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Sample records for water-deficient leaf cells

  1. The ameliorative effects of exogenous melatonin on grape cuttings under water-deficient stress: antioxidant metabolites, leaf anatomy, and chloroplast morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Zhen; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Grapes are an important economic crop and are widely cultivated around the world. Most grapes are grown in arid or semi-arid regions, and droughts take a heavy toll in grape and wine production areas. Developing effective drought-resistant cultivation measures is a priority for viticulture. Melatonin, an indoleamine, mediates many physiological processes in plants. Herein, we examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve the resistance of wine grape seedlings grown from cuttings to polyethylene glycol-induced water-deficient stress. The application of 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) markedly inhibited the growth of cuttings, caused oxidative stress and damage from H2 O2 and O2∙-, and reduced the potential efficiency of Photosystem II and the amount of chlorophyll. Application of melatonin partially alleviated the oxidative injury to cuttings, slowed the decline in the potential efficiency of Photosystem II, and limited the effects on leaf thickness, spongy tissue, and stoma size after application of PEG. Melatonin treatment also helped preserve the internal lamellar system of chloroplasts and alleviated the ultrastructural damage induced by drought stress. This ameliorating effect may be ascribed to the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, and increased amount of osmoprotectants (free proline). We conclude that the application of melatonin to wine grapes is effective in reducing drought stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Potential of calcium silicate to mitigate water deficiency in maize

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    Douglas José Marques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of calcium silicate to mitigate the effects of water deficiency in maize plants yield. A completely randomized factorial design, consisting of five combinations of calcium silicate (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% and five different soil moisture levels (30, 70, 100, 130, and 160%, was adopted. The following parameters were evaluated: soil matric potential, xylem water potential, silicon concentration, leaf dry weight, and dry mass production. Matric potential monitoring confirmed that the irrigation depths employed resulted in different environments for maize plant development during the experiment. Confirming the hypothesis of the study, at the lower irrigation depths, the maize production has accompanied the increase in calcium silicate used as corrective up to the proportion of 50%. These results indicate that silicon mitigated the impact of water deficiency in maize plants and increased the xylem water potential.

  3. Semi-Rolled Leaf2 modulates rice leaf rolling by regulating abaxial side cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Ming; Liu, Kai; Tang, Ding; Sun, Mingfa; Li, Yafei; Shen, Yi; Du, Guijie; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    Moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes the shadowing between leaves which is helpful to establish ideal plant architecture. Here, we describe a srl2 (semi-rolled leaf2) rice mutant, which has incurved leaves due to the presence of defective sclerenchymatous cells on the abaxial side of the leaf and displays narrow leaves and reduced plant height. Map-based cloning revealed that SRL2 encodes a novel plant-specific protein of unknown biochemical function. SRL2 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundles of leaf blades, leaf sheaths, and roots, especially in their sclerenchymatous cells. The transcriptional activities of several leaf development-related YABBY genes were significantly altered in the srl2 mutant. Double mutant analysis suggested that SRL2 and SHALLOT-LIKE1 (SLL1)/ROLLED LEAF9 (RL9) function in distinct pathways that regulate abaxial-side leaf development. Hence, SRL2 plays an important role in regulating leaf development, particularly during sclerenchymatous cell differentiation. PMID:26873975

  4. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

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    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells.

  5. Plasticity in sunflower leaf and cell growth under high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céccoli, G; Bustos, D; Ortega, L I; Senn, M E; Vegetti, A; Taleisnik, E

    2015-01-01

    A group of sunflower lines that exhibit a range of leaf Na(+) concentrations under high salinity was used to explore whether the responses to the osmotic and ionic components of salinity can be distinguished in leaf expansion kinetics analysis. It was expected that at the initial stages of the salt treatment, leaf expansion kinetics changes would be dominated by responses to the osmotic component of salinity, and that later on, ion inclusion would impose further kinetics changes. It was also expected that differential leaf Na(+) accumulation would be reflected in specific changes in cell division and expansion rates. Plants of four sunflower lines were gradually treated with a relatively high (130 mm NaCl) salt treatment. Leaf expansion kinetics curves were compared in leaves that were formed before, during and after the initiation of the salt treatment. Leaf areas were smaller in salt-treated plants, but the analysis of growth curves did not reveal differences that could be attributed to differential Na(+) accumulation, since similar changes in leaf expansion kinetics were observed in lines with different magnitudes of salt accumulation. Nevertheless, in a high leaf Na(+) -including line, cell divisions were affected earlier, resulting in leaves with proportionally fewer cells than in a Na(+) -excluding line. A distinct change in leaf epidermal pavement shape caused by salinity is reported for the first time. Mature pavement cells in leaves of control plants exhibited typical lobed, jigsaw-puzzle shape, whereas in treated plants, they tended to retain closer-to-circular shapes and a lower number of lobes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Overexpression of ACL1 (abaxially curled leaf 1) increased Bulliform cells and induced Abaxial curling of leaf blades in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Shi, Zhen-Ying; Li, Lin; Shen, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Xin-Qi; An, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Jing-Liu

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying rice leaf-shape development is crucial for optimizing rice configuration and achieving high yields; however, little is known about leaf abaxial curling. We isolated a rice transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant, BY240, which exhibited an abaxial leaf curling phenotype that co-segregated with the inserted T-DNA. The T-DNA was inserted in the promoter of a novel gene, ACL1 (Abaxially Curled Leaf 1), and led to overexpression of this gene in BY240. Overexpression of ACL1 in wild-type rice also resulted in abaxial leaf curling. ACL1 encodes a protein of 116 amino acids with no known conserved functional domains. Overexpression of ACL2, the only homolog of ACL1 in rice, also induced abaxial leaf curling. RT-PCR analysis revealed high expressions of ACLs in leaf sheaths and leaf blades, suggesting a role for these genes in leaf development. In situ hybridization revealed non-tissue-specific expression of the ACLs in the shoot apical meristem, leaf primordium, and young leaf. Histological analysis showed increased number and exaggeration of bulliform cells and expansion of epidermal cells in the leaves of BY240, which caused developmental discoordination of the abaxial and adaxial sides, resulting in abaxially curled leaves. These results revealed an important mechanism in rice leaf development and provided the genetic basis for agricultural improvement.

  7. Virtual microstructural leaf tissue generation based on cell growth modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abera, M.K.; Retta, M.A.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.; Berghuijs, H.; Struik, P.

    2016-01-01

    A cell growth algorithm for virtual leaf tissue generation is presented based on the biomechanics of plant cells in tissues. The algorithm can account for typical differences in epidermal layers, palisade mesophyll layer and spongy mesophyll layer which have characteristic differences in the

  8. Exploring variation in leaf mass per area (LMA) from leaf to cell: an anatomical analysis of 26 woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rafael; Ruiz-Robleto, Jeannete; Ubera, José Luis; Poorter, Hendrik

    2013-10-01

    Plant species differ widely in the leaf biomass invested per unit area (LMA). LMA can be explained by variation in leaf thickness and/or density, both of which are influenced by anatomical tissue composition. The aim of this study is to quantify the anatomical characteristics that underlie variation in LMA in a range of woody species. • Twenty-six woody species, forming 13 species pairs with a deciduous and evergreen species from the same genus or family, were grown in a glasshouse. The youngest full-grown leaves were analyzed for LMA and morpho-anatomical characteristics at leaf, tissue, and cell level. • Considered over all species studied, leaf thickness and density were equally important to explain the variation in LMA, but the class difference between deciduous and evergreen species was mainly determined by thickness, whereas variation within each group was largely due to density. Evergreens had thicker leaves, predominantly caused by a larger volume of mesophyll and air spaces, whereas the higher leaf density within each group was due to a lower proportion of epidermis and air spaces, and overall smaller cells. • The anatomical basis for variation in LMA in woody species depends on the contrast made. Higher LMA in evergreens is mainly due to a greater leaf thickness, caused by a larger volume of mesophyll and air spaces. Within deciduous species and evergreens, higher LMA is caused by a higher density, due to higher volumetric fractions of mesophyll and lower fractions of air spaces and epidermis.

  9. DNA Damage by Radiation in Tradescantia Leaf Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min; Hyun, Kyung Man; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The comet assay is currently used in different areas of biological sciences to detect DNA damage. The comet assay, due to its simplicity, sensitivity and need of a few cells, is ideal as a short-term genotoxicity test. The comet assay can theoretically be applied to every type of eukaryotic cell, including plant cells. Plants are very useful as monitors of genetic effects caused by pollution in the atmosphere, water and soil. Tradescantia tests are very useful tools for screening the mutagenic potential in the environment. Experiments were conducted to study the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiations on the genome integrity, particularly of Tradescantia. The increasingly frequent use of Tradescantia as a sensitive environmental bioindicator of genotoxic effects. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity of ionizing radiation using Tradescnatia-comet assay. The development of comet assay has enabled investigators to detect DNA damage at the levels of cells. To adapt this assay to plant cells, nuclei were directly obtained from Tradescantia leaf samples. A significant dose-dependent increase in the average tail moment values over the negative control was observed. Recently the adaptation of this technique to plant cells opens new possibilities for studies in variety area. The future applications of the comet assay could impact some other important areas, certainly, one of the limiting factors to its utility is the imagination of the investigator.

  10. Mechanical behavior of cells within a cell-based model of wheat leaf growth

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    Ulyana Zubairova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles and mechanisms of cell growth coordination in plant tissue remains an outstanding challenge for modern developmental biology. Cell-based modeling is a widely used technique for studying the geometric and topological features of plant tissue morphology during growth. We developed a quasi-one-dimensional model of unidirectional growth of a tissue layer in a linear leaf blade that takes cell autonomous growth mode into account. The model allows for fitting of the visible cell length using the experimental cell length distribution along the longitudinal axis of a wheat leaf epidermis. Additionally, it describes changes in turgor and osmotic pressures for each cell in the growing tissue. Our numerical experiments show that the pressures in the cell change over the cell cycle, and in symplastically growing tissue, they vary from cell to cell and strongly depend on the leaf growing zone to which the cells belong. Therefore, we believe that the mechanical signals generated by pressures are important to consider in simulations of tissue growth as possible targets for molecular genetic regulators of individual cell growth.

  11. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    leaf growth period leads to LMA increase at the expense of mesophyll thickening where components of photosynthesis system are located. When additional environmental factors are involved, starch accumulation may be partly responsible for increase in LMA. LMA increase at the expense of starch accumulation, unlike that at the expense of mesophyll thickening, is accompanied by increased leaf density. Under conditions of water deficiency LMA increases, which in mature leaf may be caused by starch accumulation. LMA increase during leaf growth period under conditions of water deficiency is associated with decrease in the symplast/apoplast mass ratio.

  12. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  13. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

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    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  14. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

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    Thao T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  15. Leaf anatomy of Protium ovatum and its antiproliferative potential in cervical cells

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    Patrícia F. Rosalem

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and anatomy of the leaves of Protium ovatum Engl., Burseraceae, and verify the antiproliferative activity in cervical cells. For anatomical analysis, the leaf samples were fixed in formol, acetic acid, alcohol 70, dehydrated, included in hydroxyethyl methacrylate and sectioned at a thickness of 5–10 µm in rotative microtome. The samples were stained with toluidine blue and blades mounted with synthetic resin “Entellan”. Histochemical tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. To investigate the antiproliferative effect we used the cells strain of human cervix carcinoma and normal keratinocytes. The anatomical analysis demonstrated that the leaf is hypostomatic and the epidermal cells walls were slightly undulate on both faces. The palisade parenchyma occupies most part of leaf mesophyll. The spongy parenchyma is organized into 3–4 layers of cells. Vascular bundles of smaller diameter and secretory cavities are distributed along the leaf mesophyll. The midrib region was formed by a single vascular bundle with xylem in the center surrounded by phloem. Secretory cavities are distributed along the phloem. The histochemical tests revealed the presence of lipids in the secretory cavities and phenolic compounds in almost cell of mesophyll. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the smooth leaf cuticle ornamentation with some striated areas. It was observed antiproliferative effect on human cervix carcinoma cell comparing with normal cells.

  16. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

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    Abbas Jafarain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30 extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera.

  17. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells.

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    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera.

  18. Over‐expression of the Arabidopsis AtMYB41 gene alters cell expansion and leaf surface permeability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cominelli, Eleonora; Sala, Tea; Calvi, Daniele; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Tonelli, Chiara

    2008-01-01

    .... This includes a dwarf appearance, dependent on smaller cells with abnormal morphology, enhanced sensitivity to desiccation, and enhanced permeability of leaf surfaces, suggesting discontinuity in the cuticle...

  19. Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) leaf extract increases extravillous trophoblast cell migration and invasion in vitro.

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    Ly, Christina; Ferrier, Jonathan; Gaudet, Jeremiah; Yockell-Lelièvre, Julien; Arnason, John Thor; Gruslin, Andrée; Bainbridge, Shannon

    2018-01-29

    Perturbations to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell migration and invasion are associated with the development of placenta-mediated diseases. Phytochemicals found in the lowbush blueberry plant (Vaccinium angustifolium) have been shown to influence cell migration and invasion in models of tumorigenesis and noncancerous, healthy cells, however never in EVT cells. We hypothesized that the phenolic compounds present in V. angustifolium leaf extract promote trophoblast migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo human EVT cell line and Boyden chamber assays, the influence of V. angustifolium leaf extract (0 to 2 × 104  ng/ml) on trophoblast cell migration (n = 4) and invasion (n = 4) was determined. Cellular proliferation and viability were assessed using immunoreactivity to Ki67 (n = 3) and trypan blue exclusion assays (n = 3), respectively. At 20 ng/ml, V. angustifolium leaf extract increased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration and invasion (p extract and the most active compound. Evidence from Western blot analysis (n = 3) suggests that the effects of the leaf extract and chlorogenic acid on trophoblast migration and invasion are mediated through an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMP) kinase-dependent mechanism. Further investigations examining the potential therapeutic applications of this natural health product extract and its major chemical compounds in the context of placenta-mediated diseases are warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

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    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  2. Murraya koenigii leaf extract inhibits proteasome activity and induces cell death in breast cancer cells

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    Noolu Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of 26S proteasome, the protein-degrading machine, is now considered a novel and promising approach for cancer therapy. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors have been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer cells and also enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, polyphenols/flavonoids have been reported to inhibit proteasome activity. Murraya koenigii Spreng, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Here we show that Murraya koenigii leaves (curry leaves, a rich source of polyphenols, inhibit the proteolytic activity of the cancer cell proteasome, and cause cell death. Methods Hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves (CLE was prepared and its total phenolic content [TPC] determined by, the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. Two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line, WI-38 were used for the studies. Cytotoxicity of the CLE was assessed by the MTT assay. We studied the effect of CLE on growth kinetics using colony formation assay. Growth arrest was assessed by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis by Annexin-V binding using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the endogenous 26S proteasome was studied in intact cells and cell extracts using substrates specific to 20S proteasomal enzymes. Results CLE decreased cell viability and altered the growth kinetics in both the breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It showed a significant arrest of cells in the S phase albeit in cancer cells only. Annexin V binding data suggests that cell death was via the apoptotic pathway in both the cancer cell lines. CLE treatment significantly decreased the activity of the 26S proteasome in the cancer but not normal cells. Conclusions Our study suggests M. koenigii leaves to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death

  3. Murraya koenigii leaf extract inhibits proteasome activity and induces cell death in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolu, Bindu; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Chauhan, Anitha; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Manchala, Raghunath; Ismail, Ayesha

    2013-01-09

    Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of 26S proteasome, the protein-degrading machine, is now considered a novel and promising approach for cancer therapy. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors have been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer cells and also enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, polyphenols/flavonoids have been reported to inhibit proteasome activity. Murraya koenigii Spreng, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Here we show that Murraya koenigii leaves (curry leaves), a rich source of polyphenols, inhibit the proteolytic activity of the cancer cell proteasome, and cause cell death. Hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves (CLE) was prepared and its total phenolic content [TPC] determined by, the Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line, WI-38 were used for the studies. Cytotoxicity of the CLE was assessed by the MTT assay. We studied the effect of CLE on growth kinetics using colony formation assay. Growth arrest was assessed by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis by Annexin-V binding using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the endogenous 26S proteasome was studied in intact cells and cell extracts using substrates specific to 20S proteasomal enzymes. CLE decreased cell viability and altered the growth kinetics in both the breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It showed a significant arrest of cells in the S phase albeit in cancer cells only. Annexin V binding data suggests that cell death was via the apoptotic pathway in both the cancer cell lines. CLE treatment significantly decreased the activity of the 26S proteasome in the cancer but not normal cells. Our study suggests M. koenigii leaves to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death. Therefore, identification of active component(s) from the leaf

  4. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

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    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  5. Leaf-shape remodeling: programmed cell death in fistular leaves of Allium fistulosum.

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    Ni, Xi-Lu; Su, Hui; Zhou, Ya-fu; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liu, Wen-Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Some species of Allium in Liliaceae have fistular leaves. The fistular lamina of Allium fistulosum undergoes a process from solid to hollow during development. The aims were to reveal the process of fistular leaf formation involved in programmed cell death (PCD) and to compare the cytological events in the execution of cell death to those in the unusual leaf perforations or plant aerenchyma formation. In this study, light and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the development of fistular leaves and cytological events. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays and gel electrophoresis were used to determine nuclear DNA cleavage during the PCD. The cavity arises in the leaf blade by degradation of specialized cells, the designated pre-cavity cells, in the center of the leaves. Nuclei of cells within the pre-cavity site become TUNEL-positive, indicating that DNA cleavage is an early event. Gel electrophoresis revealed that DNA internucleosomal cleavage occurred resulting in a characteristic DNA ladder. Ultrastructural analysis of cells at the different stages showed disrupted vacuoles, misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin, degraded cytoplasm and organelles and emergence of secondary vacuoles. The cell walls degraded last, and residue of degraded cell walls aggregated together. These results revealed that PCD plays a critical role in the development of A. fistulosum fistular leaves. The continuous cavity in A. fistulosum leaves resemble the aerenchyma in the pith of some gramineous plants to improve gas exchange. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species and Promoting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Hwang, Eunmi; Yi, Sun Shin; Song, Ki Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Yun Joo; Jun, Hyun Sik

    2017-08-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L., also known as sea buckthorn (SBT), possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study examined whether SBT leaf extract could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of rat glioma C6 cells. The results revealed that the treatment with SBT leaf extract inhibited proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. SBT-induced reduction of C6 glioma cell proliferation and viability was accompanied by a decrease in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for the proliferation of tumor cells. SBT treatment not only significantly upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) but also promoted its localization in the nucleus. Although increased expression and nuclear translocation of Bax were observed in SBT-treated C6 glioma cells, the induced nuclear morphological change was distinct from that of typical apoptotic cells in that most of SBT-treated cells were characterized by convoluted nuclei with cavitations and clumps of chromatin. All of these results suggest that SBT leaf extract could inhibit the rapid proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells, possibly by inducing the early events of apoptosis. Thus, SBT may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  7. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in this way induces leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  8. Ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract reduces telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells

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    Endang Purwaningsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer cells have a relatively high telomerase activity and a lower p53 protein expression than normal cells, so that cancer cells have the ability to continue to proliferate and do not undergo apoptosis. One of the cancer treatments is chemotherapy using bioactive ingredients from synthesis or isolation of natural materials. One of the plants that have potential as anticancer agent is periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. The research objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic periwinkle leaf extract against p53 protein and telomerase expression in T47D cancer cells. METHODS An experimental study with controls was conducted involving T47D breast cancer cells. They were divided into 3 groups (control, ½ dose of IC50/26.849 µg/mL, and one dose of IC50/53.699 µg/mL at a cell density of 1 x 104 cells/well. Expression of p53 and telomerase was measured by the immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by a multiple comparison test. RESULTS Periwinkle leaf extract significantly increased p53 protein expression (p<0.05 at both treatment doses, ½ IC50 and IC50, compared to the control group and it highly significantly reduced telomerase expression (p<0.01, in comparison with the control group at both treatment doses. CONCLUSION Periwinkle leaf extract has potential as an anti-breast cancer agent by increasing p53 protein expression and inhibiting telomerase expression.

  9. Leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa promote cell population growth of human cancer cells by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2011-10-31

    In this report the phytochemical profile of Nitraria. Retusa (N. Retusa) leaf extracts were identified and their ability to induce apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evaluated. Apoptosis of the human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562) was evidenced by investigating DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and caspases 3 and 8 inducing activities, in the presence of N. retusa extracts. Our study revealed that the tested extracts from N. Retusa contain many useful bioactive compounds. They induced in a time-dependent manner the apoptosis the tested cancerous our cell line. This result was confirmed by ladder DNA fragmentation profile and PARP cleavage, as well as a release in caspase-3 and caspase-8 level. Our results indicate that the tested compounds have a significant antiproliferative effect which may be due to their involvement in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosic pathway.

  10. Leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa promote cell population growth of human cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhlel Ines

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this report the phytochemical profile of Nitraria. Retusa (N. Retusa leaf extracts were identified and their ability to induce apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562 was evaluated. Methods Apoptosis of the human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia (K562 was evidenced by investigating DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and caspases 3 and 8 inducing activities, in the presence of N. retusa extracts. Results Our study revealed that the tested extracts from N. Retusa contain many useful bioactive compounds. They induced in a time-dependent manner the apoptosis the tested cancerous our cell line. This result was confirmed by ladder DNA fragmentation profile and PARP cleavage, as well as a release in caspase-3 and caspase-8 level. Conclusion Our results indicate that the tested compounds have a significant antiproliferative effect which may be due to their involvement in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosic pathway.

  11. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiott, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal...... clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to those normally found in phytopathogens....

  12. Idioblastic mucilage cells in Teucrium polium leaf. Anatomy and histochemistry

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    Artemios M. Bosabalidis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the mesophyll of Teucrium polium L. leaves, isolated or grouped idioblastic secretory cells occur in contact with the distal (adaxial vessel elements of the vascular bundles. They appear to originate from one or more bundle sheath cells and their intracellular space is entirely occupied by the secretory material. The latter has a glycoproteinaceous constitution (mucilage, as histochemical tests showed. Idioblastic cells, therefore, correspond to typical mucilage cells. Mucilage seems to play a crucial role in the adaptation of the plant to unfavourable environmental conditions.

  13. A Secreted Effector Protein of Ustilago maydis Guides Maize Leaf Cells to Form Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkar, Amey; Hoser, Rafal; Schilling, Lena; Zechmann, Bernd; Krzymowska, Magdalena; Walbot, Virginia; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis infects all aerial organs of maize (Zea mays) and induces tumors in the plant tissues. U. maydis deploys many effector proteins to manipulate its host. Previously, deletion analysis demonstrated that several effectors have important functions in inducing tumor expansion specifically in maize leaves. Here, we present the functional characterization of the effector See1 (Seedling efficient effector1). See1 is required for the reactivation of plant DNA synthesis, which is crucial for tumor progression in leaf cells. By contrast, See1 does not affect tumor formation in immature tassel floral tissues, where maize cell proliferation occurs independent of fungal infection. See1 interacts with a maize homolog of SGT1 (Suppressor of G2 allele of skp1), a factor acting in cell cycle progression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and an important component of plant and human innate immunity. See1 interferes with the MAPK-triggered phosphorylation of maize SGT1 at a monocot-specific phosphorylation site. We propose that See1 interferes with SGT1 activity, resulting in both modulation of immune responses and reactivation of DNA synthesis in leaf cells. This identifies See1 as a fungal effector that directly and specifically contributes to the formation of leaf tumors in maize. PMID:25888589

  14. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity controls plant growth by promoting leaf cell number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Philipp; Jansseune, Karel; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Méret, Michaël; Claeys, Hannes; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Teige, Markus; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A changing global environment, rising population and increasing demand for biofuels are challenging agriculture and creating a need for technologies to increase biomass production. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity is a promising technology to achieve this under non-stress conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the basis of this growth enhancement via leaf series and kinematic cell analysis as well as single leaf transcriptomics and plant metabolomics under non-stress conditions. These data indicate a regulatory function of PARP within cell growth and potentially development. PARP inhibition enhances growth of Arabidopsis thaliana by enhancing the cell number. Time course single leaf transcriptomics shows that PARP inhibition regulates a small subset of genes which are related to growth promotion, cell cycle and the control of metabolism. This is supported by metabolite analysis showing overall changes in primary and particularly secondary metabolism. Taken together the results indicate a versatile function of PARP beyond its previously reported roles in controlling plant stress tolerance and thus can be a useful target for enhancing biomass production.

  15. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaf-cutting (attine ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. Results We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21% of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Conclusions Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to

  16. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-12-31

    Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21%) of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to those normally found in phytopathogens.

  17. Formation of N-Arylacylhydroxamic Acids from Nitroso Aromatic Compounds in Isolated Spinach Leaf Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka; Uematsu

    1998-02-16

    The formation of N-arylacetohydroxamic acids from nitroso aromatic compounds in the presence of pyruvate was investigated using isolated spinach leaf cells. The activity was enhanced by the addition of TPP, MgSO(4), and pyruvate, requirements for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC). Measurement of the kinetic parameters revealed that the K(m) values of nitroso aromatic compounds tested were identical and that electron-donating ring substituents decreased the catalytic efficiency. The activation energy of the formation of N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid was lower than that reported for porcine heart PDHC. With alpha-oxo acids tested, alpha-oxobutyrate served as a substrate to give the corresponding N-phenylpropionylhydroxamic acid. The activity of spinach leaf cells in N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid formation was found in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. The contribution of chloroplast PDHC to total activity in the formation of N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid was estimated to be 50% under the conditions used.

  18. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

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    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  19. Kinematic evidence that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide increases the rates of cell proliferation and enlargement to stimulate leaf expansion in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the stimulation of leaf growth by atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), we performed a kinematic analysis of the eighth leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (accession C24) plants grown for 17-35 days after sowing in the presence or absence of 50 ppb NO2 (designated +NO2 plants and -NO2 plants, respectively). We found that the peak and mean values of the relative rates of leaf expansion, cell division and cell expansion were always greater in +NO2 plants than in -NO2 plants. No evidence for prolonged duration was obtained. Thus, NO2 treatment increased the rates of both cell proliferation and enlargement to increase leaf size. Furthermore, a fold-change analysis showed that cell proliferation and enlargement differentially regulated NO2-induced leaf expansion.

  20. Assessing stomatal response to live bacterial cells using whole leaf imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, Reejana; Melotto, Maeli

    2010-10-02

    Stomata are natural openings in the plant epidermis responsible for gas exchange between plant interior and environment. They are formed by a pair of guard cells, which are able to close the stomatal pore in response to a number of external factors including light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and relative humidity (RH). The stomatal pore is also the main route for pathogen entry into leaves, a crucial step for disease development. Recent studies have unveiled that closure of the pore is effective in minimizing bacterial disease development in Arabidopsis plants; an integral part of plant innate immunity. Previously, we have used epidermal peels to assess stomatal response to live bacteria (Melotto et al. 2006); however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. Leaf epidermis can be kept alive and healthy with MES buffer (10 mM KCl, 25 mM MES-KOH, pH 6.15) for electrophysiological experiments of guard cells. However, this buffer is not appropriate for obtaining bacterial suspension. On the other hand, bacterial cells can be kept alive in water which is not proper to maintain epidermal peels for long period of times. When an epidermal peel floats on water, the cells in the peel that are exposed to air dry within 4 hours limiting the timing to conduct the experiment. An ideal method for assessing the effect of a particular stimulus on guard cells should present minimal interference to stomatal physiology and to the natural environment of the plant as much as possible. We, therefore, developed a new method to assess stomatal response to live bacteria in which leaf wounding and manipulation is greatly minimized aiming to provide an easily reproducible and reliable stomatal assay. The protocol is based on staining of intact leaf with propidium iodide (PI), incubation of staining leaf with bacterial suspension, and observation of leaves under laser scanning confocal microscope

  1. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Overexpression of the downward leaf curling (DLC) gene from melon changes leaf morphology by controlling cell size and shape in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Jae-Jun; Jun, Sang Eun; Baek, Seung-A; Lee, Tae-Soo; Cho, Myung Rae; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Lee, Suk-Chan; Kim, Jongkee; Kim, Gyung-Tae; Im, Kyung-Hoan

    2009-08-31

    A plant-specific gene was cloned from melon fruit. This gene was named downward leaf curling (CmDLC) based on the phenotype of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the gene. This expression level of this gene was especially upregulated during melon fruit enlargement. Overexpression of CmDLC in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarfism and narrow, epinastically curled leaves. These phenotypes were found to be caused by a reduction in cell number and cell size on the adaxial and abaxial sides of the epidermis, with a greater reduction on the abaxial side of the leaves. These phenotypic characteristics, combined with the more wavy morphology of epidermal cells in overexpression lines, indicate that CmDLC overexpression affects cell elongation and cell morphology. To investigate intracellular protein localization, a CmDLC-GFP fusion protein was made and expressed in onion epidermal cells. This protein was observed to be preferentially localized close to the cell membrane. Thus, we report here a new plant-specific gene that is localized to the cell membrane and that controls leaf cell number, size and morphology.

  3. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant

    KAUST Repository

    Hudik, Elodie

    2014-07-18

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants.

  4. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Nashi; Takagi, Yasuomi; Shrestha, Bhupal G; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2008-04-08

    Ashwagandha, also called as "Queen of Ayurveda" and "Indian ginseng", is a commonly used plant in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. Its roots have been used as herb remedy to treat a variety of ailments and to promote general wellness. However, scientific evidence to its effects is limited to only a small number of studies. We had previously identified anti-cancer activity in the leaf extract (i-Extract) of Ashwagandha and demonstrated withanone as a cancer inhibitory factor (i-Factor). In the present study, we fractionated the i-Extract to its components by silica gel column chromatography and subjected them to cell based activity analyses. We found that the cancer inhibitory leaf extract (i-Extract) has, at least, seven components that could cause cancer cell killing; i-Factor showed the highest selectivity for cancer cells and i-Factor rich Ashwagandha leaf powder was non-toxic and anti-tumorigenic in mice assays. We undertook a gene silencing and pathway analysis approach and found that i-Extract and its components kill cancer cells by at least five different pathways, viz. p53 signaling, GM-CFS signaling, death receptor signaling, apoptosis signaling and G2-M DNA damage regulation pathway. p53 signaling was most common. Visual analysis of p53 and mortalin staining pattern further revealed that i-Extract, fraction F1, fraction F4 and i-Factor caused an abrogation of mortalin-p53 interactions and reactivation of p53 function while the fractions F2, F3, F5 work through other mechanisms.

  5. A potential oral anticancer drug candidate, Moringa oleifera leaf extract, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il Lae; Lee, Ju Hye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-09-01

    It has previously been reported that cold water-extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf have anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, the anticancer activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. By the analysis of apoptotic signals, including the induction of caspase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, it was demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extracts induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In the hollow fiber assay, oral administration of the leaf extracts significantly reduced (44-52%) the proliferation of the HepG2 cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. These results support the potential of soluble extracts of M. oleifera leaf as orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of human liver and lung cancers.

  6. [Development of aloin cells and accumulation of anthraquinone in aloe leaf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai Xia; Li, Jing Yuan; Shen, Zong Gen; Hu, Zheng Hai

    2003-10-01

    The development of aloin cells and its relationship with the accumulation of anthraquinone in aloe leaf were investigated with the methods of paraffin section, semi-thin section, histochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed: cells rounded the procambium bundle differentiated into bundle sheath at the initial stage of procambium bundle developing into vascular bundle. When the sieve tube members appeared in protophloem, there were a lay of procambium bundle cells reserved between the sieve tube members and bundle sheath. These cells began to devise, then developed into aloin cells through enlargement of volume and vacuolization with the differentiation of metaphloem and metaxylem. So the aloin cells were special phloem parenchyma cells because they shared the same origin with the other phloem cells. The investigation of histochemistry reflected that there were aloin precipitate in the central vacuole of aloin cells after the material was soaked in the liquid of 1% lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2]. In addition, the yellow fluorescence was observed in aloin cells when the section of fresh material was investigated under the fluorescent microscope with blue light, which suggested the aloin cells of vascular bundles were the mainly storage site of anthraquinone.

  7. Selective killing of cancer cells by Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component Withanone involves ROS signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashi Widodo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb used in Indian traditional home medicine. It has been assigned a variety of health-promoting effects of which the mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported the selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha (i-Extract and its purified component Withanone. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism by loss-of-function screening (abrogation of i-Extract induced cancer cell killing of the cellular targets and gene pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomized ribozyme library was introduced into cancer cells prior to the treatment with i-Extract. Ribozymes were recovered from cells that survived the i-Extract treatment. Gene targets of the selected ribozymes (as predicted by database search were analyzed by bioinformatics and pathway analyses. The targets were validated for their role in i-Extract induced selective killing of cancer cells by biochemical and molecular assays. Fifteen gene-targets were identified and were investigated for their role in specific cancer cell killing activity of i-Extract and its two major components (Withaferin A and Withanone by undertaking the shRNA-mediated gene silencing approach. Bioinformatics on the selected gene-targets revealed the involvement of p53, apoptosis and insulin/IGF signaling pathways linked to the ROS signaling. We examined the involvement of ROS-signaling components (ROS levels, DNA damage, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential and demonstrate that the selective killing of cancer cells is mediated by induction of oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Ashwagandha leaf extract and Withanone cause selective killing of cancer cells by induction of ROS-signaling and hence are potential reagents that could be recruited for ROS-mediated cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Selective killing of cancer cells by Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component Withanone involves ROS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Nashi; Priyandoko, Didik; Shah, Navjot; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C

    2010-10-21

    Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb used in Indian traditional home medicine. It has been assigned a variety of health-promoting effects of which the mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported the selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha (i-Extract) and its purified component Withanone. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism by loss-of-function screening (abrogation of i-Extract induced cancer cell killing) of the cellular targets and gene pathways. Randomized ribozyme library was introduced into cancer cells prior to the treatment with i-Extract. Ribozymes were recovered from cells that survived the i-Extract treatment. Gene targets of the selected ribozymes (as predicted by database search) were analyzed by bioinformatics and pathway analyses. The targets were validated for their role in i-Extract induced selective killing of cancer cells by biochemical and molecular assays. Fifteen gene-targets were identified and were investigated for their role in specific cancer cell killing activity of i-Extract and its two major components (Withaferin A and Withanone) by undertaking the shRNA-mediated gene silencing approach. Bioinformatics on the selected gene-targets revealed the involvement of p53, apoptosis and insulin/IGF signaling pathways linked to the ROS signaling. We examined the involvement of ROS-signaling components (ROS levels, DNA damage, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential) and demonstrate that the selective killing of cancer cells is mediated by induction of oxidative stress. Ashwagandha leaf extract and Withanone cause selective killing of cancer cells by induction of ROS-signaling and hence are potential reagents that could be recruited for ROS-mediated cancer chemotherapy.

  9. The Value of Caspase-3 after the Application of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in COLO-205 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Meilany, Sofy; Laksono, Bayu; Prabu, Oryza Gryagus; Bekti, Heri Setiyo; Indrawati, Lili; Makmun, Dadang

    2017-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as soursop, contains annonacin, acetogenin, and polyphenol which are known to have chemopreventive effects on cancer. In this study, we tend to evaluate the apoptosis-inducing effect of soursop (Annona muricata) leaf extract on the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205 through the activities of caspase-3 which is a marker of cell apoptosis. Cell cultures were incubated with soursop leaf with a concentration of 10 μg/ml and then compared with those of the incubated positive control leucovorin 10 μg/ml and placebo as a negative control. The apoptotic activity of caspase-3 was measured with ELISA. After the administration of each treatment in the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205, the expression of caspase-3 activity was 1422 ng/ml after incubation with the extract of Annona muricata leaves, 1373 ng/ml after the administration of leucovorin, and 1297 ng/ml in the one with placebo. Annona muricata leaf extract elevated caspase-3 by 1.09 times compared to that of the pure cell line. Annona muricata leaf extract had a higher value of caspase-3 activity than leucovorin and placebo in the COLO-205 colorectal cancer cell line. These results may suggest that Annona muricata leaf extract had anticancer properties by enhancing caspase-3 activity which is a proapoptotic marker. PMID:28487731

  10. The Value of Caspase-3 after the Application of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in COLO-205 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdani Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata, commonly known as soursop, contains annonacin, acetogenin, and polyphenol which are known to have chemopreventive effects on cancer. In this study, we tend to evaluate the apoptosis-inducing effect of soursop (Annona muricata leaf extract on the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205 through the activities of caspase-3 which is a marker of cell apoptosis. Cell cultures were incubated with soursop leaf with a concentration of 10 μg/ml and then compared with those of the incubated positive control leucovorin 10 μg/ml and placebo as a negative control. The apoptotic activity of caspase-3 was measured with ELISA. After the administration of each treatment in the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205, the expression of caspase-3 activity was 1422 ng/ml after incubation with the extract of Annona muricata leaves, 1373 ng/ml after the administration of leucovorin, and 1297 ng/ml in the one with placebo. Annona muricata leaf extract elevated caspase-3 by 1.09 times compared to that of the pure cell line. Annona muricata leaf extract had a higher value of caspase-3 activity than leucovorin and placebo in the COLO-205 colorectal cancer cell line. These results may suggest that Annona muricata leaf extract had anticancer properties by enhancing caspase-3 activity which is a proapoptotic marker.

  11. Thermodynamics of Malate Transport across the Tonoplast of Leaf Cells of CAM Plants : MEMBRANES AND BIOENERGETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki, Arata; Ikuko, Iwasaki; Kensuke, Kusumi; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Brology, Faculty of Science, Ehime University

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemical potential difference for each dissociation state of malic acid across the tonoplast of leaf cells was examined in two CAM plants, Graptopetalum paraguayense and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The concentration of malic acid in each dissociation state was estimated from an analysis of pH and concentrations of ionic species that included calcium, malate and isocitrate. The vacuoles contained 30-40 mM isocitrate and 50-70 mM calcium in G.paraguayense, and 20-30 mM isocitrate and 7...

  12. Inhibitive Effects of Mulberry Leaf-Related Extracts on Cell Adhesion and Inflammatory Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-Y. Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts (MLREs on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and on inflammatory signaling pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs were studied. The tested MLREs were rich in flavonols, especially bombyx faces tea (BT in quercetin and kaempferol. Polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanidin also abounded in BT. The best trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was generated from the acidic methanolic extracts of BT. Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT, mulberry leaf (M, and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group. TNF-α-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion was significantly suppressed by MLREs. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB expression was significantly reduced by BT and MT. Significant reductions were also observed in both NF-κB and activator protein (AP-1 DNA binding by MLREs. Significant increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ DNA binding by MLREs were also detected in M and MT extracts, but no evidence for PPAR α DNA binding in 50 μg/mL MT extract was found. Apparently, MLREs can provide distinct cytoprotective mechanisms that may contribute to its putative beneficial effects on suppressing endothelial responses to cytokines during inflammation.

  13. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2016-02-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl(-) when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl(-)-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5 mM Cl(-)) and no water limitation, Cl(-) specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1-5 mM range, Cl(-) played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl(-) also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl(-), these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl(-) responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Calcium-calmodulin signalling is involved in light-induced acidification by epidermal leaf cells of pea, Pisum sativum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    1997-01-01

    Pathways of signal transduction of red and blue light-dependent acidification by leaf epidermal cells were studied using epidermal strips of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum. In these preparations the contribution of guard cells to the acidification is minimal. The hydroxypyridine nifedipine, a

  15. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2013-09-16

    The incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase due to increases in exposure to airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke. Moringa oleifera (MO), a medicinal plant found mainly in Asia and South Africa is used in the traditional treatment of various ailments including cancer. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO leaf extract (MOE) in cancerous A549 lung cells. A crude aqueous leaf extract was prepared and the cells were treated with 166.7 μg/ml MOE (IC50) for 24 h and assayed for oxidative stress (TBARS and Glutathione assays), DNA fragmentation (comet assay) and caspase (3/7 and 9) activity. In addition, the expression of Nrf2, p53, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of Nrf2 and p53 was assessed using qPCR. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species with a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels (p < 0.001) in MOE treated A549 cells was observed. MOE showed a significant reduction in Nrf2 protein expression (1.89-fold, p < 0.05) and mRNA expression (1.44-fold). A higher level of DNA fragmentation (p < 0.0001) was seen in the MOE treated cells. MOE's pro-apoptotic action was confirmed by the significant increase in p53 protein expression (1.02-fold, p < 0.05), p53 mRNA expression (1.59-fold), caspase-9 (1.28-fold, p < 0.05), caspase-3/7 (1.52-fold) activities and an enhanced expression of Smac/DIABLO. MOE also caused the cleavage and activation of PARP-1 into 89 KDa and 24 KDa fragments (p < 0.0001). MOE exerts antiproliferative effects in A549 lung cells by increasing oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis.

  16. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

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    Carla Marchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. AtLSG1-2 Regulates Leaf Growth by Affecting Cell Proliferation and the Onset of Endoreduplication and Synergistically Interacts with AtNMD3 during Cell Proliferation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2017-03-10

    AtLSG1-2 is a circularly permuted GTPase required for ribosome biogenesis and recently shown to be involved in early leaf development, although it was unclear how AtLSG1-2 affects leaf growth. Here, we found that atlsg1-2 mutants had reduced leaf size as a result of decreased cell size and cell number. Leaf kinematic analysis and CYCB1;1

  19. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  20. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of urease in the cell wall and membranes from leaf tissues of bromeliad species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguetoni Cambuí, Camila; Gaspar, Marília; Mercier, Helenice

    2009-05-01

    Urea is an important nitrogen source for some bromeliad species, and in nature it is derived from the excretion of amphibians, which visit or live inside the tank water. Its assimilation is dependent on the hydrolysis by urease (EC: 3.5.1.5), and although this enzyme has been extensively studied to date, little information is available about its cellular location. In higher plants, this enzyme is considered to be present in the cytoplasm. However, there is evidence that urease is secreted by the bromeliad Vriesea gigantea, implying that this enzyme is at least temporarily located in the plasmatic membrane and cell wall. In this article, urease activity was measured in different cell fractions using leaf tissues of two bromeliad species: the tank bromeliad V. gigantea and the terrestrial bromeliad Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. In both species, urease was present in the cell wall and membrane fractions, besides the cytoplasm. Moreover, a considerable difference was observed between the species: while V. gigantea had 40% of the urease activity detected in the membranes and cell wall fractions, less than 20% were found in the same fractions in A. comosus. The high proportion of urease found in cell wall and membranes in V. gigantea was also investigated by cytochemical detection and immunoreaction assay. Both approaches confirmed the enzymatic assay. We suggest this physiological characteristic allows tank bromeliads to survive in a nitrogen-limited environment, utilizing urea rapidly and efficiently and competing successfully for this nitrogen source against microorganisms that live in the tank water.

  2. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-06-30

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry (V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry (V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season.

  3. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Shah

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays.We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach.Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  4. Combinations of Ashwagandha leaf extracts protect brain-derived cells against oxidative stress and induce differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Navjot; Singh, Rumani; Sarangi, Upasana; Saxena, Nishant; Chaudhary, Anupama; Kaur, Gurcharan; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha, a traditional Indian herb, has been known for its variety of therapeutic activities. We earlier demonstrated anticancer activities in the alcoholic and water extracts of the leaves that were mediated by activation of tumor suppressor functions and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Low doses of these extracts were shown to possess neuroprotective activities in vitro and in vivo assays. We used cultured glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells to examine the effect of extracts (alcoholic and water) as well as their bioactive components for neuroprotective activities against oxidative stress. Various biochemical and imaging assays on the marker proteins of glial and neuronal cells were performed along with their survival profiles in control, stressed and recovered conditions. We found that the extracts and one of the purified components, withanone, when used at a low dose, protected the glial and neuronal cells from oxidative as well as glutamate insult, and induced their differentiation per se. Furthermore, the combinations of extracts and active component were highly potent endorsing the therapeutic merit of the combinational approach. Ashwagandha leaf derived bioactive compounds have neuroprotective potential and may serve as supplement for brain health.

  5. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  6. Degradation of Perennial Ryegrass Leaf and Stem Cell Walls by the Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix sp. Strain CS3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, L; Tan, B

    1996-04-01

    The degradation of cell walls isolated from stems and leaves of perennial ryegrass by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was studied in a defined medium. The combined cellulose and hemicellulose fraction represented 53.1 (wt/wt) and 63.3% (wt/wt) of the dry weight of control grass leaf and stem cell walls, respectively. In both leaf and stem cell walls, glucose was the major neutral monosaccharide, followed by xylose, arabinose, and galactose. After 2 days of fermentation with Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b, treated cell walls contained smaller amounts of neutral sugars compared with those of undigested cell walls. These results were more evident for glucose, xylose, and arabinose than for galactose. Furthermore, the sugar content of leaf cell walls decreased before a decline in the sugar content of stem cell walls was observed. Data from formate and hydrogen production indicated that the growth of Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was completed in 4 days in the culture system used. During this period, the fungus liberated about 95% of the fermentable sugars in untreated material. On a percentage basis, no significant differences were found in final extent of degradation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Galactose, however, was degraded to a lesser extent.

  7. Achieving high efficiency and stability in inverted organic solar cells fabricated by laminated gold leaf as top electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirah Razali, Nur; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo; Vohra, Varun; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated with gold (Au) leaf as laminated top electrodes. We demonstrate that the Au leaf can be successfully transferred from a supporting poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate to the surface of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) because PEDOT:PSS has a sufficiently higher work of adhesion than PET. Under optimized lamination conditions, the contact between the Au leaf and the PEDOT:PSS becomes homogeneous, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) improves. When a naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c‧]bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole-based polymer is used as the p-type semiconductor, the PCE reaches 5.07%. The laminated devices exhibit excellent stability comparable to that of evaporated devices.

  8. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  9. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs, micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and  reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p< 0.0001. Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p< 0.0001 and MnNCEs (p< 0.05 and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells.

  10. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Changizi, Vahid; Haddad, Farhang; Homayoun, Mansour; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE) is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte) were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy) increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p<0.0001). Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p<0.0001) and MnNCEs (p<0.05) and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells. PMID:28078248

  11. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

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    Robert H. Chiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Toona sinensis (TS has been reported to have various effects on cultured cell lines, including anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. We have studied the effects of TS on various human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HOSCC, including UM1, UM2, SCC-4, and SCC-9. These cell lines were treated with TS leaf extract and screened for viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic gene expression. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK served as a control for cytotoxic assays. Viability of TS-treated HOSCC was reduced, whereas that of NHOK was not affected. FACScan analysis revealed that the leaf extract induced apoptosis or a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, depending on cell type. Microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for apoptotic-related gene expression revealed that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid, one of the major bioactive compounds purified from TS extract up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such TNF-α, TP53BP2, and GADD45A, and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes Survivin and cIAP1, resulting in cell death. This study suggests that gallic acid, the major bioactive compound present, is responsible for the anti-neoplastic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract.

  12. Moringa Oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells.

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    Berkovich, Liron; Earon, Gideon; Ron, Ilan; Rimmon, Adam; Vexler, Akiva; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2013-08-19

    Fewer than 6% patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas live up to five years after diagnosis. Chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment, however, these tumors often develop drug resistance over time. Agents for increasing the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy or reducing the cancer cells' chemo-resistance to the drugs are required to improve treatment outcome. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), a pro-inflammatory transcription factor, reportedly plays a significant role in the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the effect of aqueous Moringa Oleifera leaf extract on cultured human pancreatic cancer cells - Panc-1, p34, and COLO 357, and whether it can potentiates the effect of cisplatin chemotherapy on these cells. The effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract alone and in combination with cisplatin on the survival of cultured human pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated by XTT-based colorimetric assay. The distribution of Panc-1 cells in the cell cycle following treatment with Moringa leaf extract was evaluated by flow cytometry, and evaluations of protein levels were via immunoblotting. Data of cell survival following combined treatments were analyzed with Calcusyn software. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibited the growth of all pancreatic cell lines tested. This effect was significant in all cells following exposure to ≥0.75 mg/ml of the extract. Exposure of Panc-1 cells to Moringa leaf extract induced an elevation in the sub-G1 cell population of the cell-cycle, and reduced the expression of p65, p-IkBα and IkBα proteins in crude cell extracts. Lastly, Moringa Oleifera leaf extract synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on Panc-1 cells. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells, the cells NF-κB signaling pathway, and increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human pancreatic cancer cells.

  13. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis by disruption of cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonwannasit, Sirilak; Nantapong, Nawarat; Kumkrai, Pakarang; Luecha, Prathan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-08-20

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte has been traditionally used in Thailand for treatment of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and skin diseases for a long time. The main objectives of this study were to examine antibacterial activity of the Aquilaria crassna leaf extract against Staphylococcus epidermidis and its underlying mechanism. The antioxidant activity and acute toxicity were studied as well. Antioxidant activities were examined by FRAP, ABTS and DPPH scavenging methods. Antibacterial activity was conducted using disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by dilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was reported as the lowest concentration producing no growth of microbes in the subcultures. Morphological changes of the microbe were observed by scanning electron microscopy, while an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation was evaluated by phase contrast microscopic analysis. Bacterial cell wall integrity was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Acute toxicity was conducted in accordance with the OECD for Testing of Chemicals (2001) guidelines. The extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. Staphylococcus epidermidis was susceptible to the extract with the MIC and MBC of 6 and 12 mg/ml, respectively. The extract caused swelling and distortion of bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial biofilm formation. Rupture of bacterial cell wall occurred after treated with the extract for 24 h. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no sign of toxicity or death at the doses of 2,000 and 15,000 mg/kg body weight. The aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves possesses an in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, with no sign of acute oral toxicity in mice, probably by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibiting biofilm formation.

  15. Transient alkalinization of the leaf apoplast stiffens the cell wall during onset of chloride salinity in corn leaves.

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    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Tenhaken, Raimund; Carpentier, Sebastien Christian

    2017-11-17

    During chloride salinity, the pH of the leaf apoplast (pH apo ) transiently alkalizes. There is an ongoing debate about the physiological relevance of these stress-induced pH apo changes. Using proteomic analyses of expanding leaves of corn ( Zea mays L.), we show that this transition in pH apo conveys functionality by (i) adjusting protein abundances and (ii) affecting the rheological properties of the cell wall. pH apo was monitored in planta via microscopy-based ratio imaging, and the leaf-proteomic response to the transient leaf apoplastic alkalinization was analyzed via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-MS. This analysis identified 1459 proteins, of which 44 exhibited increased abundance specifically through the chloride-induced transient rise in pH apo These elevated protein abundances did not directly arise from high tissue concentrations of Cl - or Na + but were due to changes in the pH apo Most of these proteins functioned in growth-relevant processes and in the synthesis of cell wall-building components such as arabinose. Measurements with a linear-variable differential transducer revealed that the transient alkalinization rigidified ( i.e. stiffened) the cell wall during the onset of chloride salinity. A decrease in t -coumaric and t -ferulic acids indicates that the wall stiffening arises from cross-linkage to cell wall polymers. We conclude that the pH of the apoplast represents a dynamic factor that is mechanistically coupled to cellular responses to chloride stress. By hardening the wall, the increased pH abrogates wall loosening required for cell expansion and growth. We conclude that the transient alkalinization of the leaf apoplast is related to salinity-induced growth reduction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. [Effects of local induction of ipt-gene in roots on cytokinins content in leaf cells tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaia, L B; Akhiiarova, G P; Sharapova, G V; Dedova, M A; Veselov, S Iu; Zaĭtsev, D Iu; Kudoiarova, G P

    2014-01-01

    Identification of cytokinins in differentiated leaf cells has received little attention. We have carried out immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants in which the level of increased due to induced in their roots the expression of ipt-gene controlling cytokinin synthesis. Immuno-labeling of cytokinins with the help of antibodies raised against zeatin riboside was characteristic of mesophyll cells. The label was localized in cytoplasm adjacent to cell walls and was absent in vacuoles. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed the presence of cytokinins in guard cells. Induction of cytokinin synthesis enhanced the immunohistochemical staining of both mesophyll cells and guard cells, which was accompanied by elevated stomatal conductance. The possibility of a direct effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance and their indirect influence through photosynthesis in the mesophyll cells is discussed.

  17. A Study on the Performance and Electrochemistry of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf (BPL) Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Khan, M. I.; Sarker, M. H.; Khan, K. A.; Shajahan, M.; Professor K. A. Khan Team

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate on an innovative invention, Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) electrochemical cell, which is fueled with PKL sap of widely available plant called Bryophyllum pinnatum as an energy source for use in PKL battery to generate electricity. This battery, a primary source of electricity, has several order of magnitude longer shelf-lives than the traditional Galvanic cell battery, is still under investigation. In this regard, we have conducted some experiments using various instruments including Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Ultra-Violet Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), pH meter, Ampere-Volt-Ohm Meter (AVO Meter) etc. The AAS, UV-Vis and pH metric analysis data provided that the potential and current were produced as the Zn electrode itself acts as reductant while Cu2+ and H+ ions are behaving as oxidant. The significant influence of secondary salt on current and potential leads to the dissociation of weak organic acids in PKL juice, and subsequent enrichment to the reactant ions by the secondary salt effects. However, the liquid junction potential was not as great as minimized with the opposite transference of organic acid anions and H+ ions as their dissimilar ionic mobilities. Moreover, the large value of equilibrium constant (K) implies the big change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), revealed the additional electrical work in presence of PKL sap. This easily fabricated high performance PKL battery can show an excellent promise during the off-peak across the country-side. Dept. of Physics and Dept. of Chemistry.

  18. Two Nucleolar Proteins, GDP1 and OLI2, Function As Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Are Preferentially Involved in Promotion of Leaf Cell Proliferation without Strongly Affecting Leaf Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Koji Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf abaxial–adaxial patterning is dependent on the mutual repression of leaf polarity genes expressed either adaxially or abaxially. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is strongly affected by mutations in ribosomal protein genes and in ribosome biogenesis genes in a sensitized genetic background, such as asymmetric leaves2 (as2. Most ribosome-related mutants by themselves do not show leaf abaxialization, and one of their typical phenotypes is the formation of pointed rather than rounded leaves. In this study, we characterized two ribosome-related mutants to understand how ribosome biogenesis is linked to several aspects of leaf development. Previously, we isolated oligocellula2 (oli2 which exhibits the pointed-leaf phenotype and has a cell proliferation defect. OLI2 encodes a homolog of Nop2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in pre-60S subunit maturation. In this study, we found another pointed-leaf mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding an uncharacterized protein with a G-patch domain. Similar to oli2, this mutant, named g-patch domain protein1 (gdp1, has a reduced number of leaf cells. In addition, gdp1 oli2 double mutants showed a strong genetic interaction such that they synergistically impaired cell proliferation in leaves and produced markedly larger cells. On the other hand, they showed additive phenotypes when combined with several known ribosomal protein mutants. Furthermore, these mutants have a defect in pre-rRNA processing. GDP1 and OLI2 are strongly expressed in tissues with high cell proliferation activity, and GDP1-GFP and GFP-OLI2 are localized in the nucleolus. These results suggest that OLI2 and GDP1 are involved in ribosome biogenesis. We then examined the effects of gdp1 and oli2 on adaxial–abaxial patterning by crossing them with as2. Interestingly, neither gdp1 nor oli2 strongly enhanced the leaf polarity defect of as2. Similar results were obtained with as2 gdp1 oli2

  19. Model-Based Analysis of Arabidopsis Leaf Epidermal Cells Reveals Distinct Division and Expansion Patterns for Pavement and Guard Cells1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery. PMID:21693673

  20. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

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    Jong Suk Lee

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1 and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1, respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1 exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs

  1. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Suk; Shukla, Shruti; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1), and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1) and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1), respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1)) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  2. Genetic variability for leaf growth rate and duration under water deficit in sunflower: analysis of responses at cell, organ, and plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A; Velázquez, Luciano; Lechner, Leandra; Aguirrezábal, Luis A N

    2008-01-01

    Plants under water deficit reduce leaf growth, thereby reducing transpiration rate at the expense of reduced photosynthesis. The objective of this work was to analyse the response of leaf growth to water deficit in several sunflower genotypes in order to identify and quantitatively describe sources of genetic variability for this trait that could be used to develop crop varieties adapted to specific scenarios. The genetic variability of the response of leaf growth to water deficit was assessed among 18 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) inbred lines representing a broad range of genetic diversity. Plants were subjected to long-term, constant-level, water-deficit treatments, and the response to water deficit quantified by means of growth models at cell-, leaf-, and plant-scale. Significant variation among lines was found for the response of leaf expansion rate and of leaf growth duration, with an equal contribution of these responses to the variability in the reduction of leaf area. Increased leaf growth duration under water deficit is usually suggested to be caused by changes in the activity of cell-wall enzymes, but the present results suggest that the duration of epidermal cell division plays a key role in this response. Intrinsic genotypic responses of rate and duration at a cellular scale were linked to genotypic differences in whole-plant leaf area profile to water deficit. The results suggest that rate and duration responses are the result of different physiological mechanisms, and therefore capable of being combined to increase the variability in leaf area response to water deficit.

  3. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-07-22

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress.

  4. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

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    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  5. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  6. The Value of Caspase-3 after the Application ofAnnona muricataLeaf Extract in COLO-205 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Meilany, Sofy; Laksono, Bayu; Prabu, Oryza Gryagus; Bekti, Heri Setiyo; Indrawati, Lili; Makmun, Dadang

    2017-01-01

    Annona muricata , commonly known as soursop, contains annonacin, acetogenin, and polyphenol which are known to have chemopreventive effects on cancer. In this study, we tend to evaluate the apoptosis-inducing effect of soursop ( Annona muricata ) leaf extract on the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205 through the activities of caspase-3 which is a marker of cell apoptosis. Cell cultures were incubated with soursop leaf with a concentration of 10  μ g/ml and then compared with those of the incubated positive control leucovorin 10  μ g/ml and placebo as a negative control. The apoptotic activity of caspase-3 was measured with ELISA. After the administration of each treatment in the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205, the expression of caspase-3 activity was 1422 ng/ml after incubation with the extract of Annona muricata leaves, 1373 ng/ml after the administration of leucovorin, and 1297 ng/ml in the one with placebo. Annona muricata leaf extract elevated caspase-3 by 1.09 times compared to that of the pure cell line. Annona muricata leaf extract had a higher value of caspase-3 activity than leucovorin and placebo in the COLO-205 colorectal cancer cell line. These results may suggest that Annona muricata leaf extract had anticancer properties by enhancing caspase-3 activity which is a proapoptotic marker.

  7. Brucea javanica Leaf Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HSC2 Cells by Attenuation of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability

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    Britanto Dani Wicaksono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucea javanica extract has been reported to have anti-proliferative and cell death induction activities. B. javanica extract was reported to induce apoptosis through caspase cascade. Most of investigated B. javanica extracts were derived from seeds and fruits, or commercially available oil emulsion. Therefore we conducted a study on B. javanica leaf extract (BJLE in oral cancer cells. METHODS: B. javanica leaves were collected, identified, minced, dried, extracted with distilled ethanol at room temperature for 24 hours, filtered and evaporated. Resulted BJLE was stored at 4°C. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2 cells were fasted for 12 hours and treated with BJLE in various concentrations for 24 hours. Cells were then quantified with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, demonstrated with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining. To find out mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM was analyzed. RESULTS: BJLE reduced percentage of viable HSC-2 cells in a concentration dependent manner. BJLE induced apoptosis in HSC-2 cells. With treatment of 50 μg/ml BJLE, fragmented nuclei were seen. ΔΨM of HSC-2 cells treated with 50 μg/ml BJLE were shifted to the left, meaning that BJLE induced reduction of ΔΨM and attenuation of MMP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that BJLE could induce apoptosis by attenuating MMP. KEYWORDS: Brucea javanica, leaf, apoptosis, HSC-2, MTT, DAPI, mitochondria, permeability.

  8. Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus

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    Sandhya V. G. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P≤0.05. The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer.

  9. Effect of Ethanol Stress on Fermentation Performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Immobilized on Nypa fruticans Leaf Sheath Pieces

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    Hoang Phong Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces were tested for ethanol tolerance (0, 23.7, 47.4, 71.0 and 94.7 g/L. Increase in the initial ethanol concentration from 23.7 to 94.7 g/L decreased the average growth rate and concentration of ethanol produced by the immobilized yeast by 5.2 and 4.1 times, respectively. However, in the medium with initial ethanol concentration of 94.7 g/L, the average growth rate, glucose uptake rate and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 3.7, 2.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. The ethanol stress inhibited ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and the yeast responded to the stress by changing the fatty acid composition of cellular membrane. The adsorption of yeast cells on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces of the growth medium increased the saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 mass fraction in the cellular membrane and that improved alcoholic fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast.

  10. LEAF-E: a tool to analyze grass leaf growth using function fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend, Wannes; Lootens, Peter; Nelissen, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Inzé, Dirk; Muylle, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    In grasses, leaf growth is often monitored to gain insights in growth processes, biomass accumulation, regrowth after cutting, etc. To study the growth dynamics of the grass leaf, its length is measured at regular time intervals to derive the leaf elongation rate (LER) profile over time. From the LER profile, parameters such as maximal LER and leaf elongation duration (LED), which are essential for detecting inter-genotype growth differences and/or quantifying plant growth responses to changing environmental conditions, can be determined. As growth is influenced by the circadian clock and, especially in grasses, changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and evaporative demand, the LER profiles show considerable experimental variation and thus often do not follow a smooth curve. Hence it is difficult to quantify the duration and timing of growth. For these reasons, the measured data points should be fitted using a suitable mathematical function, such as the beta sigmoid function for leaf elongation. In the context of high-throughput phenotyping, we implemented the fitting of leaf growth measurements into a user-friendly Microsoft Excel-based macro, a tool called LEAF-E. LEAF-E allows to perform non-linear regression modeling of leaf length measurements suitable for robust and automated extraction of leaf growth parameters such as LER and LED from large datasets. LEAF-E is particularly useful to quantify the timing of leaf growth, which forms an important added value for detecting differences in leaf growth development. We illustrate the broad application range of LEAF-E using published and unpublished data sets of maize, Miscanthus spp. and Brachypodium distachyon, generated in independent experiments and for different purposes. In addition, we show that LEAF-E could also be used to fit datasets of other growth-related processes that follow the sigmoidal profile, such as cell length measurements along the leaf axis. Given its user-friendliness, ability

  11. Anti-proliferation and Apoptosis Induction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Carica papaya L. on Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrotun Nisa, Fatma; Astuti, Mary; Murdiati, Agnes; Mubarika Haryana, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Chemotherapy is the main method of breast cancer treatment but there are side effects. Carica papaya leaves is vegetable foods consumed by most people of Indonesia have potential as anticancer. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-proliferative and apoptotic induced effect of aqueous papaya leaves extracts on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Inhibitory on cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay while apoptosis induction was measured using Annexin V. The results showed that papaya leaf can inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 with IC50 in 1319.25 μg mL-1. The IC50 values of papaya leaf extract was higher than the IC50 value quercetin and doxorubicin. Papaya leaf extract can also induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells MCF-7 about 22.54% for concentration 659.63 μg mL-1 and about 20.73% for concentration 329.81 μg mL-1. The percentage of cell apoptosis of papaya leaf extract lower than doxorubicin but higher than quercetin. This study indicated that papaya leaf extract have potential as anticancer through mechanism anti-proliferation and apoptosis induction.

  12. Wound healing activity of Pluchea indica leaf extract in oral mucosal cell line and oral spray formulation containing nanoparticles of the extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasukhon, Wiphupat; Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2017-12-01

    Pluchea indica (L.) Less (Asteraceae) is an herb used as a traditional medicine for wound healing. The chemical compounds found in Pluchea indica leaves are phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. This study investigates the effect of Pluchea indica leaf ethanol extract and its nanoparticles (NPs) on cytotoxicity, cell survival and migration of human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay to assess the effect of Pluchea indica leaf extract and NPs (1-500 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and cell survival. The effect of Pluchea indica leaf extract and NPs on cell migration was determined by scratch assay. The % relative migration was calculated after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. The sizes of Pluchea indica leaf extract NPs were in a range of nanometers. NPs possessed negative charge with the polydispersity index (PDI) smaller than 0.3. After the treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h, Pluchea indica leaf extract had IC50 value of 443.2, 350.9 and 580.5 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the IC50 value of NPs after the treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h were 177.4, 149.2 and 185.1 μg/mL, respectively. The % relative migration of cells was significantly increased when the cells were treated with 62.5 and 125 μg/mL of the extract and 62.5 μg/mL of NPs. NPs increased cytotoxicity of the Pluchea indica leaf extract, increased the migration of cells at low concentration and increased colloidal stability of the extract in an oral spray formulation.

  13. Qualitative screening of phenolic compounds in olive leaf extracts by hyphenated liquid chromatography and preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shaoping; Arráez-Roman, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menéndez, Javier A; Menéndez-Gutiérrez, María P; Micol, Vicente; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    In this work, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ion trap multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(2)) has been applied to screen phenolic compounds in olive leaf extracts. The use of a small particle size C18 column (1.8 micro) provided great resolution and made separation of a lot of isomers possible. The structural characterization was based on accurate mass data obtained by ESI-TOF-MS, and the nature of fragmentation ions were further confirmed by ESI-IT-MS(2) when possible. In addition, we employed tetrazolium salt (MTT)-based assays to assess the effects of olive leaf extracts on the growth of human tumor-derived cells. Upon this approach, we achieved an accurate profile of olive leaf phenolics along with the identification of several important isomers of secoiridoids and flavonoids. This will allow a better understanding of the complete composition of olive-leaf-bioactive compounds as well as their involvement in Olea europaea L. biochemical pathways. Importantly, olive leaf extracts exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the metabolic status (cell viability) of three breast cancer models in vitro. Since the tumoricidal activity of the extracts should be mainly attributed to the identified olive leaf phenolics, these findings warrant further investigation at the structure-function molecular level to definitely establish the anticancer value of these phytochemicals.

  14. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  15. Signal Integration by ABA in the Blue Light-Induced Acidification of Leaf Pavement Cells in Pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Argenteum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Os, Désirée; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M

    2007-05-01

    Leaf pavement cell expansion in light depends on apoplastic acidification by a plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase, modifying cell wall extensibility and providing the driving force for uptake of osmotically active solutes generating turgor. This paper shows that the plant hormone ABA inhibits light-induced leaf disk growth as well as the blue light-induced pavement cell growth in pea (Pisum sativum L.). In the phytochrome chromophore-deficient mutant pcd2, the effect of ABA on the blue light-induced apoplastic acidification response, which exhibits a high fluence phase via phytochrome and a low fluence phase via an unknown blue light receptor, is still present, indicating an interaction of ABA with the blue light receptor pathway. Furthermore, it is shown that ABA inhibits the blue light-induced apoplastic acidification reversibly. These results indicate that the effect of ABA on apoplastic acidification can provide a mechanism for short term, reversible adjustment of leaf growth rate to environmental change.

  16. Water-deficiency conditions differently modulate the methylome of roots and leaves in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Mroziewicz, Anna; Szarejko, Iwona; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    One of the strategies of plant adaptation to stress is the modulation of gene expression, which may result from the regulation of DNA methylation. This study attempted to characterize and compare the barley methylome of leaves and roots under water-deficiency treatment and in the subsequent rewatering phase. Our results, obtained using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism sequencing analysis, indicated that the overall DNA methylation level in the barley genome was high and in gen...

  17. Fabrication of nanoparticles using Annona squamosa leaf and assessment of its effect on liver (Hep G2) cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, V.; Hemalatha, S.; Pushpabharathi, N.; Amudha, P.; Jayalakshmi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Annona squamosa is a fruit bearing plant possesses potent bioactive compounds in all its part. In this present investigation iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized from hydroethanol extract of Annona squamosa leaves at 60°C temperature. Production of iron oxide nanoparticles in extraction is detected by UV-V spectrophotometer, Scanning electron microscopy was employed to analyse the structure of nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed, in order to determine the functional groups on Annona squamosa leaves extract. The synthesized Fe3O4 NPs shows potential cytotoxicity against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and there is no toxicity on the normal liver cell line. Our reports confirmed that the Annona squamosa leaf is a very good eco-friendly and nontoxic bioreductant for the synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticle and opens up further opportunities for fabrication of drugs towards cancer therapy.

  18. Effects of salinity on the transcriptome of growing maize leaf cells point at cell-age specificity in the involvement of the antioxidative response in cell growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchik, Michael; Bernstein, Nirit

    2013-01-16

    Salinity inhibits growth and development of most plants. The response to salinity is complex and varies between plant organs and stages of development. It involves challenges of ion toxicities and deficiencies as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. The range of functions affected by the stress is reflected in elaborate changes to the transcriptome. The mechanisms involved in the developmental-stage specificity of the inhibitory responses are not fully understood. The present study took advantage of the well characterized developmental progression that exists along the maize leaf, for identification of salinity induced, developmentally-associated changes to the transcriptome. Differential subtraction screening was conducted for cells of two developmental stages: from the center of the growth zone where the expansion rate is highest, and from older cells at a more distal location of the growing zone where the expansion rate is lower and the salinity restrictive effects are more pronounced. Real-Time PCR analysis was used for validation of the expression of selected genes. The salinity-induced changes demonstrated an age-related response of the growing tissue, with elevation of salinity-damages with increased age. Growth reduction, similar to the elevation of percentage dry matter (%DM), and Na and Cl concentrations were more pronounced in the older cells. The differential subtraction screening identified genes encoding to proteins involved in antioxidant defense, electron transfer and energy, structural proteins, transcription factors and photosynthesis proteins. Of special interest is the higher induced expression of genes involved in antioxidant protection in the young compared to older cells, which was accompanied by suppressed levels of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2-). This was coupled with heightened expression in the older cells of genes that enhance cell-wall rigidity, which points at reduced potential for cell expansion. The results demonstrate a

  19. Water-deficiency conditions differently modulate the methylome of roots and leaves in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Mroziewicz, Anna; Szarejko, Iwona; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw

    2016-02-01

    One of the strategies of plant adaptation to stress is the modulation of gene expression, which may result from the regulation of DNA methylation. This study attempted to characterize and compare the barley methylome of leaves and roots under water-deficiency treatment and in the subsequent rewatering phase. Our results, obtained using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism sequencing analysis, indicated that the overall DNA methylation level in the barley genome was high and in general stable under water-deficiency conditions. Nevertheless, numerous differentially methylated sites (DMSs) were induced by stress in the leaves and roots. Equal proportions of novel stress-induced methylation and demethylation events were observed within the genes in the leaves, but new methylations dominated in the roots. Repetitive elements preferentially underwent demethylation in the leaves and novel methylations in the roots. Importantly, rewatering and plant recovery resulted in the reversibility of the majority of stress-induced methylation events, but this process was more efficient in the leaves than in the roots. Different biological processes were enriched within the subsets of the DMSs that were identified in the genic regions of leaves and roots. We assume that the organ specificity of the methylome changes in response to water deficiency might be an important regulatory mechanism that leads to multi-level mechanisms of stress tolerance in barley. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. ARP2/3 localization in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells: a diversity of intracellular pools and cytoskeletal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Mallery, Eileen L; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells the actin cytoskeleton adopts many configurations, but is best understood as an unstable, interconnected track that rearranges to define the patterns of long distance transport of organelles during growth. Actin filaments do not form spontaneously; instead filament nucleators, such as the evolutionarily conserved actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex, can efficiently generate new actin filament networks when in a fully activated state. A growing number of genetic experiments have shown that ARP2/3 is necessary for morphogenesis in processes that range from tip growth during root nodule formation to the diffuse polarized growth of leaf trichomes and pavement cells. Although progress has been rapid in the identification of proteins that function in series to positively regulate ARP2/3, less has been learned about the actual function of ARP2/3 in cells. In this paper, we analyze the localization of ARP2/3 in Arabidopsis leaf pavement cells. We detect a pool of ARP2/3 in the nucleus, and also find that ARP2/3 is efficiently and specifically clustered on multiple organelle surfaces and associates with both the actin filament and microtubule cytoskeletons. Our mutant analyses and ARP2/3 and actin double labeling experiments indicate that the clustering of ARP2/3 on organelle surfaces and an association with actin bundles does not necessarily reflect an active pool of ARP2/3, and instead most of the complex appears to exist as a latent organelle-associated pool.

  1. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing ('K-31'), and a dwarf cultivar ('Bonsai') of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of 'K-31' was 63% greater than that of 'Bonsai', which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue.

  2. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and gene expression changes elicited by exposure of human hepatic cells to Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Raschellà, Giuseppe; Cordelli, Eugenia; Villani, Paola; Pieraccioli, Marco; Paximadas, Irene; Malandrino, Salvatore; Bonassi, Stefano; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2017-11-01

    The use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract as nutraceutical is becoming increasingly common. As a consequence, the definition of a reliable toxicological profile is a priority for its safe utilization. Recently, contrasting data have been reported on the carcinogenic potential of Ginkgo biloba extract in rodent liver. We measured viability, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), apoptosis, colony-forming efficiency, genotoxicity by comet assay, and gene expression changes associated with hepato-carcinogenicity in human cells of hepatic origin (HepG2 and THLE-2) treated with different concentrations (0.0005-1.2 mg/mL) of Ginkgoselect ® Plus. Our analyses highlighted a decrease of cell viability, not due to apoptosis, after treatment with high doses of the extract, which was likely due to ROS generation by a chemical reaction between extract polyphenols and some components of the culture medium. Comet assay did not detect genotoxic effect at any extract concentration. Finally, the array analysis detected a slight decrease in the expression of only one gene (IGFBP3) in Ginkgo-treated THLE-2 cells as opposed to changes in 28 genes in Aflatoxin B1 treated-cells. In conclusion, our results did not detect any significant genotoxic or biologically relevant cytotoxic effects and gross changes in gene expression using the Ginkgo extract in the hepatic cells tested. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Dan; Ngala, Robert A; Abutiate, Harry; Doku, Derek; Mahmood, Seidu A; Rahman, Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata L. has been reported to possess antitumor and antiproliferative properties. Not much work has been done on its effect on BPH-1 cell lines, and no in vivo studies targeting the prostate organ exist. The study determined the effect of A muricata on human BPH-1 cells and prostate organ. The MTT assay was performed on BPH-1 cells using the aqueous leaf extract of A muricata. Cells (1 × 10(5) per well) were challenged with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL extract for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell proliferation and morphology were examined microscopically. BPH-1 cells (1 × 10(4) per well) were seeded into 6-well plates and incubated for 48 hours with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL A muricata extract. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed using mRNA extracted from the cells. Possible target genes, Bax and Bcl-2, were examined. Twenty F344 male rats (≈200 g) were gavaged 30 mg/mL (10 rats) and 300 mg/mL (10 rats) and fed ad libitum alongside 10 control rats. Rats were sacrificed after 60 days. The prostate, seminal vesicles, and testes were harvested for histological examination. Annona muricata demonstrated antiproliferative effects with an IC50 of 1.36 mg/mL. Best results were obtained after 48 hours, with near cell extinction at 72 hours. Bax gene was upregulated, while Bcl-2 was downregulated. Normal histological architecture was observed for all testes. Seminal vesicle was significantly reduced in test groups (P Annona muricata has antiproliferative effects on BPH-1 cells and reduces prostate size, possibly through apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Large-scale proteomic analysis of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid reveals mainly stress-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Colby, Thomas; Belloy, Nicolas; Conreux, Alexandra; Harzen, Anne; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Schmidt, Jürgen; Jeandet, Philippe; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2013-02-08

    The extracellular space or apoplast forms a path through the whole plant and acts as an interface with the environment. The apoplast is composed of plant cell wall and space within which apoplastic fluid provides a means of delivering molecules and facilitates intercellular communications. However, the apoplastic fluid extraction from in planta systems remains challenging and this is particularly true for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a worldwide-cultivated fruit plant. Large-scale proteomic analysis reveals the protein content of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid and the free interactive proteome map considerably facilitates the study of the grapevine proteome. To obtain a snapshot of the grapevine apoplastic fluid proteome, a vacuum-infiltration-centrifugation method was optimized to collect the apoplastic fluid from non-challenged grapevine leaves. Soluble apoplastic protein patterns were then compared to whole leaf soluble protein profiles by 2D-PAGE analyses. Subsequent MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of tryptically digested protein spots was used to identify proteins. This large-scale proteomic analysis established a well-defined proteomic map of whole leaf and leaf apoplastic soluble proteins, with 223 and 177 analyzed spots, respectively. All data arising from proteomic, MS and MS/MS analyses were deposited in the public database world-2DPAGE. Prediction tools revealed a high proportion of (i) classical secreted proteins but also of non-classical secreted proteins namely Leaderless Secreted Proteins (LSPs) in the apoplastic protein content and (ii) proteins potentially involved in stress reactions and/or in cell wall metabolism. This approach provides free online interactive reference maps annotating a large number of soluble proteins of the whole leaf and the apoplastic fluid of grapevine leaf. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed proteome study of grapevine apoplastic fluid providing a comprehensive overview of the most abundant proteins

  5. In Vivo Inhibition of Proteasome Activity and Tumour Growth by Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract in Breast Cancer Xenografts and by Its Active Flavonoids in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolu, Bindu; Gogulothu, Ramesh; Bhat, Mehrajuddin; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Reddy, V Sudhakar; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Ismail, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the 26S proteasome is an attractive approach for anticancer therapy. Proteasome inhibitors are known to selectively target cancer cells and make them more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents. Murraya koenigii is a medicinally important herb of Asian origin and a rich source of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and alkaloids. In the present study, we investigated the proteasome inhibitory and apoptotic effect of M. koenigii leaf extract in vivo in a xenograft tumor mouse model, and also assessed the toxicity if any in normal mice. M. koenigii extract did not lead to any toxicity in mice. Analysis of extract revealed the presence of flavonoid compounds which act as proteasome inhibitors. Quercetin treatment led to the decrease in the cell viability and arrest of cells in G2/M phase. Quercetin, Apigenin, Kaempferol and Rutin; flavonoids present in the leaf extract, dose-dependently inhibited the endogenous 26S proteasome activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Reduction in tumor growth was associated with a decrease in proteasomal enzyme activities in the treated groups. Increased caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells indicated enhanced apoptosis with Murraya leaf extract treatment. Decreased expression of angiogenic and anti-apoptotic gene markers is indicative of inhibition of angiogenesis and promotion of apoptosis in the leaf extract treated tumors.

  6. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant...... acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis....

  7. Chemical composition of Solanum nigrum linn extract and induction of autophagy by leaf water extract and its major flavonoids in AU565 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2010-08-11

    Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) belongs to the Solanaceae family, is a plant growing widely in south Asia, and has been used in traditional folk medicine. It is believed to have antipyretic, diuretic, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effects. During the summertime, this plant has been heavily used to supplement beverages to quench thirst on hot days in Taiwan and several southern Asian countries. In this study, the polyphenols and anthocyanidin in various parts of the SN plant were analyzed by HPLC. The leaves were found to be richer in polyphenols than stem and fruit. SN leaves contained the highest concentration of gentisic acid, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, and m-coumaric acid. However, the anthocyanidin existed only in the purple fruits. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leaf, stem, or fruit extract was evaluated against cancer cell lines and normal cells. The results showed that AU565 breast cancer cells were more sensitive to the extract. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a significant cytotoxic effect of SN leaf extract on AU565 cells that was mediated via two different mechanisms depending on the exposure concentrations. A low dose of SN leaf extract induced autophagy but not apoptosis. Higher doses (>100 microg/mL) of SN leaf extract could inhibit the level of p-Akt and cause cell death due to the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. However, these findings indicate that SN leaf extract induced cell death in breast cells via two distinct antineoplastic activities, the abilities to induce apoptosis and autophagy, therefore suggesting that it may provide a useful remedy to treat breast cancer.

  8. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eGuzmán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids, coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  9. Dry Olive Leaf Extract in Combination with Methotrexate Reduces Cell Damage in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabarkapa, Andrea; Živković, Lada; Borozan, Sunčica; Zlatković-Švenda, Mirjana; Dekanski, Dragana; Jančić, Ivan; Radak-Perović, Marija; Bajić, Vladan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of co-administration of dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) with standard methotrexate (MTX) therapy on the parameters of cell damage and inflammation in patients with early and long-term rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Patients were assigned to groups: the early phase RA group on MTX monotherapy (E MTX), and the two RA groups that received co-treatment with DOLE and MTX: early (E MTX + DOLE) and long-term phase patients (L-t MTX+ DOLE). Baseline values indicated increased parameters of cell damage and disruption of redox balance in all groups. After three weeks the E MTX + DOLE group maintained high catalase activity, exhibited decrease of lipid peroxidation and protein damage indicators-thiols and nitrites, while levels of DNA damage and pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 were significantly reduced. In E MTX group catalase activity remained unaltered while significant lipid peroxidation and DNA damage reductions were seen only after six weeks. L-t MTX + DOLE group showed only modest alterations of cell damage parameters during six weeks. Combined administration of DOLE with MTX contributes to faster reduction of cell damage, restores oxidative balance and improves interleukin-6 suppression during high disease activity in early phase RA, but not in long term patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Paula; Fernández, Victoria; Graça, José; Cabral, Vanessa; Kayali, Nour; Khayet, Mohamed; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids), coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  11. RED AND BLUE LIGHT-STIMULATED PROTON EFFLUX BY EPIDERMAL LEAF-CELLS OF THE ARGENTEUM MUTANT OF PISUM-SATIVUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAAL, M; ELZENGA, JTM; VANELK, AG; PRINS, HBA; VANVOLKENBURGH, E

    Light stimulates leaf expansion in dicotyledons by increasing apoplastic acidification, cell wall loosening and solute accumulation for turgor maintenance. Red and blue light enhance growth via different photosystems, but the cellular location and modes of action of these systems is not known. Here,

  12. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline R Carins Murphy

    Full Text Available Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  13. Ashwagandha leaf derived withanone protects normal human cells against the toxicity of methoxyacetic acid, a major industrial metabolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Priyandoko

    Full Text Available The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates.

  14. Ashwagandha leaf derived withanone protects normal human cells against the toxicity of methoxyacetic acid, a major industrial metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, Didik; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2011-05-04

    The present day lifestyle heavily depends on industrial chemicals in the form of agriculture, cosmetics, textiles and medical products. Since the toxicity of the industrial chemicals has been a concern to human health, the need for alternative non-toxic natural products or adjuvants that serve as antidotes are in high demand. We have investigated the effects of Ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaf extract on methoxyacetic acid (MAA) induced toxicity. MAA is a major metabolite of ester phthalates that are commonly used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer reagents. We report that the MAA cause premature senescence of normal human cells by mechanisms that involve ROS generation, DNA and mitochondrial damage. Withanone protects cells from MAA-induced toxicity by suppressing the ROS levels, DNA and mitochondrial damage, and induction of cell defense signaling pathways including Nrf2 and proteasomal degradation. These findings warrant further basic and clinical studies that may promote the use of withanone as a health adjuvant in a variety of consumer products where the toxicity has been a concern because of the use of ester phthalates.

  15. Project LEAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  16. Binding of Human GII.4 Norovirus Virus-Like Particles to Carbohydrates of Romaine Lettuce Leaf Cell Wall Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseili, Malak A.

    2012-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains are the dominant cause of the majority of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve leafy greens, such as lettuce. Since human NoVs use carbohydrates of histo-blood group antigens as receptors/coreceptors, we examined the role of carbohydrates in the attachment of NoV to lettuce leaves by using virus-like particles (VLPs) of a human NoV/GII.4 strain. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the VLPs attached to the leaf surface, especially to cut edges, stomata, and along minor veins. Binding was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on cell wall materials (CWM) from innermost younger leaves and outermost lamina of older leaves. The binding to CWM of older leaves was significantly (P carbohydrates of CWM or porcine gastric mucin (PGM) (a carbohydrate control) using 100 mM sodium periodate (NaIO4) significantly decreased the binding an average of 17% in younger leaves, 43% in older leaves, and 92% for PGM. In addition, lectins recognizing GalNAc, GlcNAc, and sialic acid at 100 μg/ml significantly decreased the binding an average of 41%, 33%, and 20% on CWM of older leaves but had no effect on younger leaves. Lectins recognizing α-d-Gal, α-d-Man/α-d-Glc, and α-l-Fuc showed significant inhibition on CWM of older leaves as well as that of younger leaves. All lectins, except for the lectin recognizing α-d-Gal, significantly inhibited NoV VLP binding to PGM. Collectively, our results indicate that NoV VLPs bind to lettuce CWM by utilizing multiple carbohydrate moieties. This binding may enhance virus persistence on the leaf surface and prevent effective decontamination. PMID:22138991

  17. Polyphenol stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles from Abutilon indicum leaf extract induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2016-07-01

    Green synthesized gold nanoparticles have received substantial attention owing to their biomedical applications, particularly in cancer therapy. Although anticancer activities of green synthesized gold nanoparticles have been reported earlier, the underlying mechanism behind their anticancer activity is still to be understood. The present study, describes the green synthesis of Abutilon indicum gold nanoparticles (AIGNPs) from Abutilon indicum leaf extract (AILE) and their cytotoxic mechanism in colon cancer cells. Dimensions of spherical shaped AIGNPs were found to be in the range of 1-20nm as determined by TEM. GC-MS and FTIR analysis indicated the presence of polyphenolic groups in AILE, which might have been involved in the stabilization of AIGNPs. In vitro free radical scavenging analysis revealed the radical quenching activity of AIGNPs. Further, the AIGNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cells with IC50 values of 210 and 180μg/mL after 24 and 48h. This was mediated through nuclear morphological changes and cell membrane damage as evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and AnnexinV-Cy3 staining methods. Mechanism of the observed cytotoxicity of AIGNPs was explained on the basis of increased levels of reactive oxygen species and simultaneous reduction in cellular antioxidants, which might have caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss, DNA damage and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. Expression of cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Lamin A/C and PARP, provided the clues for the induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in AIGNPs treated HT-29 cells. The study provides a preliminary guidance towards the development of colon cancer therapy using green synthesized gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lace plant ethylene receptors, AmERS1a and AmERS1c, regulate ethylene-induced programmed cell death during leaf morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantong, Gaolathe; Evans, Rodger; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2015-10-01

    The lace plant, Aponogeton madagascariensis, is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its leaves as part of normal leaf development. Perforation formation occurs through developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The molecular basis of PCD regulation in the lace plant is unknown, however ethylene has been shown to play a significant role. In this study, we examined the role of ethylene receptors during perforation formation. We isolated three lace plant ethylene receptors AmERS1a, AmERS1b and AmERS1c. Using quantitative PCR, we examined their transcript levels at seven stages of leaf development. Through laser-capture microscopy, transcript levels were also determined in cells undergoing PCD and cells not undergoing PCD (NPCD cells). AmERS1a transcript levels were significantly lower in window stage leaves (in which perforation formation and PCD are occurring) as compared to all other leaf developmental stages. AmERS1a and AmERS1c (the most abundant among the three receptors) had the highest transcript levels in mature stage leaves, where PCD is not occurring. Their transcript levels decreased significantly during senescence-associated PCD. AmERS1c had significantly higher transcript levels in NPCD compared to PCD cells. Despite being significantly low in window stage leaves, AmERS1a transcripts were not differentially expressed between PCD and NPCD cells. The results suggested that ethylene receptors negatively regulate ethylene-controlled PCD in the lace plant. A combination of ethylene and receptor levels determines cell fate during perforation formation and leaf senescence. A new model for ethylene emission and receptor expression during lace plant perforation formation and senescence is proposed.

  19. Functional characterization of coat protein and V2 involved in cell to cell movement of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Dabawali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C G Poornima Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available The functional attributes of coat protein (CP and V2 of the monopartite begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus- Dabawali were analyzed in vitro and in vivo by their overexpression in E. coli, insect cells and transient expression in the plant system. Purified recombinant V2 and CP proteins were shown to interact with each other using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. Confocal microscopy of Sf21 cells expressing V2 and CP proteins revealed that V2 localized to the cell periphery and CP to the nucleus. Deletion of the N terminal nuclear localization signal of CP restricted its distribution to the cytoplasm. GFP-V2 and YFP-CP transiently expressed in N. benthamiana plants by agroinfiltration substantiated the localization of V2 to the cell periphery and CP predominantly to the nucleus. Interestingly, upon coinfiltration, CP was found both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm along with V2. These results suggest that the interaction of V2 and CP may have important implications in the cell to cell movement.

  20. CYTOTOXICITY OF JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA BURM F. LEAF EXTRACTS ON MOLT-4 CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm f. (Acanthaceae is known for its activity as a male contraceptive and anti-HIV properties. The present study was designed to evaluate extracts of J. gendarussa for cytotoxicity activity against MOLT-4 cells. The cytotoxic activity of the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extracts of J. gendarussa leaves on MOLT-4 cells were evaluated using a WST-1 assay. The treatment cells, control cells without treatment and control media were also tested in duplicate. The absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 450 nm using a microplate absorbance reader (Bio-Rad. The average absorbance measures formazan produced by viable cells that metabolize the WST-1 reagent. Then the data was analyzed with regression analysis Microsoft Excel 2007 program to determine the concentration with 50% cell viability (50% Cytotoxicity Concentration, CC50. The CC50 values of the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves were 94 μg/ml and 78 μg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves were not significantly different (p > 0.05. It can be concluded that the fractionated-extract and 70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves are not toxic to MOLT-4 cells.

  1. What is the influence of ordinary epidermal cells and stomata on the leaf plasticity of coffee plants grown under full-sun and shady conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Pompelli

    Full Text Available Stomata are crucial in land plant productivity and survival. In general, with lower irradiance, stomatal and epidermal cell frequency per unit leaf area decreases, whereas guard-cell length or width increases. Nevertheless, the stomatal index is accepted as remaining constant. The aim of this paper to study the influence of ordinary epidermal cells and stomata on leaf plasticity and the influence of these characteristics on stomata density, index, and sizes, in the total number of stomata, as well as the detailed distribution of stomata on a leaf blade. As a result, a highly significant positive correlation (R²a = 0.767 p < 0.001 between stomatal index and stomatal density, and with ordinary epidermal cell density (R²a = 0.500 p < 0.05, and a highly negative correlation between stomatal index and ordinary epidermal cell area (R²a = -0.571 p < 0.001, were obtained. However in no instance was the correlation between stomatal index or stomatal density and stomatal dimensions taken into consideration. The study also indicated that in coffee, the stomatal index was 19.09% in shaded leaves and 20.08% in full-sun leaves. In this sense, variations in the stomatal index by irradiance, its causes and the consequences on plant physiology were discussed.

  2. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its...

  6. Antiproliferative Evaluation and Apoptosis Induction in MCF- 7 Cells by Ziziphus spina christi Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmani, Fatemeh; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Amanzadeh, Amir; Kandelous, Hirsa Mostafapour; Ehsanpour, Zahra; Salimi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine has becoming a potential source of treatment for different types of cancer including breast cancer. It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we determined the antiproliferative influence of Ziziphus spina christi- a species from this family- on the MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. The cytotoxicity of the total extract, ethanol, ethanol-aqueous (1:1) as well as aqueous fractions of Ziziphus spina christi leaves was evaluated through MTT assay against MCF-7 cell line. Cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction were assessed by flowcytometry cycle RNase/PI analysis and Annexin V-FLUOS, respectively. Apoptosis was also analyzed by immunoblotting assay. Our results indicated that the ethanolic fraction had the lowest IC50 value (0.02 mg/ml), induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase as well as apoptosis after a 48h of treatment. This is the first report on anticancer effect of Ziziphus spina christi ethanolic fraction on breast cancer cells, providing a scientific basis for its utility in traditional medicine. However, further in-depth studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanisms.

  7. Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Suresh, P K; Vijayababu, M R; Arunkumar, A; Arunakaran, J

    2006-04-21

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with neem extract showed decreased level of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic protein and increased the level of Bax protein. So the neem extract could be potentially effective against prostate cancer treatment.

  8. Protective effect of C. sativa leaf extract against UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I F; Pinto, A S; Monteiro, C; Monteiro, H; Belo, L; Fernandes, J; Bento, A R; Duarte, T L; Garrido, J; Bahia, M F; Sousa Lobo, J M; Costa, P C

    2015-03-01

    Toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on skin include protein and lipid oxidation, and DNA damage. The latter is known to play a major role in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Many plant extracts and natural compounds are emerging as photoprotective agents. Castanea sativa leaf extract is able to scavenge several reactive species that have been associated to UV-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to analyze the protective effect of C. sativa extract (ECS) at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/mL) against the UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). For this purpose, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used. Elucidation of the protective mechanism was undertaken regarding UV absorption, influence on (1)O₂ mediated effects or NRF2 activation. ECS presented a concentration-dependent protective effect against UV-mediated DNA damage in HaCaT cells. The maximum protection afforded (66.4%) was achieved with the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL. This effect was found to be related to a direct antioxidant effect (involving (1)O₂) rather than activation of the endogenous antioxidant response coordinated by NRF2. Electrochemical studies showed that the good antioxidant capacity of the ECS can be ascribed to the presence of a pool of different phenolic antioxidants. No genotoxic or phototoxic effects were observed after incubation of HaCaT cells with ECS (up to 0.1 μg/mL). Taken together these results reinforce the putative application of this plant extract in the prevention/minimization of UV deleterious effects on skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Nashi; Kaur, Kamaljit; Shrestha, Bhupal G; Takagi, Yasuomi; Ishii, Tetsuro; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C

    2007-04-01

    Ashwagandha is regarded as a wonder shrub of India and is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine and health tonics that claim its variety of health-promoting effects. Surprisingly, these claims are not well supported by adequate studies, and the molecular mechanisms of its action remain largely unexplored to date. We undertook a study to identify and characterize the antitumor activity of the leaf extract of ashwagandha. Selective tumor-inhibitory activity of the leaf extract (i-Extract) was identified by in vivo tumor formation assays in nude mice and by in vitro growth assays of normal and human transformed cells. To investigate the cellular targets of i-Extract, we adopted a gene silencing approach using a selected small hairpin RNA library and found that p53 is required for the killing activity of i-Extract. By molecular analysis of p53 function in normal and a variety of tumor cells, we found that it is selectively activated in tumor cells, causing either their growth arrest or apoptosis. By fractionation, purification, and structural analysis of the i-Extract constituents, we have identified its p53-activating tumor-inhibiting factor as with a none. We provide the first molecular evidence that the leaf extract of ashwagandha selectively kills tumor cells and, thus, is a natural source for safe anticancer medicine.

  10. FE Controls the Transcription of Downstream Flowering Regulators Through Two Distinct Mechanisms in Leaf Phloem Companion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuta, Mio; Abe, Mitsutomo

    2017-09-25

    In facultative long-day plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding a mobile hormone florigen plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1). Some regulators involved in photoperiod-dependent FT function have been reported previously; however, the molecular mechanism that coordinates FT protein synthesis and transport efficiently needs to be investigated. The present study examined the role of a Myb-related transcription factor, FE, in the activation of FT gene transcription and FT protein transport. Expression analysis using FE inducible systems and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that FE directly bound to the FT and NaKR1 promoters and activated the transcription of downstream target genes. According to our data, FE failed to activate FT expression without CO function, whereas FE-mediated NaKR1 induction was not affected by CO function. Taken together, our data indicate that FE regulates the transcription of FT and florigen-transporter genes via different mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of temperature and light on the formation of chloroplast protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of high alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Othmar; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius

    2007-11-01

    Chloroplasts of many alpine plants have the ability to form marked, stroma-filled protrusions that do not contain thylakoids. Effects of temperature and light intensity on the frequency of chloroplasts with such protrusions in leaf mesophyll cells of nine different alpine plant species (Carex curvula All., Leontodon helveticus Merat., Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill., Poa alpina L. ssp. vivipara, Polygonum viviparum L., Ranunculus glacialis L., Ranunculus alpestris L., Silene acaulis L. and Soldanella pusilla Baumg.) covering seven different families were studied. Leaves were exposed to either darkness and a stepwise increase in temperature (10-38 degrees C) or to different light intensities (500 and 2000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and a constant temperature of 10 or 30 degrees C in a special temperature-regulated chamber. A chloroplast protrusions index characterising the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions was defined. Seven of the nine species showed a significant increase in chloroplast protrusions when temperature was elevated to over 20 degrees C. In contrast, the light level did not generally affect the abundance of chloroplasts with protrusions. Chloroplast protrusions lead to a dynamic enlargement of the chloroplast surface area. They do not appear to be directly connected to a distinct photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)/F(m)) status and thus seem to be involved in secondary, not primary, photosynthetic processes.

  12. A natural carbonized leaf as polysulfide diffusion inhibitor for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Heng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-06-01

    Attracted by the unique tissue and functions of leaves, a natural carbonized leaf (CL) is presented as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The CL that is covered on the pure sulfur cathode effectively suppresses the polysulfide shuttling mechanism and enables the use of pure sulfur as the cathode. A low charge resistance and a high discharge capacity of 1320 mA h g(-1) arise from the improved cell conductivity due to the innately integral conductive carbon network of the CL. The unique microstructure of CL leads to a high discharge/charge efficiency of >98 %, low capacity fade of 0.18 % per cycle, and good long-term cyclability over 150 cycles. The structural gradient and the micro/mesoporous adsorption sites of CL effectively intercept/trap the migrating polysulfides and facilitate their reutilization. The green CL polysulfide diffusion inhibitor thus offers a viable approach for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Leaf and root extracts of Moricandia arvensis protect against DNA damage in human lymphoblast cell K562 and enhance antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-07-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the roots and leaves of Moricandia arvensis: root chloroform extract (ChlR), leaf chloroform extract (ChlL), root ethyl acetate extract (EAR) and leaf ethyl acetate extract (EAL). The genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the induction and inhibition of the genotoxicity induced by the direct-acting mutagen, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), using the "Comet assay." It appears that none of the different extracts produces a genotoxic effect, except the highest tested concentrations of the leaf extracts which were capable to eliciting DNA damage. Human lymphoblast cells K562 were pretreated with different concentrations of each extracts and then treated by H(2)O(2), for the antigenotoxic study. The results showed that all extracts inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) and particularly ChlR (42.5μg/ml) and ChlL (65μg/ml) extracts. In addition, antioxidant potential study of root and leaf extracts using different antioxidant tests indicated that root extracts possess a potent antioxidant activity through namely their capacity to transfer electrons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoidesL.) Leaf Extracts Protect Neuronal PC-12 Cells from Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chi Heung; Jang, Holim; Lee, Migi; Kang, Hee; Heo, Ho Jjn; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2017-07-28

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves (SBL) harvested at different times. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed five major phenolic compounds: ellagic acid, gallic acid, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin. SBL harvested in August had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity. Treatment of neuronal PC-12 cells with the ethyl acetate fraction of SBL harvested in August increased their viability and membrane integrity and reduced intracellular oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The relative populations of both early and late apoptotic PC-12 cells were decreased by treatment with the SBL ethyl acetate fraction, based on flow cytometry analysis using annexin V-FITC/PI staining. These findings suggest that SBL can serve as a good source of antioxidants and medicinal agents that attenuate oxidative stress.

  15. Shiso leaf pigments for dye-sensitized solid-state solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumara, G.R.A.; Kaneko, S.; Okuya, M.; Konno, A. [Department of Material Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Onwona-Agyeman, B.; Tennakone, K. [Innovative Joint Research Center, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan)

    2006-05-23

    A dye-sensitized solar cell made by coating pigments in an extract from shiso leaves on a nanocrystalline film of TiO{sub 2} and subsequent deposition of p-CuI is found to have an energy conversion efficiency of {approx}1.3%. Both shisonin and chlorophyll contribute to light energy harvesting as seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. This is the first successful example of synergistic sensitization by dye cocktail extracted from a single natural resource. The usefulness of studies of this nature in understanding the role of multiple pigments in photosynthesis and broadening of the spectral response of dye-sensitized devices is commented, indicating also the pedagogic value of the experiment. (author)

  16. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  18. Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelkrout, Erin M; Mariconti, Luisa; Settlage, Sharon B; Cella, Rino; Robertson, Dominique; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2002-12-01

    E2F transcription factors regulate genes expressed at the G1/S boundary of the cell division cycle in higher eukaryotes. Although animal E2F proteins and their target promoters have been studied extensively, little is known about how these factors regulate plant promoters. An earlier study identified two E2F consensus binding sites in the promoter of a Nicotiana benthamiana gene encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and showed that the proximal element (E2F2) is required for the full repression of PCNA expression in mature leaves. In this study, we examined the distal element (E2F1) and how it interacts with the E2F2 site to regulate the PCNA promoter. Gel shift assays using plant nuclear extracts or purified Arabidopsis E2F and DP proteins showed that different complexes bind to the two E2F sites. Mutation of the E2F1 site or both sites differentially altered PCNA promoter function in transgenic plants. As reported previously for the E2F2 mutation, the E2F1 and E2F1+2 mutations partially relieved the repression of the PCNA promoter in mature leaves. In young tissues, the E2F1 mutation resulted in a threefold reduction in PCNA promoter activity, whereas the E2F1+2 mutation had no detectable effect. The activity of E2F1+2 mutants was indistinguishable from that of E2F2 mutants. These results demonstrate that both E2F elements contribute to the repression of the PCNA promoter in mature leaves, whereas the E2F1 site counters the repression activity of the E2F2 element in young leaves.

  19. Fluorescence kinetic parameters and cyclic electron transport in guard cell chloroplasts of chlorophyll-deficient leaf tissues from variegated weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    Residual chlorophyll in chlorophyll-deficient (albino) areas of variegated leaves of Ficus benjamina originates from guard cell chloroplasts. Photosynthetic features of green and albino sectors of F. benjamina were studied by imaging the distribution of the fluorescence decrease ratio Rfd within a leaf calculated from maximum (Fm) and steady-state leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) at 690 and 740 nm. Local areas of albino sectors demonstrated an abnormally high Rfd(740)/Rfd(690) ratio. Fluorescence transients excited in albino sectors at red (640 and 690 nm) wavelengths showed an abrupt decrease of the Rfd values (0.4 and 0.1, correspondingly) as compared with those excited at blue wavelengths (1.7-2.4). This "Red Drop" was not observed for green sectors. Normal and chlorophyll-deficient leaf sectors of F. benjamina were also tested for linear and cyclic electron transport in thylakoids. The tests have been performed studying fluorescence at a steady-state phase with CO(2)-excess impulse feeding, photoacoustic signal generated by pulse light source at wavelengths selectively exciting PSI, fluorescence kinetics under anaerobiosis and fluorescence changes observed by dual-wavelength excitation method. The data obtained for albino sectors strongly suggest the possibility of a cyclic electron transport simultaneously occurring in guard cell thylakoids around photosystems I and II under blue light, whereas linear electron transport is absent or insufficient.

  20. Effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract on electrophysiologic properties of cardiomyocytes derived from human cardiac arrhythmia-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Sara; Tousi, Marziyeh Shalchi; Ayyari, Mahdi; Alirezalu, Abolfazl; Ansari, Hassan; Saric, Tomo; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-11-13

    Cardiac arrhythmias are major life-threatening conditions. The landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has provided a promising in vitro system for modeling hereditary cardiac arrhythmias as well as drug development and toxicity testing. Nowadays, nutraceuticals are frequently used as supplements for cardiovascular therapy. Here we studied the cardiac effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract using cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from healthy human embryonic stem cells, long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. The hydroalcoholic extract resulted in a dose-dependent negative chronotropic effect in all CM preparations leading to a significant reduction at 1000 µg/ml. This was accompanied by prolongation of field potential durations, although with different magnitudes in CMs from different human embryonic stem cell and iPSC lines. Hawthorn further prolonged field potential durations in LQTS2 CMs but reduced the beating frequencies and occurrence of immature field potentials triggered by β1-adrenergic stimulation in CPVT1 CMs at 300 and 1000 µg/ml. Furthermore, isoquercetin and vitexin flavonoids significantly slowed down isoproterenol (5 µM)-induced beating frequencies at 3 and 10 µg/ml. Therefore, C. pentagyna leaf extract and its isoquercetin and vitexin flavonoids may be introduced as a novel nutraceutical with antiarrhythmic potential for CPVT1 patients.-Pahlavan, S., Tousi, M. S., Ayyari, M., Alirezalu, A., Ansari, H., Saric, T., Baharvand, H. Effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract on electrophysiologic properties of cardiomyocytes derived from human cardiac arrhythmia-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. © FASEB.

  1. Anti-Ageing Effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (pūhā) Leaf Extracts on H2O2-Induced Cell Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    -induced senescence by mediating oxidative stress. Premature senescence of young WI-38 cells was induced by application of H2O2. Cells were treated with S. oleraceus extracts before or after H2O2 stress. The senescence- associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity was used to indicate cell senescence. S....... oleraceus extracts showed higher cellular antioxidant activity than chlorogenic acid in WI-38 cells. S. oleraceus extracts suppressed H2O2 stress-induced premature senescence in a concentration-dependent manner. At 5 and 20 mg/mL, S. oleraceus extracts showed better or equivalent effects of reducing stress......Antioxidants protect against damage from free radicals and are believed to slow the ageing process. Previously, we have reported the high antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. We hypothesize that S. oleraceus extracts protect cells against H2O2...

  2. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majse eNafisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2, previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g. lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases. In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  3. Metabolism of [3-{sup 3}H]oleanolic acid in the isolated ``Calendula officinalis`` leaf cells and transport of the synthesized glycosides, to the cell wall and the extracellular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakiel, A.; Wasiukiewicz, I.; Janiszowska, W. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Katedra Biochemii

    1995-12-31

    It has been shown for the first time that [3-{sup 3}H]oleanolic acid glycosides formed in the cytosol of ``C. officinalis`` leaf cells are transported to the extracellular space in the form of pentaglucoside VI (44%), whereas glucuronides derived from [3-{sup 3}H]oleanolic acid 3-O-monoglucuronide (29%) as well as a part of glucosides (24%) were transported into the cell walls. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  4. Mangosteen leaf extract increases melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells by stimulating tyrosinase activity in vitro and by up-regulating tyrosinase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mariani Abdul; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2012-02-01

    Melanin synthesis is stimulated by various effectors, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents (forskolin, isobutylmethylxantine, glycyrrhizin) and ultraviolet light. Our investigation focused on the identification of the melanogenic efficacy of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) leaf extract with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells, since it has been known to possess strong anti-oxidant activities. The mangosteen leaf extract was found to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; the highest concentration of the extract that did not affect cell viability was 32 µg/ml. Formation of melanin from cultured B16F1 melanoma induced by extract treatment was estimated using spectrophotometry. In order to clarify the subsequent mechanism of tyrosinase activation by the extract, the levels of tyrosinase expression in B16F1 melanoma were examined using an intracellular tyrosinase assay and tyrosinase zymography. Up-regulation of intracellular tyrosinase expression seemed to correlate with an increase in microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) protein levels since MITF is the key factor for genes involved in melanogenesis. Both of the results showed that tyrosinase activity was markedly enhanced from extract-treated cells. The overall results suggest that mangosteen leaf extract may be a promising candidate for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorder and useful for self-tanning cosmetic products.

  5. Leaf stomatal and epidermal cell development: identification of putative quantitative trait loci in relation to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Rachel; Long, L; Bunn, S M; Robinson, K M; Bradshaw, H D; Rae, A M; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    Genetic variation in stomatal initiation and density, and epidermal cell size and number were examined in a hybrid pedigree of Populus trichocarpa T. & G. and P. deltoides Marsh in both ambient ([aCO2]) and elevated ([eCO2]) concentrations of CO2. We aimed to link anatomical traits with the underlying genetic map of F2 Family 331, composed of 350 markers across 19 linkage groups. Leaf stomatal and epidermal cell traits showed pronounced differences between the original parents. We considered the following traits in the F2 population: stomatal density (SD), stomatal index (SI), epidermal cell area (ECA) and the number of epidermal cells per leaf (ECN). In [eCO2], adaxial SD and SI were reduced in the F2 population, whereas ECA increased and ECN remained unchanged. In [aCO2], four putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) with logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD) scores greater than 2.9 were found for stomatal traits on linkage group B: adaxial SI (LOD scores of 5.4 and 5.2); abaxial SI (LOD score of 3.3); and SD (LOD score of 3.2). These results imply that QTL for SI and SD share linkage group B and are under genetic control. More moderate LOD scores (LOD scores >/= 2.5) suggest QTL for SI on linkage groups A and B and for SD on linkage groups B, D and X with a probable co-locating quantitative trait locus for SI and SD on linkage group D (position 46.3 cM). The QTL in both [aCO2] and [eCO2] for adaxial SD were co-located on linkage group X (LOD scores of 3.5 and 2.6, respectively) indicating a similar response across both treatments. Putative QTL were located on linkage group A (position 89.2 cM) for both leaf size and ECN in [aCO2] and for ECA at almost the same position. The data provide preliminary evidence that leaf stomatal and cell traits are amenable to QTL analysis.

  6. Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Huamán, Ángel; Casimiro-Gonzales, Sandra; Chávez-Pérez, Jorge Antonio; Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Cisneros-Fernández, Richard; Aguilar-Mendoza, Luis Ángel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced during cell metabolism, there is strong evidence to suggest that ROS produced in excess impair the cell and may be etiologically related to various neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) methanol leaf extract on neurotoxicity in PC12 cell exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Fresh samples of "maca" leaves were processed in order to obtain foliar extracts and to evaluate the neurobiological activity on PC12 cells, subjected to the cytotoxic effect of 6-OHDA through the determination of the capacity antioxidant, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays on PC12 cells. The results of the tests of antioxidant activity, showed maximum values of 2262.37 and 1305.36 expressed in Trolox equivalents (TEAC), for the methanolic and aqueous fractions respectively. Cell viability assays at a dose of 10 μg extract showed an increase of 31% and 60% at 6 and 12 h of pretreatment, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays at the same dose and exposure time showed a 31.4% and 47.8% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results allow us to affirm that the methanolic foliar extract of "maca" presents in vitro neurobiological activity of antioxidant protection, increase in cell viability and reduction of cytotoxicity against oxidative stress generated by 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study shows a protective role for Lepidium meyenii leaf extract on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by an antioxidant effect.

  7. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  8. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belemtougri, R.G.; Constantin, B.; Cognard, C.; Raymond, G.; Sawadogo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  9. QTLs for cell wall-bound phenolics in relation to the photosynthetic apparatus activity and leaf water status under drought stress at different growth stages of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Tyrka, Mirosław; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed at identifying the regions of triticale genome responsible for cell wall saturation with phenolic compounds under drought stress during vegetative and generative growth. Moreover, the loci determining the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, leaf water content (LWC) and osmotic potential (Ψ o) were identified, as leaf hydration and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under drought are associated with the content of cell wall-bound phenolics (CWPh). Compared with LWC and Ψ o, CWPh fluctuations were more strongly associated with changes in chlorophyll fluorescence. At the vegetative stage, CWPh fluctuations were due to the activity of three loci, of which only QCWPh.4B was also related to changes in F v/F m and ABS/CSm. In the other QTLs (QCWPh.6R.2 and QCWPh.6R.3), the genes of these loci determined also the changes in majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. At the generative stage, the changes in CWPh in loci QCWPh.4B, QCWPh.3R and QCWPh.6R.1 corresponded to those in DIo/CSm. The locus QCWPh.6R.3, active at V stage, controlled majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. This is the first study on mapping quantitative traits in triticale plants exposed to drought at different stages of development, and the first to present the loci for cell wall-bound phenolics.

  10. Deficiência hídrica agrava os sintomas fisiológicos da clorose variegada dos citros em laranjeira 'Natal' Water deficiency intensifies physiological symptoms of citrus variegated clorosis in 'Natal' sweet orange plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clorose variegada dos citros (CVC é uma doença que tem promovido sérios prejuízos aos laranjais das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde a deficiência hídrica e as altas temperaturas são mais frequentes. Assim, este trabalho objetivou a avaliação do efeito da deficiência hídrica no desenvolvimento de sintomas fisiológicos em laranjeira 'Natal' com CVC. Foram realizadas medidas do potencial da água na folha, transpiração, condutância estomática e assimilação de CO2, em laranjeiras em condições naturais e submetidas à irrigação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A condutância estomática, a transpiração diária e o potencial da água na folha foram menores nas plantas com CVC. A assimilação diária de CO2 foi menor nas laranjeiras com CVC mesmo quando irrigadas. De fato, a irrigação diminuiu o efeito da CVC, porém não impediu o estabelecimento da doença em laranjeiras inoculadas com Xylella fastidiosa. Em relação aos demais tratamentos, as plantas infectadas e mantidas sob condições naturais (sem irrigação apresentaram maior comprometimento das trocas gasosas, mesmo quando as avaliações fisiológicas foram feitas em período úmido (verão.Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC is a disease that has caused serious economical losses in citrus grove located in the North and Northeastern regions of São Paulo State, where water deficiency and high temperature occur frequently. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of water deficiency on the development of physiological symptoms in 'Natal' sweet orange plants with CVC. Measurements of leaf water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance e CO2 assimilation were taken in plants under natural conditions and submitted to irrigation. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five replications. Stomatal conductance, daily transpiration and leaf water potential were

  11. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  12. Posttranslational elevation of cell wall invertase activity by silencing its inhibitor in tomato delays leaf senescence and increases seed weight and fruit hexose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ye; Ni, Di-An; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Invertase plays multiple pivotal roles in plant development. Thus, its activity must be tightly regulated in vivo. Emerging evidence suggests that a group of small proteins that inhibit invertase activity in vitro appears to exist in a wide variety of plants. However, little is known regarding their roles in planta. Here, we examined the function of INVINH1, a putative invertase inhibitor, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of a INVINH1:green fluorescent protein fusion revealed its apoplasmic localization. Ectopic overexpression of INVINH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana specifically reduced cell wall invertase activity. By contrast, silencing its expression in tomato significantly increased the activity of cell wall invertase without altering activities of cytoplasmic and vacuolar invertases. Elevation of cell wall invertase activity in RNA interference transgenic tomato led to (1) a prolonged leaf life span involving in a blockage of abscisic acid-induced senescence and (2) an increase in seed weight and fruit hexose level, which is likely achieved through enhanced sucrose hydrolysis in the apoplasm of the fruit vasculature. This assertion is based on (1) coexpression of INVINH1 and a fruit-specific cell wall invertase Lin5 in phloem parenchyma cells of young fruit, including the placenta regions connecting developing seeds; (2) a physical interaction between INVINH1 and Lin5 in vivo; and (3) a symplasmic discontinuity at the interface between placenta and seeds. Together, the results demonstrate that INVINH1 encodes a protein that specifically inhibits the activity of cell wall invertase and regulates leaf senescence and seed and fruit development in tomato by limiting the invertase activity in planta.

  13. Normalization of tumor microenvironment by neem leaf glycoprotein potentiates effector T cell functions and therapeutically intervenes in the growth of mouse sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Barik

    Full Text Available We have observed restriction of the murine sarcoma growth by therapeutic intervention of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP. In order to evaluate the mechanism of tumor growth restriction, here, we have analyzed tumor microenvironment (TME from sarcoma bearing mice with NLGP therapy (NLGP-TME, in comparison to PBS-TME. Analysis of cytokine milieu within TME revealed IL-10, TGFβ, IL-6 rich type 2 characters was switched to type 1 microenvironment with dominance of IFNγ secretion within NLGP-TME. Proportion of CD8(+ T cells was increased within NLGP-TME and these T cells were protected from TME-induced anergy by NLGP, as indicated by higher expression of pNFAT and inhibit related downstream signaling. Moreover, low expression of FasR(+ cells within CD8(+ T cell population denotes prevention from activation induced cell death. Using CFSE as a probe, better migration of T cells was noted within TME from NLGP treated mice than PBS cohort. CD8(+ T cells isolated from NLGP-TME exhibited greater cytotoxicity to sarcoma cells in vitro and these cells show higher expression of cytotoxicity related molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Adoptive transfer of NLGP-TME exposed T cells, but not PBS-TME exposed cells in mice, is able to significantly inhibit the growth of sarcoma in vivo. Such tumor growth inhibition by NLGP-TME exposed T cells was not observed when mice were depleted for CD8(+ T cells. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest NLGP mediated normalization of TME allows T cells to perform optimally to inhibit the tumor growth.

  14. IRON UPTAKE BY LEAF MESOPHYLL-CELLS - THE ROLE OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE-BOUND FERRIC-CHELATE REDUCTASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUGGEMANN, W; MAASKANTEL, K; MOOG, PR

    The uptake of Fe-59 from FeCl3, ferric (Fe3+) citrate (FeCitr) and Fe3+-EDTA (FeEDTA) was studied in leaf mesophyll of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Uptake rates decreased in the order FeCl3>FeCitr much greater than FeEDTA, and uptake depended on an obligatory reduction step of Fe3+ to Fe2+, after

  15. The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide generation and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Bölck, Birgit; Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Stabenow, Christina Julia Annika; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-01

    The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 improves cutaneous oxygen supply and the microcirculation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Regulation of blood flow was associated to nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO (nitric oxide) production, and endothelial and red blood cells (RBC) have been shown to possess respective NOS isoforms. It was hypothesized that AS195 positively affects NOS activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RBC. Because patients with microvascular disorders show increased oxidative stress which limits NO bioavailability, it was further hypothesized that AS195 increases NO bioavailability by decreasing the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant capacity. Cultured HUVECs and RBCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with AS195 (100 μmol/L), tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP, 1 mmol/L) to induce oxidative stress and with both AS195 and TBHP. Endothelial and red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation significantly increased after AS195 incubation. Nitrite concentration, a marker for NO production, increased in HUVEC but decreased in RBC after AS195 application possibly due to nitrite scavenging potential of flavonoids. S-nitrosylation of RBC cytoskeletal spectrins and RBC deformability were increased after AS195 incubation. TBHP-induced ROS were decreased by AS195, and antioxidative capacity was significantly increased in AS195-treated cells. TBHP also reduced RBC deformability, but reduction was attenuated by parallel incubation with AS195. Adhesion of HUVEC was also reduced after AS195 treatment. Red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases NOS activation and decreases oxidative stress. Both mechanisms increase NO bioavailability, improve cell function, and may thus account for enhanced microcirculation in both health and disease.

  16. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; DELOIRE, ALAIN; CARBONNEAU, ALAIN; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; LOPEZ, FRANÇOIS

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bundles without damaging either these or the pulp tissue of the berry. The sites of sugar phloem unloading are thus made directly accessible and may be regulated by the buffer solution. In addition, the unloaded photoassimilates are easily transported into the buffer solution in the berry‐cup. With the berry‐cup technique, it takes 60 min to purge the sugar already present in the apoplast, after which the amount of sugar in the buffer solution is a direct measure of the sugar unloading from the grape berry phloem. The optimum times for sampling were 20 or 30 min, depending on the type of experiment. Sugar phloem unloading was significantly inhibited by the inclusion of either 7·5 mm NaF or 2·5 mm PCMB in the buffer solution. This study indicates that sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries is via the apoplastic network and that the process requires the input of energy. The system was shown to be an appropriate experimental system with which to study sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries, and was applied successfully to the study of berry sugar unloaded from grapevines subjected to water stress. The results showed that water deficiency inhibits sugar unloading in grape berries. PMID:12907466

  17. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See chart, § 29.2351.) ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of...

  19. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-κB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells. PMID:26115086

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-06-24

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.

  2. The CC-NB-LRR-type Rdg2a resistance gene confers immunity to the seed-borne barley leaf stripe pathogen in the absence of hypersensitive cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bulgarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leaf stripe disease on barley (Hordeum vulgare is caused by the seed-transmitted hemi-biotrophic fungus Pyrenophora graminea. Race-specific resistance to leaf stripe is controlled by two known Rdg (Resistance to Drechslera graminea genes: the H. spontaneum-derived Rdg1a and Rdg2a, identified in H. vulgare. The aim of the present work was to isolate the Rdg2a leaf stripe resistance gene, to characterize the Rdg2a locus organization and evolution and to elucidate the histological bases of Rdg2a-based leaf stripe resistance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe here the positional cloning and functional characterization of the leaf stripe resistance gene Rdg2a. At the Rdg2a locus, three sequence-related coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding site, and leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR encoding genes were identified. Sequence comparisons suggested that paralogs of this resistance locus evolved through recent gene duplication, and were subjected to frequent sequence exchange. Transformation of the leaf stripe susceptible cv. Golden Promise with two Rdg2a-candidates under the control of their native 5' regulatory sequences identified a member of the CC-NB-LRR gene family that conferred resistance against the Dg2 leaf stripe isolate, against which the Rdg2a-gene is effective. Histological analysis demonstrated that Rdg2a-mediated leaf stripe resistance involves autofluorescing cells and prevents pathogen colonization in the embryos without any detectable hypersensitive cell death response, supporting a cell wall reinforcement-based resistance mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: This work reports about the cloning of a resistance gene effective against a seed borne disease. We observed that Rdg2a was subjected to diversifying selection which is consistent with a model in which the R gene co-evolves with a pathogen effector(s gene. We propose that inducible responses giving rise to physical and chemical barriers to infection in the cell walls and intercellular spaces

  3. The mitochondrial cycle of Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem and leaf primordium meristematic cells is defined by a perinuclear tentaculate/cage-like mitochondrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Coronado, María José; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Plant cells exhibit a high rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination. This implies that before cytokinesis, the different mitochondrial compartments must fuse to allow for mtDNA intermixing. When and how the conditions for mtDNA intermixing are established are largely unknown. We have investigated the cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture in different Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell types using confocal microscopy, conventional, and three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques. Whereas mitochondria of cells from most plant organs are always small and dispersed, shoot apical and leaf primordial meristematic cells contain small, discrete mitochondria in the cell periphery and one large, mitochondrial mass in the perinuclear region. Serial thin-section reconstructions of high-pressure-frozen shoot apical meristem cells demonstrate that during G1 through S phase, the large, central mitochondrion has a tentaculate morphology and wraps around one nuclear pole. In G2, both types of mitochondria double their volume, and the large mitochondrion extends around the nucleus to establish a second sheet-like domain at the opposite nuclear pole. During mitosis, approximately 60% of the smaller mitochondria fuse with the large mitochondrion, whose volume increases to 80% of the total mitochondrial volume, and reorganizes into a cage-like structure encompassing first the mitotic spindle and then the entire cytokinetic apparatus. During cytokinesis, the cage-like mitochondrion divides into two independent tentacular mitochondria from which new, small mitochondria arise by fission. These cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture explain how these meristematic cells can achieve a high rate of mtDNA recombination and ensure the even partitioning of mitochondria between daughter cells.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (PAnnona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  5. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  6. Fractionated Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract inhibit prostate cancer (PC3·AR) cells growth by reducing androgen receptor and survivin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Stephen I; Hall, Sakeli M; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Hengshan; Begonia, Gregorio B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the antiproliferative activity of the organic solvent-soluble and aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum leaf against the prostate cancer cells PC3·AR were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. Two organic solvent-soluble extracts P2 and P3-2, and a water- soluble extract, PS/PT1, were found to reduce AR and Survivin levels in a time-dependent manner. In addition, extract PS/PT1, also exhibited the inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first time that the inhibitory eff ects of O. gratissimum extracts have been evaluated on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. The results encouraged the further studies of O. gratissimum as a potential treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yin-Jieh; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan’s market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential −66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 μg/mL and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells through decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) expression and increase in cytochrome c expression for activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and

  8. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yin-Jieh; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan's market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 μg/mL and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells through decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) expression and increase in cytochrome c expression for activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and

  9. Protein kinase G-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction by Agastache rugosa leaf extract protects RAW264.7 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Min; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Min Kyu; Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2006-01-16

    It has been proposed that the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO) protects cells against oxidant-mediated injury. Although components of Agastache rugosa showed antioxidant effect, it is unclear this effect is related with HO-1 activity. Thus, we investigated the effects of Agastache rugosa leaf extract (ALE) on HO-1 protein expression and enzyme activity, and its protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage was also investigated using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results showed that ALE concentration dependently increased HO-1 protein and enzyme activity, and protected cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity, with an IC(50) of 0.526 mg/ml. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also showed similar effect to ALE. Furthermore, the protective effect of both ALE and hemin was inhibited by a HO inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX. The expression of HO-1 protein by ALE was reduced by pretreatment with LY83583 and ODQ, specific inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, but not by PKA inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, indicating that PKG signaling pathway regulates HO-1 induction by ALE. Taken together, it is concluded that PKG-dependent HO-1 induction is one of the important antioxidant mechanisms by which ALE protects RAW264.7 cells from H(2)O(2). Thus, ALE along with other actions may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidant-induced cellular injuries.

  10. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract inhibits LDL oxidation and foam cell formation involving up-regulation of LXRα/ABCA1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong; Wang, Chi-Ping; Sheu, Jenn-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Liang; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-11-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract (HLP), which is rich in flavonoid. The inhibitory effect of HLP on oxidation and lipid peroxidation of LDL was defined in vitro. HLP showed potential in reducing foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation in oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage J774A.1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed these influences of HLP might be mediated via liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of LXRα siRNA. Our data implied that HLP up-regulated the LXRα/ABCA1 pathway, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that HLP potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of Boesenbergia pandurata and Piper sarmentosum leaf extracts on planktonic cells and biofilm of oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Singhara, Supaporn; Lertsatitthanakorn, Pilanthana; Khunkitti, Watcharee

    2010-04-01

    Increasing awareness of hazards associated with the use of antibiotic and chemical agents has accelerated investigations into plants and their extracts as new sources of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the effects of oil and 95% ethanol extracts of Boesenbergia pandurata rhizomes and Piper sarmentosum leaf against four oral pathogens which were Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans. Employing the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, the results showed that B. pandurata oil (BPO) was the most effective extract against C. albicans. Time-kill assay with the BPO demonstrated killing of C. albicans at concentrations equal to 2 and 2.5 times the MIC. The times required to reach the fungicidal endpoint at 2 and 2.5 times the MIC were 60 and 44 min, respectively. In addition, our results also demonstrated that the BPO possesses potent anti-Candida biofilm activity in vitro. Therefore, the BPO could be considered as a natural antifungal agent against Candida infections and has significant potential for further investigation.

  13. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhanani Razali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05 in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, “Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease” was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10−6 followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10−4, intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10−4, Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10−3 and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10−3. The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG, Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK, Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1 and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6. In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid

  14. Trocas gasosas de mudas de videira, obtidas por dois porta-enxertos, submetidas à deficiência hídrica Gas exchange of vine cuttings obtained from two graftings submitted to water deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da deficiência hídrica e de dois porta-enxertos nas trocas gasosas de mudas de videira cultivadas em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se como copa a 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca, e como porta-enxertos, o 101-14 (V. riparia e o 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri. Doze dias após a suspensão da rega, o potencial hídrico foliar da combinação 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 apresentou os menores valores (-2,80 MPa em relação à 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2,10 MPa nas plantas não-irrigadas, enquanto o teor relativo de água variou apenas entre os tratamentos hídricos. Com a evolução do estresse hídrico, houve uma sensível redução nas trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', que apresentaram valores próximos de zero, devido ao fechamento dos estômatos, sem diferenças entre os porta-enxertos. Somente após 12 dias sem rega, os porta-enxertos influenciaram a eficiência no uso da água e eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, onde a 'Niágara Rosada' enxertada sobre o 101-14 apresentou valores inferiores ao 1103 Paulsen. Entretanto, durante o período de suspensão da rega, os porta-enxertos não influenciaram as trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', e apresentaram comportamento semelhante em condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica.The present work aimed to evaluate the water deficiency effect and two graftings on the gas exchange of vine cuttings under greenhouse conditions. 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca was used as scion, and 101-14 (V. riparia x V. rupestris and 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri were used as rootstocks. Twelve days after watering suspension, the leaf water potential of the combination 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 showed lower (-2.80 MPa in relation to 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2.10 MPa in the non-irrigated plants, while relative water content altered only among watering levels. With the

  15. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis for Therapeutic Innovation in Clinical Oncology? Taking the Root Out, Not Chopping the Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzobo, Kevin; Senthebane, Dimakatso Alice; Rowe, Arielle; Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Mwapagha, Lamech M; Al-Awwad, Nasir; Dandara, Collet; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-12-01

    Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells. This differentiation is induced by both genetic and environmental factors. Another characteristic of CSCs is their therapeutic resistance, which is due to their quiescent state and slow dividing. Notably, the CSC phenotype differs greatly between patients and different cancer types. The CSCs may differ genetically and phenotypically and may include primary CSCs and metastatic stem cells circulating within the blood system. Targeting CSCs will require the knowledge of distinct stem cells within the tumor. CSCs can differentiate into nontumorigenic cells and this has been touted as the source of heterogeneity observed in many solid tumors. The latter cannot be fully explained by epigenetic regulation or by the clonal evolution theory. This heterogeneity markedly influences how tumors respond to therapy and prognosis. The present expert review offers an analysis and synthesis of the latest research and concepts on CSCs, with a view to truly disruptive innovation for future diagnostics and therapeutics in clinical oncology.

  16. VirtualLeaf: an open source framework for cell-based modeling of plant tissue growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.H. Merks (Roeland); M.A. Guravage (Michael); D. Inze; G.T.S. Beemster

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractPlant organs, including leaves and roots, develop by means of a multi-level crosstalk between gene regulation, patterned cell division and cell expansion, and tissue mechanics. The multi-level regulatory mechanisms complicate classic molecular genetics or functional genomics approaches

  17. The cyclic nucleotide gated cation channel AtCNGC10 traffics from the ER via Golgi vesicles to the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root and leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Marilou A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs maintain cation homeostasis essential for a wide range of physiological processes in plant cells. However, the precise subcellular locations and trafficking of these membrane proteins are poorly understood. This is further complicated by a general deficiency of information about targeting pathways of membrane proteins in plants. To investigate CNGC trafficking and localization, we have measured Atcngc5 and Atcngc10 expression in roots and leaves, analyzed AtCNGC10-GFP fusions transiently expressed in protoplasts, and conducted immunofluorescence labeling of protoplasts and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of high pressure frozen leaves and roots. Results AtCNGC10 mRNA and protein levels were 2.5-fold higher in roots than leaves, while AtCNGC5 mRNA and protein levels were nearly equal in these tissues. The AtCNGC10-EGFP fusion was targeted to the plasma membrane in leaf protoplasts, and lightly labeled several intracellular structures. Immunofluorescence microscopy with affinity purified CNGC-specific antisera indicated that AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are present in the plasma membrane of protoplasts. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AtCNGC10 was associated with the plasma membrane of mesophyll, palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells of leaves, and the meristem, columella and cap cells of roots. AtCNCG10 was also observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae and vesicles of 50–150 nm in size. Patch clamp assays of an AtCNGC10-GFP fusion expressed in HEK293 cells measured significant cation currents. Conclusion AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are plasma membrane proteins. We postulate that AtCNGC10 traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi apparatus and associated vesicles to the plasma membrane. The presence of the cation channel, AtCNGC10, in root cap meristem cells, cell plate, and gravity-sensing columella cells, combined with the previously reported

  18. Agastache rugosa leaf extract inhibits the iNOS expression in ROS 17/2.8 cells activated with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Min; Kang, Young Jin; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Min Kyu; Heo, Ja Myung; Sun, Jin ji; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kang, Eun Sil; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook; Chang, Ki Churl

    2005-03-01

    It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may act as a mediator of cytokine-induced effects on bone turn-over. NO is also recognized as an important factor in bone remodeling, i.e., participating in osteoblast apoptosis in an arthritic joint. The components of Agastache rugosa are known to have many pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Agastache rugosa leaf extract (ELAR) on NO production and the iNOS expression in ROS 17/2.8 cells activated by a mixture of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. A preincubation with ELAR significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the expression of iNOS protein in ROS 17/2.8 cells activated with the cytokine mixture. Consequently, the NO production was also significantly reduced by ELAR with an IC50 of 0.75 mg/mL. The inhibitory mechanism of iNOS induction by ELAR prevented the activation and translocation of NF-kappaB (p65) to the nucleus from the cytosol fraction. Furthermore, ELAR concentration-dependently reduced the cellular toxicity induced by sodium nitroprusside, an NO-donor. These results suggest that ELAR may be beneficial in NO-mediated inflammatory conditions such as osteoporosis.

  19. The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP inhibits the growth of the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina and triggers cell culture alkalinisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin ePetre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells secrete a wide range of proteins in extracellular spaces in response to pathogen attack. The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP is a small cationic protein of unknown function that was identified as the most induced gene in poplar leaves during immune responses to the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina, an obligate biotrophic parasite. Here, we combined in planta and in vitro molecular biology approaches to tackle the function of RISP. Using a RISP-mCherry fusion transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we demonstrated that RISP is secreted into the apoplast. A recombinant RISP specifically binds to M. larici-populina urediniospores and inhibits their germination. It also arrests the growth of the fungus in vitro and on poplar leaves. Interestingly, RISP also triggers poplar cell culture alkalinisation and is cleaved at the C-terminus by a plant-encoded mechanism. Altogether our results indicate that RISP is an antifungal protein that has the ability to trigger cellular responses.

  20. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurhanani; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2015-01-01

    The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.

  2. Gibberellic acid and dwarfism effects on the growth dynamics of B73 maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades: a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity precedes cessation of cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, I R; MacAdam, J W

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between apoplastic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and cessation of growth in maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades was investigated by altering elongation zone length. Apoplastic peroxidase activity in the elongation and secondary cell wall deposition zones of elongating leaf blades of the maize inbred line B73 was used as a control and compared to leaves of the dwarf mutant D8-81127, a near-isogenic line of B73 unresponsive to gibberellins, and to leaves of B73 plants to which gibberellic acid (GA(3)) had been applied via root uptake. Elongation zone length was increased by treatment with GA(3) through an increase in cell number as well as increased final cell length. The shorter elongation zone of dwarf leaves occurred primarily through reduced final cell length. Although elongation zone length differed among dwarf, control, and GA(3)-treated leaf blades, in all three treatments a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity preceded a reduction in the segmental elongation rate in leaves. A peroxidase isoenzyme with pI 7.0 occurred in the leaf elongation zone during growth deceleration in all three treatments, and its activity decreased as growth displaced tissue into the region of secondary cell wall deposition. Growth cessation for all treatments coincided with the first appearance of peroxidase isozymes with pIs of 5.6 and 5.7. Based on the activity of particular isozymes relative to growth and differentiation, the pI 7.0 isoenzyme is most likely to be involved in cessation of cell elongation, while isozymes with pIs 5.6 and 5.7 are likely to be active in lignification.

  3. Chloroplast Response to Low Leaf Water Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, J. S.; Potter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of decreases in turgor on chloroplast activity was studied by measuring the photochemical activity of intact sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Russian Mammoth) leaves having low water potentials. Leaf turgor, calculated from leaf water potential and osmotic potential, was found to be affected by the dilution of cell contents by water in the cell walls, when osmotic potentials were measured with a thermocouple psychrometer. After the correction of measurements of leaf osmotic potential, both the thermocouple psychrometer and a pressure chamber indicated that turgor became zero in sunflower leaves at leaf water potentials of −10 bars. Since most of the loss in photochemical activity occurred at water potentials below −10 bars, it was concluded that turgor had little effect on the photochemical activity of the leaves. PMID:16658486

  4. Development of a computer program to investigate electrical properties of Phuket pineapple leaf single cells by using dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlamp, M.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a computer program to calculate electrical properties of a cell from a spherical single shell model. The program compared the results between the theoretical values (Re[f(ω]TDS and the experimental values (Re[f(ω]EDS. The latter was computed from a cell velocity obtained from dielectrophoresis. The calculation was repeated until the error percentile was in a proper range. The program was applied to process the electrical properties of Phuket pineapple protoplasts [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.C.V. Phuket]. It was found that the thickness of the cell membrane was 10 nm, the dielectric constants of suspending solution, cytoplasm and cell membrane were 80ε0, 58-60ε0 and 10-14ε0 respectively (ε0 is the dielectric constant of the vacuum = 8.85×10-12 F m-1. The conductivity of cytoplasm and cell membrane were 0.09 S m-1 and 10-5 - 10-4 S m-1 respectively.

  5. Chemopreventive effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Ching-Yi; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2016-10-01

    Toona sinensis leaf extract (TSL) has been shown to have anti-tumor effects on cancer cell lines. This study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive potential and the underlying mechanism of TSL during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. One hundred hamsters were divided into control (n=30), carcinogenic (n=20), preventive (n=42), and therapeutic (n=8) groups. The animals in carcinogenic and preventive groups were administered reverse osmosis water (carcinogenic group) or TSL (1g/kg bw) (preventive group) by gavage daily for 4 weeks, and their bilateral pouches were painted with a 0.5% DMBA solution for 4, 9, and 12 weeks. The animals in the therapeutic group were treated with DMBA for 12 weeks prior to TSL administration for 4 weeks. Expression levels of survivin, X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Apoptotic activity was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method, cytochrome C, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In the preventive group, the results showed significant decreases not only in the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (50%) and epithelial dysplasia (62.5%) but also in the tumor number, tumor volume, tumor burden, and the severity of dysplastic lesions. The down-regulation of survivin, XIAP, PCNA, iNOS, and COX-2 proteins and the increased apoptotic activity indicated anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing abilities of TSL on DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis. The results suggested that TSL might be a promising candidate for the prevention of oral cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The fatty acid-rich fraction of Eruca sativa (rocket salad) leaf extract exerts antidiabetic effects in cultured skeletal muscle, adipocytes and liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetta, Mona H; Owis, Asmaa I; Haddad, Pierre S; Eid, Hoda M

    2017-12-01

    Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae), commonly known as rocket salad, is a popular leafy-green vegetable with many health benefits. To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of this plant in major insulin-responsive tissues. Five E. sativa leaf extracts of varying polarity were prepared (aqueous extract, 70% and 95% ethanol extracts, the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the 95% ethanol extract (ES3) and the defatted 95% ethanol extract). Eruca sativa extracts were investigated through a variety of cell-based in vitro bioassays for antidiabetic activities in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, H4IIE hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Guided by the results of these bioassays, ES3 was fractionated into the saponifiable (SM) and the unspaonifiable (USM) fractions. Glucose uptake was measured using [ 3 H]-deoxy-glucose, while the effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and adipogenesis were assessed using Wako AutoKit Glucose and AdipoRed assays, respectively. ES3 and its SM fraction significantly stimulated glucose uptake with EC 50 values of 8.0 and 5.8 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts significantly inhibited G6Pase activity (IC 50 values of 4.8 and 9.3 μg/mL, respectively). Moreover, ES3 and SM showed significant adipogenic activities with EC 50 of 4.3 and 6.1 μg/mL, respectively. Fatty acid content of SM was identified by GC-MS. trans-Vaccenic and palmitoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids, while palmitic and azelaic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. These findings indicate that ES3 and its fatty acid-rich fraction exhibit antidiabetic activities in insulin-responsive cell lines and may hence prove useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. The effect of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract on viability of breast cancer cell line (MCF7 and evaluation of Bax and Bcl2 genes expression level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed that the Sidr (Ziziphus spina-christi leaf has anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic Sidr leaf extract on MCF7 cell line viability and evaluation of Bax and Bcl2 genes expression level. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory-experimental study, MCF cells were randomly divided into control group and groups exposed to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/mL of the Sidr leaf hydroalcoholic extract. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was measured using the MTT assay method. Also, the real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate Bax and Bcl2 genes expression levels. Results: Viability of the MCF7 cells did not significantly change in group exposed to 0.001 mg/mL of the extract; however, it was significantly decreased in groups exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. The expression levels of Bcl2 and Bax genes were significantly decreased and increased respectively in MCF7 cells exposed to 1mg/mL of the extract (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: The appropriate doses of the hydroalcoholic Sidr leaf extract have cytotoxic effects on MCF7 cells by inducing apoptosis. So, further research on the anticancer effects of Sidr on breast cancer has a significant place in breast cancer treatment.

  8. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pepino (Solanum muricatum Leaf Extract and Their Cytotoxicity on HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gorbe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within nanotechnology, gold and silver nanostructures have unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties [1,2], which make them suitable for a number of applications. Moreover, biosynthetic methods are considered to be a safer alternative to conventional physicochemical procedures for both the environmental and biomedical applications, due to their eco-friendly nature and the avoidance of toxic chemicals in the synthesis. For this reason, employing bio routes in the synthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles (FAgNP have gained importance recently in this field. In the present study, we report the rapid synthesis of FAgNP through the extract of pepino (Solanum muricatum leaves and employing microwave oven irradiation. The core-shell globular morphology and characterization of the different shaped and sized FAgNP, with a core of 20–50 nm of diameter is established using the UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Zeta potential and dynamic light scanning (DLS studies. Moreover, cytotoxic studies employing HeLa (human cervix carcinoma cells were undertaken to understand FAgNP interactions with cells. HeLa cells showed significant dose dependent antiproliferative activity in the presence of FAgNP at relatively low concentrations. The calculated IC50 value was 37.5 µg/mL, similar to others obtained for FAgNPs against HeLa cells.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaf infusion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells: contribution of the polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirinha, Artur; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Francisco, Vera; Lopes, M Celeste; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, an herb known worldwide as lemongrass, is widely consumed as an aromatic drink, and its fresh and dried leaves are currently used in traditional cuisine. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of C. citratus, namely, the anti-inflammatory effects of its dietary components. Because nitric oxide (NO), produced in large quantities by activated inflammatory cells, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation, we evaluated the effects of the infusion of dried leaves from C. citratus, as well as its polyphenolic fractions--flavonoid-, tannin-, and phenolic acid-rich fractions (FF, TF, and PAF, respectively)--on the NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC). C. citratus infusion significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression. All the polyphenolic fractions tested also reduced the iNOS protein levels and NO production stimulated by LPS in FSDC cells, without affecting cell viability, with the strongest effects being observed for the fractions with mono- and polymeric flavonoids (FF and TF, respectively). Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of FF are mainly due to luteolin glycosides. In conclusion, C. citratus has NO scavenging activity and inhibits iNOS expression and should be explored for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, in particular of the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. A comparative assessment of antiproliferative properties of resveratrol and ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr against HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbami, Jeremiah Olorunjuwon; Damoiseaux, Robert; France, Bryan; Onibiyo, Esther Modupe; Gbadegesin, Michael Adedapo; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James Kazimierz; Odunola, Oyeronke Adunni

    2017-08-02

    Epidemiological and experimental evidences have shown cancer as a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the folklore use of plants as a reliable source of health-restoring principles is well-documented, the search for more of such plants that are active against diseases, such as cancer, continues. We report here a laboratory-based evidence of the relevance of an ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (A2L) in comparison with resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, in cancer therapy. The quantitative assessment of flavonoid and phenolic contents involved quercetin and gallic acid as standards, respectively were determined using spectrophotometry. Cytotoxicity was determined fluorometrically using propidium-iodide-staining method. Antioxidant status, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, caspase activities and mitochondrial integrity were assessed using fluorometry/luminometry. The antioxidant assay demonstrated that A2L possesses a strong antioxidant capacity as compared with the reference compounds, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is further buttressed by the significantly high level of phenolics obtained in the quantitative assessment of the extract. A 72-h post-treatment examination indicated that both A2L and resveratrol modulate the proliferation of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Determination of the total nuclei area, propidium-iodide negative and positive nuclei areas all further buttress the modulation of cell proliferation by A2L and resveratrol with the indication that the observed cell death is due to apoptosis and necrosis at lower and higher concentrations of treatments respectively. At lower concentrations (0.39-3.13 μg/mL), resveratrol possesses higher tendencies to activate caspases 3 and 7. Bioenergetically, both resveratrol and A2L do not adversely affect the cells at lower concentrations (0.39-6.25 μg/mL for resveratrol and 12.5-100.0 μg/mL for A2L) except at higher

  11. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  12. Resolution and identification of scalemic caged xanthones from the leaf extract of Garcinia propinqua having potent cytotoxicities against colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Andersen, Raymond J; Patrick, Brian O; Pyne, Stephen G; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Seemakhan, Sawinee; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2018-01-01

    A new scalemic 8,8a-dihydro caged xanthone (1) was isolated from the leaf extract of Garcinia propinqua. Five other known natural products, the three caged xanthones (2, 5 and 6) and the two neocaged xanthones, (3 and 4) were also isolated as scalemic mixtures. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. The enantiomeric ratios (er) of compounds 1-6 ranged from 1:0.7 to 1:0.9. These compounds were also resolved by semipreparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of (+)-2 and (+)-3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation while the absolute configurations of the other compounds were determined by comparisons of their ECD spectra. Compounds (-)-4, (+)-4, (-)-5, (+)-5, and (-)-6 showed potent cytotoxicities against a colon cancer cell line HCT116 with IC 50 values of 2.60, 7.02, 1.47, 3.37, and 4.14μM, respectively, which were better than the standard control doxorubicin (IC 50 9.74μM). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Proanthocyanidins and Related Compounds in Leaves and Leaf-Derived Cell Cultures of Ginkgo bioloba L., Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, and Ribes sanguineum Pursh 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Helen A.; Kreitlow, Kelly S.; Lester, Hope H.

    1986-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and their flavanoid precursors in leaves and leaf-derived callus and cell suspension cultures have been isolated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with C18 columns, paper chromatography, and by chemical and spectrophotometric methods. Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) produced much greater amounts of proanthocyanidins than leaves per milligram dry weight. In cultures, however, the prodelphinidin component relative to that of procyanidins decreased; this was most pronounced in Pseudotsuga. In contrast, callus cultures of Ribes sanguineum accumulated proanthocyanidins in amounts about equal to those in intact leaves per milligram dry weight and the prodelphinidin content remained high. Although Ginkgo and Ribes leaves contained major amounts of flavan-3-ols and dimers with the 2,3-cis-stereochemistry, their cultures tended to synthesize 2,3-trans-isomers instead. Glycosides of flavanone and 3-hydroxyflavanone precursors accumulated in medium to high amounts on a dry weight basis in leaves and cultures of Ribes and Pseudotsuga, and the 3′-glycosidic linkage predominated when the latter species was cultured with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid rather than naphthaleneacetic acid. PMID:16665147

  14. The role of mitochondria in response of wild grass Elymus sibiricus L. seedlings to temperature stress, water deficiency and hydrogen peroxide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubushkina I.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between energetic parameters and content of stress proteins (alternative oxidase, uncoupling protein and HSP70 in wild grass Elymus sibiricus mitochondria during different stress exposure (cold hardening, cold shock, high-temperature stress, water deficiency and oxidative stress has been studied. It has been shown that influence of mild stress factors (cold hardening and exogenous 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment result in adaptive changes related to the increase of activity alternative oxidase and the increase of content such proteins as alternative oxidase, uncoupling protein and HSP70. The comparative analysis of the function of the cultured and wild plants mitochondria in stress conditions has been produced.

  15. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1) leaf cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Lu, Guangxing; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO) has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1). The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  16. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1 leaf cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1. The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  17. CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jingshi; Luo, Dexian; Xu, Deyang

    2015-01-01

    A), an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. FeA is known to have antioxidant activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 were markedly reduced. We also characterized another double mutant in CAFFEIC ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (comt) and CAFFEOYL CoA 3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (ccoaomt), in which the Fe......A level was dramatically reduced. Cell proliferation in comt ccoaomt leaves was decreased, accompanied by elevated ROS levels, and the mutant phenotypes were partially rescued by treatment with FeA or another antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine). Taken together, our results suggest that CCR1, FeA and ROS...

  18. Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un-Hee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L. Merr. leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND, HFD (60 kcal% fat diet, EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt EASL, and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt pinitol groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, paired box 4 (Pax4, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA, which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1, IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating β-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.

  19. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  20. Penurunan Kadar Glukosa Darah dan Hitung Sel Kupffer Tikus Hiperglikemik Setelah Pemberian Dekok Daun Salam (INDONESIAN BAY LEAF DECOCTION COULD LOWER FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS AND LOWER KUPFFER CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana .

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome due to pancreas failure to produce insulin, thereforehyperglycemia is the hallmark of DM. There is hyperglycemia in this disease. In the world, there isaround143 million diabetes mellitus patients. One of the deathcause in diabetes mellitus is chronic liver disease.Herbal medicine is thought to give less side effect than sintetic medicine. A traditional plant that hashypoglicemia property is decoction of Indonesian bay leaves. This study was aimed to study effectivity ofIndonesian bay leaf decoction in decreasing blood glucose level, pancreas and liver hemorrhage scores, andKupffer cell count on alloxan-induced Wistar rats. This Control Group Design used twenty four rats (threemonth old. The rats were divided randomly into four groups, i.e.: control, 1 mL of Indonesian bay leafdecoction (0.9 g/kg body weight (BW, 2 mL of Indonesian bay leaf decoction (1.8 g/kg BW, and 3 mL ofIndonesian bay leaf decoction (2.7 g /kg BW. After one week adaptation the rats were inducedwithalloxan,then pretest for fasting blood glucose test was examined. Treatment was given for ten days and posttestblood glucose test was done afterwards. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed to collectpancreas, kidney, and liver. Those organs were stained with hematoxylin eosin. Levelof fasting bloodglucose, hemorrhage score, on pancreas and kidney and Kupffer cell count were analyzed by using Anova.In conclusion, Indonesian bay leaf decoction may lower fasting blood glucose level on hyperglycemic rats aswell as Kupffer cell count significantly, but it is not likely to give significant result in lowering of pancreasand kidney hemorrhage scores.

  1. Recovery and Behaviour of Stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells on Rocket Leaf Surfaces Inoculated by Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAS A. AL-NABULSI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available E. coli O157:H7 is an emerging public health concern worldwide because of its low infectious dose and ability to survive under adverse conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the abilityof unstressed E. coli O157:H7 cells or those stressed by acid, cold, salt exposure or starvation to survive on the surfaces of rocket leaves after contamination by three methods (dip, spray or spot inoculation and following storage at 10 or 25ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers recovered from rocket leaves contaminated by the different techniques were in the order of dip > spot > spray inoculation.Numbers of stressed E. coli O157:H7 recovered after inoculation by all three methods increased significantly over 7d storage at 10 or 25ºC, while unstressed E. coli O157:H7 only grew following dip inoculation. Exposure to adverse environmental conditions may increase the risk of E. coli O157:H7 survival and spread on leafy green vegetables.

  2. Transcriptional analyses of natural leaf senescence in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an important biological process that contributes to grain yield in crops. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying natural leaf senescence, we harvested three different developmental ear leaves of maize, mature leaves (ML, early senescent leaves (ESL, and later senescent leaves (LSL, and analyzed transcriptional changes using RNA-sequencing. Three sets of data, ESL vs. ML, LSL vs. ML, and LSL vs. ESL, were compared, respectively. In total, 4,552 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Functional classification placed these genes into 18 categories including protein metabolism, transporters, and signal transduction. At the early stage of leaf senescence, genes involved in aromatic amino acids (AAAs biosynthetic process and transport, cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, and the cell wall macromolecule catabolic process, were up-regulated. Whereas, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, transport, apoptosis, and response to stimulus were up-regulated at the late stage of leaf senescence. Further analyses reveals that the transport-related genes at the early stage of leaf senescence potentially take part in enzyme and amino acid transport and the genes upregulated at the late stage are involved in sugar transport, indicating nutrient recycling mainly takes place at the late stage of leaf senescence. Comparison between the data of natural leaf senescence in this study and previously reported data for Arabidopsis implies that the mechanisms of leaf senescence in maize are basically similar to those in Arabidopsis. A comparison of natural and induced leaf senescence in maize was performed. Athough many basic biological processes involved in senescence occur in both types of leaf senescence, 78.07% of differentially expressed genes in natural leaf senescence were not identifiable in induced leaf senescence, suggesting that differences in gene regulatory network may exist between these two leaf senescence

  3. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency.

  4. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on c-Myc Oncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Basri, Rusliza; Pei Pei, Chong

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice. In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC) treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250), and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500). in situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue. The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05) suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group. c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolic neem leaf extract.

  5. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Project LEAF Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  7. Leaf shrinkage with dehydration: coordination with hydraulic vulnerability and drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Vuong, Christine; Diep, Steven; Cochard, Hervé; Sack, Lawren

    2014-04-01

    Leaf shrinkage with dehydration has attracted attention for over 100 years, especially as it becomes visibly extreme during drought. However, little has been known of its correlation with physiology. Computer simulations of the leaf hydraulic system showed that a reduction of hydraulic conductance of the mesophyll pathways outside the xylem would cause a strong decline of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)). For 14 diverse species, we tested the hypothesis that shrinkage during dehydration (i.e. in whole leaf, cell and airspace thickness, and leaf area) is associated with reduction in K(leaf) at declining leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)). We tested hypotheses for the linkage of leaf shrinkage with structural and physiological water relations parameters, including modulus of elasticity, osmotic pressure at full turgor, turgor loss point (TLP), and cuticular conductance. Species originating from moist habitats showed substantial shrinkage during dehydration before reaching TLP, in contrast with species originating from dry habitats. Across species, the decline of K(leaf) with mild dehydration (i.e. the initial slope of the K(leaf) versus Ψ(leaf) curve) correlated with the decline of leaf thickness (the slope of the leaf thickness versus Ψ(leaf) curve), as expected based on predictions from computer simulations. Leaf thickness shrinkage before TLP correlated across species with lower modulus of elasticity and with less negative osmotic pressure at full turgor, as did leaf area shrinkage between full turgor and oven desiccation. These findings point to a role for leaf shrinkage in hydraulic decline during mild dehydration, with potential impacts on drought adaptation for cells and leaves, influencing plant ecological distributions.

  8. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Bambusa vulgaris Var. vulgaris Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the pharmacognostic characters and toxicity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaf in male wistar rats. The microscopy of the leaf revealed diagnostic characters such as anomocytic stomata, sinuous epidermal cells, numerous prisms of calcium oxalate crystals and covering ...

  9. The type III secreted effector DspE is required early in solanum tuberosum leaf infection by Pectobacterium carotovorum to cause cell death, and requires Wx(3-6D/E motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S Hogan

    Full Text Available Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogens that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Unlike hemi-biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (P. carotovorum appears to secrete only one effector protein, DspE. Previously, we found that the T3SS regulator HrpL and the effector DspE are required for P. carotovorum pathogenesis on leaves. Here, we identified genes up-regulated by HrpL, visualized expression of dspE in leaves, and established that DspE causes host cell death. DspE required its full length and WxxxE-like motifs, which are characteristic of the AvrE-family effectors, for host cell death. We also examined expression in plant leaves and showed that hrpL is required for the expression of dspE and hrpN, and that the loss of a functional T3SS had unexpected effects on expression of other genes during leaf infection. These data support a model where P. carotovorum uses the T3SS early in leaf infection to initiate pathogenesis through elicitation of DspE-mediated host cell death.

  10. Plasticity of vulnerability to leaf hydraulic dysfunction during acclimation to drought in grapevines: an osmotic-mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Sebastian; Medrano, Hipolito; Tomàs, Magdalena; Escalona, José M; Flexas, Jaume; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have reported correlation of leaf hydraulic vulnerability with pressure-volume parameters related to cell turgor. This link has been explained on the basis of the effects of turgor on connectivity among cells and tissue structural integrity, which affect leaf water transport. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that osmotic adjustment to water stress would shift the leaf vulnerability curve toward more negative water potential (Ψ leaf ) by increasing turgor at low Ψ leaf . We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf ), K leaf vulnerability [50 and 80% loss of K leaf (P50 and P80 ); |Ψ leaf | at 50 and 80% loss of K leaf , respectively), bulk leaf water relations, leaf gas exchange and sap flow in two Vitis vinifera cultivars (Tempranillo and Grenache), under two water treatments. We found that P50 , P80 and maximum K leaf decreased seasonally by more than 20% in both cultivars and watering treatments. However, K leaf at 2 MPa increased threefold, while osmotic potential at full turgor and turgor loss point decreased. Our results indicate that leaf resistance to hydraulic dysfunction is seasonally plastic, and this plasticity may be mediated by osmotic adjustment. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  12. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  13. YUCCA Genes Are Expressed in Response to Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Juxtaposition and Are Required for Leaf Margin Development1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Ben; Wang, Hua; Li, Jiqin; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    During leaf development, the formation of leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity at the primordium stage is crucial for subsequent leaf expansion. However, little is known about the genetic control from polarity establishment to blade outgrowth. The leaf margin, comprising elongated margin cells and hydathodes, is thought to affect leaf expansion. Here, we show that mutants with defective leaf polarity or with loss of function in the multiple auxin-biosynthetic YUCCA (YUC) genes exhibited a similar abnormal leaf margin and less-expanded leaves. Leaf margins of these mutants contained fewer hydathodes and an increased number of cell patches in which the patterns of epidermal cells resembled those of hydathodes. The previously characterized leaf-abaxialized asymmetric leaves2 (as2) revoluta (rev) and leaf-adaxialized kanadi1 (kan1) kan2 double mutants both produce finger-shaped, hydathode-like protrusions on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, respectively. YUCs are required for formation of the protrusions, as those produced by as2 rev and kan1 kan2 were absent in the yuc1 yuc2 yuc4 triple mutant background. Expressions of YUC1, YUC2, and YUC4 were spatially regulated in the leaf, being associated with hydathodes in wild-type leaves and protrusions on as2 rev and kan1 kan2 leaves. In addition, inhibition of auxin transport by treatment of seedlings with N-(1-naphtyl) phtalamic acid or disruption of the auxin gradient by transforming plants with the 35S:YUC1 construct also blocked leaf margin development. Collectively, our data show that expressions of YUCs in the leaf respond to the adaxial-abaxial juxtaposition, and that the activities of auxin mediate leaf margin development, which subsequently promotes blade outgrowth. PMID:22003085

  14. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilili Abuduwaili

    Full Text Available Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1 Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2 The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2>B(400g.m-2>C(300g.m-2>D(200g.m-2>E(100g.m-2>F(0g.m-2. (3The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the

  15. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  16. The Disastrous Effects of Salt Dust Deposition on Cotton Leaf Photosynthesis and the Cell Physiological Properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  17. Leaf traits in parental and hybrid species of Sorbus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkovic, Jaroslav; Kardosová, Monika; Canová, Ingrid; Lagana, Rastislav; Priwitzer, Tibor; Chorvát, Dusan; Cicák, Alojz; Pichler, Viliam

    2012-09-01

    Knowledge of functional leaf traits can provide important insights into the processes structuring plant communities. In the genus Sorbus, the generation of taxonomic novelty through reticulate evolution that gives rise to new microspecies is believed to be driven primarily by a series of interspecific hybridizations among closely related taxa. We tested hypotheses for dispersion of intermediacy across the leaf traits in Sorbus hybrids and for trait linkages with leaf area and specific leaf area. Here, we measured and compared the whole complex of growth, vascular, and ecophysiological leaf traits among parental (Sorbus aria, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus chamaemespilus) and natural hybrid (Sorbus montisalpae, Sorbus zuzanae) species growing under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to characterize the topography of cell wall surfaces of tracheary elements and to map the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity. Intermediacy was associated predominantly with leaf growth traits, whereas vascular and ecophysiological traits were mainly parental-like and transgressive phenotypes. Larger-leaf species tended to have lower modulus of elasticity values for midrib tracheary element cell walls. Leaves with a biomass investment related to a higher specific leaf area had a lower density. Leaf area- and length-normalized theoretical hydraulic conductivity was related to leaf thickness. For the whole complex of examined leaf traits, hybrid microspecies were mosaics of parental-like, intermediate, and transgressive phenotypes. The high proportion of transgressive character expressions found in Sorbus hybrids implies that generation of extreme traits through transgressive segregation played a key role in the speciation process.

  18. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  19. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  20. Oral Supplementation with Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione metabolism may play a vital role in the antioxidant defence of these cells as it does in other cells in the body. ... There was a significant increase in red blood cell count, PCV and platelet count in mice treated with aqueous leaf extract of Ficus carica while the red cell membrane fragility was significantly reduced ...

  1. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen

  2. Morphogenesis of simple leaves: regulation of leaf size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ramiro E; Debernardi, Juan M; Palatnik, Javier F

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce new organs throughout their life span. Leaves first initiate as rod-like structures protruding from the shoot apical meristem, while they need to pass through different developmental stages to become the flat organ specialized in photosynthesis. Leaf morphogenesis is an active process regulated by many genes and pathways that can generate organs with a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Important differences in leaf architecture can be seen among different species, but also in single individuals. A key aspect of leaf morphogenesis is the precise control of cell proliferation. Modification or manipulation of this process may lead to leaves with different sizes and shapes, and changes in the organ margins and curvature. Many genes required for leaf development have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the mechanisms underlying leaf morphogenesis are starting to be unraveled at the molecular level. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Leaf anatomical structures of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium and their adaptive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Guan, Kai-Yun; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong

    2011-03-01

    Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium are closely related in phylogeny, but have contrasting leaf traits and habitats. To understand the divergence in leaf traits of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium and their adaptive significance, we analyzed the leaf anatomical structures, leaf dry mass per area (LMA), leaf lifespan (LL), leaf nitrogen concentration (N (mass)), leaf phosphorus concentration (P (mass)), mass-based light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A (mass)), water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) and leaf construction cost (CC) for six species. Compared with Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum was characterized by drought tolerance derived from its leaf anatomical structures, including fleshy leaves, thick surface cuticles, huge adaxial epidermis cells, lower total stoma area, and sunken stomata. The special leaf structures of Paphiopedilum were accompanied by longer LL; higher LMA, WUE, and CC; and lower N (mass), P (mass), A (mass), and PNUE compared with Cypripedium. Leaf traits in Paphiopedilum helped it adapt to arid and nutrient-poor karst habitats. However, the leaf traits of Cypripedium reflect adaptations to an environment characterized by rich soil, abundant soil water, and significant seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation. The present results contribute to our understanding of the divergent adaptation of leaf traits in slipper orchids, which is beneficial for the conservation of endangered orchids.

  4. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Arabidopsis onset of leaf death mutants identify a regulatory pathway controlling leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Sturre, Marcel J.G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of leaf senescence is controlled by leaf age and ethylene can promote leaf senescence within a specific age window. We exploited the interaction between leaf age and ethylene and isolated mutants with altered leaf senescence that are named as onset of leaf death (old) mutants. Early leaf

  6. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  7. Effect Of Sub Chronic Administration Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus was administered to rats at doses of 100 – 400mg / kg for 21 days to investigate its effect on the haematological indices of rats. Haematological indices, namely packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) Red blood cell count (RBC), Mean cell Haemoglobin ...

  8. In vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Four different solvent (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) leaf extracts of the plant were tested for cytotoxicity against four cancer cells, viz, MCF-7 (oestrogen positive breast cancer cell line), MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer cell line), SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma) and ACHN (renal ...

  9. Delayed leaf senescence induces extreme drought tolerance in crop plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Rosa; Peleg, Zvi; Szczerba, Mark; Tumimbang, Ellen; Jauregui, Rosa N; Liu, Li; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Drought, the most prominent threat to agricultural production worldwide, accelerates leaf senescence, leading to a decrease in canopy size, loss in photosynthesis and reduced yields. On the basis of the assumption that senescence is a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, we hypothesized that it may be possible to enhance drought tolerance by delaying drought-induced leaf senescence through the stress-induced synthesis of cytokinins. We generated m...

  10. ROS-mediated cytotoxic activity of ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the Rubia cordifolia L. leaf extract on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisubalan, Natarajan; Ramkumar, Vijayan Sri; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Indira, Karuppusamy; Gopinath, Kasi; Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Basha, Mohamed Hussain Ghouse

    2017-09-29

    In the present scenario, the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) through biological routes using green reducing agents are quite interesting to explore various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, particularly for the treatment of cancer. This study was focused on the phytosynthesis of ZnO and CeO2 NPs using the leaf extract of Rubia cordifolia L. The active principles present in the plant extract were liable for rapid reduction of Zn and Ce ions to metallic nanocrystals. ZnO and CeO2 NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. ZnO and CeO2 NPs were partially agglomerated with a net-like structure. Biomedical activities of ZnO and CeO2 NPs were tested against MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells using MTT and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantification assays. In treated cells, loss of cell membrane integrity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis was observed and it is well correlated with cellular damage immediately after induction. Overall, this study shed light on the anti-cancer potential of ZnO and CeO2 NPs on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells through differential ROS production pathways, describing the potential role of greener synthesis.

  11. Effects of Foliar Insecticides on Leaf-Level Spectral Reflectance of Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs M; Marston, Zachary P; MacRae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2017-09-27

    Pest-induced changes in plant reflectance are crucial for the development of pest management programs using remote sensing. However, it is unknown if plant reflectance data is also affected by foliar insecticides applied for pest management. Our study assessed the effects of foliar insecticides on leaf reflectance of soybean. A 2-yr field trial and a greenhouse trial were conducted using randomized complete block and completely randomized designs, respectively. Treatments consisted of an untreated check, a new systemic insecticide (sulfoxaflor), and two representatives of the most common insecticide classes used for soybean pest management in the north-central United States (i.e., λ-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos). Insecticides were applied at labeled rates recommended for controlling soybean aphid; the primary insect pest in the north-central United States. Leaf-level reflectance was measured using ground-based spectroradiometers. Sulfoxaflor affected leaf reflectance at some red and blue wavelengths but had no effect at near-infrared or green wavelengths. Chlorpyrifos affected leaf reflectance at some green, red, and near-infrared wavelengths but had no effect at blue wavelengths. λ-cyhalothrin had the least effect on spectral reflectance among the insecticides, with changes to only a few near-infrared wavelengths. Our results showing immediate and delayed effects of foliar insecticides on soybean reflectance indicate that application of some insecticides may confound the use of remote sensing for detection of not only insects but also plant diseases, nutritional and water deficiencies, and other crop stressors. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  13. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  17. Investigating the roles of jasmonic acid and cytokinin in maize leaf growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth is the accumulation of biomass attributed to cell division and cell expansion. In the maize leaf, growth is spatially separated into three distinct growth zones: the division zone, elongation zone, and the maturation zone. This spatial separation makes the maize leaf a useful model for ...

  18. TALE and Shape: How to Make a Leaf Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH, which are involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM function, as well as in the determination and morphological development of leaves, stems and inflorescences. Selective protein-protein interactions between KNOXs and BLHs affect heterodimer subcellular localization and target affinity. KNOXs exert their roles by maintaining a proper balance between undifferentiated and differentiated cell state through the modulation of multiple hormonal pathways. A pivotal function of KNOX in evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology has been assessed. In the SAM of both simple- and compound-leafed seed species, downregulation of most class 1 KNOX (KNOX1 genes marks the sites of leaf primordia initiation. However, KNOX1 expression is re-established during leaf primordia development of compound-leafed species to maintain transient indeterminacy and morphogenetic activity at the leaf margins. Despite the increasing knowledge available about KNOX1 protein function in plant development, a comprehensive view on their downstream effectors remains elusive. This review highlights the role of TALE proteins in leaf initiation and morphological plasticity with a focus on recent advances in the identification of downstream target genes and pathways.

  19. Developing allometric equations for estimating leaf area and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) is important to understand plant physiological and carbon assimilation processes, and tree growth models. The aim of this study was to develop and compare allometric equations for predicting LA and LB of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. taking diameter at breast height ...

  20. Antarctic moss stress assessment based on chlorophyll content and leaf density retrieved from imaging spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Turnbull, Johanna D; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-10-01

    The health of several East Antarctic moss-beds is declining as liquid water availability is reduced due to recent environmental changes. Consequently, a noninvasive and spatially explicit method is needed to assess the vigour of mosses spread throughout rocky Antarctic landscapes. Here, we explore the possibility of using near-distance imaging spectroscopy for spatial assessment of moss-bed health. Turf chlorophyll a and b, water content and leaf density were selected as quantitative stress indicators. Reflectance of three dominant Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Schistidium antarctici was measured during a drought-stress and recovery laboratory experiment and also with an imaging spectrometer outdoors on water-deficient (stressed) and well-watered (unstressed) moss test sites. The stress-indicating moss traits were derived from visible and near infrared turf reflectance using a nonlinear support vector regression. Laboratory estimates of chlorophyll content and leaf density were achieved with the lowest systematic/unsystematic root mean square errors of 38.0/235.2 nmol g(-1) DW and 0.8/1.6 leaves mm(-1) , respectively. Subsequent combination of these indicators retrieved from field hyperspectral images produced small-scale maps indicating relative moss vigour. Once applied and validated on remotely sensed airborne spectral images, this methodology could provide quantitative maps suitable for long-term monitoring of Antarctic moss-bed health. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boonsirichai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. -H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of -H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation

  2. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  3. Wireless Solar Water Splitting Device with Robust Cobalt-Catalyzed, Dual-Doped BiVO4 Photoanode and Perovskite Solar Cell in Tandem: A Dual Absorber Artificial Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jo, Yimhyun; Kim, Ju Hun; Jang, Ji Wook; Kang, Hyun Jun; Lee, Young Hye; Kim, Dong Suk; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-12-22

    A stand-alone, wireless solar water splitting device without external energy supply has been realized by combining in tandem a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite single junction solar cell with a cobalt carbonate (Co-Ci)-catalyzed, extrinsic/intrinsic dual-doped BiVO4 (hydrogen-treated and 3 at% Mo-doped). The photoanode recorded one of the highest photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity (4.8 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE) under simulated 1 sun illumination. The oxygen evolution Co-Ci co-catalyst showed similar performance to best known cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) (5.0 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE) on the same dual-doped BiVO4 photoanode, but with significantly better stability. A tandem artificial-leaf-type device produced stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen with an average solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 4.3% (wired), 3.0% (wireless) under simulated 1 sun illumination. Hence, our device based on a D4 tandem photoelectrochemical cell represents a meaningful advancement in performance and cost over the device based on a triple-junction solar cell-electrocatalyst combination.

  4. Green engineered biomolecule-capped silver and copper nanohybrids using Prosopis cineraria leaf extract: Enhanced antibacterial activity against microbial pathogens of public health relevance and cytotoxicity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinu, U; Gomathi, M; Saiqa, I; Geetha, N; Benelli, G; Venkatachalam, P

    2017-04-01

    This research focused on green engineering and characterization of silver (PcAgNPs) and copper nanoparticles (PcCuNPs) using Prosopis cineraria (Pc) leaf extract prepared by using microwave irradiation. We studied their enhanced antimicrobial activity on human pathogens as well as cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Biofabricated silver and copper nanoparticles exhibited UV-Visible absorbance peaks at 420 nm and 575 nm, confirming the bioreduction and stabilization of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FESEM, and EDX analysis. FTIR results indicated the presence of alcohols, alkanes, aromatics, phenols, ethers, benzene, amines and amides that were possibly involved in the reduction and capping of silver and copper ions. XRD analysis was performed to confirm the crystalline nature of the silver and copper nanoparticles. FESEM analysis suggested that the nanoparticles were hexagonal or spherical in shape with size ranging from 20 to 44.49 nm and 18.9-32.09 nm for AgNPs and CuNPs, respectively. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of silver and copper elemental signals in the nanoparticles. The bioengineered silver and copper nanohybrids showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR human pathogens. MTT assay results indicated that CuNPs show potential cytotoxic effect followed by AgNPs against MCF-7 cancer cell line. IC50 were 65.27 μg/ml, 37.02 μg/ml and 197.3 μg/ml for PcAgNPs, PcCuNPs and P. cineraria leaf extracts, respectively, treated MCF-7 cells. The present investigation highlighted an effective protocol for microwave-assisted synthesis of biomolecule-loaded silver and copper nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial and anticancer activity. Results strongly suggested that bioengineered AgNPs and CuNPs could be used as potential tools against microbial pathogens and cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The minimal sequence essential for replication and movement of Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite DNA by a helper virus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Omid; Behjatnia, S A Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Betasatellites are single-stranded circular DNAs associated with a number of monopartite begomoviruses. Betasatellites rely on the helper begomoviruses for replication and movement in plant tissues and plant-to-plant transmission by vectors. Their genomes are approximately half the size of the helper viruses and consist of three main regions including the βC1 gene, an adenine-rich (A-rich) region, and the satellite conserved region (SCR). In this study, we investigated the minimal sequences required for Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) replication and movement. Mutational analysis of CLCuMB DNA genome indicated that βC1 gene and A-rich region were not required for trans-replication and movement of CLCuMB in host plants by a helper virus. Deletion of βC1 gene and a fragment (135 nt in length) upstream of this gene impaired CLCuMB replication. However, CLCuMB mutant with deletion of βC1 gene and a further 163 nucleotides replicated at a lower level as compared to the wild-type betasatellite. This suggests that there are essential elements in the fragment upstream of βC1 gene, which are required for the replication of CLCuMB rather than the size limitation of CLCuMB DNA.

  6. Unintended molecular interactions in transgenic plants expressing clinically useful proteins: the case of bovine aprotinin traveling the potato leaf cell secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, M Amine; Rivard, Daniel; Coenen, Karine; Michaud, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the impact of subcellular targeting on the heterologous expression of a clinically useful protease inhibitor, bovine aprotinin, in leaves of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Transgenic potato lines targeting aprotinin to the cytosol, the ER or the apoplast were first generated, and then assessed for their ability to accumulate the recombinant protein. On-chip detection and quantitation of aprotinin variants by SELDI TOF MS showed the inhibitor to be absent in the cytosol, but present under different forms in the ER and the apoplast. No visible phenotypic effects of aprotinin were observed for the transgenic lines, but aprotinin retention in the ER was associated with a significant decrease of leaf soluble protein content. A 2-D gel assessment of control and transgenic lines revealed a possible link between this altered protein content and the down-regulation of proteins implicated in protein synthesis and maturation. These observations, supported by complementary 2-DE analyses with potato lines targeting aprotinin to the apoplast, suggest an aprotinin-mediated feedback in planta negatively altering protein anabolism. From a practical viewpoint, these data illustrate the importance of taking into account not only the characteristics of recombinant proteins expressed in heterologous environments, but also their possible effects on protein accumulation in the host plant factory.

  7. Anatomy of Begonia lucernae Wettst. (Begoniaceae leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical aspects concerning the leaf structure of Begonia lucernae Wettst. belonging to Begoniaceae family. Anatomically, the petiole has a unistratous epidermis and a differentiated mesophyll. The vascular system is fascicular type with a large number of collateral bundles placed into a basic tissue. The lamina is composed of an upper and a lower epidermis and hypodermis as well and the mesophyll. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade tissue and spongy tissue with the same vascular bundle structure such as those of the petiole but with foliar arrangement of the conductive tissues. Stomata are present to the lower epidermis. Paradermal section discloses stright walls epidermal cells and anisocytic stomata. It was calculated the number of stomata/mm2 of leaf surface and the stomatal index as well.

  8. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  9. How to pattern a leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  10. Proteome data associated with the leaf senescence in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are associated with the article “Coupling of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches to dig deep into the leaf senescence proteome of Glycine max” (R. Gupta, S.J. Lee, C.W. Min, S.W. Kim, K.-H. Park, D.-W. Bae, et al., 2016 [1]. Leaf senescence is one of the important aspects of the life cycle of a plant that leads to the recycling of nutrients from source to sink cells. To understand the leaf senescence-associated proteins, we used a combination of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomic approaches. Here, we display the 2-DE, Mass spectrometry, and Gene ontology data related with the leaf senescence in soybean [1].

  11. Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of the family Polygonaceae revealed variation in size and shape of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and non glandular trichomes. This study proves to be taxonomically important tool in the delimitation of taxa. Epidermal cell shapes are variable but mostly ...

  12. Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of the family Polygonaceae revealed variation in size and shape of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and non glandular trichomes. This study proves to be taxonomically important tool in the delimitation of taxa. Epidermal cell shapes are.

  13. Impact of anatomical traits of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf as affected by nitrogen supply and leaf age on bundle sheath conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retta, Moges; Yin, Xinyou; van der Putten, Peter E L; Cantre, Denis; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Ho, Quang Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of photosynthesis in C 4 crops depends on the archetypal Kranz-anatomy. To examine how the leaf anatomy, as altered by nitrogen supply and leaf age, affects the bundle sheath conductance (g bs ), maize (Zea mays L.) plants were grown under three contrasting nitrogen levels. Combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were done on fully grown leaves at two leaf ages. The measured data were analysed using a biochemical model of C 4 photosynthesis to estimate g bs . The leaf microstructure and ultrastructure were quantified using images obtained from micro-computed tomography and microscopy. There was a strong positive correlation between g bs and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) while old leaves had lower g bs than young leaves. Leaf thickness, bundle sheath cell wall thickness and surface area of bundle sheath cells per unit leaf area (S b ) correlated well with g bs although they were not significantly affected by LNC. As a result, the increase of g bs with LNC was little explained by the alteration of leaf anatomy. In contrast, the combined effect of LNC and leaf age on S b was responsible for differences in g bs between young leaves and old leaves. Future investigations should consider changes at the level of plasmodesmata and membranes along the CO 2 leakage pathway to unravel LNC and age effects further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation by phytochrome of the blue light-induced extracellular acidification by leaf epidermal cells of pea (Pisum sativum L.) : a kinetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga, JTM; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    Blue light induces extracellular acidification, a prerequisite of cell expansion, in epidermis cells of young pea leaves, by stimulation of the proton pumping-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. A transient acidification, reaching a maximum 2.5-5 min after the start of the pulse, could be

  15. Aqueous leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae reduces both the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 on the guinea pig atrium and the calcium current on GH3cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. L. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available It was previously showed that aqueous leaf extract (AqEx of Averrhoa carambola depresses the guinea pig atrial inotropism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on guinea pig left atrium and on pituitary GH3 cells in order to evaluate the effect of AqEx on the cellular calcium influx. The atrium was mounted in an organ chamber (5 mL, Tyrode, 27 ± 0.1 ºC, 95 % O2, 5 % CO2, stretched to 10 mN, and paced at 2 Hz (0.5 ms, 400 V and GH3 cells were submitted to a whole cell voltage clamp configuration. In the atrium, the AqEx (1500 µg/mL shifted to the right the concentration-effect curve of the positive inotropic effect produced by (± BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. The AqEx increased EC50 (concentration required to promote 50% of the maximum effect of the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 from 7.8 ± 0.38 to 115.1 ± 0.44 nM (N = 3; p < 0.05. In GH3 cells assayed with 500 µg/mL of AqEx, the L-type calcium inward current declined 30 % (from 282 to 190 pA. Nevertheless, the extract did not change the voltage correspondent to the peak current. These data suggest that, at least in part, the negative inotropic effect of AqEx on the guinea pig atrium is due to a reduction of the L-type calcium current.

  16. Slow photosynthetic induction and low photosynthesis in Paphiopedilum armeniacum are related to its lack of guard cell chloroplast and peculiar stomatal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Guan, Zhi-Jie; Chang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Yin, Qing; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2011-06-01

    Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium are close relatives in the subfamily Cypripedioideae. Cypripedium leaves contain guard cell chloroplasts, whereas Paphiopedilum do not. It is unclear whether the lack of guard cell chloroplasts affects photosynthetic induction, which is important for understory plants to utilize sunflecks. To understand the role of guard cell chloroplasts in photosynthetic induction of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium, the stomatal anatomy and photosynthetic induction of Paphiopedilum armeniacum and Cypripedium flavum were investigated at different ratios of red to blue light. The highest stomatal opening and photosynthesis of intact leaves in P. armeniacum were induced by irradiance enriched with blue light. Its stomatal opening could be induced by red light 250 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹, but the magnitude of stomatal opening was lower than those at the other light qualities. However, the stomatal opening and photosynthesis of C. flavum were highly induced by mixed blue and red light rather than pure blue or red light. The two orchid species did not differ in stomatal density, but P. armeniacum had smaller stomatal size than C. flavum. The stomata of P. armeniacum were slightly sunken into the leaf epidermis, while C. flavum protruded above the leaf surface. The slower photosynthetic induction and lower photosynthetic rate of P. armeniacum than C. flavum were linked to the lack of guard cell chloroplasts and specific stomatal structure, which reflected an adaptation of Paphiopedilum to periodic water deficiency in limestone habitats. These results provide evidence for the morphological and physiological evolution of stomata relation for water conservation under natural selection. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  17. Comparative analyses of leaf anatomy of dicotyledonous species in Tibetan and Inner Mongolian grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjing; Ji, Chengjun; Han, Mei; Zhang, Tingfang; Yan, Xuedong; Hu, Dong; Zeng, Hui; He, Jinsheng

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the leaf anatomy of grassland plants is crucial for understanding how these plants adapt to the environment. Tibetan alpine grasslands and Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands are two major grassland types in northern China. Tibetan alpine grasslands occur in high-altitude regions where the low temperatures limit plant growth. Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands are found in arid regions where moisture is the limiting factor. Few comparative studies concerning the leaf anatomy of grassland plants of the Tibetan Plateau and Inner Mongolian Plateau have been conducted. We examined leaf characteristics at 71 sites and among 65 species, across the alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau and the temperate grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. We compared the leaf structures of plants with different life forms and taxonomies, and their adaptation to arid or cold environments. We explored relationships among leaf features and the effects of climatic factors (i.e., growing season temperature and precipitation) on leaf characteristics. Our results showed that (i) there were significant differences in leaf anatomy between Tibetan alpine and Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands. Except for mesophyll cell density, the values obtained for thickness of leaf tissue, surface area and volume of mesophyll cells were larger on the Tibetan Plateau than on the Inner Mongolian Plateau. (ii) Within the same family or genus, leaf anatomy showed significant differences between two regions, and trends were consistent with those of whole species. (iii) Leaf anatomy of woody and herbaceous plants also showed significant differences between the regions. Except for mesophyll cell density, the values obtained for the thickness of leaf tissue, and the surface area and volume of mesophyll cells were larger in herbaceous than in woody plants. (iv) Leaf anatomical traits changed accordingly. Total leaf thickness, thicknesses of lower and upper epidermal cells, and surface area

  18. Maize YABBY genes drooping leaf1 and drooping leaf2 affect agronomic traits by regulating leaf architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf architectural traits, such as length, width and angle, directly influence canopy structure and light penetration, photosynthate production and overall yield. We discovered and characterized a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant leaf architecture we named drooping leaf1 (drl1), as leaf blades ...

  19. Comparative leaf anatomy of Iranian Phlomoides (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Seyedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlomoides (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae is a species rich, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus. A comparative anatomical study of the petioles and leaf lamina of 17 Phlomoides taxa representing 4 sections of the genus distributed in Iran was carried out to evaluate interspecific relationships and anatomical features that may be useful in species identification and subgeneric classification. The general leaf anatomy of Phlomoides species presented here corroborates earlier studies in Lamiaceae and on a few studied species in the genus. Leaf anatomy provides valuable characters that are useful in subgeneric classification as well as species discrimination in Phlomoides. The most important diagnostic characters are as follows: the shape of transverse section, length of ventral and dorsiventral axis, number of median bundles in the petiole, number of cell layers of palisade and spongy parenchyma, type and thickness of collenchyma as well as trichome type. Based on the present study and in accordance with previous works, some large sections such as Eremostachys appears to be natural, while circumscription of sect. Filipendula should be revised.

  20. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  1. Regulation of leaf hydraulics: from molecular to whole plant levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Karine; Maurel, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The water status of plant leaves is dependent on both stomatal regulation and water supply from the vasculature to inner tissues. The present review addresses the multiple physiological and mechanistic facets of the latter process. Inner leaf tissues contribute to at least a third of the whole resistance to water flow within the plant. Physiological studies indicated that leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is highly dependent on the anatomy, development and age of the leaf and can vary rapidly in response to physiological or environmental factors such as leaf hydration, light, temperature, or nutrient supply. Differences in venation pattern provide a basis for variations in Kleaf during development and between species. On a short time (hour) scale, the hydraulic resistance of the vessels can be influenced by transpiration-induced cavitations, wall collapses, and changes in xylem sap composition. The extravascular compartment includes all living tissues (xylem parenchyma, bundle sheath, and mesophyll) that transport water from xylem vessels to substomatal chambers. Pharmacological inhibition and reverse genetics studies have shown that this compartment involves water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs) that facilitate water transport across cell membranes. In many plant species, AQPs are present in all leaf tissues with a preferential expression in the vascular bundles. The various mechanisms that allow adjustment of Kleaf to specific environmental conditions include transcriptional regulation of AQPs and changes in their abundance, trafficking, and intrinsic activity. Finally, the hydraulics of inner leaf tissues can have a strong impact on the dynamic responses of leaf water potential and stomata, and as a consequence on plant carbon economy and leaf expansion growth. The manipulation of these functions could help optimize the entire plant performance and its adaptation to extreme conditions over short and long time scales. PMID:23874349

  2. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3528 Section 29.3528 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to some extent by the size and shrinkage of the veins or fibers (See Elements...

  4. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf...

  5. Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Chisholm, Kenneth; Coffin, Robert H; Peters, Rick D; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Pinto, Devanand M

    2012-04-06

    Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.

  6. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  7. Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Charles, M.; Jones, G.; Wilson, P.; Shipley, B.; Sharafi, M.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Band, S.R.; Bogard, A.; Castro-Diez, P.; Guerrere-Campo, J.; Palmer, C.; Peréz-Rontomé, M.C.; Carter, G.; Hynd, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Royo Pla, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Specific leaf area (SLA), a key element of the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum', is the preferred 'soft' plant trait for assessing soil fertility. SLA is a function of leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and leaf thickness (LT). The first, LDMC, defines leaf construction costs and

  8. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  9. Generic Separations and Leaf Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Galota; Sven Kosub (Hrsg.); Heribert Vollmer

    2017-01-01

    In the early nineties of the previous century, leaf languages were introduced as a means for the uniform characterization of many complexity classes, mainly in the range between P (polynomial time) and PSPACE (polynomial space). It was shown that the separability of two complexity classes can be reduced to a combinatorial property of the corresponding defining leaf languages. In the present paper, it is shown that every separation obtained in this way holds for every generic oracle in the sen...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16757, Apr. 20...

  11. Anti-adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme post-distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šikić Pogačar, Maja; Klančnik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-06-01

    In order to survive in food-processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post-hydrodistillation residue (TE-R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE-R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE-R reduced C. jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2-12.5 µg mL(-1) , with TE-R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 to 200 µg mL(-1) reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10-23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. Our findings suggest that TE, the agro-food waste material TE-R, and the by-product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax (maximum...

  13. A Global Data Set of Leaf Photosynthetic Rates, Leaf N and P, and Specific Leaf Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This global data set of photosynthetic rates and leaf nutrient traits was compiled from a comprehensive literature review. It includes estimates of Vcmax...

  14. Tolerance to water deficiency between two soybean cultivars: transgenic versus conventional Tolerância à deficiência hídrica entre dois cultivares de soja: transgênico versus convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Aranda Catuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects on the development and physiological aspects of soybean plants grown under water deficiency at greenhouse conditions, comparing the levels of tolerance to water deficiency between one transgenic and one conventional cultivar, enabling a systematic way to carried out physiological comparisons between soybean cultivars under drought. The study was divided into completely randomized using a factorial 2×2 design, with five replicates. The experimental design included two replenishment levels of daily irrigation (100% and 40%, applied to the leaves during the V4 developmental stage (fourth trifoliate fully expanded and two cultivars, 'CD 202' conventional and 'CD 226RR' transgenic. The results showed that both cultivars had similar effects, caused by water deficiency, on dry mass production, but the transgenic cultivar tended to maintain higher biomass allocation in pods, as well as, higher efficiency of leaves to support dry mass production than conventional cultivar in both water conditions. Moreover, the higher maximum CO2 assimilation values and lower membranes damages in the transgenic cultivar under water deficiency showed that the expected higher drought tolerance of the conventional cultivar was not supported by a more accurate physiological investigation.O principal objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento e aspectos fisiológicos de plantas de soja cultivadas sob deficiência hídrica em condições de casa de vegetação, comparando os níveis de tolerância à deficiência de água entre um cultivar transgênico e um convencional, gerando uma forma sistemática de realizar comparações fisiológicas entre cultivares de soja sob déficit hídrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2×2, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos hídricos foram dois níveis de reposição de irrigação diária (100% e 40%, aplicados a

  15. Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Konar

    Full Text Available Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract.As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage--γH2AX and oxidative stress--ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone.Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses.

  16. Protective role of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Arpita; Shah, Navjot; Singh, Rumani; Saxena, Nishant; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine is a well-known cholinergic antagonist that causes amnesia in human and animal models. Scopolamine-induced amnesia in rodent models has been widely used to understand the molecular, biochemical, behavioral changes, and to delineate therapeutic targets of memory impairment. Although this has been linked to the decrease in central cholinergic neuronal activity following the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s) particularly the effect on neuroplasticity remains elusive. In the present study, we have investigated (i) the effects of scopolamine on the molecules involved in neuronal and glial plasticity both in vivo and in vitro and (ii) their recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract). As a drug model, scopolamine hydrobromide was administered intraperitoneally to mice and its effect on the brain function was determined by molecular analyses. The results showed that the scopolamine caused downregulation of the expression of BDNF and GFAP in dose and time dependent manner, and these effects were markedly attenuated in response to i-Extract treatment. Similar to our observations in animal model system, we found that the scopolamine induced cytotoxicity in IMR32 neuronal and C6 glioma cells. It was associated with downregulation of neuronal cell markers NF-H, MAP2, PSD-95, GAP-43 and glial cell marker GFAP and with upregulation of DNA damage--γH2AX and oxidative stress--ROS markers. Furthermore, these molecules showed recovery when cells were treated with i-Extract or its purified component, withanone. Our study suggested that besides cholinergic blockade, scopolamine-induced memory loss may be associated with oxidative stress and Ashwagandha i-Extract, and withanone may serve as potential preventive and therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and hence warrant further molecular analyses.

  17. Pharmacognostic profile of leaf, stem and root of Spathodea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of microscopy shows presence of waxy cuticle, prisms of calcium oxalate, diacytic stomata, pollen grains, reticulate vessels, covering trichomes, palisade and part of spongy mesophyll, epidermal cells in the leaf; bundle of fibres, bordered pitted vessels, prisms of calcium oxalate crystals, sclereids, single fibre ...

  18. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is interaction between ciprofloxacin and Carica papaya. This interaction can be avoided by taking ciprofloxacin at least 3 h prior to administration of the leaf extract of C. papaya. Keywords: Carica papaya, Ciprofloxacin, Sickle cell anaemia, Herb-drug interaction, ...

  19. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of length and weight of isolated tumor from rat induced with DMBA only was 2.4 cm and 2.8 g respectively. DNA smears obtained from single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) suggested possible DMBA-induced damage which was significantly prevented owing to the effect of the leaf extract of M. pruriens.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don. (CAE) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The lipid-lowering effect of CAE was investigated in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis in HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ...

  1. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: M. oleifera leaf extract has a strong anti-proliferative activity which is exerted by decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, the extract ... plant because it is rich in vitamins, protein, carbohydrate, fatty acid, fiber and ..... activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines. Cancer ...

  2. Dissecting the metabolic role of mitochondria during developmental leaf senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrobok, Daria; Law, Simon R.; Brouwer, Bas; Lindén, Pernilla; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Liebsch, Daniela; Narsai, Reena; Szal, Bozena; Moritz, Thomas; Rouhier, Nicolas; Whelan, James; Gardeström, Per; Keech, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aimed at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity in

  3. Haematopoietic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological profile of healthy New Zea-land rabbits, phlebotomized rabbits, and phlebotomized rabbits treated with 0.23 ml/kg Fero-globin®, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg I. involucrata ethanolic leaf extract, or 0.23 ml normal saline were determined at 20-day intervals for 40 days using the Cell Dyn 1800 Automatic ...

  4. The value of leaf micromorphological in the taxonomic delimitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the leaf epidermis of the three species of Emilia: E. coccinea (Sims) G. Don, E. praetermissa Milne-Redhead, and E. sonchifolia (L) DC using light microscope. Epidermal cells in the species are irregular with anticlinal wall pattern sinuous in E. coccinea, sinuous in E. sonchifolia, and straight to ...

  5. Leaf extracts from Teucrium ramosissimum protect against DNA damage in human lymphoblast cell K562 and enhance antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Ismail, Manel Ben; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The in vitro antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activities of Teucrium ramosissimum extracts were investigated. The antioxidant activities of the tested extracts were evaluated through three chemical assays: The Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, the reducing power and the ferric reducing antioxidant power. TR1 fraction from methanol extract showed the best antioxidant activity evaluated by the CUPRAC, RP and FRAP assays with TEAC values of 4.04, 1.77 and 1.48μM respectively compared to control. Yet, TR2 fraction exhibited the lowest antioxidant effect with a TEAC values of 1.97, 0.408 and 0.35μM respectively. All the tested extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, the effects of T. ramosissimum extracts on cell proliferation were also examined. The cytotoxic study revealed that methanol extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells (IC50=150μg/mL). The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the induction and inhibition of the genotoxicity induced by the direct-acting mutagen, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), using an eukaryotic system; the "Comet assay." The results showed that all the extracts inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H2O2, and particularly TR2 fraction (96.99%) and methanol extract (96.64%). The present study has demonstrated that T. ramosissimum extract possess potent antioxidant, antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activities, which could be derived from compounds such as flavonoids and polyphenols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LEAF SURFACE COMPARISON OF THREE GENERA OF ARACEAE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Erlinawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alocasia, Colocasia and Remusatia are the genera of Araceae family which have high economic value, such as for food and ornamental plants. Those three genera, previously treated as Colocasieae tribe. Later, based on Nauheimer, L. et al. study in 2012, using plastid and nuclear DNA, Alocasia is placed in different tribe. Study on leaf anatomy of Araceae is still poor known. Comparison of three genera of Araceae, indicates a difference in the epidermis. Alocasia and Colocasia have stomata on both leaf surfaces (amphistomatic but Remusatia has stomata only limited on the lower surface. The three genera can be distinguished from epidermal cell shape, stomata complex and the presence of stomata.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LEAF EPIDERMIS OF TWO SESLERIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMANESCU PETRONELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf epidermis has been used as character in taxonomy of Poaceae family since the 1930s. The purpose of present study was to determine leaf epidermal features helpful in distinguishing two species of Sesleria genus – Sesleria heufleriana Schur and Sesleria uliginosa Opiz.Both the abaxial and the adaxial epidermis have been examinated for each species.So both examined species have Festucoid type of epidermis, but differences of some epidermal features exist at the species level. This include variation in number and size of epidermal cells and distribution patterns of stomata.

  8. Leaf hydraulic conductance is coordinated with leaf morpho-anatomical traits and nitrogen status in the genus Oryza

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Dongliang; Yu, Tingting; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K leaf) is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in plants. Previous work has assessed the relationships between leaf morpho-anatomical traits and K leaf with woody species, but there has been very little focus on cereal crops. The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa) and wild species (such as O. rufipogon cv. Griff), is ideal material for identifying leaf features associated with K leaf and gas exchange. Leaf morpho-anatomical traits, K leaf, leaf ...

  9. Elucidating the Role of Transport Processes in Leaf Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a strategy to defend its leaves against herbivores is to accumulate glucosinolates along the midrib and at the margin. Although it is generally assumed that glucosinolates are synthesized along the vasculature in an Arabidopsis leaf, thereby suggesting...... that the margin accumulation is established through transport, little is known about these transport processes. Here, we show through leaf apoplastic fluid analysis and glucosinolate feeding experiments that two glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2, essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates...... in Arabidopsis, also play key roles in glucosinolate allocation within a mature leaf by effectively importing apoplastically localized glucosinolates into appropriate cells. Detection of glucosinolates in root xylem sap unambiguously shows that this transport route is involved in root-to-shoot glucosinolate...

  10. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  11. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Anacardium occidentale Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cabral Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities “in vitro” of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system.

  13. Identification among morphologically similar Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) based on leaf anatomy and phenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traiperm, Paweena; Chow, Janene; Nopun, Possathorn; Staples, G; Swangpol, Sasivimon C

    2017-12-01

    The genus Argyreia Lour. is one of the species-rich Asian genera in the family Convolvulaceae. Several species complexes were recognized in which taxon delimitation was imprecise, especially when examining herbarium materials without fully developed open flowers. The main goal of this study is to investigate and describe leaf anatomy for some morphologically similar Argyreia using epidermal peeling, leaf and petiole transverse sections, and scanning electron microscopy. Phenetic analyses including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to investigate the similarity of these morpho-types. Anatomical differences observed between the morpho-types include epidermal cell walls and the trichome types on the leaf epidermis. Additional differences in the leaf and petiole transverse sections include the epidermal cell shape of the adaxial leaf blade, the leaf margins, and the petiole transverse sectional outline. The phenogram from cluster analysis using the UPGMA method represented four groups with an R value of 0.87. Moreover, the important quantitative and qualitative leaf anatomical traits of the four groups were confirmed by the principal component analysis of the first two components. The results from phenetic analyses confirmed the anatomical differentiation between the morpho-types. Leaf anatomical features regarded as particularly informative for morpho-type differentiation can be used to supplement macro morphological identification.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  15. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Birch, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Leaf area growth and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area, Na (g m-2 N) are two options plants can use to adapt to nitrogen limitation. Previous work indicated that potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) adapts the size of leaves to maintain Na and photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area. This paper

  16. Calculated Leaf Carbon and Nitrogen, 1992 (ACCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Study plot canopy chemistry values were calculated from leaf chemistry and litterfall weight values. Average leaf concentrations of nitrogen and carbon were used to...

  17. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical

  18. Climatic adaptability of populations of Diplotaxis erucoides D.C. (Brassicaceae) from Sicily, based on leaf morphology, leaf anatomy and δ13 C studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleser, G. H.; Bernhardt, K.-G.; Hurka, H.

    1989-06-01

    The morphological and anatomical variability of Diplotaxis erucoides populations from Sicily was investigated. Populations growing during the summer months exhibit distinct xeromorphic features. Leaf area is strongly reduced and leaf thickness is increased when compared with winter populations. Cell size, as well as cell arrangement and mesophyll cell surface area differ significantly between summer and winter populations. Leaf thickness is almost three times higher in summer populations and A (cell)/ A, i.e. the mesophyll cell surface area per unit leaf area changes from about 16 for winter populations to almost 52 for summer populations. These differences are partly due to differences in intercellular volume and partly due to alterations in mesophyll cell sizes. The organic materal of the summer populations exhibits δ13C values in the order of -27%. to -28%., while the corresponding values for the winter populations are in the order of -31%. to -33%.. Analysis of D. erucoides populations from the transition period revealed intermediate δ13C values. Anatomical variations such as reductions or increases of A (cells)/ A and changes of intercellular volume correlate with the corresponding δ13C data. The δ13C data are discussed in conjunction with the differences in leaf anatomy.

  19. The correlation between leaf-surface and leaf-tissue secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Dandan; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Meijden, van der Eddy; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Usually whole plant or whole leaf extracts are analyzed to study the chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions. For herbivore species the contact with the leaf surface enables them to estimate the quality of the plant. The relationship between the leaf-surface and leaf-tissue

  20. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 49 FR...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or...

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  6. Meselect – A rapid and effective method for the separation of the main leaf tissue types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Svozil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues, a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore

  7. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  8. Convergence in leaf size versus twig leaf area scaling: do plants optimize leaf area partitioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2017-02-01

    Corner's rule states that thicker twigs bear larger leaves. The exact nature of this relationship and why it should occur has been the subject of numerous studies. It is obvious that thicker twigs should support greater total leaf area ([Formula: see text]) for hydraulical and mechanical reasons. But it is not obvious why mean leaf size ([Formula: see text]) should scale positively with [Formula: see text] We asked what this scaling relationship is within species and how variable it is across species. We then developed a model to explain why these relationships exist. To minimize potential sources of variability, we compared twig properties from six co-occurring and functionally similar species: Acer grandidentatum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Betula occidentalis, Cornus sericea, Populus fremontii and Symphoricarpos oreophilus We modelled the economics of leaf display, weighing the benefit from light absorption against the cost of leaf tissue, to predict the optimal [Formula: see text] combinations under different canopy openings. We observed a common [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] exponent of 0.6, meaning that [Formula: see text]and leaf number on twigs increased in a specific coordination. Common scaling exponents were not supported for relationships between any other measured twig properties. The model consistently predicted positive [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling when twigs optimally filled canopy openings. The observed 0·6 exponent was predicted when self-shading decreased with larger canopy opening. Our results suggest Corner's rule may be better understood when recast as positive [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling. Our model provides a tentative explanation of observed [Formula: see text] by [Formula: see text] scaling and suggests different scaling may exist in different environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  9. The relationships between leaf economics and hydraulic traits of woody plants depend on water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiulong; Wang, Lei; Lei, Maolin; Dang, Han; Quan, Jiaxin; Tian, Tingting; Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming

    2018-04-15

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are simultaneously involved in the process of trading water for CO 2 , but the relationships between these two suites of traits remain ambiguous. Recently, Li et al. (2015) reported that leaf economics and hydraulic traits were decoupled in five tropical-subtropical forests in China. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships between economics and hydraulic traits may depend on water availability. We analysed five leaf economics traits, four hydraulic traits and anatomical structures of 47 woody species on the Loess Plateau with poor water availability and compared those data with Li et al. (2015) obtained in tropical-subtropical regions with adequate water. The results showed that plants on the Loess Plateau tend to have higher leaf tissue density (TD), leaf nitrogen concentrations and venation density (VD) and lower stomatal guard cell length (SL) and maximum stomatal conductance to water vapour (g wmax ). VD showed positive correlations with leaf nitrogen concentrations, palisade tissue thickness (PT) and ratio of palisade tissue thickness to spongy tissue thickness (PT/ST). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a result opposite from those of tropical-subtropical regions: leaf economics and hydraulic traits were coupled on the Loess Plateau. A stable correlation between these two suites of traits may be more cost-effective on the Loess Plateau, where water availability is poor. The correlation of leaf economics and hydraulic traits may be a type of adaptation mechanism in arid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  11. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of light regime and provenance on leaf characteristics, growth and flavonoid accumulation in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja coppices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Qian, Chenyun; Ding, Sihui; Shang, Xulan; Yang, Wanxia; Fang, Shengzuo

    2016-12-01

    As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. However, limited information is available on its genotype selection and cultivation for growth and phytochemicals. Responses of growth and secondary metabolites to light regimes and genotypes are useful information to determine suitable habitat conditions for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Both light regime and provenance significantly affected the leaf characteristics, leaf flavonoid contents, biomass production and flavonoid accumulation per plant. Leaf thickness, length of palisade cells and chlorophyll a/b decreased significantly under shading conditions, while leaf areas and total chlorophyll content increased obviously. In the full light condition, leaf flavonoid contents showed a bimodal temporal variation pattern with the maximum observed in August and the second peak in October, while shading treatment not only reduced the leaf content of flavonoids but also delayed the peak appearing of the flavonoid contents in the leaves of C. paliurus. Strong correlations were found between leaf thickness, palisade length, monthly light intensity and measured flavonoid contents in the leaves of C. paliurus. Muchuan provenance with full light achieved the highest leaf biomass and flavonoid accumulation per plant. Cyclocarya paliurus genotypes show diverse responses to different light regimes in leaf characteristics, biomass production and flavonoid accumulation, highlighting the opportunity for extensive selection in the leaf flavonoid production.

  13. Analysis of the differential gene and protein expression profile of the rolled leaf mutant of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuqiang; Yu, Shuguang; Chen, Guanshui; Ke, Lanlan; Pan, Daren

    2017-01-01

    The importance of leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been widely recognized. Although several studies have investigated rice leaf rolling and identified some related genes, knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying rice leaf rolling, especially outward leaf rolling, is limited. Therefore, in this study, differential proteomics and gene expression profiling were used to analyze rolled leaf mutant of transgenic rice in order to investigate differentially expressed genes and proteins related to rice leaf rolling. To this end, 28 differentially expressed proteins related to rolling leaf traits were isolated and identified. Digital expression profiling detected 10 genes related to rice leaf rolling. Some of the proteins and genes detected are involved in lipid metabolism, which is related to the development of bulliform cells, such as phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Mgll gene, and At4g26790 gene. The "omics"-level techniques were useful for simultaneously isolating several proteins and genes related to rice leaf rolling. In addition, the results of the analysis of differentially expressed proteins and genes were closely consistent with those from a corresponding functional analysis of cellular mechanisms; our study findings might form the basis for further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying rice leaf rolling.

  14. Leaf movements and their relationship with the lunisolar gravitational force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Observation of the diurnal ascent and descent of leaves of beans and other species, as well as experimental interventions into these movements, such as exposures to light at different times during the movement cycle, led to the concept of an endogenous ‘clock’ as a regulator of these oscillations. The physiological basis of leaf movement can be traced to processes that modulate cell volume in target tissues of the pulvinus and petiole. However, these elements of the leaf-movement process do not completely account for the rhythms that are generated following germination in constant light or dark conditions, or when plants are transferred to similar free-running conditions. Scope To develop a new perspective on the regulation of leaf-movement rhythms, many of the published time courses of leaf movements that provided evidence for the concept of the endogenous clock were analysed in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration at the relevant experimental locations. This was made possible by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all cases, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and of the leaftide when the direction of leaf movement changes. This finding of synchrony leads to the hypothesis that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the leaftide, and that the rhythm of leaf movement is not necessarily of endogenous origin but is an expression of an exogenous lunisolar ‘clock’ impressed upon the leaf-movement apparatus. Conclusions Correlation between leaftide and Etide time courses holds for leaf movement rhythms in natural conditions of the greenhouse, in conditions of constant light or dark, under microgravity conditions of

  15. Leaf movements and their relationship with the lunisolar gravitational force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W

    2015-08-01

    Observation of the diurnal ascent and descent of leaves of beans and other species, as well as experimental interventions into these movements, such as exposures to light at different times during the movement cycle, led to the concept of an endogenous 'clock' as a regulator of these oscillations. The physiological basis of leaf movement can be traced to processes that modulate cell volume in target tissues of the pulvinus and petiole. However, these elements of the leaf-movement process do not completely account for the rhythms that are generated following germination in constant light or dark conditions, or when plants are transferred to similar free-running conditions. To develop a new perspective on the regulation of leaf-movement rhythms, many of the published time courses of leaf movements that provided evidence for the concept of the endogenous clock were analysed in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration at the relevant experimental locations. This was made possible by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. In all cases, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and of the leaftide when the direction of leaf movement changes. This finding of synchrony leads to the hypothesis that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the leaftide, and that the rhythm of leaf movement is not necessarily of endogenous origin but is an expression of an exogenous lunisolar 'clock' impressed upon the leaf-movement apparatus. Correlation between leaftide and Etide time courses holds for leaf movement rhythms in natural conditions of the greenhouse, in conditions of constant light or dark, under microgravity conditions of the International Space Station, and

  16. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves.

  17. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Han

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée. Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves.

  18. The effect of post-diapause development on respiratory function in the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. M. rotundata develop inside brood cells constructed from leaf pieces and sealed with the female’s saliva. During development, M. rotundata may experience hypoxic conditions from the cavity in which they reside; oxy...

  19. A size-mediated effect can compensate for transient chilling stress affecting maize (Zea mays) leaf extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Andrieu, Bruno; Giauffret, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    *In this study, we examined the impact of transient chilling in maize (Zea mays). We investigated the respective roles of the direct effects of stressing temperatures and indirect whorl size-mediated effects on the growth of leaves chilled at various stages of development. *Cell production, individual leaf extension and final leaf size of plants grown in a glasshouse under three temperature regimes (a control and two short chilling transfers) were studied using two genotypes contrasting in terms of their architecture. *The kinetics of all the leaves emerging after the stress were affected, but not all final leaf lengths were affected. No size-mediated propagation of an initial growth reduction was observed, but a size-mediated effect was associated with a longer duration of leaf elongation which compensated for reduced leaf elongation rates when leaves were stressed during their early growth. Both cell division and cell expansion contributed to explaining cold-induced responses at the leaf level. *These results demonstrate that leaf elongation kinetics and final leaf length are under the control of processes at the n - 1 (cell proliferation and expansion) and n + 1 (whorl size signal) scales. Both levels may respond to chilling stress with different time lags, making it possible to buffer short-term responses.

  20. Yeasts colonizing the leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláviková, Elena; Vadkertiová, Renata; Vránová, Dana

    2007-08-01

    The yeasts were isolated from the leaf surfaces of ten species of trees. The study site was a forest park (Zelezná Studnicka) of the Small Carpathians mountain range. One hundred and thirty seven yeast strains belonging to 13 genera were isolated from 320 samples of leaves and needles. Seventeen yeast species were isolated, but only seven occurred regularly: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus laurentii, Pichia anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp., Lachancea thermotolerans, and Rhodotorula glutinis. The remaining species were isolated from the leaves and needles of three or less tree species. A. pullulans, Cr. laurentii, and P. anomala were the most frequently found species and they occurred on leaves and needles of all ten tree species. Saccharomyces sp. occurred in leaf samples collected from eight kinds of trees. M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were found in samples collected from six species of trees. Both these species occurred almost always on the leaves of deciduous trees. Rh. glutinis was the most frequently isolated carotenoids producing species. We have found out that the ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species were present in the leaf samples in approximately equal frequency, contrary to the soil samples taken from this forest park, where the ascomycetous species were found rarely.

  1. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  2. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujia Ye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7 from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens poit on Plasmodium berghei in Mice. ... On day 7 the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were evaluated. The extract demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition effect on the parasites with ...

  4. The Influence of Leaf Angle and Leaf Surface Characteristics on the Process of Rainfall Interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, C.; Ginebra, R.; Webb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Individual choice in plant selection for household landscaping influences differences in runoff from urban watersheds because the variation in plant canopy architecture results in rainfall interception differences. Understanding the variables that influence rainfall interception and understanding the mechanism of rainfall interception are important concepts for sustainable watershed management. The broad objective of this study was to explore the influence of leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle on the mechanism and process of rainfall interception and raindrop impaction on leaf surfaces of common tree species from the semi-arid regions of the western United States. Leaf hydrophobicity is determined by the cohesive forces of the water molecules among themselves and the adhesive forces that result from the molecular interactions between the water droplet and the leaf surface. Water droplet retention is a measure of how easily a water droplet drains off a leaf surface. The specific hypotheses examined were 1) larger raindrops falling on leaf surfaces will deflect the leaf to an angle greater than the water droplet retention angle; 2) an increased leaf angle, whether from natural position or deflection due to droplet impact and retention, reduces interception from raindrop impaction on hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces; and 3) increased droplet size and frequency decrease rainfall interception more significantly in the hydrophilic case. These hypotheses were addressed in a laboratory experiment by 1) measuring leaf hydrophobicity and water droplet retention using a goniometer with a tilting base; 2) measuring leaf traits such as leaf area, leaf surface roughness, trichome density, and specific storage capacity; 3) examining raindrop splash on leaf surfaces with varying leaf hydrophobicity, water droplet retention, and leaf angle with a raindrop generator and high-speed video camera; and 4) modeling the impact of raindrop splash on leaf

  5. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar; Raghavendra Singh; Arshed Nazmi; Dinesh Lakhanpal; Hardeep Kataria; Gurcharan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian Ginseng, is a well-known Indian medicinal plant due to its antioxidative, antistress, antigenotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to assess and establish the cytoprotective potential of Ashwagandha leaf aqueous extract against lead induced toxicity. Pretreatment of C6 cells with 0.1% Ashwagandha extract showed cytoprotection against 25  μ M to 400 μ M concentration of lead nitrate. Further pretreatment w...

  7. In vitro wound healing and cytotoxic activity of the gel and whole-leaf materials from selected aloe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T; Mazumder, Anisha; Dwivedi, Anupma; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Hamman, Josias H

    2017-03-22

    Aloe vera is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world with applications in the cosmetic industry and also in the tonic or health drink product market. Different parts of Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii are used as traditional medicines for different applications. Although wound healing has been shown for certain aloe gel materials (e.g. A. vera ) previously, there are conflicting reports on this medicinal application of aloe leaf gel materials. The present study aimed at determining the wound healing properties of the gel and whole-leaf materials of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii, as well as their cytotoxic effects on normal human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to chemically fingerprint the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials by identifying characteristic marker molecules of aloe gel and whole-leaf materials. An MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the various aloe whole-leaf and gel materials on HaCaT cells. Wound healing and in vitro cell migration were investigated with HaCaT cells by means of the CytoSelect™ assay kit. The in vitro wound healing assay suggested that all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials examined, exhibited faster wound healing activity than the untreated control group. After 48h, all the aloe gel and whole-leaf materials almost completely caused full wound closure, displaying 98.07% (A. marlothii whole-leaf), 98.00% (A. vera gel), 97.20% (A. marlothii gel), 96.00% (A. vera whole-leaf), 94.00% (A. ferox gel) and 81.30% (A. ferox whole-leaf) wound closure, respectively. It was noteworthy that the gel materials of all the three aloe species exhibited significantly faster (pAloe species showed negligible toxicity towards the HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxicity and oral acute toxicity studies of Lantana camara leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-05-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100 × 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  9. Cytotoxicity and Oral Acute Toxicity Studies of Lantana camara Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract. Methods: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure. Results: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100× 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract. Conclusions: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

  10. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  11. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  12. 7 CFR 28.517 - Leaf Grade No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 7. 28.517 Section 28.517 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.517 Leaf Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in leaf is inferior to Leaf...

  13. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  14. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  15. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  16. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  17. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  18. Effects of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Bayraktar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of altitude on transpiration, leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf water potential in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. The study area was located in Ortaköy, Artvin, and the experimental area had the same soil structure and aspect. The study showed that transpiration and leaf vapor pressure deficit increased but leaf water potential decreased by altitudinal gradient

  19. Leaf ontogeny of Schinus molle L. plants under cadmium contamination: the meristematic origin of leaf structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcio Paulo; Corrêa, Felipe Fogaroli; de Castro, Evaristo Mauro; de Oliveira, Jean Paulo Vitor; Pereira, Fabricio José

    2017-11-01

    Previous works show the development of thicker leaves on tolerant plants growing under cadmium (Cd2+) contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cd2+ effects on the leaf meristems of the tolerant species Schinus molle. Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 10, and 50 μM of Cd2+. Anatomical analysis was performed on leaf primordia sampled at regular time intervals. Under the lowest Cd2+ level (10 μM), increased ground meristem thickness, diameter of the cells, cell elongation rate, and leaf dry mass were found. However, 50 μM of Cd2+ reduced all these variables. In addition, the ground meristem cells became larger when exposed to any Cd2+ level. The epidermis, palisade parenchyma, and vascular tissues developed earlier in Cd2+-exposed leaves. The modifications found on the ground meristem may be related to the development of thicker leaves on S. molle plants exposed to low Cd2+ levels. Furthermore, older leaves showed higher Cd2+ content when compared to the younger ones, preventing the Cd2+ toxicity to these leaves. Thus, low Cd2+ concentrations change the ground meristem structure and function reflecting on the development of thicker and enhanced leaves.

  20. Inside out: efflux of carbon dioxide from leaves represents more than leaf metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Samantha S; Anderson, Jeremiah; Zulick, Rachael; Hanson, David T

    2017-05-17

    High concentrations of inorganic carbon in the xylem, produced from root, stem, and branch respiration, travel via the transpiration stream and eventually exit the plant through distant tissues as CO2. Unlike previous studies that focused on the efflux of CO2 from roots and woody tissues, we focus on efflux from leaves and the potential effect on leaf respiration measurements. We labeled transported inorganic carbon, spanning reported xylem concentrations, with 13C and then manipulated transpiration rates in the dark in order to vary the rates of inorganic carbon supply to cut leaves from Brassica napus and Populus deltoides. We used tunable diode laser absorbance spectroscopy to directly measure the rate of gross 13CO2 efflux, derived from inorganic carbon supplied from outside of the leaf, relative to gross 12CO2 efflux generated from leaf cells. These experiemnts showed that 13CO2 efflux was dependent upon the rate of inorganic carbon supply to the leaf and the rate of transpiration. Our data show that the gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 is likely small in the dark when rates of transpiration are low. However, gross leaf efflux of xylem-transported CO2 could approach half the rate of leaf respiration in the light when transpiration rates and branch inorganic carbon concentrations are high, irrespective of the grossly different petiole morphologies in our experiment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  2. Drought effects on leaf abscission and leaf production in Populus clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Julie L. Rhoads

    1997-01-01

    Leaf abscission and foliation responses to water stress were studied in potted plants of five Populus clones grown in a greenhouse. As predawn leaf water potential (Ψ1) fell to -3 MPa, drought-induced leaf abscission increased progressively to 30% for data pooled across clones. As predawn Ψ1...

  3. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment and access to multiple water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Sack, Lawren; Evans, John R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Ball, Marilyn C

    2017-08-01

    Leaf structure and water relations were studied in a temperate population of Avicennia marina subsp. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. australasica but under different climates: subsp. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. marina (salinity 46 ppt, arid tropics). Leaf thickness, leaf dry mass per area and water content increased with salinity and aridity. Turgor loss point declined with increase in soil salinity, driven mainly by differences in osmotic potential at full turgor. Nevertheless, a high modulus of elasticity (ε) contributed to maintenance of high cell hydration at turgor loss point. Despite similarity among leaves in leaf water storage capacitance, total leaf water storage increased with increasing salinity and aridity. The time that stored water alone could sustain an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m -2  s -1 ranged from 77 to 126 min from subspecies eucalyptifolia to ssp. marina, respectively. Achieving full leaf hydration or turgor would require water from sources other than the roots, emphasizing the importance of multiple water sources to growth and survival of Avicennia marina across gradients in salinity and aridity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Delivering high-resolution landmarks using inkjet micropatterning for spatial monitoring of leaf expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronk Quentin CB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inkjet micropatterning is a versatile deposition technique with broad applications in numerous fields. However, its application in plant science is largely unexplored. Leaf expansion is one of the most important parameters in the field of plant science and many methods have been developed to examine differential expansion rates of different parts of the leaf lamina. Among them, methods based on the tracking of natural landmarks through digital imaging require a complicated setup in which the leaf must remain fixed and under tension. Furthermore, the resolution is limited to that of the natural landmarks, which are often difficult to find, particularly in young leaves. To study the fine scale expansion dynamics of the leaf lamina using artificial landmarks it is necessary to place small, noninvasive marks on a leaf surface and then recover the location of those marks after a period of time. Results To monitor leaf expansion in two dimensions, at very fine scales, we used a custom designed inkjet micropatterning system to print a grid composed of c. 0.19 mm2 cells on small developing leaves of ivy (Hedera helix using 40 μm dots at a spacing of c. 91 μm. The leaves in different growing stages were imaged under magnification to extract the coordinates of the marks which were then used in subsequent computer-assisted leaf expansion analyses. As an example we obtained quantified global and local expansion information and created expansion maps over the entire leaf surface. The results reveal a striking pattern of fine-scale expansion differences over short periods of time. In these experiments, the base of the leaf is a "cold spot" for expansion, while the leaf sinuses are "hot spots" for expansion. We have also measured a strong shading effect on leaf expansion. We discuss the features required to build an inkjet printing apparatus optimized for use in plant science, which will further maximize the range of tissues that can be

  5. The heterogeneity and spatial patterning of structure and physiology across the leaf surface in giant leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available Leaf physiology determines the carbon acquisition of the whole plant, but there can be considerable variation in physiology and carbon acquisition within individual leaves. Alocasia macrorrhiza (L. Schott is an herbaceous species that can develop very large leaves of up to 1 m in length. However, little is known about the hydraulic and photosynthetic design of such giant leaves. Based on previous studies of smaller leaves, and on the greater surface area for trait variation in large leaves, we hypothesized that A. macrorrhiza leaves would exhibit significant heterogeneity in structure and function. We found evidence of reduced hydraulic supply and demand in the outer leaf regions; leaf mass per area, chlorophyll concentration, and guard cell length decreased, as did stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. This heterogeneity in physiology was opposite to that expected from a thinner boundary layer at the leaf edge, which would have led to greater rates of gas exchange. Leaf temperature was 8.8°C higher in the outer than in the central region in the afternoon, consistent with reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration caused by a hydraulic limitation to the outer lamina. The reduced stomatal conductance in the outer regions would explain the observed homogeneous distribution of leaf water potential across the leaf surface. These findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in gas exchange across the leaf surface in large leaves, greater than that reported for smaller-leafed species, though the observed structural differences across the lamina were within the range reported for smaller-leafed species. Future work will determine whether the challenge of transporting water to the outer regions can limit leaf size for plants experiencing drought, and whether the heterogeneity of function across the leaf surface represents a particular disadvantage for large simple leaves that might explain their

  6. Three Key Sub-leaf Modules and the Diversity of Leaf Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Earth harbors a highly diverse array of plant leaf forms. A well-known pattern linking diverse leaf forms with their photosynthetic function across species is the global leaf economics spectrum (LES. However, within homogeneous plant functional groups such as tropical woody angiosperms or temperate deciduous woody angiosperms, many species can share a similar position in the LES but differ in other vital leaf traits, and thus function differently under the given suite of environmental drivers. How diverse leaves differentiate from each other has yet to be fully explained. Here, we propose a new perspective for linking leaf structure and function by arguing that a leaf may be divided into three key sub-modules, the light capture module, the water-nutrient flow module and the gas exchange module. Each module consists of a set of leaf tissues corresponding to a certain resource acquisition function, and the combination and configuration of different modules may differ depending on overall leaf functioning in a given environment. This modularized-leaf perspective differs from the whole-leaf perspective used in leaf economics theory and may serve as a valuable tool for tracing the evolution of leaf form and function. This perspective also implies that the evolutionary direction of various leaf designs is not to optimize a single critical trait, but to optimize the combination of different traits to better adapt to the historical and current environments. Future studies examining how different modules are synchronized for overall leaf functioning should offer critical insights into the diversity of leaf designs worldwide.

  7. ‘Breath figures’ on leaf surfaces – formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eBurkhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Microscopic leaf wetness’ means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 µm, microscopic leaf wetness it is about 2 orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the amount and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g. ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  8. In Vitro Antileukemic Activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Taioba Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina L. C. Caxito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott is a herb of the Araceae family, popularly known as taioba, which is consumed as food in some regions of Brazil, Africa, and Asia. This species has already been evaluated for the antifungal activities. However, based on its potential antitumor activity, the present study further aimed to examine the antitumor, as well as chelation, activity of X. sagittifolium leaf extract. Results showed that hydroethanolic extract of X. sagittifolium leaves (HEXs-L exhibits cytotoxic effects against the immortalized line of human T-lymphocytic (Jurkat and myelogenous (K562 leukemia cells, but not nontumor RAW 264.7 macrophages or NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. HEXs-L inhibited 50.3% of Jurkat cell proliferation, reducing by 20% cells in G2/M phase, but increasing cells in sub-G1 phase, thereby inducing apoptosis by 54%. In addition, HEXs-L inhibited NO production by 59%, as determined by Griess reaction, and chelated 93.8% of free Fe(II, as demonstrated by ferrozine assay. Phytochemical studies were carried out by ESI-MS, identifying apigenin di-C-glycosides as major compounds. Overall, this work revealed that leaf extract of Xanthosoma sagittifolium presented chelating activity and in vitro antitumor activity, arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis of leukemia cells, thus providing evidence that taioba leaves may have practical application in cancer therapy.

  9. Genetic analysis of rice mutants responsible for narrow leaf phenotype and reduced vein number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Fumika Clara; Yasui, Yukiko; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Sato, Yutaka; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-03-17

    Leaves are a major site for photosynthesis and a key determinant of plant architecture. Rice produces thin and slender leaves, which consist of the leaf blade and leaf sheath separated by the lamina joint. Two types of vasculature, the large and small vascular bundles, run in parallel, together with a strong structure, the midrib. In this paper, we examined the function of four genes that regulate the width of the leaf blade and the vein number: NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), NAL2, NAL3 and NAL7. We backcrossed original mutants of these genes with the standard wild-type rice, Taichung 65. We then compared the effect of each mutation on similar genetic backgrounds and examined genetic interactions of these genes. The nal1 single mutation and the nal2 nal3 double mutation showed a severe effect on leaf width, resulting in very narrow leaves. Although vein number was also reduced in the nal1 and nal2 nal3 mutants, the small vein number was more strongly reduced than the large vein number. In contrast, the nal7 mutation showed a milder effect on leaf width and vein number, and both the large and small veins were similarly affected. Thus, the genes responsible for narrow leaf phenotype seem to play distinct roles. The nal7 mutation showed additive effects on both leaf width and vein number, when combined with the nal1 single or the nal2 nal3 double mutation. In addition, observations of inner tissues revealed that cell differentiation was partially compromised in the nal2 nal3 nal7 mutant, consistent with the severe reduction in leaf width in this triple mutant.

  10. Microscopic Aspects of Silicon-Mediated Rice Resistance to Leaf Scald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Leonardo; Paschoalino, Rayane Silva; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si) on the potentiation of rice resistance against leaf scald at the microscopic level. Rice plants ('Primavera') were grown in a nutrient solution containing 0 (-Si) or 2 mM (+Si) Si. The foliar Si concentration of the +Si plants (3.6 dag/kg) increased in comparison with the -Si plants (0.3 dag/kg). An X-ray microanalysis revealed that the leaf tissue of +Si plants infected with Microdochium oryzae had higher peaks and deposition of insoluble Si than that of -Si plants. The high foliar Si concentration for the +Si plants reduced the expansion of leaf scald lesions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae and appressorium-like structures of M. oryzae were more abundant in the leaf surface of -Si plants relative to +Si plants. At both histopathological and ultrastructural levels, fungal hyphae grew abundantly into the leaf tissue of -Si plants. By contrast, rice cell walls were rarely degraded and fungal hyphae were often surrounded by amorphous granular material in the leaf tissue of +Si plants. Conidiophores emerged from stomata 36 h after fungal penetration, and conidia were noticed inside the leaf tissue of the -Si plants in great abundance. The collective results of the present study showed a high concentration and deposition of Si and a considerable deposition of phenolic-like compounds in the leaf tissue of +Si plants. These results indicate that the potentiation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in these plants supplied with Si was favorable for the increase in rice resistance to leaf scald.

  11. Regulation of leaf traits in canopy gradients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, T.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069365822

    2016-01-01

    The gradient of leaf traits in a canopy from sunlit upper regions to shaded lower ones is regulated in response to the density of its leaf area. The gradients of environmental factors act as signals for the regulation. The result is improved resource use efficiency for carbon gain at the whole plant

  12. Comparative leaf anatomy of Trigonobalanus Forman (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of the recently discovered Neotropical species Trigonobalanus excelsa is described and compared with that of the Old World species T. doichangensis and T. verticillata. Trigonobalanus excelsa appears to be very similar in its leaf anatomy to T. verticillata from Borneo and Sumatra.

  13. [Study on pharmacognosy of Ginkgo leaf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guo-Ping; Ma, Zhi-Gang; Mao, Chong-Wu

    2007-05-01

    The primary study of Ginkgo leaf such as crude drug macroscopic and powder characteristics were carried out, and the flavonoids content in the leaf of Ginkgo in different areas of Gansu province was determined by HPLC, in order to provide scientific references for the exploitation of Ginkgo in Gansu province.

  14. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25...

  15. PROFILE OF Nauclea diderrichii LEAF EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    problems, gonorrhea and menstruation problems, while a bark infusion is taken for the treatment of hepatitis and as a vermifuge. In Guinea, leaf preparations are applied on tumours. In Sierra Leone, leaf decoctions are drunk against diarrhea and as a wash for the treatment of measles and the ripe infructescence is eaten as ...

  16. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  17. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the

  18. Leaf responses to mild drought stress in natural variants of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauw, Pieter; Coppens, Frederik; De Beuf, Kristof; Dhondt, Stijn; Van Daele, Twiggy; Maleux, Katrien; Storme, Veronique; Clement, Lieven; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Although the response of plants exposed to severe drought stress has been studied extensively, little is known about how plants adapt their growth under mild drought stress conditions. Here, we analyzed the leaf and rosette growth response of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions originating from different geographic regions when exposed to mild drought stress. The automated phenotyping platform WIWAM was used to impose stress early during leaf development, when the third leaf emerges from the shoot apical meristem. Analysis of growth-related phenotypes showed differences in leaf development between the accessions. In all six accessions, mild drought stress reduced both leaf pavement cell area and number without affecting the stomatal index. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis (using RNA sequencing) of early developing leaf tissue identified 354 genes differentially expressed under mild drought stress in the six accessions. Our results indicate the existence of a robust response over different genetic backgrounds to mild drought stress in developing leaves. The processes involved in the overall mild drought stress response comprised abscisic acid signaling, proline metabolism, and cell wall adjustments. In addition to these known severe drought-related responses, 87 genes were found to be specific for the response of young developing leaves to mild drought stress. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Short communication: Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANURAG SUNPAPAO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand.

  20. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  1. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  2. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  3. Effects of Toona Sinensis Leaf Extract on Lipolysis in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hseng-Kuang Hsu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of substances extracted from Toona sinensis leaves with 50% alcohol solution on lipolysis was investigated in cultured 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes. The amount of glycerol released from cells into culture medium was used to measure lipolysis activity. Glycerol release was increased by Toona sinensis leaf extract in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Following treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells with various concentrations of Toona sinensis leaf extract (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL for 6 hours, the amounts of glycerol released from 3T3-L1 cells increased from a control value of 99 nmol/mg protein to 127, 144, and 154 nmol/mg protein, respectively. The lipolytic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract was not inhibited by pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide, econazole, baicalein, or indomethacin. However, the lipolytic activity induced by Toona sinensis leaf extract was diminished by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine-5'-monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP and the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C. These results indicate that the lipolytic effect induced by Toona sinensis leaf substances may be involved in the protein kinase C pathway and may be down-regulated by cAMP.

  4. Effects of Lantana camara leaf extract on the activity of superoxide dismutase and accumulation of H2O2 in water hyacinth leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-Qiong; Wei, Ning; Wang, Liu-Fa; He, Ping

    2006-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the most productive plants, but is also a troublesome weed in the world. In order to protect the public water system from chemical herbicides pollution, biological method has been suggested to control the growth and the reproduction of this weed. Lantana (Lantana camara L.) is an important weed of the family Verbenaceae and its leaf extract is highly toxic to water hyacinth. The results of this study showed that the extract of lantana leaves suppressed the emergence of leaf buds of water hyacinth plant, and caused the decay of its leaves by foliar spraying. In addition, the increase of SOD activity in water hyacinth leaves was in accordance with the accumulation of H(2)O(2) and the increase in degree of membrane peroxidation, while the activity of catalase, which might remove the excessive H(2)O(2) in water hyacinth leaves, was inhibited by treatment with lantana extract. At tissue level, high H(2)O(2) histochemical labeling was detected in guard cells after treatment with lantana extract. This overproduction of H(2)O(2) could kill the leaf cells and cause leaf necrosis in the treated plant. Therefore, the high toxicity of lantana leaf extract to water hyacinth might be due to oxidative stress.

  5. Long-distance signaling within Coleus x hybridus leaves; mediated by changes in intra-leaf CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlberg, R.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid long-distance signaling in plants can occur via several mechanisms, including symplastic electric coupling and pressure waves. We show here in variegated Coleus leaves a rapid propagation of electrical signals that appears to be caused by changes in intra-leaf CO2 concentrations. Green leaf cells, when illuminated, undergo a rapid depolarization of their membrane potential (Vm) and an increase in their apoplastic pH (pHa) by a process that requires photosynthesis. This is followed by a slower hyperpolarization of Vm and apoplastic acidification, which do not require photosynthesis. White (chlorophyll-lacking) leaf cells, when in isolated white leaf segments, show only the slow response, but when in mixed (i.e. green and white) segments, the rapid Vm depolarization and increase in pHa propagate over more than 10 mm from the green to the white cells. Similarly, these responses propagate 12-20 mm from illuminated to unilluminated green cells. The fact that the propagation of these responses is eliminated when the leaf air spaces are infiltrated with solution indicates that the signal moves in the apoplast rather than the symplast. A depolarization of the mesophyll cells is induced in the dark by a decrease in apoplastic CO2 but not by an increase in pHa. These results support the hypothesis that the propagating signal for the depolarization of the white mesophyll cells is a photosynthetically induced decrease in the CO2 level of the air spaces throughout the leaf.

  6. A Rice PECTATE LYASE-LIKE Gene Is Required for Plant Growth and Leaf Senescence1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yujia; Yang, Yaolong; Ren, Deyong; Dai, Liping; Wang, Yuqiong; Chen, Long; Tu, Zhengjun; Gao, Yihong; Zhu, Li; Hu, Jiang; Gao, Zhenyu; Guo, Longbiao; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind plant growth and leaf senescence in monocot plants, we identified a mutant exhibiting dwarfism and an early-senescence leaf phenotype, termed dwarf and early-senescence leaf1 (del1). Histological analysis showed that the abnormal growth was caused by a reduction in cell number. Further investigation revealed that the decline in cell number in del1 was affected by the cell cycle. Physiological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assays showed that leaf senescence was triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The DEL1 gene was cloned using a map-based approach. It was shown to encode a pectate lyase (PEL) precursor that contains a PelC domain. DEL1 contains all the conserved residues of PEL and has strong similarity with plant PelC. DEL1 is expressed in all tissues but predominantly in elongating tissues. Functional analysis revealed that mutation of DEL1 decreased the total PEL enzymatic activity, increased the degree of methylesterified homogalacturonan, and altered the cell wall composition and structure. In addition, transcriptome assay revealed that a set of cell wall function- and senescence-related gene expression was altered in del1 plants. Our research indicates that DEL1 is involved in both the maintenance of normal cell division and the induction of leaf senescence. These findings reveal a new molecular mechanism for plant growth and leaf senescence mediated by PECTATE LYASE-LIKE genes. PMID:28455404

  7. Is the lotus leaf superhydrophobic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Rodak, Daniel E.

    2005-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have important technical applications ranging from self-cleaning window glasses, paints, and fabrics to low-friction surfaces. The archetype superhydrophobic surface is that of the lotus leaf. When rain falls on lotus leaves, water beads up with a contact angle in the superhydrophobic range of about 160°. The water drops promptly roll off the leaves collecting dirt along the way. This lotus effect has, in recent years, stimulated much research effort worldwide in the fabrication of surfaces with superhydrophobicity. But, is the lotus surface truly superhydrophobic? This work shows that the lotus leaves can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic, depending on how the water gets on to their surfaces. This finding has significant ramifications on how to make and use superhydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...... metabolism and photosynthesis dominated in the set of identified proteins. The reference map derived from a drought-tolerant cv.Vemana should serve as the basis for further investigations of peanut physiology such as detection of expressed changes due to biotic and abiotic stresses, plant development...

  9. Transcriptome analysis of leaf and root of rice seedling to acute dehydration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minh-Thu, Pham-Thi; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Nahm, Baek Hie; Kim, Yeon-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Water deficiency is one of the most serious worldwide problems for agriculture. Recently, it has become more serious and outspread, which urgently requires the production of drought-tolerant plants...

  10. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds. (c) 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct palisade tissue development processes promoted by leaf autonomous signalling and long-distance signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Inoue, Shio; Yoneda, Yuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2015-06-01

    Plants develop palisade tissue consisting of cylindrical mesophyll cells located at the adaxial side of leaves in response to high light. To understand high light signalling in palisade tissue development, we investigated leaf autonomous and long-distance signal responses of palisade tissue development using Arabidopsis thaliana. Illumination of a developing leaf with high light induced cell height elongation, whereas illumination of mature leaves with high light increased cell density and suppressed cell width expansion in palisade tissue of new leaves. Examination using phototropin1 phototropin2 showed that blue light signalling mediated by phototropins was involved in cell height elongation of the leaf autonomous response rather than the cell density increase induced by long-distance signalling. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation in both a leaf autonomous and long-distance manner, suggesting involvement of oxidative signals. Although constitutive expression of transcription factors involved in systemic-acquired acclimation to excess light, ZAT10 and ZAT12, induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation, knockout of these genes did not affect cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation. We conclude that two distinct signalling pathways - leaf autonomous signalling mostly dependent on blue light signalling and long-distance signalling from mature leaves that sense high light and oxidative stress - control palisade tissue development in A. thaliana. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long term leaf phenology and leaf exchange strategies of a cerrado savanna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Costa Alberton, Bruna; de Carvalho, Gustavo H.; Magalhães, Paula A. N. R.; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C.

    2017-04-01

    Leaf development and senescence cycles are linked to a range of ecosystem processes, affecting seasonal patterns of atmosphere-ecosystem carbon and energy exchanges, resource availability and nutrient cycling. The degree of deciduousness of tropical trees and communities depend on ecosystems characteristics such as amount of biomass, species diversity and the strength and length of the dry season. Besides defining the growing season, deciduousness can also be an indicator of species response to climate changes in the tropics, mainly because severity of dry season can intensify leaf loss. Based on seven-years of phenological observations (2005 to 2011) we describe the long-term patterns of leafing phenology of a Brazilian cerrado savanna, aiming to (i) identify leaf exchange strategies of species, quantifying the degree of deciduousness, and verify whether these strategies vary among years depending on the length and strength of the dry seasons; (ii) define the growing seasons along the years and the main drivers of leaf flushing in the cerrado. We analyzed leafing patterns of 107 species and classified 69 species as deciduous (11 species), semi-deciduous (29) and evergreen (29). Leaf exchange was markedly seasonal, as expected for seasonal tropical savannas. Leaf fall predominated in the dry season, peaking in July, and leaf flushing in the transition between dry to wet seasons, peaking in September. Leafing patterns were similar among years with the growing season starting at the end of dry season, in September, for most species. However, leaf exchange strategies varied among years for most species (65%), except for evergreen strategy, mainly constant over years. Leafing patterns of cerrado species were strongly constrained by rainfall. The length of the dry season and rainfall intensity were likely affecting the individuals' leaf exchange strategies and suggesting a differential resilience of species to changes of rainfall regime, predicted on future global

  13. Cellular and molecular aspects of quinoa leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Rizzo, Axel Joel; Martínez-Tosar, Leandro Julián; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-09-01

    During leaf senescence, degradation of chloroplasts precede to changes in nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles, RuBisCO stability is progressively lost, grana lose their structure, plastidial DNA becomes distorted and degraded, the number of plastoglobuli increases and abundant senescence-associated vesicles containing electronically dense particles emerge from chloroplasts pouring their content into the central vacuole. This study examines quinoa leaf tissues during development and senescence using a range of well-established markers of programmed cell death (PCD), including: morphological changes in nuclei and chloroplasts, degradation of RuBisCO, changes in chlorophyll content, DNA degradation, variations in ploidy levels, and changes in nuclease profiles. TUNEL reaction and DNA electrophoresis demonstrated that DNA fragmentation in nuclei occurs at early senescence, which correlates with induction of specific nucleases. During senescence, metabolic activity is high and nuclei endoreduplicate, peaking at 4C. At this time, TEM images showed some healthy nuclei with condensed chromatin and nucleoli. We have found that DNA fragmentation, induction of senescence-associated nucleases and endoreduplication take place during leaf senescence. This provides a starting point for further research aiming to identify key genes involved in the senescence of quinoa leaves. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Leaf Structure and Taxonomy of Petunia and Calibrachoa (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia dos Reis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the leaf anatomy of sixteen species of Calibrachoa and eight species of Petunia. In Calibrachoa leaves, the vascular bundles sheath (endodermis was formed by parenchymatous developed cells, different from those of the mesophyll. In Petunia, this sheath did not show a marked morphological differentiation. The Calibrachoa leaves could be separated according to the type of leaf margins, the distribution of the stomata on leaf surfaces, the organization of the mesophyll and the morphology of the trichomes. Based on these results, an indented dichotomous identification key was elaborated for the species of the genus Calibrachoa.Foram estudados, sob o ponto de vista anatômico, os limbos foliares de dezesseis espécies de Calibrachoa Llav. & Lex. e de oito espécies de Petunia Juss. (Solanaceae. Em Calibrachoa, a bainha que envolve os feixes vasculares (endoderme é formada por células desenvolvidas e distintas das do mesofilo. Em Petunia, esta bainha não apresenta diferenciação morfológica marcante. As folhas das espécies de Calibrachoa foram separadas entre si levando-se em conta a distribuição dos estômatos nas faces foliares, a organização do mesofilo, o tipo de bordo e a morfologia dos tricomas. Com base nesses resultados, foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica indentada de identificação para as espécies do gênero Calibrachoa.

  15. Epicuticular Wax Accumulation and Fatty Acid Elongation Activities Are Induced during Leaf Development of Leeks1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yoon; Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Liu, Dehua; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    Epicuticular wax production was evaluated along the length of expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) leaves to gain insight into the regulation of wax production. Leaf segments from the bottom to the top were analyzed for (a) wax composition and load; (b) microsomal fatty acid elongase, plastidial fatty acid synthase, and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities; and (c) tissue and cellular morphological changes. The level of total wax, which was low at the bottom, increased 23-fold along the length of the leaf, whereas accumulation of the hentriacontan-16-one increased more than 1000-fold. The onset of wax accumulation was not linked to cell elongation but, rather, occurred several centimeters above the leaf base. Peak microsomal fatty acid elongation activity preceded the onset of wax accumulation, and the maximum fatty acid synthase activity was coincident with the onset. The C16:0- and C18:0-ACP-hydrolyzing activities changed relatively little along the leaf, whereas C18:1-ACP-hydrolyzing activity increased slightly prior to the peak elongase activity. Electron micrographic analyses revealed that wax crystal formation was asynchronous among cells in the initial stages of wax deposition, and morphological changes in the cuticle and cell wall preceded the appearance of wax crystals. These studies demonstrated that wax production and microsomal fatty acid elongation activities were induced within a defined and identifiable region of the expanding leek leaf and provide the foundation for future molecular studies. PMID:9501123

  16. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  17. Pharmacognosy and hypotensive evaluation of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinde, Buniyamin A; Omogbai, Eric K I; Amaechina, Fabian C

    2007-01-01

    There is already a literature report on the anti-ulcer effect of water extract of Ficus exasperata. Some communities in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria use the decoction of the leaf as hypotensive crude drug. Verification of this claim and also the microscopy and other pharmacognostic parameters which can be used to establish the identity of the leaf were carried out. The microscopy of the leaf powder revealed the presence of straight walled epidermal cells, cone or nail shaped trichomes or epidermal hairs, clustered or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals of varying dimensions. The percentage weight loss on drying was 9.84 +/- 0.08 whereas water and alcohol extractive values were 5.29 +/- 0.07 and 2.21 +/- 0.11, respectively. The ash value was 30.68 +/- 0.44 whereas the acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash values were 17.87 +/- 0.37 and 16.73 +/- 0.13, respectively. Preliminary phytochemistry of leaf showed that it contains tannins, flavonoids and saponins with no traces of alkaloids or anthraquinones. The water extract showed a dose related reduction in mean arterial blood pressure. At 10 mg/kg, a reduction of 16.6 +/- 1.1 mmHg was observed, whereas at 30 mg/kg, a fall in mean arterial pressure of 38.3 +/- 0.6 mmHg was obtained. The hypotensive effect of the extract was significantly reduced with a prior administration of 2.5 mg of either atropine or chlorpheniramine. This suggests the probable stimulation of muscarinic receptors in the heart or release of histamine into the circulatory system thereby causing the initial fall in blood pressure.

  18. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 7 CFR 28.513 - Leaf Grade No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 3. 28.513 Section 28.513 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.513 Leaf Grade No. 3. Leaf grade No. 3 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy Leaf (B Group). 29.3647 Section 29.3647... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3647 Heavy Leaf (B Group). This group consists of leaves... specifications, and tolerances B1F Choice Quality Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf structure...

  1. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  2. 7 CFR 28.511 - Leaf Grade No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 1. 28.511 Section 28.511 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.511 Leaf Grade No. 1. Leaf grade No. 1 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  3. 7 CFR 28.515 - Leaf Grade No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 5. 28.515 Section 28.515 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.515 Leaf Grade No. 5. Leaf grade No. 5 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.3648 Section 29.3648... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3648 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth...

  5. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  6. 7 CFR 28.516 - Leaf Grade No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 6. 28.516 Section 28.516 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.516 Leaf Grade No. 6. Leaf grade No. 6 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  7. 7 CFR 28.514 - Leaf Grade No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 4. 28.514 Section 28.514 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.514 Leaf Grade No. 4. Leaf grade No. 4 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  8. Effects of some growth regulating applications on leaf yield, raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of repetitive applications of herbagreen (HG), humic acid (HA), combined foliar fertilizer (CFF) and HG+CFF performed in the Müsküle grape variety grafted on 5 BB rootstock on fresh or pickled leaf size and leaf raw cellulose content. HA application increased leaf area and leaf water ...

  9. Multicellular genesis of leaf primordium was demonstrated via chimaeric transgenic plant of maize (Zea mays L.) regenerated from Type II calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Qin; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Chao; Tian, Na; Xu, Dan; Feng, Shu-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    Type-II embryonic calli were induced from immature embryos of maize (Zea mays L.) genotype YD and bombarded with beta-glucuronidase gene. Bombarded calli were proliferated on normal N6 medium for 2 weeks at 26°C in the dark and selected on N6 medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 5 mg/l phosphinothricin (PPT) but without casamino acids and proline under the same conditions for 14 days. Regeneration was carried out on hormone-free MS medium containing 5 mg/l phosphinothricin at 26°C under 3000 lux illumination. Plants over 8 cm were transplanted into soil and sprayed with 250 mg/l phosphinothricin when two new leaves appeared. Except normal transgenic plants, chimaeric transgenics also were regenerated in the present work. The expression pattern of beta-glucuronidase gene in leaves of chimaeric transgenic plant revealed that more than one cell formed leaf primordium at the initial stage, and filial cells stemed from each cell in leaf primordium arranged in a row longitudinally from leaf base to leaf apex. There was a clear boundary as a straight line between the area formed by transformed cells and the area formed by normal cells. A hypothesis was put forward that the primitive cells in leaf primordium divided in a longitudinal style, resulted in leaf elongation, then the filial cells divided transversally and synchronously toward the outside to broaden the leaf.

  10. BOREAS TE-10 Leaf Chemistry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf chemistry data collected by TE-10. Contains 3 granules: 1) biochemical data; 2) biochemical data on a per dry weight basis; and 3) biochemical carbon, hydrogen,...

  11. COCHLEATA controls leaf size and secondary inflorescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-18

    PET-. IOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in. Arabidopsis. Development 17 1434–1448. Hirai M, Yamagishi M and Kanno A 2012 Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar ...

  12. BOREAS TE-10 Leaf Chemistry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf chemistry data collected by TE-10. Contains 3 granules: 1) biochemical data; 2) biochemical data on a per dry weight basis; and 3) biochemical carbon,...

  13. SNF Forest Phenology/Leaf Expansion Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Measurements of green leaf coverage during the spring of 1984 for canopy, canopy, and understory species for two aspen sites in the Superior National...

  14. SNF Forest Phenology/Leaf Expansion Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measurements of green leaf coverage during the spring of 1984 for canopy, canopy, and understory species for two aspen sites in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota

  15. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf miner-induced morphological, physiological and molecular changes in mangrove plant Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Wei-Zhi; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Fei-Hua; Gao, Gui-Feng; Liu, Yi-Ling; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Chong-Ling; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Hui; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2017-01-31

    Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina. Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression. A. marina leaves attacked by the leaf miner exhibited significant decreases in chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen contents, as well as a decreased photosynthetic rate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that the leaf miner only invaded the upper epidermis and destroyed the epidermal cell, which lead to the exposure of salt glands. In addition, the chloroplasts of mined leaves (ML) were swollen and the thylakoids degraded. The maximal net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (Gs), carboxylation efficiency (CE), dark respiration (Rd), light respiration (Rp) and quantum yields (AQE) significantly decreased in the ML, whereas the light saturation point (Lsp), light compensation point (Lcp), water loss and CO2 compensation point (Г) increased in the ML. Moreover, chlorophyll fluorescence features also had been changed by leaf miner attacks. Interestingly, higher generation rate of O2ˉ· and lower antioxidant enzyme expression in the mined portion (MP) were found; on the contrary, higher H2O2 level and higher antioxidant enzyme expression in the non-mined portion (NMP) were revealed, implying that the NMP may be able to sense that the leaf miner attacks had happened in the MP of the A. marina leaf via H2O2 signaling. Besides, the protein expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the glutathione (GSH) content were increased in the ML. In addition, insect resistance-related gene

  17. Structural characters of leaf epidermis in Neolepisorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... H2O2 and acetic acid (1:1) at 37°C. Pieces of leaf epidermises were stained in a solution of safranin in 50% alcohol before being mounted on glycerin gel. To check the constancy of epidermal structure, at least five slides were made from different parts of a single leaf or from different leaves for each species ...

  18. STEPULES, STIPELS, LIGULES AND LEAF-SHEATH.*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the last as “ aprimary element ” of the leaf (Arber, 1925; Majumdar,. 1955). The stipuleT is defined as “ an appendage at junction of a leaf, one on each side of. the insertion ” (Asa Gray, 1879); “ an outgrowth of the base of the leaf” (Willis, 1951). ' The sz'ipel when present is described as “the stipule of a leaflet usually ...

  19. Tissue-level leaf toughness, but not lamina thickness, predicts sapling leaf lifespan and shade tolerance of tropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitajima, K.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    Leaf toughness is thought to enhance physical defense and leaf lifespan. Here, we evaluated the relative importance of tissue-level leaf traits vs lamina thickness, as well as their ontogenetic changes, for structure-level leaf toughness and regeneration ecology of 19 tropical tree species. We

  20. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control.

  1. Leaf Area Estimation Models for Ginger ( Zingibere officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to develop leaf area estimation models for three cultivars (37/79, 38/79 and 180/73) and four accessions (29/86, 30/86, 47/86 and 52/86) of ginger. Significant variations were observed among the tested genotypes in leaf length (L), leaf width (W) and actual leaf area (ALA). Leaf area was highly ...

  2. Rapid, in situ detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens attachment to leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; Nitin, N; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2012-01-01

    Attachment of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells is an early and necessary step in plant transformation and agroinfiltration processes. However, bacterial attachment behavior is not well understood in complex plant tissues. Here we developed an imaging-based method to observe and quantify A. tumefaciens attached to leaf tissue in situ. Fluorescent labeling of bacteria with nucleic acid, protein, and vital dyes was investigated as a rapid alternative to generating recombinant strains expressing fluorescent proteins. Syto 16 green fluorescent nucleic acid stain was found to yield the greatest signal intensity in stained bacteria without affecting viability or infectivity. Stained bacteria retained the stain and were detectable over 72 h. To demonstrate in situ detection of attached bacteria, confocal fluorescent microscopy was used to image A. tumefaciens in sections of lettuce leaf tissue following vacuum-infiltration with labeled bacteria. Bacterial signals were associated with plant cell surfaces, suggesting detection of bacteria attached to plant cells. Bacterial attachment to specific leaf tissues was in agreement with known leaf tissue competencies for transformation with Agrobacterium. Levels of bacteria attached to leaf cells were quantified over time post-infiltration. Signals from stained bacteria were stable over the first 24 h following infiltration but decreased in intensity as bacteria multiplied in planta. Nucleic acid staining of A. tumefaciens followed by confocal microscopy of infected leaf tissue offers a rapid, in situ method for evaluating attachment of A. tumefaciens' to plant expression hosts and a tool to facilitate management of transient expression processes via agroinfiltration. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  4. Regulation of leaf morphology by microRNA394 and its target LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian Bo; Huang, Si Qi; Dalmay, Tamas; Yang, Zhi Min

    2012-07-01

    The present study identified Arabidopsis miR394 and its target, an F-box (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) gene At1g27340 (here referred to as LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS, LCR), for regulation of leaf curling-related morphology. The loss-of-function lcr mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects with semi-dwarfism, altered leaf shape and a shorter stem. Overexpression of an miR394-resistant version of LCR under the 35S promoter (35S:m5LCR) and target mimicry MIM394 resulted in a curled-down leaf defect. Conversely, transgenic plants overexpressing 35S:MIR394a/b display a curled-up leaf phenotype. Detailed analyses show that there is a certain level of LCR that is optimal for leaf morphology, but lower or higher levels lead to abnormal leaf development, indicating that expression of miR394 in the leaf lamina is necessary for proper leaf morphology. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in leaf morphogenesis and patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter gene was used to monitor the auxin response. We show that DR5 expression patterns in lcr and 35S::m5LCR plants were significantly different from those in the wild type. Also, overexpression of LCR in 35S::m5LCR plants drastically decreased the expression of the auxin-responsive genes IAA3, AXR3 and IAMT1, whereas increased expression of the genes was found in 35S::MIR394a plants. These results indicate that miR394 and its target LCR are involved in the regulation of leaf development.

  5. Performance of Electricity Generation from Bryophyllum Leaf for Practical Utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Kamrul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Constructing an affordable cost, environment friendly simplified electrical energy source with Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) for power electrifications which will significantly upgrade the life style of 1.6 billion people especially, who live in rural areas of Bangladesh. However, one fifth of the world's population still lack access to electricity-well, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan). This innovative technology will meet essential requirements as lighting, telecommunication as well as information access. Electrodes are put into the Bryophyllum Pinnatum Leaf (BPL) or Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) sap and they produce substantially sufficient amount of electricity to power energy consumed electronics and electrical appliances. CuSO4.5H2O solution is used as a secondary salt. The role of CuSO4.5H2O solution has been studied. The electrical and chemical properties, a very important factor for PKL electricity generation device have been studied in this research work. The electrical properties are: internal resistance, voltage regulation, energy efficiency, pulse performance, self discharge characteristics, discharge characteristics with load, capacity of the PKL cell, temperature characteristics and life cycle of the PKL cell. The chemical properties are: variation of voltage, current with the variation of [Zn2+], [Cu2+] and time. The performance of the production of the two bi-products (fertilizer and hydrogen gas production) has been studied. Variation of concentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ with the variation of percentage of the I am grateful to the authority of the Science and technology ministry,Bangladesh for financial support during the research work.

  6. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (ANOVA) and significant means separated using FLSD = LSD procedure as outlined in Obi (2002). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In pre-soaking, paw-paw leaf (PL) extract had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the disease incidence at. 50% anthesis. Bitter leaf (BL) extract had a high signifi- cant effect (P ...

  7. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later

  8. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf growth, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic capacity in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Literature reports show little effect of nitrogen supply on radiation use efficiency in potato and in other dicotyledonous C3 species. This paper tests the hypothesis that potato reduces leaf size rather than leaf nitrogen concentration and photosynthetic capacity when nitrogen is in short supply.

  9. The Effects of Crude Neem Leaf Acetone-Water Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    loss, the hemostatic system which include platelets, vascular endothelial cells, and plasma coagulation proteins. 9 come into play . To generate clot, both the intrinsic and. The Effects of Crude Neem Leaf Acetone-Water Extract on Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) in Albino Wistar ...

  10. Evaluation of the anti-genotoxicity of leaf extract of Ashwagandha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, G; Kaur, K; Wadhwa, R; Kaul, S C; Nagpal, A

    2005-01-01

    We have undertaken the studies to investigate the presence of various activities of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha (Lash), a commonly used shrub in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. In the present study, we studied the effect of Lash against MNNG-induced genotoxicity in onion root tip cells. We report that Lash offered substantial protection against the mutagenic effects of MNNG.

  11. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract and ... Keywords: Cassia auriculata extract, Copper oxide nanoparticles, RAW 264.7 cell line, Rheumatoid arthritis. Tropical Journal of ... agent when introduced into textiles and coatings. [6]. Moreover ...

  12. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in

  13. Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    562 cancer cell line. Methods: The crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf and stem of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared using cold extraction method. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the extracts (20 - 100 μg/ml) ...

  14. Leaf blade anatomy characteristics of the genus Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangchai Sookchaloem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. were collected from several areas of Thailand between November 2008 and May 2012, and grown under greenhouse conditions with 70% sunlight. Leaf blade anatomy characteristics were studied using free hand section and epidermal peeled slides before being observed using a light transmission microscope from May 2011 to November 2013. The results showed the different anatomical characteristics of each species. The midribs in cross section were curved, or had 5, 6, 7, 8 or 12 lobes. Vascular bundles numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16 or 23. The upper and lower epidermal cell walls had three subtypes—straight-sided, undulate or sinuous anticlinal. Both sides of the epidermal cell wall can be similar or can vary in each species. There were 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 subsidiary cells along both sides of paired guard cells and the stomatal type was paracytic and stomatal subtypes varied from species to species, being brachyparacytic, hemiparacytic, amphibrachyparacytic, paratetracytic or parahexacytic. The stomatal number was 16–104/mm2 of leaf area and varied with the leaf gloss and leaf texture of each species.

  15. Dissecting blue light signal transduction pathway in leaf epidermis using a pharmacological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivanovic, Branka D.; Shabala, Lana I.; Elzenga, Theo J. M.; Shabala, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    Blue light signalling pathway in broad bean leaf epidermal cells includes key membrane transporters: plasma- and endomembrane channels and pumps of H (+) , Ca (2+) and K (+) ions, and plasma membrane redox system. Blue light signalling pathway in epidermal tissue isolated from the abaxial side of

  16. Effects of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical characteristics of a beach plant (Terminalia catappa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwong, Paramita; Juprasong, Yotin; Traiperm, Paweena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the short-term impacts of an oil spill on the leaf anatomical structures of Terminalia catappa L. from crude oil leakage in Rayong province, Thailand, in 2013. Approximately 3 weeks after the oil spill, leaves of T. catappa were collected along the coastline of Rayong from one affected site, five adjacent sites, and a control site. Slides of the leaf epidermis were prepared by the peeling method, while leaf and petiole transverse sections were prepared by paraffin embedding. Cell walls of adaxial epidermal cell on leaves in the affected site were straight instead of the jigsaw shape found in leaves from the adjacent and control sites. In addition, the stomatal index of the abaxial leaf surface was significantly lower in the affected site. Leaf and petiole transverse sections collected from the affected site showed increased cuticle thickness, epidermal cell diameter on both sides, and palisade mesophyll thickness; in contrast, vessel diameter and spongy mesophyll thickness were reduced. These significant changes in the leaf anatomy of T. catappa correspond with previous research and demonstrate the negative effects of oil spill pollution on plants. The anatomical changes of T. catappa in response to crude oil pollution are discussed as a possible indicator of pollution and may be used in monitoring crude oil pollution.

  17. Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression Of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Saini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in PID overexpression (PIDOE lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of PIDOE lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of PID negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the PIDOE leaves. We used PIDOE lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle PIDOE-related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes.

  18. Leaf Water Repellency as an Adaptation to Cloud Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Fog persistency and high precipitation totals contribute to the unique ecohydrology of tropical montane cloud forests. The persistence of water droplets on leaf surfaces in cloud forests inhibits photosynthetic carbon exchange because carbon dioxide diffuses slower in water than air. Adaptations that reduce water retention on leaf surfaces may increase photosynthetic capacity of cloud forests. The hypothesis of this study was that 12 cloud forest species from the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala have a higher degree of leaf water repellency than 12 species from tropical dry forests in Chiquimula, Guatemala and 12 species from foothills-grassland vegetation in Colorado (USA). Leaf water repellency was measured as the contact angle between the leaf surface and the line tangent to the water droplet passing through the point of contact between the droplet and the leaf surface. Leaf water repellency was significantly different between the three study areas; however, leaf water repellency of 12 species in the Sierra de las Minas was lower than 12 species in Chiquimula and 12 species in Colorado. Leaf water repellency of abaxial surfaces of all species in the cloud forest was greater than leaf water repellency of adaxial surfaces. The low values of leaf water repellency in cloud forest species may be influenced by presence of epiphylls or the loss of epicuticular wax on the leaf surfaces because of high precipitation totals and longer leaf life-span. High leaf water repellency in dry climates may be an adaptation to increase hydrological inputs underneath the canopy.

  19. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine; John, Grace P; Poorter, Hendrik; Mason, Chase M; Mendez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    Leaf vein traits are implicated in the determination of gas exchange rates and plant performance. These traits are increasingly considered as causal factors affecting the 'leaf economic spectrum' (LES), which includes the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, dark respiration, foliar nitrogen concentration, leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and leaf longevity. This article reviews the support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding a key vein trait, vein length per unit leaf area (VLA). Recently, Blonder et al. (2011, 2013) proposed that vein traits, including VLA, can be described as the 'origin' of the LES by structurally determining LMA and leaf thickness, and thereby vein traits would predict LES traits according to specific equations. Careful re-examination of leaf anatomy, published datasets, and a newly compiled global database for diverse species did not support the 'vein origin' hypothesis, and moreover showed that the apparent power of those equations to predict LES traits arose from circularity. This review provides a 'flux trait network' hypothesis for the effects of vein traits on the LES and on plant performance, based on a synthesis of the previous literature. According to this hypothesis, VLA, while virtually independent of LMA, strongly influences hydraulic conductance, and thus stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. We also review (i) the specific physiological roles of VLA; (ii) the role of leaf major veins in influencing LES traits; and (iii) the role of VLA in determining photosynthetic rate per leaf dry mass and plant relative growth rate. A clear understanding of leaf vein traits provides a new perspective on plant function independently of the LES and can enhance the ability to explain and predict whole plant performance under dynamic conditions, with applications towards breeding improved crop varieties.

  20. Maize leaf development under climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to simulate maize leaf development in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, considering symmetric and asymmetric increases in air temperature. The model of Wang & Engel for leaf appearance rate (LAR, with genotype-specific coefficients for the maize variety BRS Missões, was used to simulate tip and expanded leaf accumulated number from emergence to flag leaf appearance and expansion, for nine emergence dates from August 15 to April 15. LAR model was run for each emergence date in 100-year climate scenarios: current climate, and +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5°C increase in mean air temperature, with symmetric and asymmetric increase in daily minimum and maximum air temperature. Maize crop failure due to frost decreased in elevated temperature scenarios, in the very early and very late emergence dates, indicating a lengthening in the maize growing season in warmer climates. The leaf development period in maize was shorter in elevated temperature scenarios, with greater shortening in asymmetric temperature increases, indicating that warmer nights accelerate vegetative development in maize.

  1. Computer vision cracks the leaf code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies.

  2. A Leaf Recognition Of Vegetables Using Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Jaan D. Caldito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing plants is a vital problem especially for biologists agricultural researchers and environmentalists. Plant recognition can be performed by human experts manually but it is a time consuming and low-efficiency process. Automation of plant recognition is an important process for the fields working with plants. This paper presents an approach for plant recognition using leaf images. In this study the proponents demonstrated the development of the system that gives users the ability to identify vegetables based on photographs of the leaves taken with a high definition camera. At the heart of this system is a modernize process of identification so as to automate the way of identifying the vegetable plants through leaf image and digital image processing. The system used the Gabor Filter Edge Detection RGB Color and Grayscale Image to acquire the physical parameter of the leaves. The output parameters are used to compute well documented metrics for the statistical and shape. Base on the study the following conclusion are drawn The system can extract the physical parameters from the leafs image that will be used in identifying Vegetables. From the extracted leaf parameters the system provides the statistical analysis and general information of the identified leaf. The used algorithm can organize data and information to useful resources to the future researchers.

  3. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  4. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus uses leaf-cutting ants to vector proteolytic enzymes towards new plant substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The mutualism between leaf-cutting ants and their fungal symbionts revolves around processing and inoculation of fresh leaf pulp in underground fungus gardens, mediated by ant fecal fluid deposited on the newly added plant substrate. As herbivorous feeding often implies that growth is nitrogen...... upregulated in the gongylidia, specialized hyphal tips whose only known function is to provide food to the ants. These combined results indicate that the enzymes are derived from the ingested fungal tissues. We infer that the five proteases are likely to accelerate protein extraction from plant cells...... fungi, consistent with previous indications of convergent evolution of decomposition enzymes in attine ant fungal symbionts and phytopathogenic fungi....

  5. Subtractive transcriptome analysis of leaf and rhizome reveals differentially expressed transcripts in Panax sokpayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Bhusan; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy was used to identify rare and differentially expressed transcripts in leaf and rhizome tissues of Panax sokpayensis. Out of 1102 randomly picked clones, 513 and 374 high quality expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) were generated from leaf and rhizome subtractive libraries, respectively. Out of them, 64.92 % ESTs from leaf and 69.26 % ESTs from rhizome SSH libraries were assembled into different functional categories, while others were of unknown function. In particular, ESTs encoding galactinol synthase 2, ribosomal RNA processing Brix domain protein, and cell division cycle protein 20.1, which are involved in plant growth and development, were most abundant in the leaf SSH library. Other ESTs encoding protein KIAA0664 homologue, ubiquitin-activating enzyme e11, and major latex protein, which are involved in plant immunity and defense response, were most abundant in the rhizome SSH library. Subtractive ESTs also showed similarity with genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway, namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and dammarenediol synthase. Expression profiles of selected ESTs validated the quality of libraries and confirmed their differential expression in the leaf, stem, and rhizome tissues. In silico comparative analyses revealed that around 13.75 % of unigenes from the leaf SSH library were not represented in the available leaf transcriptome of Panax ginseng. Similarly, around 18.12, 23.75, 25, and 6.25 % of unigenes from the rhizome SSH library were not represented in available root/rhizome transcriptomes of P. ginseng, Panax notoginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax vietnamensis, respectively, indicating a major fraction of novel ESTs. Therefore, these subtractive transcriptomes provide valuable resources for gene discovery in P. sokpayensis and would complement the available transcriptomes from other Panax species.

  6. Roles of miR319 and TCP Transcription Factors in Leaf Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sophisticated regulation of gene expression, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes, is required for leaf differentiation, growth, and senescence. The impact of miR319 and its target TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN BINDING FACTOR (TCP) genes on leaf development has been extensively investigated, but the redundancies of these gene families often interfere with the evaluation of their function and regulation in the developmental context. Here, we present the genetic evidence of the involvement of the MIR319 and TCP gene families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf development. Single mutations in MIR319A and MIR319B genes moderately inhibited the formation of leaf serrations, whereas double mutations increased the extent of this inhibition and resulted in the formation of smooth leaves. Mutations in MIR319 and gain-of-function mutations in the TCP4 gene conferred resistance against miR319 and impaired the cotyledon boundary and leaf serration formation. These mutations functionally associated with CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes, which regulate the cotyledon boundary and leaf serration formation. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in miR319-targeted and nontargeted TCP genes cooperatively induced the formation of serrated leaves in addition to changes in the levels of their downstream gene transcript. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the MIR319 and TCP gene families underlie robust and multilayer control of leaf development. This study also provides a framework toward future researches on redundant miRNAs and transcription factors in Arabidopsis and crop plants. PMID:28842549

  7. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  9. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. High resolution imaging of subcellular glutathione concentrations by quantitative immunoelectron microscopy in different leaf areas of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Barbara E.; Bloem, Elke; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer in plants. It fulfills many important roles during plant development, defense and is essential for plant metabolism. Even though the compartment specific roles of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress situations have been studied in detail there is still great lack of knowledge about subcellular glutathione concentrations within the different leaf areas at different stages of development. In this study a method is described that allows the calculation of compartment specific glutathione concentrations in all cell compartments simultaneously in one experiment by using quantitative immunogold electron microscopy combined with biochemical methods in different leaf areas of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 (center of the leaf, leaf apex, leaf base and leaf edge). The volume of subcellular compartments in the mesophyll of Arabidopsis was found to be similar to other plants. Vacuoles covered the largest volume within a mesophyll cell and increased with leaf age (up to 80% in the leaf apex of older leaves). Behind vacuoles, chloroplasts covered the second largest volume (up to 20% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves) followed by nuclei (up to 2.3% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves), mitochondria (up to 1.6% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves), and peroxisomes (up to 0.3% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves). These values together with volumes of the mesophyll determined by stereological methods from light and electron micrographs and global glutathione contents measured with biochemical methods enabled the determination of subcellular glutathione contents in mM. Even though biochemical investigations did not reveal differences in global glutathione contents, compartment specific differences could be observed in some cell compartments within the different leaf areas. Highest concentrations of glutathione were always found in mitochondria, where values in a range between 8.7 mM (in the apex of younger

  11. Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M R; Lopes, J F

    2005-12-01

    Petiveria alliacea is a perennial herb native to the Amazonian region and used in traditional medicine for different purposes, such as diuretic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. The morphoanatomical characterization of the leaf and stem was carried out, in order to contribute to the medicinal plant identification. The plant material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained either with toluidine blue or astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also applied. The leaf is simple, alternate and elliptic. The blade exhibits paracytic stomata on the abaxial side, non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is plain-convex, both traversed by collateral vascular bundles adjoined with sclerenchymatic caps. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, presents epidermis, angular collenchyma, starch sheath and collateral vascular organization. Several prisms of calcium oxalate are seen in the leaf and stem.

  12. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

    2010-09-08

    This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars.

  13. Dose-dependent acute phase response of aqueous leaf decoction of Nerium oleander in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M H; Fatima, S; Khawar, M B; Naz, N; Mujeeb, K A; Akhtar, T; Sheikh, N

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in order to determine the toxicity of medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to compare and analyze the hepatic response against two doses of Nerium oleander, (N. oleander) “kaner” leaf decoction. Aqueous leaf decoction was injected intramuscularly into both hind limbs of male rats (200∓10g), assigned into three categories (n=4): control group with no treatment; group I, injected with 5 ml/ kg; and group II injected with 10 ml/ kg of leaf decoction, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after administration and hepato-histological changes were then observed. The decoction induced an acute phase reaction reflected by a more significant recruitment of inflammatory cells in group II than in group I and controls, as observed by histological studies. These results indicated that both doses can induce an acute-phase condition. Hence, traditional practice of medicinal plants without preliminary dose assessment must not be administered.

  14. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Leaf anatomy and morphometry in three eucalypt clones treated with glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD. Tuffi Santos

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses tested, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide.

  16. Influence of temperature and leaf wetness duration in the severity of Cercospora leaf spot of beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, the influence of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C and leaf wetness period (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours on the severity of Cercospora leaf spot of beet, caused by Cercospora beticola, was studied under controlled conditions. Lesion density was influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration (P<0.05. Data were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis. The generalized beta function was used for fitting the disease severity and temperature data, while a logistic function was chosen to represent the effect of leaf wetness on the severity of Cercospora leaf spot. The response surface resultant of the product of the two functions was expressed as ES = 0.0001105 * (((x-82.294387 * ((36-x0.955017 * (0.39219/(1+25.93072 * exp (-0.16704*y, where: ES represents the estimated severity value (0.1; x, the temperature (ºC and y, the leaf wetness duration (hours. This model should be validated under field conditions to assess its use as a computational forecast system for Cercospora leaf spot of beet.

  17. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  18. Phyllotaxis involves auxin drainage through leaf primordia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Yamini; Marti, Dominik; Frenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, known as phyllotaxis, is controlled by an auxin-dependent reiterative mechanism that leads to regular spacing of the organs and thereby to remarkably precise phyllotactic patterns. The mechanism is based on the active cellular transport...... of phyllotaxis invoke the accumulation of auxin at leaf initials and removal of auxin through their developing vascular strand, the midvein. We have developed a precise microsurgical tool to ablate the midvein at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to test its function in leaf formation and phyllotaxis...

  19. Is leaf dry matter content a better predictor of soil fertility than specific leaf area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J G; Montserrat-Martí, G; Charles, M; Jones, G; Wilson, P; Shipley, B; Sharafi, M; Cerabolini, B E L; Cornelissen, J H C; Band, S R; Bogard, A; Castro-Díez, P; Guerrero-Campo, J; Palmer, C; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Carter, G; Hynd, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Royo Pla, F

    2011-11-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA), a key element of the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum', is the preferred 'soft' plant trait for assessing soil fertility. SLA is a function of leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and leaf thickness (LT). The first, LDMC, defines leaf construction costs and can be used instead of SLA. However, LT identifies shade at its lowest extreme and succulence at its highest, and is not related to soil fertility. Why then is SLA more frequently used as a predictor of soil fertility than LDMC? SLA, LDMC and LT were measured and leaf density (LD) estimated for almost 2000 species, and the capacity of LD to predict LDMC was examined, as was the relative contribution of LDMC and LT to the expression of SLA. Subsequently, the relationships between SLA, LDMC and LT with respect to soil fertility and shade were described. Although LD is strongly related to LDMC, and LDMC and LT each contribute equally to the expression of SLA, the exact relationships differ between ecological groupings. LDMC predicts leaf nitrogen content and soil fertility but, because LT primarily varies with light intensity, SLA increases in response to both increased shade and increased fertility. Gradients of soil fertility are frequently also gradients of biomass accumulation with reduced irradiance lower in the canopy. Therefore, SLA, which includes both fertility and shade components, may often discriminate better between communities or treatments than LDMC. However, LDMC should always be the preferred trait for assessing gradients of soil fertility uncoupled from shade. Nevertheless, because leaves multitask, individual leaf traits do not necessarily exhibit exact functional equivalence between species. In consequence, rather than using a single stand-alone predictor, multivariate analyses using several leaf traits is recommended.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqing; Zhang, Xuekun; Zhang, Ka; An, Hong; Hu, Kaining; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Yi, Bin; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2015-08-11

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus) productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74%) of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in "stimulus" "stress" biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in "cell" "cell part" components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs) provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  1. Model for the role of auxin polar transport in patterning of the leaf adaxial-abaxial axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianmin; Dong, Jiaqiang; Xue, Jingshi; Wang, Hua; Yang, Zhongnan; Jiao, Yuling; Xu, Lin; Huang, Hai

    2017-11-01

    Leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity refers to the two leaf faces, which have different types of cells performing distinct biological functions. In 1951, Ian Sussex reported that when an incipient leaf primordium was surgically isolated by an incision across the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM), a radialized structure without an adaxial domain would form. This led to the proposal that a signal, now called the Sussex signal, is transported from the SAM to emerging primordia to direct leaf adaxial-abaxial patterning. It was recently proposed that instead of the Sussex signal, polar transport of the plant hormone auxin is critical in leaf polarity formation. However, how auxin polar transport functions in the process is unknown. Through live imaging, we established a profile of auxin polar transport in and around young leaf primordia. Here we show that auxin polar transport in lateral regions of an incipient primordium forms auxin convergence points. We demonstrated that blocking auxin polar transport in the lateral regions of the incipient primordium by incisions abolished the auxin convergence points and caused abaxialized leaves to form. The lateral incisions also blocked the formation of leaf middle domain and margins and disrupted expression of the middle domain/margin-associated marker gene WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 1 (SlWOX1). Based on these results we propose that the auxin convergence points are required for the formation of leaf middle domain and margins, and the functional middle domain and margins ensure leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity. How middle domain and margins function in the process is discussed. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Leaf histochemistry analysis of four medicinal species from Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius C. Kuster

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chemical components act in plant defense and protection, but many of them are extracted and used medicinally. For Cerrado, active chemical components are used in the treatment of diseases, which strengthens the necessity for pharmacological studies of plants of that environment. The objective was to evaluate the histochemistry of the leaf blade of Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC., Malpighiaceae, Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, Roupala montana Aubl., Proteaceae, and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae, species that have been reported as producers of secondary metabolites for pharmacological use. The 3rd node leaves (median, intercostal and margin regions were collected, fixed, included in Paraplast® or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, sectioned in microtome, stained and photographed on microscope. This analysis aimed to find leaf regions which produced chemical compounds. For histochemical tests, intercostal areas were selected from median region leaf of the 3rd node. Samples fresh and newly collected and fixed and embedded in Paraplast® were used. Tests were conducted for lipids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, sugars and proteins. Alkaloids were observed only in R. montana, as well as the results for phenolic compounds. Flavonoids are present in B. verbascifolia and R. montana. The lipid composition was showed for the chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia and C. adamantium, which proved to be part of the essential oils or resins oils in C. adamantium idioblasts. The chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia, C. adamantium and R. montana are present mainly in idioblasts among the parenchyma and epidermal cells. C. adamantium has secretory cavities, but only with lipid content. The identification of chemical compounds has not been possible in mature leaves of S. lycocarpum.

  3. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS.

  4. Proteomic analysis of a disease-resistance-enhanced lesion mimic mutant spotted leaf 5 in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xifeng; Fu, Shufang; Zhang, Pinghua; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Jianzhong; Qian, Qian; Ma, Bojun

    2013-01-01

    Background A lesion-mimic mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.), spotted leaf 5 (spl5), displays a disease-resistance-enhanced phenotype, indicating that SPL5 negatively regulates cell death and resistance responses. To understand the molecular mechanisms of SPL5 mutation-induced cell death and resistance responses, a proteomics-based approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins between the spl5 mutant and wild type (WT). Results Proteomic data from two-dimensional gel electro...

  5. A Quantitative Genetic Basis for Leaf Morphology in a Set of Precisely Defined Tomato Introgression Lines[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Kumar, Ravi; Headland, Lauren R.; Ranjan, Aashish; Covington, Michael F.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Fulop, Daniel; Jiménez-Gómez, José M.; Peng, Jie; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2013-01-01

    Introgression lines (ILs), in which genetic material from wild tomato species is introgressed into a domesticated background, have been used extensively in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) improvement. Here, we genotype an IL population derived from the wild desert tomato Solanum pennellii at ultrahigh density, providing the exact gene content harbored by each line. To take advantage of this information, we determine IL phenotypes for a suite of vegetative traits, ranging from leaf complexity, shape, and size to cellular traits, such as stomatal density and epidermal cell phenotypes. Elliptical Fourier descriptors on leaflet outlines provide a global analysis of highly heritable, intricate aspects of leaf morphology. We also demonstrate constraints between leaflet size and leaf complexity, pavement cell size, and stomatal density and show independent segregation of traits previously assumed to be genetically coregulated. Meta-analysis of previously measured traits in the ILs shows an unexpected relationship between leaf morphology and fruit sugar levels, which RNA-Seq data suggest may be attributable to genetically coregulated changes in fruit morphology or the impact of leaf shape on photosynthesis. Together, our results both improve upon the utility of an important genetic resource and attest to a complex, genetic basis for differences in leaf morphology between natural populations. PMID:23872539

  6. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    , Federal University of Technology,. P.M.B. 704, Akure ... Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced ... fluted pumpkin takes place 120-150 days after sowing.

  7. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of Rhus succedanea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf powder showed the existance of anomocytic stomata, spirally thickened xylem vessels, non-glandular multicellular and stellate trichomes. Fluorescence ... the crude drug. Keywords: Pharmacognostic evaluation; leaf; Rhus succedanea; organoleptic evaluation; Anatomy; Fluorescence study; phytochemical screening ...

  8. Investigation into robust spectral indices for leaf chlorophyll estimation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Main, R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available chlorophyll spectral indices have been assessed, using leaf level hyperspectral data collected from three crop species and a variety of savanna tree species. Linear regression between total leaf chlorophyll content and bootstrapping were used to determine...

  9. Protective effect of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract on carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced liver injury. ... and vitamin E levels indicate strong antioxidant property of the leaf. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of Z. mauritiana indicates probable presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins.

  10. Leaf N and P stoichiometry in relation to leaf shape and plant size for Quercus acutissima provenances across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jingyuan; Wang, G Geoff; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2017-04-10

    Plant stoichiometry in relation to the structure and function of biological systems has been investigated at multiple scales. However, few studies have focused on the roles of stoichiometry for a given species. In this study, we determined leaf N and P stoichiometry, leaf shape and plant size in three Quercus acutissima common gardens with different climatic and site conditions. In the three common gardens, leaf N and P stoichiometry was significantly correlated with leaf shape and plant size, suggesting that leaf N and P stoichiometry affects the morphological performance of the leaves and stem. The scaling slopes of the relationships between leaf N and P stoichiometry and leaf shape ranged from |0.12| to |1.00|, while the slopes of the relationships between leaf N and P stoichiometry and plant size ranged from |0.95| to |2.66|. These results suggest that non-functional tissues (stem) are more susceptible to leaf nutrition than functional tissues (leaves), and leaf stoichiometry is more important in the construction of non-functional tissues (stem). Between the northernmost and southernmost common gardens, leaf N and leaf width (W), N:P and stem height (H), and N:P and stem diameter (D) showed significant covariations, which indicates that leaf N and W, N:P and plant size exhibit similar plastic responses to environmental change.

  11. An apolar Pistacia lentiscus L. leaf extract: GC-MS metabolic profiling and evaluation of cytotoxicity and apoptosis inducing effects on SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)C cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolella, Simona; Nocera, Paola; Carillo, Petronia; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Greco, Vincenza; Manti, Lorenzo; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina

    2016-09-01

    In the course of a cytotoxicity screening of Mediterranean plants vs. neuroblastoma cells, Pistacia lentiscus was of interest. Pl-C extract, prepared from dried leaves by ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM) in chloroform, was profiled through using GC-MS techniques. To evaluate Pl-C cytotoxicity towards SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines, MTT, SRB and LDH assays were performed. The caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, as well as micronucleation, were also evaluated. The Pl-C oxidant/antioxidant ability was estimated using different methods. The extract, rich in pentacyclic triterpenes, inhibited mitochondrial redox activity and cell viability of the tested cell lines. LDH assay established that Pl-C did not affect the cell membrane integrity. Indeed, it was able to activate caspase-3 and to cause a ladder pattern of DNA. Western blotting analysis showed that Pl-C processed caspase-3 providing two cleavage products of approximately 20 and 17-kDa, whose densitometric evaluation highlighted that Pl-C was more effective than vinblastine by 3-fold. The pro-apoptotic effect could be related to a disturbance in cell redox balance. In fact, it increased intracellular ROS production, GSSG/GSH ratio and the formation of lipoperoxidation products. The data obtained prompted to further investigate and assess the in vivo efficacy of Pl-C to prevent and/or treat neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Respostas de combinações de variedades copa e porta-enxerto de citros à deficiência hídrica Responses of citrus scion and rootstocks varieties combinations to water deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes combinações de variedades copa e porta-enxertos sobre respostas de plantas de citros ao deficit hídrico em casa de vegetação. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições no esquema fatorial: cinco variedades copa; dois porta-enxertos; e dois regimes hídricos. A tangerineira 'Poncan' é a variedade copa mais sensível ao deficit hídrico, expressado pelo potencial hídrico foliar, quando enxertada sobre o citrumeleiro 'Swingle'. Sob deficit hídrico severo, as variedades copa enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentam maior desenvolvimento da copa das plantas cítricas, em comparação ao citrumeleiro 'Swingle'.The aim of this work was to study the influence of different scion and rootstock combinations on responses of citrus plants to water deficit in greenhouse. The experimental design was formed by randomized blocks with five replications in the fallowing factorial scheme: five scion varieties; two rootstocks; and two hydro regimes. 'Poncã' tangerine is the scion variety more sensible to water deficit, expressed by leaf water potential, when grafted on 'Swingle' citrumelo. Under severe water deficit, the scion varieties grafted on 'Rangpur' lime present greater development of citric plants scion compared to 'Swingle' citrumelo.

  13. [Leaf anatomy of the mosaic ficus benjamina cv. Starlight and interaction of source and sink chimera components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunskaia, E A; Zhigalova, T V; Chub, V V

    2007-01-01

    Leaf anatomy was studied in the mosaic Ficus benjamina cv. Starlight and non-chimeric Ficus benjamina cv. Daniel. The number of chloroplasts in a white, chlorophyll-deficient tissue declines as compared to the green tissue. However, their functional activity is retained. The leaf of the mosaic F. benjamina contains two or, sometimes, three subepidermal layers. Mesophyll forms one layer in the green and white parts of leaf palisade and one white and one green layer in the transitional zone (edge). In the transitional zone, green spongy mesophyll is located between two white spongy layers and the proportion of photosynthesizing cells varies. In cv. Daniel, there are two subepidermal layers and one layer of columnar mesophyll cells. According to the morphometry data, the proportion of white zone in the leaf correlates with the leaf position in the whole shoot: the higher the branch order, the larger the proportion of white zone. The total leaf area depends also on its position in the shoot. No such correlation was found in non-chimeric F. benjamina cv. Daniel. In the mosaic chimera, the source-sink status appears to depend on the leaf position in the shoot. Experiments with individual shoots of the same order and elimination of all lateral shoots have shown that the proportion of white zone in new leaves on the shoot increases with the total area of green zone. Thus, the area of assimilating shoot surface affects the formation of leaves in the meristem. A hypothesis was put forward that the source-sink state affects the ratio of green and white parts in the leaf primordium. Products of photosynthesis (carbohydrates) are a possible metabolic signal affecting the meristem. It cannot be excluded as well that the hormonal state undergoes changes in the chimeric plant.

  14. Flame interactions and burning characteristics of two live leaf samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent M. Pickett; Carl Isackson; Rebecca Wunder; Thomas H. Fletcher; Bret W. Butler; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Combustion experiments were performed over a flat-flame burner that provided the heat source for multiple leaf samples. Interactions of the combustion behavior between two leaf samples were studied. Two leaves were placed in the path of the flat-flame burner, with the top leaf 2.5 cm above the bottom leaf. Local gas and particle temperatures, as well as local oxygen...

  15. Breakdown of Leaf Litter in a Neotropical Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuriau, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the breakdown of 2 leaf species, Croton gossypifolius (Euphorbiaceae) and Clidemia sp. (Melastomataceae), in a 4th-order neotropical stream (Andean Mountains, southwestern Colombia) using leaf bags over a 6-wk period. We determined the initial leaf chemical composition and followed the change in content of organic matter, C, N, and ergosterol, the sporulation activity of aquatic hyphomy cetes, and the structure and composition of leaf-associated aquatic...

  16. Specific leaf area of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fellner, Helga; Gerald F. Dirnberger; Sterba, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Key message The specific leaf area of European larch depends on branch height and canopy depth, indicating that both, the effect of hydraulic limitations and low water potentials in greater branch heights, and light availability affect specific leaf area. Abstract Specific leaf area (SLA) is defined as the ratio between projected leaf area and needle dry mass. It often serves as parameter in ecosystem modelling as well as indicator for potential growth rate. We explore the SLA of European lar...

  17. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the

  19. PROFILE OF Nauclea diderrichii LEAF EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fever. In Congo, bark decoctions are taken or the leaf pulp is rubbed in for the treatment of fever, stomach problems, gonorrhea and menstruation problems, while a bark infusion is .... Plates 7: Chromatogram of methanol extract developed in butanol: acetic acid: water (6: 1: 1) for 50 minutes and sprayed with Aluminium ...

  20. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary: The effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar .... temperature was 37oC, the temperature of liquid going into the stomach was maintained at this temperature. This was done by using an organ bath whose thermostat was set at 37oC.

  1. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene. (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the ...

  2. The shady side of leaf development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Botterweg Paredes, Esther; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2017-01-01

    Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate...

  3. Face to Face Turning A New Leaf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Face to Face. Thissectionfeaturesconversationswithpersonalitiesrelated to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Turning A New Leaf. H Y Mohan Ram talks to Sujata Varadarajan. Prof. H Y Mohan Ram is a man of myriad interests and talents and is ...

  4. Effect of Leaf Area on Tomato Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.; Elings, A.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of leaf area on tomato yield was evaluated, both by simulations and experimental work. Simulated crop growth results from daily crop gross assimilation rate minus maintenance respiration rate, multiplied by a conversion efficiency factor. Dry matter partitioning is simulated based on

  5. ACTION OF AUXIN ON LEAF ABSCISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate a two-stage effect of auxin on abscission. The two stages were demonstrated on greenhouse-grown Black...the second stage - the stage which is stimulated by auxin . Similar experiments were performed with petioles of various lengths and ages. The...implications of these results indicate possible sites of auxin action on leaf abscission. (Author)

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4.8 x 103 cfu/ml and T. mentagrophytes at ...

  7. Leaf Stomata as Bioindicators: Stimulating Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    Stomata are the pores on leaves through which carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor are exchanged with the atmosphere. Researchers have found that leaf stomatal densities change in response to several environmental variables, including humidity, light intensity, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (Van Der Burgh, Dilcher,…

  8. Bioinformatic pipelines in Python with Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An incremental, loosely planned development approach is often used in bioinformatic studies when dealing with custom data analysis in a rapidly changing environment. Unfortunately, the lack of a rigorous software structuring can undermine the maintainability, communicability and replicability of the process. To ameliorate this problem we propose the Leaf system, the aim of which is to seamlessly introduce the pipeline formality on top of a dynamical development process with minimum overhead for the programmer, thus providing a simple layer of software structuring. Results Leaf includes a formal language for the definition of pipelines with code that can be transparently inserted into the user’s Python code. Its syntax is designed to visually highlight dependencies in the pipeline structure it defines. While encouraging the developer to think in terms of bioinformatic pipelines, Leaf supports a number of automated features including data and session persistence, consistency checks between steps of the analysis, processing optimization and publication of the analytic protocol in the form of a hypertext. Conclusions Leaf offers a powerful balance between plan-driven and change-driven development environments in the design, management and communication of bioinformatic pipelines. Its unique features make it a valuable alternative to other related tools. PMID:23786315

  9. Structural characters of leaf epidermis in Neolepisorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface structure of the foliar epidermis of 5 species, 2 forms and 8 populations in Neolepisorus was investigated under light microscopes. The result shows that their stomata are distributed in the lower leaf epidermis and parallel to the veins. The types of stomata found were polocytic, axilloctytic, copolocytic, ...

  10. Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S

    2010-02-01

    Angiosperm evolution transformed global ecology, and much of this impact derives from the unrivalled vegetative productivity of dominant angiosperm clades. However, the origins of high photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms remain unknown. In this study, we describe the steep trajectory of leaf vein density (D(v)) evolution in angiosperms, and predict that this leaf plumbing innovation enabled a major shift in the capacity of leaves to assimilate CO(2). Reconstructing leaf vein evolution from an examination of 504 angiosperm species we found a rapid three- to fourfold increase in D(v) occurred during the early evolution of angiosperms. We demonstrate how this major shift in leaf vein architecture potentially allowed the maximum photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms to rise above competing groups 140-100 Ma. Our data suggest that early terrestrial angiosperms produced leaves with low photosynthetic rates, but that subsequent angiosperm success is linked to a surge in photosynthetic capacity during their early diversification.

  11. Suitability of the leaf extract of Jatropha gossypifolia as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf extract was later found to contain each of these parameters in high concentrations. The results of heamatological parameters obtained from the leaf extract and those of the dipotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were comparable. The leaf extract is suitable as an anticoagulant for heamatological analysis but ...

  12. Non–destructive leaf area determination in African eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf area models are simple, accurate and non-destructive. They are important in many experimental comparisons where leaf area meters are not available. No such model exists for African eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon). This study was, therefore, conducted to develop a leaf area model for S. macrocarpon using linear ...

  13. Macro-detritivore identity drives leaf litter diversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, V.C.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berg, M.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Berendse, F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of leaf litter diversity for decomposition, an important process in terrestrial ecosystems, is much debated. Previous leaf litter-mixing studies have shown that non-additive leaf litter diversity effects can occur, but it is not clear why they occurred in only half of the studies and

  14. Decomposition of Cassava and Vegetable Cowpea leaf litters under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two related studies using three leaf residue types' cassava and vegetable cowpea leaves were carried out in the field and under controlled laboratory conditions to determine the rate of their decomposition using litter bag technique. The carbon dioxide evolution by the three leaf residues namely, Oven dry leaf litter, fresh ...

  15. Genetic studies in wheat for leaf rust resistance ( Puccinia recondita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic studies in wheat for leaf rust resistance (Puccinia recondita). F Hussain, M Ashraf, MA Hameed, N Hussain, RA Sial. Abstract. Leaf rust is a major disease of wheat crop in the world as a whole. This study was undertaken to find the genetic effects of adult plant leaf resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  16. 7 CFR 29.2663 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.2663 Section 29.2663... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2663 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves that are thin in body. Grades Grade names and specifications C1L Choice Light-brown Thin Leaf. Thin...

  17. 9 CFR 319.702 - Lard, leaf lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lard, leaf lard. 319.702 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.702 Lard, leaf..., livers, spleens, kidneys, and brains, or settlings and skimmings. “Leaf Lard” is lard prepared from fresh...

  18. Relationship between Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Viruses and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Tomato yellow leaf curl is prevalent in tomato growing districts of Uganda. The disease is known to be spread by a whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a persistent manner. Some of its symptoms are leaf curl, marginal leaf yellowing, malformation of fruits, stunting and dieback (in case of primary infection at early seedling ...

  19. Estimating Leaf Area Per Plant in Bambara Groundnut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equations relating leaf area to leaf dry weight and leaf number were developed for two local landraces of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) grown in a greenhouse and in the field during the 1998/99 cropping season in Swaziland. During the seed filling stage the number of leaves on 10 plants per landrace were ...

  20. Regulation of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis : isolation and characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethylene exposure time on leaf senescence was studied in Arabidopsis accessions Ler-0, Col-0 and Ws-0 and in several old (onset of leaf death) mutants representing different genetic loci. Leaf senescence was observed in 24-day-old plants exposed to ethylene for 3 to 16 days. For

  1. Identification and distribution of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf samples of 177 tomato plants were collected during 2006-2007 in tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) infected fields, as well as 100 leaf samples of sweet pepper, common bean, zucchini and the wild species Solanum elaeagnifolium, in order to study the population structure and genetic variation of Tomato yellow ...

  2. Cech- De Rham theory for leaf spaces of foliations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.; Moerdijk, I.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with characteristic classes in the cohomology of leaf spaces of foliations. For a manifold M equipped with a foliation F it is well-known that the coarse (naive) leaf space M=F, obtained from M by identifying each leaf to a point, contains very little information. In the

  3. Cech-De Rham theory for leaf spaces of foliations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.; Moerdijk, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with characteristic classes in the cohomology of leaf spaces of foliations For a manifold M equipped with a foliation F it is wellknown that the coarse naive leaf space MF obtained from M by identifying each leaf to a point contains very little information In the literature

  4. Short Communication: The developmentt of a leaf tensilmeter for in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a portable leaf tensilmeter for the in situ measurement of leaf tensile strength is described. Tensile strength is determined by the distortion of strain gauges on modified stripping pliers which are used to break leaf blades. The output is displayed via an analogue chip through a liquid crystal display.

  5. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB–[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv.

  6. 7 CFR 51.1220 - Leaf or limb rub injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf or limb rub injury. 51.1220 Section 51.1220... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1220 Leaf or limb rub injury. “Leaf or limb rub injury” means that the scarring is not smooth, not light colored, or aggregates more...

  7. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  8. Apparent over-investment in leaf venation relaxes leaf morphological constraints on photosynthesis in arid habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo; Drake, Paul; Veneklaas, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The close relationship between leaf water status and stomatal conductance implies that the hydraulic architecture of leaves poses an important constraint on transpiration, specifically in arid environments with high evaporative demands. However, it remains uncertain how morphological, hydraulic and photosynthetic traits are coordinated to achieve optimal leaf functioning in arid environments. Critical is that leaf veins supply the mesophyll with water that evaporates when stomata are open to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. Theoretical analyses suggest that water is optimally distributed in the mesophyll when the lateral distance between veins (dx) is equal to the distance from these veins to the epidermis (dy), expressed as dx:dy≈1. Although this theory is supported by observations on many derived angiosperms, we hypothesize that plants in arid environments may reduce dx:dy below unity owing to climate-specific functional adaptations of increased leaf thickness and increased vein density. To test our hypothesis we assembled leaf hydraulic, morphological and photosynthetic traits of 68 species from the Eucalyptus and Corymbia genera (termed eucalypts) along an aridity gradient in southwestern Australia. We inferred the potential gas exchange advantage of reducing dx beyond dy using a model that links leaf morphology and hydraulics to photosynthesis. Our observations reveal that eucalypts in arid environments have thick amphistomatous leaves with high vein densities, resulting in dx:dy ratios that range from 1.6 to 0.15 along the aridity gradient. Our model suggests that as leaves become thicker, the effect of reducing dx beyond dy is to offset the reduction in leaf gas exchange that would result from maintaining dx:dy at unity. This apparent over-investment in leaf venation may be explained from the selective pressure of aridity, under which traits associated with long leaf lifespan, high hydraulic and thermal capacitances, and high potential rates of leaf

  9. Relating Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Photosynthesis and Canopy CO2 Exchange in a Temperate Winter Barley Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.; Boegh, E.; Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.

    2012-12-01

    Net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the soil-vegetation interface (NEE) is controlled by a wide range of biochemical and biophysical processes where leaf photosynthesis is often the most important. In mechanistically and physically based photosynthesis models (e.g. Farquhar et al. 1980) leaf nutrient status is a limiting factor for the photosynthetic capacity since it is implicitly incorporated through the parameters of maximum rate of carboxylation of CO2 (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). These are closely related to leaf nitrogen concentration (Na) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and often show a characteristic seasonal dynamic. When simulating CO2 exchange, model outputs are sensitive to leaf photosynthetic capacity, which is labour consuming to verify through field measurements. A less time consuming method is to measure leaf "greenness" (SPAD), which is closely related to chlorophyll content and thus photosynthetic capacity. In the present study field measurements of leaf photosynthesis (LI-6400, LICOR Inc.), leaf reflectance (SPAD-502, Minolta), and LAI (LAI-2000, LICOR Inc.) were conducted on agricultural fields in Western Denmark during one growing season. The leaf photosynthesis measurements provided the basis for estimating photosynthetic capacity. SPAD measurements and LAI was measured with a higher spatial and temporal resolution. SPAD readings were calibrated against Cab and Na analyzed on leaf material in the laboratory and later correlated to photosynthetic capacity. These data were used to parameterize a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal model that was run for the growing season 2012 to estimate NEE. As a part of the hydrological observatory HOBE (hobe.dk), fluxes of greenhouse gasses are continuously measured by eddy covariance systems at three field sites in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark, providing the basis for estimating the exchange of energy, water vapour, and CO2 on canopy scale. One of

  10. Nitrogen dioxide regulates organ growth by controlling cell proliferation and enlargement in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, Misa; Furuhashi, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Naoko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    .... Treated plants also showed early flowering. The magnitude of the effects of NO 2 on leaf expansion, cell proliferation and enlargement was greater in developing than in maturing leaves. Leaf areas were 1.3...

  11. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Maryem; Affes, Hanen; Ksouda, Kamilia; Dhouibi, Raouia; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hammami, Serria; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir

    2015-12-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver. In animal studies, liquid extracts of the roots and leaves of artichoke have demonstrated an ability to protect the liver, with possibly even to help liver cells regenerate. Although research is not yet conclusive, scientists were optimistic that its long-standing use in humans for digestive and bowel problems was indeed justified. It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients. This article intended to review the wide ranging pharmacological effects of artichoke leaf extract.

  12. Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-09-01

    A general theoretical framework for quantifying the stomatal clustering effects on leaf gaseous diffusive conductance was developed and tested. The theory accounts for stomatal spacing and interactions among 'gaseous concentration shells'. The theory was tested using the unique measurements of Dow et al. (2014) that have shown lower leaf diffusive conductance for a genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana with clustered stomata relative to uniformly distributed stomata of similar size and density. The model accounts for gaseous diffusion: through stomatal pores; via concentration shells forming at pore apertures that vary with stomata spacing and are thus altered by clustering; and across the adjacent air boundary layer. Analytical approximations were derived and validated using a numerical model for 3D diffusion equation. Stomata clustering increases the interactions among concentration shells resulting in larger diffusive resistance that may reduce fluxes by 5-15%. A similar reduction in conductance was found for clusters formed by networks of veins. The study resolves ambiguities found in the literature concerning stomata end-corrections and stomatal shape, and provides a new stomata density threshold for diffusive interactions of overlapping vapor shells. The predicted reduction in gaseous exchange due to clustering, suggests that guard cell function is impaired, limiting stomatal aperture opening. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. The molecular chaperone binding protein BiP prevents leaf dehydration-induced cellular homeostasis disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto H Carvalho

    Full Text Available BiP overexpression improves leaf water relations during droughts and delays drought-induced leaf senescence. However, whether BiP controls cellular homeostasis under drought conditions or simply delays dehydration-induced leaf senescence as the primary cause for water stress tolerance remains to be determined. To address this issue, we examined the drought-induced transcriptomes of BiP-overexpressing lines and wild-type (WT lines under similar leaf water potential (ψw values. In the WT leaves, a ψw reduction of -1.0 resulted in 1339 up-regulated and 2710 down-regulated genes; in the BiP-overexpressing line 35S::BiP-4, only 334 and 420 genes were induced and repressed, respectively, at a similar leaf ψw = -1.0 MPa. This level of leaf dehydration was low enough to induce a repertory of typical drought-responsive genes in WT leaves but not in 35S::BiP-4 dehydrated leaves. The responders included hormone-related genes, functional and regulatory genes involved in drought protection and senescence-associated genes. The number of differentially expressed genes in the 35S::BiP-4 line approached the wild type number at a leaf ψw = -1.6 MPa. However, N-rich protein (NRP- mediated cell death signaling genes and unfolded protein response (UPR genes were induced to a much lower extent in the 35S::BiP-4 line than in the WT even at ψw = -1.6 MPa. The heatmaps for UPR, ERAD (ER-associated degradation protein system, drought-responsive and cell death-associated genes revealed that the leaf transcriptome of 35S::BiP-4 at ψw = -1.0 MPa clustered together with the transcriptome of well-watered leaves and they diverged considerably from the drought-induced transcriptome of the WT (ψw = -1.0, -1.7 and -2.0 MPa and 35S::BiP-4 leaves at ψw = -1.6 MPa. Taken together, our data revealed that BiP-overexpressing lines requires a much higher level of stress (ψw = -1.6 MPa to respond to drought than that of WT (ψw = -1.0. Therefore

  14. Shoot meristem function and leaf polarity: the role of class III HD-ZIP genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Byrne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem comprises an organized cluster of cells with a central region population of self-maintaining stem cells providing peripheral region cells that are recruited to form differentiated lateral organs. Leaves, the principal lateral organ of the shoot, develop as polar structures typically with distinct dorsoventrality. Interdependent interactions between the meristem and developing leaf provide essential cues that serve both to maintain the meristem and to pattern dorsoventrality in the initiating leaf. A key component of both processes are the class III HD-ZIP genes. Current findings are defining the developmental role of members of this family and are identifying multiple mechanisms controlling expression of these genes.

  15. Enhancing Arabidopsis leaf growth by engineering the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Man-Ho; Sun, Jindong; Oh, Dong Ha; Zielinski, Raymond E; Clouse, Steven D; Huber, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) receptor kinase has recently been shown to possess tyrosine kinase activity, and preventing autophosphorylation of the tyrosine-831 regulatory site by site-directed mutagenesis enhances shoot growth. In this study, we characterized the increased leaf growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants expressing BRI1(Y831F)-Flag compared with BRI1-Flag (both driven by the native promoter and expressed in the bri1-5 weak allele background) and provide insights into the possible mechanisms involved. On average, relative leaf growth rate was increased 16% in the Y831F plants (in the bri1-5 background), and the gain of function of the Y831F-directed mutant was dominant in the wild-type background. Leaves were larger as a result of increased cell numbers and had substantially increased vascularization. Transcriptome analysis indicated that genes associated with brassinolide biosynthesis, secondary cell wall biosynthesis and vascular development, and regulation of growth were altered in expression and may contribute to the observed changes in leaf architecture and whole plant growth. Analysis of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that Y831F mutant plants had higher rates of photosynthesis, and metabolite analysis documented enhanced accumulation of starch, sucrose, and several amino acids, most prominently glycine and proline. These results demonstrate that mutation of BRI1 can enhance photosynthesis and leaf growth/vascularization and may suggest new approaches to increase whole plant carbon assimilation and growth.

  16. ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine–vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface. PMID:24019465

  17. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruberti

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera, by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  18. Leaf structural adaptations of two Limonium miller (Plumbaginales, Plumbaginaceae taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Lana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonium gmelinii (Willd. O. Kuntze 1891 subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó is Pannonian endemic subspecies that inhabits continental halobiomes, while Limonium anfractum (Salmon Salmon 1924 is one of the indicators of halophyte vegetation of marine rocks and its distribution is restricted to the southern parts of Mediterranean Sea coast. In this work, micromorphological and anatomical characters of leaves of these two Limonium taxa were analyzed, in order to examine their adaptations to specific environmental conditions on saline habitats. The results showed that both taxa exhibited strong xeromorphic adaptations that reflected in flat cell walls of epidermal cells, thick cuticle, high palisade/spongy tissue ratio, high index of palisade cells, the presence of sclereid idioblasts in leaf mesophyll and mechanical tissue by phloem and xylem. Both taxa are crynohalophytes and have salt glands on adaxial and abaxial epidermis for excretion of surplus salt. Relatively high dimensions of mesophyll cells, absence of non-glandular hairs and unprotected stomata slightly increased above the level of epidermal cells, are also adaptations to increased salinity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  19. Genome-wide association study of rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaf traits with a high-throughput leaf scorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Chenglong; Wang, Ke; Jiang, Ni; Feng, Hui; Chen, Guoxing; Liu, Qian; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-09-01

    Leaves are the plant's solar panel and food factory, and leaf traits are always key issues to investigate in plant research. Traditional methods for leaf trait measurement are time-consuming. In this work, an engineering prototype has been established for high-throughput leaf scoring (HLS) of a large number of Oryza sativa accessions. The mean absolute per cent of errors in traditional measurements versus HLS were below 5% for leaf number, area, shape, and colour. Moreover, HLS can measure up to 30 leaves per minute. To demonstrate the usefulness of HLS in dissecting the genetic bases of leaf traits, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for 29 leaf traits related to leaf size, shape, and colour at three growth stages using HLS on a panel of 533 rice accessions. Nine associated loci contained known leaf-related genes, such as Nal1 for controlling the leaf width. In addition, a total of 73, 123, and 177 new loci were detected for traits associated with leaf size, colour, and shape, respectively. In summary, after evaluating the performance with a large number of rice accessions, the combination of GWAS and high-throughput leaf phenotyping (HLS) has proven a valuable strategy to identify the genetic loci controlling rice leaf traits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Baby leaf lettuce germplasm enhancement: developing diverse populations with resistance to bacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby leaf lettuce cultivars with resistance to bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) are needed to reduce crop losses. The objectives of this research were to assess the genetic diversity for BLS resistance in baby leaf lettuce cultivars and to select early gen...