliosis progression. The first objective of this study was to test if there are differences in these parameters between pre-braced AIS girls with a right thoracic scoliosis of moderate (less than 27° and severe (more than 27° deformity. The second objective was to identify which of these parameters are related to the Cobb angle progression either individually or in combination of thereof. Forty-five scoliotic girls, randomly selected by an orthopedic surgeon from the hospital scoliosis clinic, participated in this study. Parameters related to pelvis morphology, pelvis orientation, trunk posture and quiet standing balance were measured. Generally moderate pre-brace idiopathic scoliosis patients displayed lower values than the severe group characterized by a Cobb angle greater than 27°. Only pelvis morphology and trunk posture were statistically different between the groups while pelvis orientation and standing imbalance were similar in both groups. Statistically significant Pearson coefficients of correlation between individual parameters and Cobb angle ranged between 0.32 and 0.53. Collectively trunk posture, pelvis morphology and standing balance parameters are correlated with Cobb angle at 0.82. The results suggest that spinal deformity progression is not only a question of trunk morphology distortion by itself but is also related to pelvis asymmetrical bone growth and standing neuromuscular imbalance.

  18. Dynamics of a lipid and metabolic imbalance on the background of a complex programs of rehabilitation at metabolic syndrome

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    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed the development and assessment of features of corrective action of a medical complex on a lipid imbalance at patients with obesity. Material and methods. For an assessment of features of corrective action of a medical complex on a lipid imbalance at patients with obesity in research I was 50 male patients with obesity and frustration of the reproductive sphere aged from 24 to 68 years were included, middle age was 38,5±6,1 years and 7 healthy persons, men of comparable age without any pathological states, results of which all researches were accepted to values of norm. To all patients included in research, except all-clinical inspection calculation of an index of body weight and the relation of a circle of a waist to a circle of hips, measurement of arterial pressure were applied questioning concerning food and food behavior, anthropometry (growth the body weight, a circle of a waist and hips. Besides all patients conducted laboratory methods the researches including definition of atherogenic fractions of lipids (the general cholesterol, triglycerides, LPNPand LPVP. Researches were conducted before treatment and after a course of treatment. Results. The effective complex program for restoration of reproductive function at patients with obesity is developed. Conclusion. Application of the developed comprehensive program more than its separate components caused the expressed reduction of body weight, mainly due to reduction of fatty tissue and manifestations of visceral obesity in patients with obesity and violation of reproductive function, including due to elimination of metabolic imbalance.

  19. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  20. Some Solution Approaches to Reduce the Imbalance of Workload in Parallel Machines while Planning in Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.Raghavendra,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The loading problem in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS is viewed as selecting a subset of jobs from a job pool and allocating the jobs among the machines. Balancing the workload on the parallel machines will reduce the bottleneck and improve the utilization of the machine tools. In this paper an effort is made for developing thestrategies in the pre-release / planning stage which will reduce the imbalance between the parallel machines. Two different strategies are developed and the traditional sequencing shortest and longest rocessing time rule is applied to determine the relative performance index. An illustrative example is accompanies with the shortest processing time.

  1. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture is extremely important to Sinaloa contributing 32.31% of the value of all national agricultural production, while the state occupies only 2.9% of the Mexico's area. However it has caused an imbalance in nature due to the low efficiency of irrigation being 49% and using 93% of the surface waters of the region, hence the importance of promoting water awareness. The Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa (PLECASIN) 2013- 2015 is a product of the workshop held with water advisers representing 14 utilities, and sponsored by CEAPAS and CONAGUA to address water resources issues in the state, low dam levels and the high level of non-payment, through involving society in the management of water resources. The workshop established strategies to achieve the objective of the National Water Awareness Program (PCA): "Contribute to strengthening the participation of users, organized society and citizens in water management and promote the culture of its good use, through consultation and promotion of cultural and educational activities in coordination with the states, to promote the importance of water resources in social welfare, economic development and the preservation of the ecological wealth, to achieve development sustainable of the nation". PLECASIN was developed using the methodology of strategic planning, beginning with a diagnosis of PCA and the development of strategies pertinent to the current environment in Sinaloa. Activities in the workshop included: defining the vision, mission and objectives, stakeholder analysis, SWOT Matrix, and finally the development of the Logical Framework Analysis Matrix. In addition, the workshop applied the PEEAES tools, using primarily the book of the 5 Waters and application of innovative technologies. The Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa designed and implemented an Environmental Education Strategy (PEEAES) to foster an environmental awareness through non-formal educational process and includes: a mobile environmental

  2. Contributions of muscle imbalance and impaired growth to postural and osseous shoulder deformity following brachial plexus birth palsy: a computational simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Cornwall, Roger; Crouch, Dustin L; Li, Zhongyu; Saul, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Two potential mechanisms leading to postural and osseous shoulder deformity after brachial plexus birth palsy are muscle imbalance between functioning internal rotators and paralyzed external rotators and impaired longitudinal growth of paralyzed muscles. Our goal was to evaluate the combined and isolated effects of these 2 mechanisms on transverse plane shoulder forces using a computational model of C5-6 brachial plexus injury. We modeled a C5-6 injury using a computational musculoskeletal upper limb model. Muscles expected to be denervated by C5-6 injury were classified as affected, with the remaining shoulder muscles classified as unaffected. To model muscle imbalance, affected muscles were given no resting tone whereas unaffected muscles were given resting tone at 30% of maximal activation. To model impaired growth, affected muscles were reduced in length by 30% compared with normal whereas unaffected muscles remained normal in length. Four scenarios were simulated: normal, muscle imbalance only, impaired growth only, and both muscle imbalance and impaired growth. Passive shoulder rotation range of motion and glenohumeral joint reaction forces were evaluated to assess postural and osseous deformity. All impaired scenarios exhibited restricted range of motion and increased and posteriorly directed compressive glenohumeral joint forces. Individually, impaired muscle growth caused worse restriction in range of motion and higher and more posteriorly directed glenohumeral forces than did muscle imbalance. Combined muscle imbalance and impaired growth caused the most restricted joint range of motion and the highest joint reaction force of all scenarios. Both muscle imbalance and impaired longitudinal growth contributed to range of motion and force changes consistent with clinically observed deformity, although the most substantial effects resulted from impaired muscle growth. Simulations suggest that treatment strategies emphasizing treatment of impaired longitudinal

  3. Prolonged exercise in type 1 diabetes: performance of a customizable algorithm to estimate the carbohydrate supplements to minimize glycemic imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Maria Pia; Stel, Giuliana; Stenner, Elisabetta; Geat, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is hindered because of the high risk of glycemic imbalances. A recently proposed algorithm (named Ecres) estimates well enough the supplemental carbohydrates for exercises lasting one hour, but its performance for prolonged exercise requires validation. Nine T1DM patients (5M/4F; 35-65 years; HbA1c 54 ± 13 mmol · mol(-1)) performed, under free-life conditions, a 3-h walk at 30% heart rate reserve while insulin concentrations, whole-body carbohydrate oxidation rates (determined by indirect calorimetry) and supplemental carbohydrates (93% sucrose), together with glycemia, were measured every 30 min. Data were subsequently compared with the corresponding values estimated by the algorithm. No significant difference was found between the estimated insulin concentrations and the laboratory-measured values (p = NS). Carbohydrates oxidation rate decreased significantly with time (from 0.84 ± 0.31 to 0.53 ± 0.24 g · min(-1), respectively; p exercise time (time effect, p = NS). Results confirm that Ecres provides a satisfactory estimate of the carbohydrates required to avoid glycemic imbalances during moderate intensity aerobic physical activity, opening the prospect of an intriguing method that could liberate patients from the fear of exercise-induced hypoglycemia.

  4. Upregulated Expression of microRNA-16 Correlates with Th17/Treg Cell Imbalance in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Hao; Liu, Wei; Xue, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cai, Yue; Duan, Ran

    2016-12-01

    To explore the correlation between miR-16 expression in T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and Th17/Treg imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Forty RA patients were recruited as the case group and further grouped as active RA and inactive RA groups; 21 healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Th17 and Treg were measured by flow cytometry, and their related cytokines were measured by FlowCytomix. RORγt, FoxP3 mRNA, and miR-16 expression in T cells was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was performed to measure RORγt and FoxP3 protein expression. RA patients showed upregulated Th17 and RORγt mRNA and protein expression compared with the controls (all p Treg and FoxP3 mRNA and protein expression compared with inactive RA patients and controls (all p Treg-related cytokines were lower in active RA patients than in controls (all p Treg cells of PBMCs (both p Treg cells was positively related with FoxP3 mRNA expression (both p Treg cells of PBMCs in RA patients was closely associated with the expression of RORγt and FoxP3. MiR-16 may be involved in Th17/Treg imbalance of RA patients by affecting the expression of RORγt and FoxP3.

  5. Detection of subtelomere imbalance using MLPA: validation, development of an analysis protocol, and application in a diagnostic centre

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    Hills Alison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial MLPA kits (MRC-Holland are available for detecting imbalance at the subtelomere regions of chromosomes; each kit consists of one probe for each subtelomere. Methods For validation of the kits, 208 patients were tested, of which 128 were known to be abnormal, corresponding to 8528 genomic regions overall. Validation samples included those with trisomy 13, 18 and 21, microscopically visible terminal deletions and duplications, sex chromosome abnormalities and submicroscopic abnormalities identified by multiprobe FISH. A robust and sensitive analysis system was developed to allow accurate interpretation of single probe results, which is essential as breakpoints may occur between MLPA probes. Results The validation results showed that MLPA is a highly efficient technique for medium-throughput screening for subtelomere imbalance, with 95% confidence intervals for positive and negative predictive accuracies of 0.951-0.996 and 0.9996-1 respectively. A diagnostic testing strategy was established for subtelomere MLPA and any subsequent follow-up tests that may be required. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated during 15 months of diagnostic testing when 455 patients were tested and 27 (5.9% abnormal cases were detected. Conclusion The development of a robust, medium-throughput analysis system for the interpretation of results from subtelomere assays will be of benefit to other Centres wishing to implement such an MLPA-based service.

  6. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

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    Teresa Partearroyo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations.

  7. Dynamic sagittal imbalance of the spine in degenerative flat back: significance of pelvic tilt in surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C S; Lee, C K; Kim, Y T; Hong, Y M; Yoo, J H

    2001-09-15

    A retrospective study of 26 patients with degenerative flat back treated with corrective osteotomy. To analyze dynamic sagittal imbalance and to elucidate the cause of postoperative persistent stooping in degenerative flat back. Sagittal spinal imbalance in degenerative flat back was more evident on walking, suggesting its dynamic nature. The most puzzling complication in its surgical treatment was postoperative persistent stooping. This study analyzed 26 surgically treated patients with preoperative gait analysis. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative improvement in stooping: Group 1 with marked improvement in stooping and Group 2 with persistent stooping. Various radiographic and gait parameters were compared between the two groups. Comparison of radiographic parameters, representing the static status of the spine, did not indicate any clue to the mechanism for persistent stooping. However, comparison of gait parameters, representing the dynamic status of the spine, revealed meaningful differences between the two groups. Among various gait parameters compared, pelvic tilt seemed to be the most important clue. Patients in Group 1 showed posterior pelvic tilt, whereas those in Group 2 showed marked anterior pelvic tilt. Degenerative flat back could be classified into two types based on pelvic position during walking: one with posterior pelvic tilt and the other with marked anterior pelvic tilt. In the former type, corrective surgery improved the stooping. In the latter, corrective surgery was ineffective, resulting in postoperative persistent stooping.

  8. Amorphous silica nanoparticles trigger nitric oxide/peroxynitrite imbalance in human endothelial cells: inflammatory and cytotoxic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan, J Jose; Medina, Carlos; Jacoby, Adam; Malinski, Tadeusz; Radomski, Marek W

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of noxious effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on human endothelial cells. Methods Nanoparticle uptake was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical nanosensors were used to measure the nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) released by a single cell upon nanoparticle stimulation. The downstream inflammatory effects were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Results We found that the silica nanoparticles penetrated the plasma membrane and rapidly stimulated release of cytoprotective NO and, to a greater extent, production of cytotoxic ONOO−. The low [NO]/[ONOO−] ratio indicated increased nitroxidative/oxidative stress and correlated closely with endothelial inflammation and necrosis. This imbalance was associated with nuclear factor κB activation, upregulation of key inflammatory factors, and cell death. These effects were observed in a nanoparticle size-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The [NO]/[ONOO−] imbalance induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles indicates a potentially deleterious effect of silica nanoparticles on vascular endothelium. PMID:22131828

  9. In vitro analysis of integrated global high-resolution DNA methylation profiling with genomic imbalance and gene expression in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekim Sadikovic

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to deregulation of gene expression and development of human cancer. Changes in DNA methylation are key epigenetic factors regulating gene expression and genomic stability. Recent progress in microarray technologies resulted in developments of high resolution platforms for profiling of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression changes. OS is a pediatric bone tumor with characteristically high level of numerical and structural chromosomal changes. Furthermore, little is known about DNA methylation changes in OS. Our objective was to develop an integrative approach for analysis of high-resolution epigenomic, genomic, and gene expression profiles in order to identify functional epi/genomic differences between OS cell lines and normal human osteoblasts. A combination of Affymetrix Promoter Tilling Arrays for DNA methylation, Agilent array-CGH platform for genomic imbalance and Affymetrix Gene 1.0 platform for gene expression analysis was used. As a result, an integrative high-resolution approach for interrogation of genome-wide tumour-specific changes in DNA methylation was developed. This approach was used to provide the first genomic DNA methylation maps, and to identify and validate genes with aberrant DNA methylation in OS cell lines. This first integrative analysis of global cancer-related changes in DNA methylation, genomic imbalance, and gene expression has provided comprehensive evidence of the cumulative roles of epigenetic and genetic mechanisms in deregulation of gene expression networks.

  10. Geographical imbalances: migration patterns of new graduate nurses and factors related to working in non-metropolitan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hyun; Lee, Ji Yun; Mark, Barbara A; Lee, Han Yi

    2012-12-01

    To examine geographical imbalances by analyzing new graduate nurses' migration patterns among regions where they grew up, attended nursing school, and had their first employment and to identify factors related to working in non-metropolitan areas. The sample consisted of 507 new graduates working in hospitals as full-time registered nurses in South Korea. Migration patterns were categorized into 5 patterns based on sequential transitions of "geographic origin-nursing school-hospital." Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with working in non-metropolitan hospitals. Nurses who grew up, graduated, and worked in the same region accounted for the greatest proportion (54%). Sixty-five percent had their first employment in the region where they graduated. Nurses tended to move from poor to rich regions and from non-metropolitan to metropolitan areas. Working in non-metropolitan hospitals was related to older age, the father having completed less than 4 years of college education, non-metropolitan origin, non-capital city school graduation, and a diploma (vs. baccalaureate) degree. Admitting students with rural backgrounds, increasing rural nursing school admission capacities, and providing service-requiring scholarships, particularly for students from low-income families, are recommended to address geographical imbalances.

  11. 1,4-Diamino-2-butanone, a putrescine analogue, promotes redox imbalance in Trypanosoma cruzi and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Chrislaine O; Colli, Walter; Bechara, Etelvino J H; Alves, Maria Julia M

    2012-12-15

    The putrescine analogue 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) is highly toxic to various microorganisms, including Trypanosoma cruzi. Similar to other α-aminocarbonyl metabolites, DAB exhibits pro-oxidant properties. DAB undergoes metal-catalyzed oxidation yielding H(2)O(2), NH(4)(+) ion, and a highly toxic α-oxoaldehyde. In vitro, DAB decreases mammalian cell viability associated with changes in redox balance. Here, we aim to clarify the DAB pro-oxidant effects on trypomastigotes and on intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes. DAB (0.05-5 mM) exposure in trypomastigotes, the infective stage of T. cruzi, leads to a decline in parasite viability (IC(50)c.a. 0.2 mM DAB; 4 h incubation), changes in morphology, thiol redox imbalance, and increased TcSOD activity. Medium supplementation with catalase (2.5 μM) protects trypomastigotes against DAB toxicity, while host cell invasion by trypomastigotes is hampered by DAB. Additionally, intracellular amastigotes are susceptible to DAB toxicity. Furthermore, pre-treatment with 100-500 μM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) of LLC-MK2 potentiates DAB cytotoxicity, whereas 5 mM N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) protects cells from oxidative stress. Together, these data support the hypothesis that redox imbalance contributes to DAB cytotoxicity in both T. cruzi and mammalian host cells.

  12. Imbalances in serum angiopoietin concentrations are early predictors of septic shock development in patients with post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand-Metze Irene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia carries a high risk of sepsis complications, and the identification of biomarkers capable to identify high risk patients is a great challenge. Angiopoietins (Ang - are cytokines involved in the control microvascular permeability. It is accepted that Ang-1 expression maintains endothelial barrier integrity, and that Ang-2 acts as an antagonizing cytokine with barrier-disrupting functions in inflammatory situations. Ang-2 levels have been recently correlated with sepsis mortality in intensive care units. Methods We prospectively evaluated concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 at different time-points during febrile neutropenia, and explored the diagnostic accuracy of these mediators as potential predictors of poor outcome in this clinical setting before the development of sepsis complications. Results Patients that evolved with septic shock (n = 10 presented higher levels of Ang-2 measured 48 hours after fever onset, and of the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio at the time of fever onset compared to patients with non-complicated sepsis (n = 31. These levels correlated with sepsis severity scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that imbalances in the concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 are independent and early markers of the risk of developing septic shock and of sepsis mortality in febrile neutropenia, and larger studies are warranted to validate their clinical usefulness. Therapeutic strategies that manipulate this Ang-2/Ang-1 imbalance can potentially offer new and promising treatments for sepsis in febrile neutropenia.

  13. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF SERUM ELETROLYTE (NA + , K + , CA ++ , PO 4 -- IMBALANCE IN SEVERE AND MODERATE TRAUMATIC HEAD INJURY

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    Anjeev Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Electrolyte abnormalities are common in patients with traumatic brain injury. Disturbances of serum sodium levels are among the most common and frequently occur in neurologically morbid patients and exacerbate their severity. Hypernatremia usually results from diabetes insipidus syndr ome, whereas hyponatremia develops due to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH or cerebral salt - wasting syndrome (CSWS and contribute to the high morbidity and mortality rates observed in these patients. The aim of this stud y is to measure the serum levels of Na + , K + , Ca ++ , PO 4 --- in head injury patients and find the range & compare the levels in severe and moderate head injury patients with mild head injury patients. METHOD: Na + , K + , Ca ++ , PO 4 --- levels of patients in age group 13 - 60 years were estimated by ion selective electrode method. RESULTS: it was found that most common electrolyte imbalance found is hyperphosphotemia (87% followed by hyponatremia (62.90%. In case of hyperelectrolytemia, h yperkalemia (46.6% to be the most common electrolyte imbalance in mild type of head injury whereas in severe and moderate cases hyperphosphotemia (28.40% is most common dyselectrolytemia. CONCLUSION: hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disbalanc e among Na+, K+, Ca++, PO4 --- in patients of traumatic head injury which is also very dangerous and need to be correct promptly.

  14. 从阴阳失调辨治失眠%Treating Insomnia from Imbalance of Yin and Yang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷凌云; 王蕴伶; 查青山

    2013-01-01

    中医药治疗失眠具有副作用小、消除症状快、临床疗效好等优势。失眠的病因病机:眠为阴,醒为阳,阳气重则醒,阴气重则眠,正常的睡眠是阴阳运行平衡的结果,心肾不交、脾胃不和、肝失疏泄、肺失宣降等导致阴阳的失调而引起失眠。无论病因虚实,均致阴阳失调,才是失眠的关键所在。%Chinese medicine treatment of insomnia have side effects,rapid elimination of symptoms,the clinical efficacy and good advantage. Pathogenesis of insomnia:sleep is yin,yang awake,yang weight is awake,chi while in sleep,normal sleep is the result of running balance of yin and yang,heart and kidney,stomach and liver failure catharsis,lung failure declared down as a result of the imbalance of yin and yang and cause insomnia. Regardless of cause actual situation,are caused by imbalance of yin and yang,is the key to insomnia.

  15. Dealing with load imbalances and aquifer heterogeneity : design and monitoring of the ATES system in Agassiz, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.M.; Bridger, D.W. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The development and implementation of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is often hindered by climate conditions that create load imbalances, and by complex hydrogeology that creates uncertainties in design. Due consideration was given to load imbalance and aquifer complexity in the case of the ATES system at Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada's new laboratory facility located in Agassiz, British Columbia. Heat and cold energy to the building are supplied by four production wells, with an operational design which favours seasonal energy storage. A fifth well was drilled so that it could act as a heat dissipation well. Blank and screen sections were placed in a manner to reduce or eliminate hydraulic and thermal short-circuiting within gravel layers between wells. Within the well field are monitoring wells, which are used for temperature logging. The temperature logs showed that some thermal breakthrough took place during the first year of operation, and that the system operated under an excessive cooling load throughout the period. 8 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. Targeting on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Related Nitric Oxide-Reactive Oxygen Species Imbalance to Reprogram the Development of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset diseases, including hypertension, can originate from early life, known as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD. Because the developing kidney is vulnerable to early-life insults, renal programming is considered key in the developmental programming of hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, can regulate the NO–reactive oxygen species (ROS balance, and is involved in the development of hypertension. Reprogramming interventions aimed at NO-ROS balance can be protective in both genetic and developmentally programmed hypertension. Here we review several emergent themes of the DOHaD approach regarding the impact of ADMA-related NO-ROS imbalance on programmed hypertension. We focus on the kidney in the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the impact of ADMA-related NO-ROS imbalance in both genetic and acquired animal models of hypertension; alterations of the renal transcriptome in response to ADMA in the developing kidney; and reprogramming strategies targeting ADMA-related NO-ROS balance to prevent programmed hypertension.

  17. Targeting on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine-Related Nitric Oxide-Reactive Oxygen Species Imbalance to Reprogram the Development of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-12-02

    Adult-onset diseases, including hypertension, can originate from early life, known as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Because the developing kidney is vulnerable to early-life insults, renal programming is considered key in the developmental programming of hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, can regulate the NO-reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, and is involved in the development of hypertension. Reprogramming interventions aimed at NO-ROS balance can be protective in both genetic and developmentally programmed hypertension. Here we review several emergent themes of the DOHaD approach regarding the impact of ADMA-related NO-ROS imbalance on programmed hypertension. We focus on the kidney in the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the impact of ADMA-related NO-ROS imbalance in both genetic and acquired animal models of hypertension; alterations of the renal transcriptome in response to ADMA in the developing kidney; and reprogramming strategies targeting ADMA-related NO-ROS balance to prevent programmed hypertension.

  18. Dual-hop amplify-and-forward cooperative relaying in the presence of Tx and Rx in-phase and quadrature-phase imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2014-02-13

    In this study, dual-hop channel state information-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in the I and Q branches, are investigated. First, the authors analyse the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for the I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Then, a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and the relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. Moreover, the authors study the considered AF cooperative system implemented with the opportunistic relay selection and the proposed compensation mechanism for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability, which is derived by considering transmission in a Rayleigh fading environment. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of the I/Q imbalance. On the other hand, it is observed that the AF cooperative system with opportunistic relay selection acquires a performance gain beyond that without relay selection.

  19. Nutritional value of cannibalism and the role of starvation and nutrient imbalance for cannibalistic tendencies in a generalist predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2006-01-01

    1. Cannibalism is considered an adaptive foraging strategy for animals of various trophic positions, including carnivores. However, previous studies on wolf spiders have questioned the high nutritional value of cannibalism. We therefore analysed two different aspects of nutritional quality of conspecifics in the wolf spider Pardosaprativaga: their value for survival, growth and development; and the growth efficiency of feeding on conspecifics. We also measured the propensity for cannibalistic attacks and the consumption rate of conspecifics in an experiment where hunger level and nutrient balance were manipulated. In all experiments, cannibalism was compared with predation on fruit flies as control prey. 2. The growth experiment gave ambiguous results regarding the nutritional quality of conspecifics. Spiders on pure cannibalistic diets split into two distinct groups, one performing much better and the other much worse than spiders on fruit fly diets. We discuss the possibility that the population is dimorphic in its cannibalistic propensity, with the latter group of individuals showing a high level of inhibition against cannibalistic attacks in spite of a high nutritional value of cannibalism. 3. The food utilization experiment confirmed the high nutritional quality of conspecifics, as cannibalistic spiders had the same growth rate as spiders fed insect prey in spite of a much lower consumption rate. 4. Inhibition against cannibalistic attacks was demonstrated in medium-sized juveniles: only half of the spiders attacked a prescribed victim of 50% the size of their opponents, and the latency for those that did attack was more than half an hour, compared with a few minutes for spiders fed fruit flies. 5. Nutrient-imbalanced spiders utilized an alternative insect diet less efficiently than balanced spiders, whereas no difference was present in efficiency of utilizing conspecifics. This result indicates that spiders can remedy at least part of a nutrient imbalance

  20. Role of transitory carbon reserves during adjustment to climate variability and source-sink imbalances in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial, tropical, monocotyledonous plant characterized by simple architecture and low phenotypic plasticity, but marked by long development cycles of individual phytomers (a pair of one leaf and one inflorescence at its axil). Environmental effects on vegetative or reproductive sinks occur with various time lags depending on the process affected, causing source-sink imbalances. This study investigated how the two instantaneous sources of carbon assimilates, CO(2) assimilation and mobilization of transitory non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves, may buffer such imbalances. An experiment was conducted in Indonesia during a 22-month period (from July 2006 to May 2008) at two contrasting locations (Kandista and Batu Mulia) using two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning treatment) in Kandista. Measurements included leaf gas exchange, dynamics of NSC reserves and dynamics of structural aboveground vegetative growth (SVG) and reproductive growth. Drought was estimated from a simulated fraction of transpirable soil water. The main sources of variation in source-sink relationships were (i) short-term reductions in light-saturated leaf CO(2) assimilation rate (A(max)) during seasonal drought periods, particularly in Batu Mulia; (ii) rapid responses of SVG rate to drought; and (iii) marked lag periods between 16 and 29 months of environmental effects on the development of reproductive sinks. The resulting source-sink imbalances were buffered by fluctuations in NSC reserves in the stem, which mainly consisted of glucose and starch. Starch was the main buffer for sink variations, whereas glucose dynamics remained unexplained. Even under strong sink limitation, no negative feedback on A(max) was observed. In conclusion, the different lag periods for environmental effects on assimilate sources and sinks in oil palm are mainly buffered by NSC accumulation in the stem, which can attain 50% (dw:dw) in stem tops