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Sample records for water-borne contaminants utilizing

  1. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  2. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  3. Avoiding toxicity from water-borne contaminants in hemodialysis: new challenges in an era of increased demand for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Water is necessary for all hemodialysis treatments. However, drinking water contains a range of substances that are toxic to patients on hemodialysis. Thus, all dialysis facilities are equipped with a water treatment system that removes those substances from the water before it is used to prepare dialysate. Increased demand for water and ever-evolving drinking water regulations are leading to changes in drinking water quality that may compromise the ability of typical dialysis water treatment systems to adequately remove substances that are known to be toxic or to deal with unexpected increases in other substances of unknown toxicity. In addition to these external challenges to dialysis water quality, the growing recognition that microbial contaminants in dialysate contribute to long-term morbidity has led to more stringent microbiological quality standards for dialysate and a consequent need to control biofilm formation in the fluid pathways involved in dialysate preparation. Avoiding toxicity from water contaminants in this dynamic environment requires a comprehensive approach to water treatment, including flexibility regarding the choice of water treatment processes, close communication with the suppliers of drinking water, and an emphasis on training technicians responsible for monitoring and maintaining all aspects of the fluid handling systems. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  5. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water-borne diseases are the most prevalent infectious diseases in the developing countries especially in new settlements along the river. The present investigation was carried out to assess the prevalence rate of water-borne diseases among people residing near the left bank of River Ravi. This study has a descriptive ...

  6. Association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Env ronmental Management and Tox cology, Un vers ty of Agr culture, PMB 2240,. Abeokuta, Ogun .... and a modern sector) that has implications for ... plastered with cement. ..... residents are at–risk of water-borne diseases.

  7. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  8. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  9. Acrylic polymer nanocomposite resins for water borne coating applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to environmental and safety regulations the use of volatile organic components (VOC's) containing lacquers for exterior automotive purposes is under growing pressure. As a consequence there is a demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives like water borne coatings, high solid coatings,

  10. A status survey of common water-borne diseases in desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, M M; Chhabra, Chetna

    2004-03-01

    Water is scarce and, in general, a low quality resource in desert areas and the Indian desert is no exception. With this in view, the present study was taken up to survey the status of common water-borne diseases epidemiological trends in the desert city Bikaner (NW Rajasthan). In the city, 15.5 per cent population and 44.5 per cent families were found to suffer from one or more common water-borne diseases including amoebiasis, diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice and typhoid. No case of fluorosis was recorded. The highest incidence was that of diarrhoea (5.4 per cent population). The worst affected and safe zones in the city were identified and the trends of different diseases in different zones of the city are discussed. The highest incidence of diseases was noted during summer (58.8 per cent) followed by winter (34.1 per cent) and monsoon (7.0 per cent). Relationship of diseases with population attributes like age, education, economy and family size are also discussed. Attributes for contamination of drinking water have been tried to identify and safety measures suggested.

  11. Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

  12. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...

  13. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time-dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. Accordingly, the public control authorities would be able to use these results to choose alternatives or initiate corrective actions, depending on the indicated environmental consequences

  14. AquaVir- Portable Analyzer for Water Borne Infectious Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozlosnik, Noemi; Kirkegaard, Julie; Olsen, Mark Holm

    2014-01-01

    Viral contamination in waters intended for human consumption or human contact poses a high health riskand can, in worst-case, lead to viral outbreaks. The waterborne virus, norovirus is a major cause of viralgastroenteritis. Conventional detection methods of norovirus rely on microbiological...... methods likepolymerase chain reaction and a variety of sample preparations. These methods are time consuming,expensive and require highly trained personnel. Thus, viral surveillance cannot be done continuously and only provide an instant overview of the water quality.We are developing an all polymer...... detection system for online viral surveillance of waters. The detection isbased on differential impedance measurements between a reference and an electrode functionalized with abio-recognition element. The bio-recognition element is an aptamer specific to the target virus. We havepreviously shown very low...

  15. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  16. Microbial contamination level of air in animal waste utilization plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Tymczyna, Leszek; Drabik, Agata; Krzosek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of microbial contamination of air within and in the vicinity of animal waste disposal plants. Air samples were analyzed to determine total bacterial and fungal counts as well as microbial species composition. Measurements of climate conditions (temperature, humidity, air motion) and total dust concentration were also performed. Total numbers of bacteria and fungi surpassed the threshold limit values for production halls. The most abundant bacteria detected were those consisting of physiological microflora of animal dermis and mucosa. Fungal species composition proved to be most differentiated in the air beyond the plant area. Aspergillus versicolor, a pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus, was isolated only inside the rendering plant processing hall. The measurement results showed a low sanitary-hygienic state of air in the plant processing halls and substantial air pollution in its immediate vicinity.

  17. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  19. Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... in the stream measuring about 100 mm below the water surface. Meteorological measurements ...... Oct 1999 as recorded by sensors placed inside of the gauging well of a gauging hut ... mine drainage. Apart from the metal ...

  20. Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... meteorological factors. These oscillations are likely to affect the mobility of dissolved U as well as the rate and distance of the downstream transport of U and other heavy metals significantly. Apart from this, event-related changes of stream chemistry, such as a sudden fall in pH in response to acid rain, were also observed.

  1. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  2. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  3. Competence in water-borne heating systems in buildings; Kompetanse innen vannbaarene varmesystemer i bygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarstein, Stig; Palm, Linn Therese; Naess, Bente Haukland; Nossum, Aase; Johnsen, Morten

    2009-01-15

    Trade participants in water-borne heating systems in buildings has experienced mistakes in all phases and of all participants of a project. When water-borne heating system functions, there is almost no follow up. This report is based on a qualitative survey where a several central participants, who on a daily basis are involved in projects with water-borne heating systems, are interviewed or have participated in focus group meetings. Following points illustrate experiences made by the operators in occasions where competence in trade is insufficiencies and mistakes occur: - Property developer lacks ordering competence and has problems in ordering quality. Consultant submit services of minor quality. Performance is of another quality than the supplier. Administration / maintenance lacks competence in how to run the system and without introduction and training in the heating system they take over a system that is over dimensioned and hard to regulate. The trade as a whole knows all the challenges, but the participants gives mainly the impression that the fault is lac of competence for all the other participants - not them self. This report points out measures and Enova can support competence improving measures which on long term will improve the quality from the participants. The trade is recommended to look into project execution, how competence is involved at the right moment, improving of control and documentation routines and at termination / hand over. (AG).14 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Utilization of bathymetry data to examine lead sediment contamination distributions in Lake Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H. Marvin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry data offer interesting opportunities for the analysis of contaminant distribution patterns. This research utilized lead surficial sediment sample data from Lake Ontario that were collected by the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in 1968 and 1998. Traditionally, two-dimensional analyses such as dot maps or proportional circle representation have been utilized to examine pollutant levels. Generating area estimates allows for expanded spatial analysis of contaminant distribution patterns. Lake-wide surfaces were derived using the ordinary kriging technique. These were then layered on bathymetry data to examine three-dimensional relationships between observed pollution patterns and lake-bottom features. Spatial variability was observed in both the 1968 and 1998 datasets. Contamination levels in 1998 dropped substantially, especially in areas that were previously the most heavily polluted and above the Probable Effect Level (4660.23 km2 or 26.72% of the common analysis area lake-bottom in 1998 versus 6189.07 km2 or 62.00% in 1968. Conversely, areas below the Threshold Effect Level increased from 922.09 km2 (5.29% in 1968 to 3484.22 km2 (19.98% in 1998. In both years, shallow and sill/ridge areas tended to have lower levels of contamination than deeper lake basins or contaminant inflow areas. The 1968 dataset likely provides a more detailed estimation surface as there were more points available for interpolation procedures. The kriging surfaces when combined with bathymetry, sedimentology information, and knowledge of physical processes provide a comprehensive illustration of the contaminant distributions whether they are high (1968 or when loadings are significantly reduced (1998. The results have implications for future sediment assessment programs and survey design on a lake-wide basis. The bathymetry data allowed for enhanced interpretation and an improved understanding of observed lead pollution patterns.

  5. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  6. Epidemicity thresholds for water-borne and water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Rinaldo, Andrea; Gatto, Marino

    2018-06-14

    Determining the conditions that favor pathogen establishment in a host community is key to disease control and eradication. However, focusing on long-term dynamics alone may lead to an underestimation of the threats imposed by outbreaks triggered by short-term transient phenomena. Achieving an effective epidemiological response thus requires to look at different timescales, each of which may be endowed with specific management objectives. In this work we aim to determine epidemicity thresholds for some prototypical examples of water-borne and water-related diseases, a diverse family of infections transmitted either directly through water infested with pathogens or by vectors whose lifecycles are closely associated with water. From a technical perspective, while conditions for endemicity are determined via stability analysis, epidemicity thresholds are defined through generalized reactivity analysis, a recently proposed method that allows the study of the short-term instability properties of ecological systems. Understanding the drivers of water-borne and water-related disease dynamics over timescales that may be relevant to epidemic and/or endemic transmission is a challenge of the utmost importance, as large portions of the developing world are still struggling with the burden imposed by these infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R N

    2000-06-22

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.

  8. High Charge-Carrier Mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a Water-Borne Colloid of a Polymeric Semiconductor via Smart Surfactant Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jangwhan; Cheon, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Hyungju; Park, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-10-07

    Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles dispersed in water are synthesized by a novel method utilizing non-ionic surfactants. By developing a smart surfactant engineering technique involving a selective post-removal process of surfactants, an unprecedentedly high mobility of 2.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from a water-borne colloid is demonstrated for the first time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Water borne epidemic of gastroenteritis in Ghallour sub-centre of Jawalamukhi block, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 31, 2014, eighty cases of the gastroenteritis were reported in Ghallour sub-center area. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, propose control, and preventive measures. Materials and Methods: We defined a case as occurrence of three or more watery stools with or without vomiting, w.e.f January 27, till February 2, 2014 in residents of Ghallour sub-center area of Jawalamukhi block. We hypothesized it as a water borne outbreak. We determined age and sex specific attack rate. We collected information about personal history on age, sex, residence, and date of onset of symptom from case patient and established line list. We collected nine stool samples/rectal swabs from the cases; three pre and four post chlorination water samples and sent them for microbiological testing. We mapped water supply pipelines of the area and reviewed the water chlorination record. Results: We identified 390 cases in 16 villages under the sub center. The overall attack rate was 8% with a range of 1.3% to 36%. The cases patients were reported from all age groups and both the genders with the youngest student; 1-year old to the oldest one as 88 years. Two-third of the cases reported vomiting with some complaining of pain abdomen. Villages like Jathman, Khattni, Rajol Patta, Kohara has 100% case patients of loose motions while villages like Dhroli, (100%, Sasan (63% and Ghallour (50%, etc., have combined symptoms of loose motions and vomiting. No fatality was reported. Escherichia coli was detected in the samples from water samples. Records of chlorination were not properly maintained. Conclusion / Recommendation: The outbreak was associated due to contamination of water at the source in Jolly Khad. Regular treatment of the water needs to be done right at the source before being lifted.

  10. Uranium Leaching from Contaminated Soil Utilizing Rhamnolipid, EDTA, and Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Asselin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants have recently gained attention as “green” agents that can be used to enhance the remediation of heavy metals and some organic matter in contaminated soils. The overall objective of this paper was to investigate rhamnolipid, a microbial produced biosurfactant, and its ability to leach uranium present in contaminated soil from an abandoned mine site. Soil samples were collected from two locations in northern Arizona: Cameron (site of open pit mining and Leupp (control—no mining. The approach taken was to first determine the total uranium content in each soil using a hydrofluoric acid digestion, then comparing the amount of metal removed by rhamnolipid to other chelating agents EDTA and citric acid, and finally determining the amount of soluble metal in the soil matrix using a sequential extraction. Results suggested a complex system for metal removal from soil utilizing rhamnolipid. It was determined that rhamnolipid at a concentration of 150 μM was as effective as EDTA but not as effective as citric acid for the removal of soluble uranium. However, the rhamnolipid was only slightly better at removing uranium from the mining soil compared to a purified water control. Overall, this study demonstrated that rhamnolipid ability to remove uranium from contaminated soil is comparable to EDTA and to a lesser extent citric acid, but, for the soils investigated, it is not significantly better than a simple water wash.

  11. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  13. Development of water-borne thermosetting paint by radiation-induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Katakai, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1981-01-01

    In previous papers the features of γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization were studied to use the emulsion as vehicles for water-borne paint. In this paper, the physical properties of thermosetting paints made with emulsions containing N-(n-butoxymethyl)acrylamide (NBM) and hydroxyl and carboxyl functionality were investigated. Since NBM moieties can react with amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, NBM copolymer emulsions prepared in this study have the self-crosslinking capability. As far as it was investigated, it was difficult to prepare a stable emulsion containing 10% of NBM by the conventional emulsion polymerization by using a water soluble radical initiator such as persulfate. In addition to 1-liter reactor, a pilot-scale plant of 70 liters reactor was used for γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization. Experimental details are given, and results are discussed. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  15. Hydroclimatic drivers, Water-borne Diseases, and Population Vulnerability in Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water-borne diarrheal disease outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region, such as cholera, rotavirus, and dysentery, show distinct seasonal peaks and spatial signatures in their origin and progression. However, the mechanisms behind these seasonal phenomena, especially the role of regional climatic and hydrologic processes behind the disease outbreaks, are not fully understood. Overall diarrheal disease prevalence and the population vulnerability to transmission mechanisms thus remain severely underestimated. Recent findings suggest that diarrheal incidence in the spring is strongly associated with scarcity of freshwater flow volumes, while the abundance of water in monsoon show strong positive correlation with autumn diarrheal burden. The role of large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that tend to modulate meteorological, hydrological, and environmental conditions over large regions and the effects on the ecological states conducive to the vectors and triggers of diarrheal outbreaks over large geographic regions are not well understood. We take a large scale approach to conduct detailed diagnostic analyses of a range of climate, hydrological, and ecosystem variables to investigate their links to outbreaks, occurrence, and transmission of the most prevalent water-borne diarrheal diseases. We employ satellite remote sensing data products to track coastal ecosystems and plankton processes related to cholera outbreaks. In addition, we investigate the effect of large scale hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., droughts and floods, El Nino) to identify how diarrheal transmission and epidemic outbreaks are most likely to respond to shifts in climatic, hydrologic, and ecological changes over coming decades. We argue that controlling diarrheal disease burden will require an integrated predictive surveillance approach - a combination of prediction and prevention - with recent advances in climate-based predictive capabilities and demonstrated successes in primary and tertiary prevention

  16. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  17. Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal

  18. Vibration combustion as a prospect for utilizing firewood contaminated with radiocesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polezhaev, Yu. V.; Geshele, V. D.; Raskatov, I. P.; Solov'ev, V. N.; Pleshchankov, I. G.; Bida, L. A.; Levchuk, A. S.; Fokina, G. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of experimental investigation relevant to vibration combustion of solid fuel specimens in a Rijke tube and the interpretation of the combustion mechanism on the basis of "energy" approach. The decrease in the flame temperature is noted, which can be used to reduce the yield of low-boiling mineral components of ash, e.g., radioactive 137Cs isotope, in the volatile phase. The distribution of 137Cs in thermal conversions of firewood has been studied with the aid of computational-experimental methods, and the use of vibration combustion for utilizing the firewood contaminated with radiocesium has been suggested to decrease the emission of 137Cs into the surrounding medium.

  19. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  20. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  1. Process of contamination of two trophic dulcaquicole chains by cobalt 60. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Foulquier, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate Cobalt 60 behavior in freshwater ecosystems, two food chains including different nutritionally interdependent species in a natural environment were defined. This article covers the dynamics of water-borne contamination in the species. (Auth.)

  2. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  3. Removal of the microorganisms from water. Part 1: Introduction, water-borne disease and the microorganisms involved.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duuren, FR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available coccosis Infectious hepatitis Lepto. spirosis Paratyphoid fever Poliomye? lids Schistoso miasis Shigellosis Taeniasis and Cysticer cosis Tularemia Typhoid fever Fun gal Wide clinical F. nte nc Intestinal Sub cutaneous Liver... in the spread (this) disease. Forward strides taken since, in sanitation and water ply practice, have all but eliminated the incidence of ~h major water-borne diseases as cholera and typhoid er in the western world. The improvements which ye been effected...

  4. Occurrence of water-borne enteric viruses in two settlements based in Eastern Chad: analysis of hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Carratala, Anna; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.

  5. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  6. Utilization of plants for stabilization and cleaning up of metal contaminated soil and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Štofko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has been defined as the use of green plants and their associated rhizospheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain contaminants located in soisl, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and even the atmosphere. Categories of phytoremediation include - phytoextraction or phytoaccumulation, phytotransformation, phytostimulation or plant-assisted bioremediation, phytovolatilization, rhizofiltration, pump and tree, phytostabilization, and hydraulic control. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils basically includes phytostabilization, phytoextraction, rhizofiltration and phytovolatilization. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of metals depends on a particular application.

  7. Review on utilization of biochar for metal-contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Zhu, Yi; Cheng, Lirong; Andserson, Bruce; Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Dayang; Ding, Aizhong

    2018-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative material produced through thermal decomposition of plant- and animal-based biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the application of biochar as an adsorbent, soil ameliorant and climate mitigation approach in many types of applications. Metal-contaminated soil remediation using biochar has been intensively investigated in small-scale and pilot-scale trials with obtained beneficial results and multifaceted effects. But so far, the study and application of biochar in contaminated sediment management has been very limited, and this is also a worldwide problem. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that the same multiple benefits can also be realized with these sediments due to similar mechanisms for stabilizing contaminants. This paper provides a review on current biochar properties and its use as a sorbent/amendment for metal-contaminated soil/sediment remediation and its effect on plant growth, fauna habits as well as microorganism communities. In addition, the use of biochar as a potential strategy for contaminated sediment management is also discussed, especially as regards in-situ planning. Finally, we highlight the possibility of biochar application as an effective amendment and propose further research directions to ensure the safe and sustainable use of biochar as an amendment for remediation of contaminated soil and sediment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Utilization of grasses for potential biofuel production and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Kelly, William J; Satrio, Justinus A; Ruiz-Felix, M Nydia; Fetterman, Marisa; Wynn, Rodd; Hagel, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on investigating the use of common biofuel grasses to assess their potential as agents of long-term remediation of contaminated soils using lead as a model heavy metal ion. We present evidence demonstrating that switch grass and Timothy grass may be potentially useful for long-term phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and describe novel techniques to track and remove contaminants from inception to useful product. Enzymatic digestion and thermochemical approaches are being used to convert this lignocellulosic feedstock into useful product (sugars, ethanol, biocrude oil+biochar). Preliminary studies on enzymatic hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis of the Switchgrass materials that were grown in heavy metal contaminated soil and non-contaminated soils show that the presence of lead in the Switchgrass material feedstock does not adversely affect the outcomes of the conversion processes. These results indicate that the modest levels of contaminant uptake allow these grass species to serve as phytoremediation agents as well as feedstocks for biofuel production in areas degraded by industrial pollution.

  9. Green remediation of contaminated sediment by stabilization/solidification with industrial by-products and CO2 utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Liang; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Jiang-Shan; Yeung, Tiffany L Y; Ding, Shiming; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-08-01

    Navigational dredging is an excavation of marine/freshwater sediment to maintain channels of sufficient depth for shipping safety. Due to historical inputs of anthropogenic contaminants, sediments are often contaminated by metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other contaminants. Its disposal can present significant environmental and financial burdens. This study developed a novel and green remediation method for contaminated sediment using stabilization/solidification with calcium-rich/low-calcium industrial by-products and CO 2 utilization. The hydration products were evaluated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The incorporation of calcium carbide residue (CCR) facilitated hydration reaction and provided relatively high 7-d strength. In contrast, the addition of Class-F pulverized fly ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was beneficial to the 28-d strength development due to supplementary pozzolanic and hydration reactions. The employment of 1-d CO 2 curing was found to promote strength development (98%) and carbon sequestration (4.3wt%), while additional 7-d air curing facilitated cement rehydration and further carbonation in the sediment blocks. The leachability tests indicated that all studied binders, especially CCR binder, effectively immobilized contaminants in the sediments. The calcium-rich CCR and GGBS were regarded as promising candidates for augmenting the efficacy of CO 2 curing, whereas GGBS samples could be applicable as eco-paving blocks in view of their superior 28-d strength. This study presents a new and sustainable way to transform contaminated sediment into value-added materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of remediation techniques for arsenic (As) contamination: a novel approach utilizing bio-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahedur; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Swaraz, A M; Paul, Dipak Kumar

    2014-02-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination has recently become a worldwide problem, as it is found to be widespread not only in drinking water but also in various foodstuffs. Because of the high toxicity, As contamination poses a serious risk to human health and ecological system. To cope with this problem, a great deal of effort have been made to account for the mechanisms of As mineral formation and accumulation by some plants and aquatic organisms exposed to the high level of As. Hence, bio-remediation is now considered an effective and potent approach to breakdown As contamination. In this review, we provide up-to-date knowledge on how biological tools (such as plants for phytoremediation and to some extent microorganisms) can be used to help resolve the effects of As problems on the Earth's environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Progress of research and utilization of soil amendments in phytoremediation of radioactive contamination soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yangrui; Song Gang; Chen Yongheng

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of soil pollution and degradation, it becomes more important to research and apply soil amendments in agriculture. This paper reviewed different kinds of soil amendments and their impacts on phytostabilization and phytoextraction techniques, and summarized the application of soil amendments in the radio-contaminated soils as well as their effects on the phytoremediation. The main repair mechanisms of the soil amendments are involved in adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, and complexation. The potential applications in the phytoremediation on radio-contaminated soils, as well as the main repair mechanisms and the existing problems were discussed. (authors)

  12. Distribution and types of water-borne bacterial pathogens in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria of aquatic habitat like Providencia rettgeri, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticus and Staphylococcus chromogenes that have not been isolated before in the study area were also isolated. River Sokoto predominantly contained E. coli which is an indication of faecal contamination ...

  13. IN SITU BIO TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN UTILIZING NATIVE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan and throughout the former USSR are contaminated with mercury resulting from industrial releases. Our studies conducted under the ISTC K-756 Project were directed towards determining the feasibility of developing a biological filter, w...

  14. Experimental apparatus and analysis technique for studying the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A unique laboratory apparatus has been designed, constructed, and tested for analyzing the low Reynolds number hydrodynamic behavior of water-borne particulates. The system consists of an isothermal sedimentation chamber, collimated light sources, photographic optics, and monitoring devices. This apparatus is capable of providing dynamic information on water-borne particulates in the size range 2 μm to 700 μm, while simulating a realistic environment. Because of its flexibility, the equipment is being used to determine the kinematic behavior of gravitationally unstable organic mineral aggregates. The importance of organic mineral aggregates has been well established during the past decade. This material is believed to be a potential food source for marine biota at the lowest levels of the food chain. Organic mineral aggregates are also known to concentrate trace elements and other toxic substances and may be part of the control mechanism by which elemental concentrations are maintained in the water column. The benthic fluid mud layer and deep pelagic nepholoid layer consist, in part, of these sediments. Subsea petroleum reserves are thought to be the result of biogeochemical cycling of the organic-mineral complex. Undoubtedly, a fundamental study of these aggregates would be of value to many research interests

  15. Economical and environmental valorization of compost: possible utilization for contaminated soil bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanarosa, E.; Belfiore, A.; Napoletano, M.; Gandolfi, I.; Sicolo, M.; Franzetti, A.; Santagostino, A.; Bestetti, G.; Centemero, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Bo.S.Co project (Bioremediation of contaminated soils by compost) aims at creating an innovative bioremediation technology ready-to-use and competitive in price. This technology use a particular kind of certified compost that optimizes cleaning processes. Compost, in fact, is a very rich matrix that can supply nutrients, used by the autochthonous microflora. In the present study compost was used to enhance diesel oil and PAHs degradation in two heavily contaminated soils; laboratory scale experiments were performed by preparing four soil-bio piles, under laboratory conditions chemical, microbiological and eco toxic parameters were analyzed at different times. Compost addition was effective in enhancing biodegradation of diesel oil compounds and simultaneous reduction of genotoxicity with respect to the control. [it

  16. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or slugs of water in the fuel...methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel industry is...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18

  17. Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermatas, D.; Meng, X. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pozzolanic-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is an effective, yet economic technological alternative to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils and sludges. Fly ash waste materials were used along with quicklime (CaO) to immobilize lead, trivalent and hexavalent chromium present in contaminated clayey sand soils. The degree of heavy metal immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as controlled extraction experiments. These leaching test results along with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were also implemented to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for immobilization of the heavy metals under study. Finally, the reusability of the stabilized waste forms in construction applications was also investigated by performing unconfined compressive strength and swell tests. Results suggest that the controlling mechanism for both lead and hexavalent chromium immobilization is surface adsorption, whereas for trivalent chromium it is hydroxide precipitation. Addition of fly ash to the contaminated soils effectively reduced heavy metal leachability well below the non-hazardous regulatory limits. However, quicklime addition was necessary in order to attain satisfactory immobilization levels. Overall, fly ash addition increases the immobilization pH region for all heavy metals tested, and significantly improves the stress-strain properties of the treated solids, thus allowing their reuse as readily available construction materials. The only potential problem associated with this quicklime/fly ash treatment is the excessive formation of the pozzolanic product ettringite in the presence of sulfates. Ettringite, when brought in contact with water, may cause significant swelling and subsequent deterioration of the stabilized matrix. Addition of minimum amounts of barium hydroxide was shown to effectively eliminate ettringite formation.

  18. Application of MOGRA for migration of contaminants through different land utilization areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Uchida, Shigeo; Matsuoka, Syungo; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kurosawa, Naohiro

    2003-01-01

    The functionality of MOGRA is being verified by applying it in the analyses of the migration rates of radioactive substances from the atmosphere to soils and plants and flow rates into the rivers. This has been achieved by also taking their mode classifications into consideration. In this report, a hypothetical combination of land usage was supposed to check the function of MOGRA. The land usage was consisted from cultivated lands, forests, uncultivated lands, urban area, river, and lake. Each land usage has its own inside model which is basic module. Also supposed was homogeneous contamination of the surface land from atmospheric deposition of Cs-137 (1.0 Bq/m 2 ). The system can analyze the dynamic changes of Cs-137 concentrations in each compartment, fluxes from one compartment to another compartment. (author)

  19. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  20. Effects of the surfactant Tween 80 on the growth and dibenzothiophene utilization by Exophiala spinifera isolated from oil- contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Elmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil is one of the most important energy sources that contain variety of organosulfur compounds that are combustible and can produce sulfur dioxide which will cause pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Dibenzothiophene (DBT is often used as a model for biodesulfurization studies and surfactant Tween80 increases the solubility of DBT in water that leads to higher consumption by microorganisms. Materials and methods: DBT specific UV spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 323 nm was used to evaluate the ability of isolated Exophiala spinifera fungus in removal of DBT. The effect of various concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on the growth of the fungus and DBT utilization was studied. Results: Exophiala spinifera was able to remove 100% DBT after 7 days of incubation at 30 ° C and 180 rpm shaking. The effect of different concentrations of surfactant Tween80 on growth and DBT utilization by this fungus was examined and it was observed that the presence of surfactant in the culture medium increased the growth and removal of DBT, therefore the amount of DBT utilized with 0.4% concentration of the surfactant was about 30% more than that utilized without surfactant. However, higher concentrations of surfactant Tween80 decreased the growth and consumption of DBT by fungi. Discussion and conclusion: Exophiala spinifera was isolated from oil contaminated soil and able to utilize toxic compound DBT as a sulfur source in the presence of other carbon sources such as glucose. So this isolated strain could be a good candidate for the petroleum desulfurization and it is the first report about desulfurization of DBT by fungus Exophiala spinifera. Growth and removal of DBT by fungus increased in the presence of surfactant Tween80. It can be concluded that the surfactant increases the total DBT transfer between the organic and aqueous phases and has a potential application in DBT bioremediation system by the studied fungus biocatalyst.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of the first water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Kwak, Wooseok; Lee, Sangwon; Kim, Won; Oh, Jaeyeon; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2013-07-01

    The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.

  2. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  3. Solid-phase bioremediation of diesel fuel-contaminated soil utilizing indigenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnetta, P.J.; Laubacher, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc. (REWEI) was retained by BP Oil Company (BP) to evaluate the use of bioremediation technology to remediate approximately 3,000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) of soil impacted with diesel fuel. The impacted soil resulted from the release of several hundred gallons of diesel fuel from a ruptured valve on an aboveground pipeline within a terminal. The overland flow of the diesel fuel resulted in a significant area of soil being impacted by the fuel. Immediate response activities limited vertical migration of the fuel through the excavation and stockpiling of the surface-impacted soil. The nature of the contaminant -- an unweathered, refined petroleum product comprised primarily of alkanes of a medium chain length -- and the biodegradable nature of the diesel fuel made bioremediation a cost-effective and technically feasible remedial option. The objective of the project was to reduce the concentrations of the petroleum hydrocarbons to below the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) soil cleanup levels in order to reuse the soil on-site as fill. Basic agronomic principles were applied throughout all phases of the project in order to successfully biodegrade the hydrocarbon

  4. Anti-microorganism contamination measures for crude drugs utilizing radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro

    1998-01-01

    Crude drugs are manufactured by simple processing of natural mineral, animal or plant part materials, and are used in Chinese medicine. Because these components are originated by nature, they tend to have a much higher level of contaminating microorganisms than chemically synthesized compound. Many plant-derived crude drugs contain bacteria; 10 3 -10 5 cells/g and fungi; 10 2 -10 4 spores/g. Some animal-derived crude drugs contain bacteria levels of up to 10 8 cells/g, including dangerous varieties like E. coli or Salmonella. The survival rate and the required dose can be quantified as follows: N/No=e -kD and SD=D 10 x log (No/SAL), respectively. Where, k is the sterilization constant of microorganism, No is the initial count of bacteria, D is the absorbed dose, D 10 is the dose required to decrease the count to 1/10 and SAL is the count limit or sterilization assurance. The D 10 value for general microorganism is approximately 2 kGy for bacteria, 1 kGy for fungi, and 3-4 kGy for spore-forming bacteria. The results of our past studies have shown that the dose of 5-7 kGy is necessary to sterilize general microorganism that are attached to crude drugs. Besides, the D 10 value of specific bacteria ranges from 0.1 to 0.8 kGy, so the above dose should be sufficient for sterilizing the specific microorganism (SAL; 10 -6 ). The stability of crude drugs can be quantified be the following formula, C/Co=e -k'D . Where, C/Co is the residual rate of drug components, and k' is the loss coefficient. The value of k is 1-2, but that of k' is three to four figures smaller. The C/Co ratio of most drug components is more than 0.99 with a dose of 5-7 kGy. Furthermore, radiolysis materials that are decomposed by radiation are similar to compounds that are decomposed by ultraviolet rays or sunlight. 60 Co ray are suitable for sterilizing raw materials. On the other hand, electron beams are used to sterilize a thin layer of pulverized specimens, and can be incorporated into the

  5. Illicit drugs: contaminants in the environment and utility in forensic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2011-01-01

    The published literature that addresses the many facets of pharmaceutical ingredients as environmental contaminants has grown exponentially since the 1990s. Although there are several thousand active ingredients used in medical pharmaceuticals worldwide, illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) have generally been excluded from consideration. Medicinal and illicit drugs have been treated separately in environmental research even though they pose many of the same concerns regarding the potential for both human and ecological exposure. The overview presented here covers the state of knowledge up until mid-2010 regarding the origin, occurrence, fate, and potential for biological effects of IDIs in the environment. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the environment--excretion of unmetabolized residues (including via sweat), bathing, disposal, and manufacturing. The features of illicit drugs that distinguish them from medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Demarcations between the two are not always clear, and a certain degree of overlap adds additional confusion as to what exactly defines an illicit drug; indeed, medical pharmaceuticals diverted from the legal market or used for non-medicinal purposes ar also captured in discussions of illicit drugs. Also needing consideration as par tof the universe of IDIs are the numerous adulterants and synthesis impurities often encountered in these very impure preparations. many of these extraneous chemicals have high biological activity themselves. In contract to medical pharmaceuticals, comparatively little is know about the fate and effects of IDIs in the environment. Environmental surveys for IDIs have revealed their presence in sewage wastewaters, raw sewage sludge and processed sludge (biosolids), and drinking water. Nearly nothing is known, however, regarding wildlife exposure to IDIs, especially aquatic exposure such as indicated by

  6. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  7. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  8. A critical assessment of the occurrence and extend of oxygen contamination during anaerobic incubations utilizing commercially available vials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brabandere, Loreto; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    contaminate the samples by oxygen diffusing from or through their plastic or rubber components. In this study, we investigated the sources and extent of oxygen contamination during anoxic incubations, and present solutions to minimize oxygen contamination. In particular, we investigated oxygen contamination...... in Labco® Exetainers, glass vials with a butyl rubber septum in the screw cap, which are frequently used in microbiological experiments. Our results show that significant oxygen contamination occurred at different stages during the incubation. Contamination occurred when Exetainers were either filled...... or incubated for more than16 h under oxic atmosphere, but also under an oxygen-free atmosphere due to diffusion of oxygen out of the butyl rubber septum. Therefore, to avoid oxygen contamination during incubations, we suggest (1) filling and incubating the incubation containers under anoxic atmosphere (glove...

  9. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  10. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST); Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter [Technische Univ. Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

    2010-12-15

    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  11. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium

  12. PILOT STUDIES OF IN-SITU BIO-TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN UTILIZING NATIVE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan and throughout the former USSR are contaminated with mercury resulting from industrial releases. Our studies directed towards determining the feasibility of developing a biological filter, which when placed into the path the groundwat...

  13. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Kazakhstan In situ BioTransformation of Mercury-Contaminated Groundwater utilizing Native Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our final international work on the biological decontamination of the mercury contamination of soils in the Northern outskirts of Pavlodar as a result of activity at the former PO “Khimprom” chemical plant is reported here. The plant produced chlorine and alkali from the 1970s i...

  15. Comparison of thermally induced and naturally occurring water-borne leakages from hard rock depositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Robinson, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of thermally induced and naturally occurring flows of water as causes of leakage from hard rock depositories for radioactive wastes is assessed. Separate analyses are presented for involatile, high level waste from reprocessing of fuel and for plutonium contaminated waste from fabrication of fuel. The effects of varying the quantities of wastes, pre-burial storage and the shapes and depths of depositories are considered. It is concluded that for representative values of these variables, thermal flow will remain the major cause of leakage for long times after the burial of both types of waste. (Auth.)

  16. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z B; Wan, X L; Yang, W R; Jiang, S Z; Zhang, G G; Johnston, S L; Chi, F

    2014-09-01

    One hundred sixty-two 21-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 3 levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn (0, 50, and 100% M) and 2 levels of Calibrin-A (CA, a clay mycotoxin adsorbent, 0 and 0.1%) to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient utilization in ducks fed diets with or without CA. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 27 ducks. Excreta samples were collected to determine DM, OM, CP, amino acids, and gross energy. Gross energy was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. The apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of the nutrients in all treatments with and without CA had common (P > 0.05) intercepts and slopes except Pro (P Ducks fed the 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Gly compared with the 100% M diet, and ducks fed 50 and 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Pro compared with 50% M and 100% M diet, respectively. In the present study, ducks fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn decreased nutrient digestibility in dose-dependent manner, and 0.1% CA supplementation improved AD and TD of Gly and Pro. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2012-09-01

    A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus Strain KF709, a Biphenyl-Utilizing Bacterium Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahito; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Hirose, Jun; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Kimura, Nobutada; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2015-03-26

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus strain KF709, which comprises 6,826,799 bp with 6,272 coding sequences. The strain KF709 utilizes biphenyl and degrades low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, it possesses fewer coding sequences involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds than other strains belonging to the Betaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Watanabe et al.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus Strain KF709, a Biphenyl-Utilizing Bacterium Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Takahito; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Hirose, Jun; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Kimura, Nobutada; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus strain KF709, which comprises 6,826,799 bp with 6,272 coding sequences. The strain KF709 utilizes biphenyl and degrades low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, it possesses fewer coding sequences involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds than other strains belonging to the Betaproteobacteria.

  20. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  1. Determining Sources of Fecal Contamination in Two Rivers of Northumberland County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Szeles, Cheryl Lynne

    2003-01-01

    DETERMINING SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN TWO RIVERS OF NORTHUMBERLAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA By Cheryl Lynne Szeles Dr. Charles Hagedorn III, Chairman Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences (ABSTRACT) The goal of monitoring the water quality of shellfish beds is to provide protection against transmission of water-borne infectious diseases. The Coan River and the Little Wicomico River contain shellfish beds that are closed to harvest due to contamination with fecal ...

  2. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  5. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  6. An urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T; Murhekar, M; Hutin, Y J; Ramamurthy, T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the Gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. We aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease. We defined a case as the occurrence of diarrhoea (> 3 loose stools/day) with fever or bloody stools in a resident of Gayeshpur in September-October 2007. We asked healthcare facilities to report cases, collected stool specimens from patients, constructed an epidemic curve, drew a map and calculated the incidence by age and sex. We also conducted a matched case-control study (58 in each group), calculated matched odds ratio (MOR) and population attributable fraction (PAF), as well as assessed the environment. We identified 461 cases (attack rate: 46/1000 population) and isolated Shigella flexneri (serotype 2a and 3a) from 3 of 4 stool specimens. The attack rate was higher among females (52/1000) and those in the age group of 45-59 years (71/1000). The outbreak started on 22 September, peaked multiple times and subsided on 12 October 2007. Cases were clustered distal to a leaking pipeline that crossed an open drain to intermittently supply non-chlorinated water to taps. The 58 cases and 58 controls were matched for age and sex. Drinking tap water (MOR: 10; 95% CI: 3-32; PAF: 89%), washing utensils in tap water (MOR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.2-11.3) and bathing in tap water (MOR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-11) were associated with the illness. This outbreak of diarrhoea and Shigella flexneri dysentery was caused by contamination of tap water and subsided following repair of the pipeline. We recommended regular chlorination of the water and maintenance of pipelines.

  7. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Siobhan M; DeMaria, Alfred; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  8. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Mor

    Full Text Available We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR. Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  9. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  10. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  11. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    technique has defined sensitivity and specificity and the decision to use certain techniques depends on several practicalities such as reason for analysis, sample size, time, cost, and logistic requirements. In this work we present and discuss existing criteria for the differentiation of waterborne...

  12. Revelations of an overt water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kaushik, S K; Mukherji, S

    2017-07-01

    Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation. Prevention and control measures included super chlorination, provision of alternate drinking water sources, awareness campaign, layout of new water pipeline bypassing place of contamination, repair of sewers, flushing and cleaning of water pipelines, and repeated water sampling and testing. Multiple sources of drinking water supply were detected. Water samples from consumer end showed 18 coliforms per 100 ml. Sewer cross connection with active leakage in water pipeline was found and this was confirmed by earth excavation. Water safety and morbidity survey found majority of households receiving contaminated water supply. This survey found no significant difference among households receiving contaminated water supply and those receiving clean water. Average proportion of household members with episode of loose motions, pain abdomen, vomiting, fever, and eye conditions was significantly more among households receiving contaminated water. The present study documents detailed methodology of investigation and control measures to be instituted on receipt of contaminated water samples. Effective surveillance mechanisms for drinking water supplies such as routine testing of water samples can identify water contamination at an early stage and prevent an impending outbreak.

  13. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  14. Perch, Perca fluviatilis show a directional preference for, but do not increase attacks toward, prey in response to water-borne cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Henderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues play an important role in predator-prey interactions. Prey use a variety of chemosensory cues to detect and avoid predators. However, whether predators use the chemical cues released by disturbed or stressed prey has received less attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that the disturbance cue cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, elevates predatory behavior. We presented predators (perch, Perca fluviatilis with three chemosensory choice tests and recorded their location, orientation, and aggressive behavior. We compared the responses of predators when provided with (i visual cues of prey only (two adjacent tanks containing sticklebacks; (ii visual and natural chemical cues of prey vs. visual cues only; and (iii visual cues of prey with cortisol vs. visual cues only. Perch spent a significantly higher proportion of time in proximity to prey, and orientated toward prey more, when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to presentations of visual and natural chemical cues of prey, or visual cues of prey only. There was a trend that perch directed a higher proportion of predatory behaviors (number of lunges toward sticklebacks when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to the other chemosensory conditions. But they did not show a significant increase in total predatory behavior in response to cortisol. Therefore, it is not clear whether water-borne cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, affects predatory behavior. Our results provide evidence that cortisol could be a source of public information about prey state and/or disturbance, but further work is required to confirm this.

  15. Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing discussion about the possibility of arsenic mitigation measures in Bengal and similar areas leading to undesirable substitution of water-borne-pathogen attributable risks pathogens for risks attributable to arsenic, in part because of uncertainties in relative pathogen concentrations in supplied and end-use water. We try to resolve this discussion, by assessing the relative contributions of water supply and end-user practices to water-borne-pathogen-attributable risks for arsenic mitigation options in a groundwater arsenic impacted area of West Bengal. Paired supplied arsenic-mitigated water and end-use drinking water samples from 102 households were collected and analyzed for arsenic and thermally tolerant coliforms [TTC], used as a proxy for microbiological water quality, We then estimated the DALYs related to key sequelae, diarrheal diseases and cancers, arising from water-borne pathogens and arsenic respectively. We found [TTC] in end-use drinking water to depend only weakly on [TTC] in source-water. End-user practices far outweighed the microbiological quality of supplied water in determining diarrheal disease burden. [TTC] in source water was calculated to contribute <1% of total diarrheal disease burden. No substantial demonstrable pathogen-for-arsenic risk substitution attributable to specific arsenic mitigation of supplied waters was observed, illustrating the benefits of arsenic mitigation measures in the area studied.

  16. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  17. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Removal of a contaminated industrial waste line, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1979-04-01

    In 1977 parts of an abandoned industrial waste line (IWL) that carried laboratory or process chemical and radiochemical wastes were removed from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory property and from the townsite of Los Alamos in north-central New Mexico. Most of the IWL was removed between 1964 and 1967. Some IWL segments in the townsite, which at that time were buried under newly paved roads, were left for removal during future construction projects involving these roads to minimize traffic problems and road damage, and because they posed no public health hazard. In 1977, prior to impending major road construction in several areas, 400 m (1300 ft) of IWL and two IWL manhole structures were removed from Laboratory and Los Alamos County property. Associated soil contamination was removed to levels considered to be as low as practicable. Contaminated or potentially contaminated material was removed to an approved radioactive waste disposal site on Department of Energy property. Full details of the methods, findings, and as-left conditions are documented in this report

  18. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  19. Organic contaminant removal efficiency of sodium bentonite/clay (BC) mixtures in high permeability regions utilizing reclaimed wastewater: A meso-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Li, Yunkai; Ning, Zigong; Li, Pengxiang; Yang, Peiling; Liu, Chengcheng; Liu, Zhongwei; Xu, Feipeng; Hynds, Paul Dylan

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater reclamation now represents an effective measure for sustainable water resource management in arid regions, however wastewater components (organic micropollutants) may potentially impact local ecological and/or human health. Previous studies have shown that sodium bentonite/natural clay (BC) mixes may be used to effectively reduce riverbed infiltration in regions characterized by excessively high hydraulic conductivity. Accordingly, the current study sought to investigate the contaminant removal efficiency (Re) of several BC mass ratios in simulated dry riverbeds. Results indicate that the measured Re of NH4+-N, CODcr and BOD5 increased in concurrence with an increasing sodium bentonite ratio, up to a maximum Re of 97.4% (NH4+-N), 55.2% (CODcr), and 51.5% (BOD5). The primary contaminant removal site was shown to be the infiltration-reducing (BC) layer, accounting for approximately 40%, 60%, and 70% of NH4+-N, CODcr and BOD5 removal, respectively. Conversely, the removal efficiency of NO3-N was found to be low (managing recharge of non-potable aquifers with reclaimed wastewater.

  20. Practice and prospects of creation of equipment for reprocessing and utilization of contaminated metal wastes of plants of nuclear industry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Program of reprocessing and utilization of metallic radioactive wastes exists in Russia. In the framework of this program in nuclear industry it is accumulated forty years experience on taking-off-service, disassembly, decontamination and reprocessing of technological facilities. Some technical characteristics of the units used for these operations are represented [ru

  1. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  2. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  3. Microbial growth and substrate utilization kinetics | Okpokwasili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial growth on and utilization of environmental contaminants as substrates have been studied by many researchers. Most times, substrate utilization results in removal of chemical contaminant, increase in microbial biomass and subsequent biodegradation of the contaminant. These are all aimed at detoxification of the ...

  4. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  5. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  6. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  7. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  8. Use of liquid nitrogen during storage in a cell and tissue bank: contamination risk and effect on the detectability of potential viral contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabet, Vicente; Alvarez, Manuel; Solves, Pilar; Ocete, Dolores; Gimeno, Concepción

    2012-04-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used for banking cells and tissues intended for transplantation. Liquid nitrogen provides a very stable ultra-low temperature environment. Thus, it is used for longterm storage. Unlike the exhaustive microbiological monitoring of the environmental conditions during tissue processing, storage is not usually considered as a critical point of potential contamination risk in professional standards for cell and tissue banking. We have analysed the presence of microbial agents inside our nitrogen tanks. We have mainly detected environmental and water-borne bacteria and fungi. In addition, we have studied the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on virus detectability. Only differences for hepatitis C virus RNA were observed. Measures for contamination risk reduction during storage must be mandatory in cell and tissue banking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  10. Photocatalytic remediation of contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J R; Scrudato, R J [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Results of various experiments to utilize photocatalysis to photodegrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticide-contaminated sediments and soils in slurry suspensions, were discussed. The mechanism of the reaction, i. e. simultaneously bringing together the catalyst, contaminant and light through mixing or overturn of the material, was explained. Potential advantages of the method (on-site treatment, simultaneous degradation of multiple contaminants, low energy requirements, no emission of toxic effluents, reusable inert catalyst, no landfilling or future liability, etc.,) were reviewed. A pilot-scale test is planned for the near future to provide performance data needed for eventual commercialization. 8 refs.

  11. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  12. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report; Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter [TU Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-12-30

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium

  13. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  14. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  15. Livestock ownership and microbial contamination of drinking-water: Evidence from nationally representative household surveys in Ghana, Nepal and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Hill, Allan G; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Wright, Jim A

    2018-01-01

    Current priorities for diarrhoeal disease prevention include use of sanitation and safe water. There have been few attempts to quantify the importance of animal faeces in drinking-water contamination, despite the presence of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in animal faeces. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between livestock ownership and point-of-consumption drinking-water contamination. Data from nationally representative household surveys in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Ghana, each with associated water quality assessments, were used. Multinomial regression adjusting for confounders was applied to assess the relationship between livestock ownership and the level of drinking-water contamination with E. coli. Ownership of five or more large livestock (e.g. cattle) was significantly associated with drinking-water contamination in Ghana (RRR=7.9, 95% CI=1.6 to 38.9 for medium levels of contamination with 1-31cfu/100ml; RRR=5.2, 95% CI=1.1-24.5 for high levels of contamination with >31cfu/100ml) and Bangladesh (RRR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3-4.5 for medium levels of contamination; non-significant for high levels of contamination). Ownership of eight or more poultry (chickens, guinea fowl, ducks or turkeys) was associated with drinking-water contamination in Bangladesh (RRR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0 for medium levels of contamination, non-significant for high levels of contamination). These results suggest that livestock ownership is a significant risk factor for the contamination of drinking-water at the point of consumption. This indicates that addressing human sanitation without consideration of faecal contamination from livestock sources will not be sufficient to prevent drinking-water contamination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleanup of contaminated areas; La bonifica di aree contaminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G; Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-01-15

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  17. Remediation of Lead contaminated Soil at Greenbury Point, Annapolis, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    .... Information includes data on lead, applicable regulatory requirements, soils types, contamination, site maps, field investigations, utility drawings, history, archeology, and natural resources...

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  1. Thorium-230 contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noey, K.C.; Liedle, S.D.; Hickey, C.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are currently performing radiological surveys on approximately ninety properties in the St. Louis, Missouri area as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The properties involved are the St. Louis Airport Site, Latty Avenue Properties, St. Louis Downtown Site, Coldwater Creek, and the associated roads and vicinity properties. The primary radioactive contaminant on these properties is thorium-230. Since field instrumentation is not available to detect the presence of alpha-emitting contamination in soil, soil samples are being collected and sent to an analytical laboratory for analysis. Thorium-230 analysis is costly and time-consuming, and as a result, soil sample analysis results are not available to help direct the field sampling program. This paper provides discussion of the manner in which the properties became radioactively contaminated, followed by a discussion of the difficulties associated with the detection of thorium-230. Finally, new methodologies for detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in the field are described

  2. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  3. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  4. Removal of 14C-contaminated CO2 from simulated LWR fuel reprocessing off-gas by utilizing the reaction between CO2 and alkaline hydroxides in either slurry or solid form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.; Haag, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a LWR fuel reprocessing plant is the removal of 14 C-contaminated CO 2 from the process off-gas. The separation and fixation of essentially all the CO 2 from the simulated off-gas can be accomplished by reaction with alkaline slurries in agitated tank-type contactors. Based on efficacy for CO 2 removal, consideration of reactant cost, and stability of the carbonate product as related to long-term storage requirements, the two most promising slurry reactants for CO 2 removal from low CO 2 -content feed gases are Ca(OH) 2 and Ba(OH) 2 . The removal of 14 C-contaminated CO 2 from simulated LWR off-gases was studied as a function of both operating conditions and varying sizes of bench-scale design. Parametrically, the effects on the CO 2 removal rate of feed composition (330 ppM - 4.47% CO 2 ), impeller speed (325 to 650 rpm), superficial velocity (5 to 80 cm/min), reactants [Mg(OH) 2 , NaOH], contactor size (20.3 cm and 27.3 cm ID), and type of operation (semibatch or continuous slurry) were deterined

  5. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  6. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  7. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  8. Report of the NATO/CCMS drinking water pilot study on health aspects of drinking water contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzelleca, J F

    1981-04-01

    Various methods of disinfection are being successfully used to control water borne diseases due to biological contaminants in water (viruses, bacteria, protozoa). These methods of chemical control are adding chemical contaminants to the drinking water. For example, trihalomethanes may be formed by the interaction of chlorine with humic and/or fulvic acids. In addition, chemical contaminants may arise from natural, agricultural, industrial or distributional sources. Acute or chronic exposures to these chemicals may result in adverse health effects that are immediate or delayed, reversible or irreversible. Since these contaminants rarely occur singly, chemical interactions (additives, synergistic, antagonistic) must be considered. The nature of the adverse health effects can usually be determined from properly designed and executed animal experiments and/or human epidemiological studies. Potentially toxic agents may also be identified by the use of short term or in vitro tests. Other methods of identification of potentially toxic agents include chemical similarity with known toxicants. Attempts should be made to reduce the number of potentially toxic chemical contaminants but the microbiological quality of drinking water must not be compromised.

  9. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  10. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  11. Investigation of the Rate of the Bacterial Contamination of the Ice Factories in Bandar Abbas, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution of drinking water and ice is one of the most serious ways of water borne diseases spread. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination of the ice produced by ice factories in Bandar Abbas. Methods: In this descriptive ,cross-sectional study samples were collected from seven ice factories in Bandar Abbas. Sampling was done by standard method. Amount of the Contamination of ice and water to coliforms was investigated by the Multiple Tube method to determine the MPN, isolate bacteria and identify the microorganisms using conventional bacteriological techniques and counting the total count of bacteria by the Plate Count method on a nutrient agar medium. The data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: In this study, a total of 84 samples were investigated. Gram-positive bacteria (65.5% and gram-negative bacteria(34.5% were separated from each other. The MPN rate in samples and total count of bacteria were 0->1100 and 2×101×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that necessary precautions be taken by environmental health specialists and other public health authorities in production, transportation and distribution of the ice blocks to reduce the rate of bacterial contamination.

  12. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  13. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  14. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  15. The dark side of suibsidies: quantifying contaminant exposure to riparian predators via stream insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic insects provide a critical nutrient subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated relationships between aquatic (resource utilization) and contaminant exposure for a riparian invert...

  16. Spatial and temporal trends in occurrence of emerging and legacy contaminants in the Lower Columbia River 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, USA, is an important resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, agriculture, and commerce. An 86-mile stretch of the river was sampled over a 3 year period in order to determine the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence and concentration of water-borne organic contaminants. Sampling occurred at 10 sites along this stretch and at 1 site on the Willamette River using the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) passive samplers. Contaminant profiles followed the predicted trends of lower numbers of detections and associated concentrations in the rural areas to higher numbers and concentrations at the more urbanized sites. Industrial chemicals, plasticizers, and PAHs were present at the highest concentrations. Differences in concentrations between sampling periods were related to the amount of rainfall during the sampling period. In general, water concentrations of wastewater-related contaminants decreased and concentrations of legacy contaminants slightly increased with increasing rainfall amounts.

  17. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  18. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  19. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1997-01-01

    The major source of man-made radioactivity in the oceans is derived from nuclear weapons testing fallout, which occurred mostly in the late 1950s and early 1960s. For example, 0.9 EBq of 137 Cs and 0.6 EBq of 90 Sr were introduced in this way. Only 60% of the released activity was disposed of in the oceans, rather than 70%, because the nuclear weapons testing occurred mainly in the Northern hemisphere, and the land masses cover more of the Northern hemisphere than the Southern hemisphere. There have also been other releases into the oceans; for example, the water-borne discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the UK, which occurred from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. During this decade, in the order of 40 PBq of 137 Cs was discharged into the Irish sea, and from there it was transported into the north Atlantic ocean. The third important source of radioactivity was the Chernobyl accident. Although most of this radioactivity was distributed over the land masses, about 5 PBq was deposited into the Baltic Sea and about 3 PBq into the Black Sea. The radioactive debris from Chernobyl was distributed around the Northern hemisphere, so some of the radioactivity must have been deposited in the North Atlantic ocean. There have also been a number of local contaminations of the oceans. Among these are satellite failures. For example, the SNAP-9A satellite, which burned up over the South Atlantic ocean in the early 1960s, became a major source of 238 Pu pollution. This is the reason why there is an increased 238 Pu: 239 Pu ratio, mostly in the Southern hemisphere, in global fallout. There are also a number of nuclear submarines on the bottom of the sea; for example, the American Thresher submarine in the Atlantic ocean and the Comsomolets submarine in the Norwegian-Barents sea. Furthermore, there have been several accidents with nuclear weapons; for example, the Palomares accident in Spain in 1966 and the Thule accident in Greenland in 1968. Finally, nuclear

  20. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  1. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  2. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  3. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  4. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  5. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  6. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Assane Diop, BS; Meredith Block, MPA; Alexander Smith-Jones, BS; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background. This paper describes the impact of improper used lead-acid battery (ULAB) handling and disposal. A specific case study is presented describing the field assessment and remediation of lead contamination in a community in Senegal where at least 18 children died from lead poisoning. Objectives. The assessment and remediation process utilized to address the Senegal lead contamination has been used as a model approach to solving used lead-acid battery (ULAB) contamination in other e...

  7. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  8. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  9. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  10. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  12. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  13. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  14. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  15. An investigation into the prevalence of water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    interviewees selected through simple random sampling technique. The target site was ... the fecal material of man or other animals (Park, 2007). The standard test for .... rubber pipes to draw water from neighbor's community water supply.

  16. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Collection of water samples. Water sampling was carried out at five points where each of the five .... rainwater or as it percolate through the soil layers. These ... pesticides, herbicides, plant nutrients, radioactive mate- rials, decaying ... per day as food element, excessive amounts can lead to the formation of ...

  17. Disposal of sewage and other water-borne wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhoff, Karl; Müller, Wilhelm Johann; Thistlethwayte, D. K. B

    1971-01-01

    ... with their advantages and disadvantages. The third section,essentially of a practical nature, describes various treatment processes, whilst the final part deals with particular problems of a small community where economic considerations...

  18. Water-borne epidemic outbreaks; Brotes epidemicos de transmision hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciranda Larrea, F.B.; Hidalgo Garcia, E.; Peiro Callizo, E.F.; Herrero Alana, G.

    1995-12-31

    The control of water-transmitted infections is one of the key aims of any Public Heath-Care System. For this paper a descriptive epidemiologic analysis has been performed using data obtained through normalized forms as well as Annual Reports of Epidemiology Units and Veterinary Inspection Records. A total of 22 outbreaks have been recorded in the period of reference. Those outbreaks affected 2.263 people. The attack-rate was of 99 people affected for each 1000 ar risk. The main agents turned out to be Norwalk virus, Rotavirus and A-Hepatitis virus. The most important risk factor was undoubtedly the ingestion of untreated or not properly treated water. The improvement of water treatment and distribution systems, the increase in the population being supplied with potable water, along with the ease of the drought have caused a significant drop in the number of water-transmitted outbreaks. (Author)

  19. Alternative method for determination of contaminated heparin using chiral recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, J; Collins, M; Currie, C A

    2014-05-15

    Since 2008 a significant amount of work has focused on the development of methods to analyze contaminated heparin. This work focuses on utilizing heparin's ability to serve as a chiral selector as a means for determining contamination. Specifically, the effect of contamination on the separation of pheniramine and chloroquine enantiomers was explored. Separations were conducted using heparin contaminated with chondroitin sulfate at varying levels. For each pair of enantiomers, electrophoretic mobility and resolution were calculated. For pheniramine enantiomers, an increase in contamination leads to a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility and resolution. A linear relationship between contamination level and electrophoretic mobility of the pheniramine enantiomers was observed for the entire contamination range. A linear relationship was also found between contamination level and resolution of the enantiomers between 0 and 70 percent contamination. For the separation of chloroquine enantiomers, it was found that at low levels of contamination, the resolution of enantiomers was increased due to the secondary interaction between the chloroquine enantiomers and the chondroitin sulfate. Results of this study illustrate the potential of using chiral recognition as a means to determine heparin contamination as well as the improvement of the chiral resolution of chloroquine with the additional of low levels of chondroitin sulfate A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  1. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation

  2. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  3. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  4. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  5. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  6. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  7. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  8. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  9. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  10. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.H.; Herson, D.S.; Vercellon-Smith, P.; Cronce, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A utility company discovered soils in their plant contaminated with diesel fuel and related fuel oils (300-450 ppm). The soils were excavated and removed to a concrete pad for treatment. The authors conducted laboratory studies to determine if biostimulation or bioaugmentation would be appropriate for treating the soils. Microbial numbers and soil respiration were monitored in microcosms supplemented with: (1) organic nutrients, (2) inorganic nutrients, and (3) inorganic nutrients plus additional adapted microorganisms. Their studies indicated that biostimulation via the addition of inorganic nutrients would be appropriate at this site. Treatment cells for the contaminated soils were constructed. Initial data indicates that a 35% reduction in the concentration of contaminants has occurred within the first month of operation

  11. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  12. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  13. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  14. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  15. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  16. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  17. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  18. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  19. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  20. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  1. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  2. Fluorescence Imaging Reveals Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirato, Richard; Polichar, Raulf

    1992-01-01

    In technique to detect surface contamination, object inspected illuminated by ultraviolet light to make contaminants fluoresce; low-light-level video camera views fluorescence. Image-processing techniques quantify distribution of contaminants. If fluorescence of material expected to contaminate surface is not intense, tagged with low concentration of dye.

  3. Test and evaluation of radioactively contaminated transducers and transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahm, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    People in the nuclear industries face some unique problems when handling, testing, or examining transducers and transmitters that have been radioactively contaminated. Although many people and organizations, including EG and G Idaho, have performed such work for many years, there are no set, structured approaches or procedures. This paper discusses a disciplined laboratory approach to contaminated transducer testing and evaluation, utilizing equipment and facilities developed specifically for this type of work

  4. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-01-01

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release

  5. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  6. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  7. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  8. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  9. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  10. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  11. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  12. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  13. Improved Understanding of Fenton-like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watts, Richard J; Loge, Frank; Teel, Amy L

    2006-01-01

    .... However, the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, promoted by natural iron and manganese oxides in the subsurface, has previously limited the utility of CHP for the remediation of contaminated...

  14. Utilizing Earth Observations for Reaching Sustainable Development Goals in Water, Sanitation and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Nusrat, F.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Alam, M.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals call for universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, improvement of water quality, and adequate and equitable sanitation for all, with special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations (Goal 6). In addition, the world community also aims to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other infectious diseases (Goal 3). Water and sanitation-related diseases remain the leading causes of death in children under five, mostly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, due to diarrheal diseases linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise substantially. More than 80 per cent of wastewater resulting from human activities is also discharged into rivers or sea without any treatment and poor water quality controls. As a result, around 1.8 billion people globally are still forced to use a source of drinking water that is fecally contaminated. Earth observation techniques provide the most effective and encompassing tool to monitor both regional and local scale changes in water quality and quantity, impacts of droughts and flooding, and water resources vulnerabilities in delta regions around the globe. University of Rhode Island, along with partners in the US and Bangladesh, is using satellite remote sensing datasets and earth observation techniques to develop a series of tools for surveillance, analysis and decision support for various government, academic, and non-government stakeholder organizations in South-Asia to achieve sustainable development goals in 1) providing safe water and sanitation access in vulnerable regions through safe water resources mapping, 2) providing increasing access to medicine and vaccines through estimation of disease burden and

  15. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  18. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  19. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  20. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  1. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  2. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  3. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  4. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M.; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; Watson, David B.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Alm, Eric J.; Adams, Paul D.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth’s biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly (P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. PMID:29463661

  5. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth’s biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN, representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5 increased significantly (P < 0.05 as uranium or nitrate increased, and their changes could be used to successfully predict uranium and nitrate contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning.

  6. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGraw, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Sigda, J.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

  7. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  8. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Elias, Dwayne A; Watson, David B; Adams, Michael W W; Fields, Matthew W; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Adams, Paul D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-02-20

    Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth's biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly ( P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. IMPORTANCE Disentangling the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important but poorly understood topic in ecology. Predicting ecosystem functioning on the basis of biodiversity is even more difficult, particularly with microbial biomarkers. As an exploratory effort, this study used key microbial functional genes as biomarkers to provide predictive understanding of environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. The results indicated that the overall functional gene richness/diversity decreased as uranium increased in groundwater, while specific key microbial guilds increased significantly as

  9. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  10. Real-time discriminatory sensors for water contamination events :LDRD 52595 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III (; ); Carrejo-Simpkins, Kimberly; Wheeler, David Roger; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Goodin, Andrew M.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Chambers, William Clayton; Mowry, Curtis Dale (1722 Micro-Total-Analytical Systems); Showalter, Steven Kedrick

    2005-10-01

    The gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} developed by Sandia can detect volatile organics and semi-volatiles organics via gas phase sampling . The goal of this three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to adapt the components and concepts used by the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} system towards the analysis of water-borne chemicals of current concern. In essence, interfacing the gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} with water to bring the significant prior investment of Sandia and the advantages of microfabrication and portable analysis to a whole new world of important analytes. These include both chemical weapons agents and their hydrolysis products and disinfection by-products such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). THMs and HAAs are currently regulated by EPA due to health issues, yet water utilities do not have rapid on-site methods of detection that would allow them to adjust their processes quickly; protecting consumers, meeting water quality standards, and obeying regulations more easily and with greater confidence. This report documents the results, unique hardware and devices, and methods designed during the project toward the goal stated above. It also presents and discusses the portable field system to measure THMs developed in the course of this project.

  11. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  12. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  13. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  14. Electrolyze radioactive contamination away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility is using electrolysis to clean the surfaces of hazardous materials. In the past, contaminated metals were cleaned with concentrated acids. Although these treatments make the surfaces safer, they produce other radioactive and toxic wastes in turn. Anodic current passes through a piece of stainless steel submersed in a sodium nitrate solution, and steel dissolves at the surfaces. Surface contamination strips away along with the surface layers. The authors are using this electrolysis approach to remove plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium. Unlike acid washing processes, electrolytic decontamination can be accomplished quickly. Little waste is generated regardless of how much material has to be removed from the surface. Material removal is proportional to the applied current, which gives the operator control over the rate and extent of decontamination

  15. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  16. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  17. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  19. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norzila Othman; Mohd Irwan Juki; Norhana Hussain; Suhaimi Abdul Talib

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compou...

  20. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  1. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  2. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.E.; Carnevale, R.H.; McCormack, B.E.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von

    1995-01-01

    Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NB Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NB source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling, test apparatus, and three-axis coordinate measuring equipment; purchasing and fabricating fume hoods; installing exhaust vents; and providing a controlled negative pressure environment in the source degreaser/decon area. Appropriate air flow monitors, pressure indicators, tritium detectors and safety alarms were also included. The effectiveness of various decontamination methods was explored while the activation was monitored. Procedures and methods were developed to permit complete disassembly and rebuild of an ion source while continuously exhausting the internal volume to the TFTR Stack to avoid concentrations of tritium from outgassing and minimize personnel exposure. This paper presents upgrades made to the LPIS repair facility, various repair tasks performed, and discusses the effectiveness of the decontamination processes utilized

  4. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  5. Contamination trapped in a cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sender, E.

    2003-01-01

    Some abandoned industrial sites are so strongly contaminated that they threaten to contaminate underground waters. Pollutants are driven through the soil by raining waters. The principle of the ''hydro-Faraday'' cage is to prevent raining waters from flowing through the contaminated part of the soil. The cage is in fact a structure of buried drain tubes that envelop the contaminated zone. Physics make waters flow through the tubes rather than the soil, so the contaminated zone receives no more water and as a consequence pollutants are stopped in their way towards the phreatic bed. (A.C.)

  6. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. Isolation of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria from different ecological sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Choudri, S.F.; Hameed, A.

    1991-01-01

    Among the various samples from different ecological sources oil contaminated soil samples and waste from sugar processing industry were found to have bacterial populations with ability of utilizing oil. In addition to oil, molasses base medium was also used to study the utilizing ability. Selection was made on the basis on the high gas production, decrease in pH, percentage of oil consumed and bacterial counts. Fermented scum and oil contaminated soil from Sehala (Islamabad) were found to contain microbes having maximum oil degrading ability. The bacterial isolates belong to the genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia. (author)

  8. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  9. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  10. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  11. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  12. Oxidative response of wetland macrophytes in response to contaminants of abiotic components of East Kolkata wetland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Sudin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tannery effluent and composite municipal sewage water drained to the East Kolkata wetland (EKW, a Ramsar Site (1208, is used for agriculture and pisciculture after natural stabilization. Such composite wastewater is characterized by exceedingly high total dissolved solids, total hardness, chloride and heavy metals concentrations. These water born pollutants generate reactive oxygen species which are potentially toxic to the biological system. These reactive oxygen species are normally detoxified by some enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. The present study was commenced to find out the SOD and CAT activities against the oxidative stress, if any, in four macrophytes namely, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, Alternanthera sessilis and Sagittarria montevidensis of contaminated ponds (Site 1 and Site 2 of EKW and an uncontaminated site (Control site. During the course of sampling the physico-chemical factors were found significantly higher in the EKW ponds compared to the control site. In the EKW sites, higher rate of evaporation during summer months caused higher elemental concentration in the premonsoon than in other seasons. This led to high activity of both SOD and CAT enzymes. In contrast, heavy rain fall in monsoon lowers the elemental concentration - mainly due to dilution effect. Present experiment indicated that in a stressed ecosystem like EKW, the wetland plants overcome the stress by altering their stress enzyme activities, hence suggesting an evidence of adaptive mechanism to thrive in a stressful environment.

  13. Assessment of the contaminants level in recycled aggregates and alternative new technologies for contaminants recognition and removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotfi, S.; Di Maio, F.; Xia, H.; Serranti, S.; Palmieri, R.; Bonifazi, G.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenging problems associated with the use of Recycled Aggregates (RA) is the level of mixed contaminants. For utilizing RA in high-grade applications, it is essential to monitor and minimise the content of the pollutants. To this extent the C2CA concrete recycling process

  14. Radiologically contaminated lead shot reuse at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heileson, W.M.; Grant, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    This project involved the utilization of radioactively contaminated lead shot located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for radiation shielding on a radioactive liquid process tank located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The use of previously contaminated shot precludes the radioactive contamination of clean shot. With limited treatment and disposal options for contaminated lead shot, the reuse of lead for shielding is significant due to the inherent characteristic of becoming a mixed waste when radiologically contaminated. The INEL conducted a lead cleanup campaign in 1990. This was designed to ensure control of potential Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated waste. Contaminated lead from throughout the INEL, was containerized per the lead Waste Acceptance Criteria at the generator sites. Limited areas at the INEL are designated for mixed waste storage. As a result, some of the lead was stored at the RWMC in the air support weather shield (ASWS). This lead was contaminated with small amounts of fission product contamination. The lead was in the form of shot, brick, sheet, casks, and other various sized pieces. In 1993, ANL-W identified a need for lead shot to be used as shielding in a radioactive liquid waste storage and processing tank at the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The contaminated lead used on this project had been in storage as mixed waste at the RWMC. This paper will focus on the processes and problems encountered to utilize the contaminated lead shot

  15. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  16. Soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  17. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  18. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Name\tRomsyah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all stages of production. Pre harvest control is conducted through the selection of resistant varieties, insect control and weeds management mechanically or applying fungicides and herbicides, plant rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as biological control . Harvesting at the right time using clean equipments from fungal contamination and insect infestation avoids the contamination of mycotoxins . Post harvest control by physical selection, washing and dilution, drying, storage, application of chemicals and binding agents, natural products, nutrients and vitamins, microbiological control, heating and radiation could also minimize mycotoxin in food and feed . Although chemicals can effectively reduce mycotoxin, the use of those on food/feed should be considered the safety . The addition of natural products, nutrition supplements and vitamins suppress the negative effect of mycotoxin on animals . The use of non-toxigenic fungi and other microbes as biological control is the effective and safe methods for food/feed . The implementation of integrated mycotoxin control system by utilizing the HACCP concept would meet the qualified and safe food/feed products .

  19. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  20. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  1. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  2. Adsorption and desorption of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL's are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry

  3. Spent fuel transportation - lessons drawn and ways forward: European utilities perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.; Schimmele, J.G.; Sannen, H.; Patak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Surface contamination that was found on surfaces of spent fuel shipping containers (flasks) in 1998 was treated differently by authorities in different European countries. In two countries, Germany and Switzerland, spent fuel shipments were stopped for an indefinite period by Government authorities. This paper, co-authored by representatives of utilities from four European countries, explains the rationale for surface contamination limits in transport regulations and attempts to place the observed contamination in proper perspective. (author)

  4. A cleanroom contamination control system

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, W.; Eaton, T.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical methods for hazard and risk analysis are being considered for controlling contamination\\ud in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. The most suitable method appears to be the HACCP system that has\\ud been developed for the food industry, but this requires some reinterpretation for use in\\ud pharmaceutical manufacturing. This paper suggests a possible system.\\ud To control contamination effectively, it is necessary to have a good appreciation of the routes and\\ud sources of contamination, and ...

  5. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  6. Forestry on the contamination territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrov, A.I.; Kovalev, S.D.; Zhukovskaya, O.V.; Drobyshevskaya, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The common characteristic of a contamination of the Belarus' forests by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident is indicated. The recommendations for population about the picking up the mushrooms, berries, juices, medicinal herbs, preparation of forages, wood and other production in the contaminated forests are given. The information about the using of forests in depending on a level of the soil contamination is given. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  8. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  9. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Teng, Quincy; Ankley, Gerald T.; Berninger, Jason P.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Collette, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the biological impacts of potentially toxic contaminants, profiling of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) may help screen out contaminants with a lower likelihood of eliciting biological impacts, thereby prioritizing the most biologically important contaminants. The authors present results from a study that utilized cage-deployed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at 18 sites across the Great Lakes basin. They measured water temperature and contaminant concentrations in water samples (132 contaminants targeted, 86 detected) and used 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure endogenous metabolites in polar extracts of livers. They used partial least-squares regression to compare relative abundances of endogenous metabolites with contaminant concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that profiles of endogenous polar metabolites covaried with at most 49 contaminants. The authors identified up to 52% of detected contaminants as not significantly covarying with changes in endogenous metabolites, suggesting they likely were not eliciting measurable impacts at these sites. This represents a first step in screening for the biological relevance of detected contaminants by shortening lists of contaminants potentially affecting these sites. Such information may allow risk assessors to prioritize contaminants and focus toxicity testing on the most biologically relevant contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2493–2502.

  10. Contamination control plan for prelaunch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A unified, systematic plan is presented for contamination control for space flight systems. Allowable contaminant quantities, or contamination budgets, are determined based on system performance margins and system-level allowable degradations. These contamination budgets are compared to contamination rates in ground environments to establish the controls required in each ground environment. The use of feedback from contamination monitoring and some contamination control procedures are discussed.

  11. PRAMU. Contamination sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.

    2000-01-01

    Mining and milling activities have been carried out in Argentina during the last 40 years, and nowadays National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to achieve that in all the places where uranium mining activities were developed, to restore the environment as much as it is possible, according to the legislation in force. The sites which are studied are: Malargue (Mendoza province), Cordoba (Cordoba province), Los Gigantes (Cordoba province), Huemul (Mendoza province), Pichinan (Chubut province), Tonco (Salta province), La Estela (San Luis province), Los Colorados (La Rioja province). In order to develop the restoration project in each site, one of the first task to be performed is to know quantities and the chemical, physicals and radiological characteristics of the contamination sources. In the present paper the activities of PRAMU in this field, are informed. (author)

  12. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L P; Slade, J A; Vijayan, S; Wong, C F

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Slade, J.A.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.

    1993-04-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with conventional reverse osmosis membranes to achieve volume reduction factors approaching 100. Microfiltration removes particles below the rating of 0.2 microns, in part from particle agglomeration. Operating experience relating to a 15 USGPM unit is presented. Coupling microfiltration technology with chemical treatment enhances the removal of soluble species. Research and development experience with the removal of soluble contaminants found in ground water and waste water will be discussed. The technology has advantages over other membrane technologies, namely lower energy costs, a lesser degree of fouling, and a higher recovery of processed solution. Future applications of the technology are addressed. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  15. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  16. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  17. Creosote-contaminated sites: their potential for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J G; Chapman, P J; Pritchard, P H [US EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA)

    1989-10-01

    Coal tar creosote contamination is generally associated with surface soils, waters in treatment lagoons or evaporation areas, and groundwater contaminated with leachate from the above sources. The basic principle of bioremediation is to exploit the ability of microorganisms to catabolize a wide range of organic substrates. There are limitations which much be addressed if in situ bioremediation is to be successful: the pollutant must be in a chemical state conducive to microbial utilization, aeration and nutrient supplementation are essential elements of many in situ treatments, and there must be present an acclimated microbial population capable of degrading the pollutant. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  19. Soil contamination with cadmium, consequences and remediation using organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Anwarzeb; Alam, Mehboob

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops. The stabilization of Cd in contaminated soil using organic amendments is an environmentally friendly and cost effective technique used for remediation of moderate to high contaminated soil. Globally, substantial amounts of organic waste are generated every day that can be used as a source of nutrients, and also as conditioners to improve soil quality. This review paper focuses on the sources, generation, and use of different organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil, discusses their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Cd bioavailability, plant uptake, and human health risk. Moreover, it also provides an update of the most relevant findings about the application of organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil and associated mechanisms. Finally, future research needs and directions for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil using organic amendments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  1. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  2. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  3. Management of internal contamination accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns with the techniques for intakes assessment which depend on the mode and level of intake, the type of energy of the radiation emitted, the biokinetic of the contaminant, and the sensitivity and availability of measurement facilities. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used to quantify internal contaminations

  4. Direct probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. Geostatistical simulation provides powerful tools for investigating contaminant levels, and in particular, for identifying and using the spatial interrelationships among a set of isolated sample values. This additional information can be used to assess the likelihood of encountering contamination at unsampled locations and to evaluate the risk associated with decisions to remediate or not to remediate specific regions within a site. Past operation of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center has contaminated a site near Fernald, Ohio, with natural uranium. Soil geochemical data have been collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project. These data have been used to construct a number of stochastic images of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit. Each such image accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely, statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination. Evaluation of the geostatistical simulations can yield maps representing the expected magnitude of the contamination for various regions and other information that may be important in determining a suitable remediation process or in sizing equipment to accomplish the restoration

  5. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  6. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  7. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  8. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  9. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  10. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  11. A critical assessment of asphalt batching as a viable remedial option for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, E.J.; Brashears, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt production equipment has been successfully utilized in the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper reports that there are two major ways in which this equipment can be used to remediate the petroleum contaminated soils; by incorporating the contaminated soil in the hot mix asphalt product or by using the equipment to clean the soil thermally of the contaminant, leaving a clean soil material. Both of these processes have limitations encompassing technical, political, and certainly liability problems. The remediation of contaminated soil in hot mix asphalt facilities is primarily a physical phenomenon relying on laws of heat and mass transfer. Although chemical changes do occur, the primary function of the process is to cause a physical separation of the contaminant from the soils

  12. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  13. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  14. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  15. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  16. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  17. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  18. Economical weight loss program for PCB-contaminated ballasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.

    1995-01-01

    A PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) reduction process for PCB-contaminated ballasts was described. The process was developed by such organizations and programs as PCB Containment Technology Inc, and the Contech Ballast Reduction Program, and was claimed to include waste reduction of lighting ballasts down to their smallest PCB contaminated components. Particular attention was paid to the two most contaminated main components, i.e. the capacitor and the tar potting material. Development of the process and the government's role and participation therein was explained. The process of ballast reduction was said to utilize the old 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' theory; it was considered to be a cost effective waste reduction, recycling, and auditing alternative to incineration of PCBs

  19. Melting-decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Miura, Noboru; Iba, Hajime.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate uranium components remaining in metals even after the uranium-contaminated metals are melted. Method: Metal wastes contaminated with actinide element or its compound as nuclear fuel substance are melted in a crucible. Molten metals are fallen through a filter disposed at the bottom of the crucible into another receiving crucible. Uranium compounds are still left in the molten metal fallen in the receiving crucible. The residual uranium compounds are concentrated by utilizing the principle of the zone-refining process. That is, a displaceable local-heating heater is disposed to the receiving crucible, by which metals once solidified in the receiving crucible is again heated locally to transfer from solid to molten phase in a quasi-equibilized manner. In this way, by eliminating the end of the metal rod at which the uranium is segregated, the contaminating coefficient can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  1. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  2. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  3. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  4. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  5. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  6. Evaluation of decontamination during dismantling of plutonium-contaminated glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Manabu; Taguchi, Seigi; Ohzeki, Satoru; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1981-01-01

    The dismantling work of plutonium-contaminated glove boxes was carried out. These glove boxes had been used for the R and D of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel for 15 years. The work was carried out in a pressure-controlled greenhouse, and the contamination of air in the greenhouse was monitored continuously. In order to reduce the contamination of air during dismantling, the decontamination and fixation of loose contaminants on the surfaces of glove boxes were very important. The correlation between decontamination and the contamination of air regarding dismantling is reported in this paper. The surface contamination density of the glove boxes was measured utilizing the smear method before and after the decontamination, and the decontamination effects were estimated. The contamination of air during dismantling was continuously measured with a plutonium dust monitor. It was found that loose contamination exponentially decreased by the decontamination process. When the so-called wet glove boxes, which contained wet recovery and waste disposal apparatus, were dismantled, the contamination of air did not exceed 500 (MPC) a. However, the contamination of air exceeded 500 (MPC) a several times in the present work of dismantling the so-called dry glove boxes which had been used for the fabrication of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide pellets. (Kato, T.)

  7. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  8. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute

  9. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  10. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  11. Nitrate contamination of groundwater: A conceptual management framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Mohammad N.

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, public concern over the deterioration of groundwater quality from nitrate contamination has grown significantly in recent years. This concern has focused increasingly on anthropogenic sources as the potential cause of the problem. Evidence indicates that the nitrate (NO 3 ) levels routinely exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/l NO 3 -N in many aquifer systems that underlie agriculture-dominated watersheds. Degradation of groundwater quality due to nitrate pollution along with the increasing demand for potable water has motivated the adoption of restoration actions of the contaminated aquifers. Restoration efforts have intensified the dire need for developing protection alternatives and management options such that the ultimate nitrate concentrations at the critical receptors are below the MCL. This paper presents a general conceptual framework for the management of groundwater contamination from nitrate. The management framework utilizes models of nitrate fate and transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones to simulate nitrate concentration at the critical receptors. To study the impact of different management options considering both environmental and economic aspects, the proposed framework incorporates a component of a multi-criteria decision analysis. To enhance spatiality in model development along with the management options, the utilization of a land use map is depicted for the allocation and computation of on-ground nitrogen loadings from the different sources

  12. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  13. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  14. Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant Dinitrotoluene (DNT) including physical and chemical properties.

  15. Mercury contamination in the Amazon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    contamination is mainly caused by deforestation upstream. ... The team expected to find that the mercury levels in the water, sediment, and soil decreased as they ... Methylmercury poisoning — known as Minamata Disease after the Japanese ...

  16. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  17. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  18. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  19. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  20. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  1. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  2. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  3. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  4. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  5. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The present paper reports the first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  6. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  7. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity is reported. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  8. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  9. Biological technologies for the remediation of co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujing; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Dai, Juan; Liang, Jie; Yu, Jiangfang; Ren, Xiaoya; Yi, Huan; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil. Biological remediation technologies, as the eco-friendly methods, have received widespread concern due to soil improvement besides remediation. This review summarizes the application of biological technologies, which contains microbial technologies (function microbial remediation and composting or compost addition), biochar, phytoremediation technologies, genetic engineering technologies and biochemical technologies, for the remediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Mechanisms of these technologies and their remediation efficiencies are also reviewed. Based on this study, this review also identifies the future research required in this field.

  10. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Middlesex Municipal Landfill is located in Middlesex, New Jersey, about 29 km southwest of Newark, New Jersey. It is one of several properties in the Borrough of Middlesex and Township of Piscataway that have been identified as being radioactively contaminated as a result of work that was carried out on various uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores at the Middlesex Sampling Plant. Most of the contaminated properties have been cleaned up and the contaminated materials are being stored in a large interim storage pile at the sampling plant site. In 1948, during some renovations at the sampling plant, about 4,600 m/sup 3/ of excess soil contaminated with uranium ore was apparently transported and disposed in the landfill gully area next to Bound Brook. In 1961, the Atomic Energy Commission removed about 500 m/sup 3/ of near-surface radioactively contaminated material from the landfill and covered the area with 0.6 m of clean soil. From 1961 to 1974 (when the landfill was closed), an additional 2.4 to 3.0 m of fill material was placed in the landfill. Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the U.S. Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m/sup 3/ of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m/sup 3/ was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage

  11. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  12. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  13. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  14. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  15. Catchment Models and Management Tools for diffuse Contaminants (Sediment, Phosphorus and Pesticides): DIFFUSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Eva; Reaney, Simeon; Mellander, Per-Erik; Wade, Andrew; Collins, Adrian; Arheimer, Berit; Bruen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural sector is the most common suspected source of nutrient pollution in Irish rivers. However, it is also often the most difficult source to characterise due to its predominantly diffuse nature. Particulate phosphorus in surface water and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater are of particular concern in Irish water bodies. Hence the further development of models and indices to assess diffuse sources of contaminants are required for use by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide support for river basin planning. Understanding connectivity in the landscape is a vital component of characterising the source-pathway-receptor relationships for water-borne contaminants, and hence is a priority in this research. The DIFFUSE Project will focus on connectivity modelling and incorporation of connectivity into sediment, nutrient and pesticide risk mapping. The Irish approach to understanding and managing natural water bodies has developed substantially in recent years assisted by outputs from multiple research projects, including modelling and analysis tools developed during the Pathways and CatchmentTools projects. These include the Pollution Impact Potential (PIP) maps, which are an example of research output that is used by the EPA to support catchment management. The PIP maps integrate an understanding of the pollution pressures and mobilisation pathways and, using the source-pathways-receptor model, provide a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures. These maps indicate the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors and delineate critical source areas (CSAs) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. Building on this previous research, the DIFFUSE Project will develop revised and new catchment managements tools focused on connectivity, sediment, phosphorus and pesticides. The DIFFUSE project will strive to identify the state

  16. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  17. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)

    2010-06-17

    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  18. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  19. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  20. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun; Bordatchev, Evgueni

    2012-01-01

    The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant–object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function

  2. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  3. Redispersion of indoor surface contamination: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansone, E.B.; Slein, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of surface contamination as a potential source of exposure to hazardous materials is discussed. Data from the literature concerning the resuspension of indoor surface contamination are presented. Reported procedures for quantitating surface contamination are compared. It is suggested that, despite its limitations, surface contamination monitoring may be useful in estimating potential risks from hazardous materials. (Auth.)

  4. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such as...

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counter Contamination Limits for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    assurance testing though conducting periodic fuel sampling for gravimetric analysis. The Army currently utilizes two methods for measuring particulate...contamination by gravimetric analysis: ASTM D2276 - Standard Test Method for Particulate Contaminant in Aviation Fuel by Line Sampling, and ASTM D5452...while filter effectiveness is checked every 30 days by gravimetric analysis (ASTM D2276). One of the problems with the gravimetric methods is the

  6. Storage vessel for radiation contaminated container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Tadatsugu.

    1996-01-01

    In a storage vessel of the present invention, a plurality of radiation contaminated material containing bodies are vertically stacked in a cell chamber. Then, the storage vessel comprises a containing tube for containing a plurality of the containing bodies, cooling coils wound around the containing tube, a cooling medium circulating system connected to the cooling coils and circulating cooling medium, and a heat exchanger interposed to the cooling medium circulating system for removing heat of the cooling medium. Heat of the radioactive material containing bodies is transferred to cooling air and cooling coils by way of the container tube, thereby cooling the containing bodies. By the operation of circulating pumps in a cooling medium circulation system, the cooling medium circulates through a circulation channel comprising a cooling medium transfer pipes, cooling medium branching tubes, cooling coils and the heat exchanger, then heat of the cooling medium is transferred to a heat utilizing system by way of the heat exchanger to attain effective utilization of the heat. In this case, heat can be taken out stably even when the storage amount fluctuates and heat releasing amount is reduced, and improvement of heat transfer promotes the cooling of the containing bodies, which enables minimization of the size of the storage vessel. (T.M.)

  7. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.; Siegel, Frederic R.

    1992-03-01

    The wood of tuliptrees ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination.

  8. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  9. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Practical experiences with the biodegradation of soil contaminants. Biologische Sanierung kontaminierter Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, G A [Umweltschutz Nord GmbH, Ganderkesee (Germany)

    1991-10-01

    The bioremediation of contaminated soil by microbiological degradation fundmentally depends on the ability of bacteria and fungi to utilize contaminants as sources of energy and nutrients. Optimization of the environmental conditions enhances and maximizes the degradation potency of the microbes. Only the combination of practice-relating research, high technology, and applied microbiological know-how guarantees successful clean-up results. Contaminated soils which occur by accidents and contaminated sites, e.g. old gasworks, refineries, airports, and gasoline stations are the preferred operational areas of this method. Selected examples of successful bioremediations illustrate, that this microbiological clean-up has left the experimental phase a long time ago. On the basis of this experience it is possible to degrade complex contaminants like cyanides. PAH and other organics by biological treatment. (orig.).

  11. Microbe and Mineral Mediated Transformation of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms influence their surroundings in many ways and humans have utilized microbially catalyzed reactions for benefit for centuries. Over the past few decades, microorganisms have been used for the control of contaminant transport in subsurface environments where many microbe mineral interactions occur. This presentation will discuss microbially influenced mineral formation and transformation as well as their influence on the fate of organic contaminants such as chlorinated aliphatics & 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), heavy metals such as chromium, and radionuclides such as uranium & strontium. Both, batch and flow experiments have been performed, which monitor the net effect of microbe mineral interactions on the fate of these contaminants. This invited presentation will place an emphasis on the relative importance of direct microbial (i.e. biotic) transformations, mineral-mediated transformations as well as other abiotic reactions influencing the fate of environmental contaminants. Experiments will be summarized and placed in context of past and future engineered applications for the control of subsurface contaminants.

  12. Phytoremediation of soils and water contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, J.E.; Huddleston, G.J.; Levine, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    At many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and other sites, large volumes of soils, sediments and waters are contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. In response, the DOE's Office of Technology Development is evaluating the emerging biotechnology known as phytoremediation; this approach utilizes the accelerated transfer of contaminant mass from solution to either root or above ground biomass. After growth, the plant biomass - containing 100 to 1,000 times the contaminant levels observed with conventional plants - is processed to achieve further volume reduction and contaminant concentration. Thus, phytoremediation offers the potential for low cost remediation of highly to moderately contaminated media. Progress made to date by DOE in developing this technology will be summarized and evaluated

  13. Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation's strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site's soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site's southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald's mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald

  14. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  17. Radiocesium contamination and the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Raunistola, T.; Jones, B.E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The high transfer factors calculated for radiocesium in this study are partly due to the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. Seasonal changes in grazing plant selection caused a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium in reindeer during winter feeding conditions was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved from a high (> 20 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) to a low (> 3 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) contamination area. During natural grazing conditions the fractional transfer of Cs-137 was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime in the low-contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime after grazing on highly contaminated pastures. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in reindeer lichens was seven to ten years both before and after the Chernobyl accident. In areas with initially high contamination the half-life was shorter, 6.2±0.9 years, than in areas with lower contamination, 15.0 ± 5.1 years. In heather, bilberry and crowberry negative effective half-lives, increasing concentrations, were observed. Precipitation during the growth period could change the Cs-137 activity of some plant species. (au) (32 refs.)

  18. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  19. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  20. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  1. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  2. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  3. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  4. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  5. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  6. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  7. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  8. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  9. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  10. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref

  11. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhardt, A.

    1956-01-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [fr

  12. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  13. Geoelectrical mapping and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rainer

    Specific electrical resistivity of near-surface materials is mainly controlled by the groundwater content and thus reacts extremely sensitive to any change in the ion content. Geoelectric mapping is a well-established, simple, and inexpensive technique for observing areal distributions of apparent specific electrical resistivities. These are a composite result of the true resistivities in the underground, and with some additional information the mapping of apparent resistivities can help to delineate low-resistivity groundwater contaminations, typically observed downstream from sanitary landfills and other waste sites. The presence of other good conductors close to the surface, mainly clays, is a serious noise source and has to be sorted out by supporting observations of conductivities in wells and geoelectric depth soundings. The method may be used to monitor the extent of groundwater contamination at a specific time as well as the change of a contamination plume with time, by carrying out repeated measurements. Examples for both are presented.

  14. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  15. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  16. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  17. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  18. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  19. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  20. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioleaching of multiple metals from contaminated sediment by moderate thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Zhu, Jianyu; Liu, Xinxing

    2015-08-15

    A moderately thermophilic consortium was applied in bioleaching multiple metals from contaminated sediment. The consortium got higher acidification and metals soubilization efficiency than that of the pure strains. The synergistic effect of the thermophilic consortium accelerated substrates utilization. The utilization of substrate started with sulfur in the early stage, and then the pH declined, giving rise to making use of the pyrite. Community dynamic showed that A. caldus was the predominant bacteria during the whole bioleaching process while the abundance of S. thermotolerans increased together with pyrite utilization. Solubilization efficiency of Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd reached 98%, 94%, 95%, and 89% respectively, while As, Hg, Pb was only 45%, 34%, 22%. Logistic model was used to simulate the bioleaching process, whose fitting degree was higher than 90%. Correlation analysis revealed that metal leaching was mainly an acid solubilization process. Fraction analysis revealed that metals decreased in mobility and bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  3. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  4. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  5. Dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities raises specific problems. A large part of these problems relates to the management of the waste resulting from dismantling. From the experience gained in the different centers CEA and COGEMA it appears that there are industrial solutions in the group CEA and that an engineering company such as SGN can export them [fr

  6. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  7. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  8. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  9. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageets, V.Yu.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Skurat, V.V.; Tikhonova, L.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.; Ipat'ev, V.A.; Klimova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the activity is development of the scientific reasonable projects of socio-economic and social-psychological rehabilitation of specific areas and populated localities on the contaminated territories of the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions. The results of economic researches allow to decrease expenses for realization of protective measures, to increase feedback of counter-measures, to speed up process of development of the plans and their realization, to decrease the labour input of planning of the rehabilitation measures, to increase quantity of considered alternative variants of strategy of the contaminated regions rehabilitation. On the basis of the sociological and psychological researches the recommendations for the most effective formation of adaptation strategies of behaviour of the people on the contaminated territories, formation of post accidental culture and active life image at teenagers, ways of fastening of youth in these areas, more address specialized social support and protection of the irradiated persons, perfection of social demographic policy on rehabilitated territories are offered. In the report are described following directions: scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  11. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  12. Molecular contamination math model support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R.

    1983-01-01

    The operation and features of a preprocessor for the Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation Program Version 2) are described. A preliminary preprocessor for SPACE 2 is developed. Further refinements and enhancements of the preprocessor to insure complete user friendly operation, are recommended.

  13. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  14. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  15. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  16. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  17. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  18. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  19. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  20. Efficient Bayesian experimental design for contaminant source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangjiang; Zeng, Lingzao; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Dingjiang; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an efficient full Bayesian approach is developed for the optimal sampling well location design and source parameters identification of groundwater contaminants. An information measure, i.e., the relative entropy, is employed to quantify the information gain from concentration measurements in identifying unknown parameters. In this approach, the sampling locations that give the maximum expected relative entropy are selected as the optimal design. After the sampling locations are determined, a Bayesian approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to estimate unknown parameters. In both the design and estimation, the contaminant transport equation is required to be solved many times to evaluate the likelihood. To reduce the computational burden, an interpolation method based on the adaptive sparse grid is utilized to construct a surrogate for the contaminant transport equation. The approximated likelihood can be evaluated directly from the surrogate, which greatly accelerates the design and estimation process. The accuracy and efficiency of our approach are demonstrated through numerical case studies. It is shown that the methods can be used to assist in both single sampling location and monitoring network design for contaminant source identifications in groundwater.

  1. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  2. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  3. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  4. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  6. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic algae and an important member of the silicon utilizing organisms, that generate ~20% of the ~100 billion metric tons of organic carbon produced through photosynthesis on Earth each year. Fragilariopsis is a dominating psychrophilic diatom genus in polar sea ice. The two species Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta are able to grow and divide below freezing temperature. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), involved in cold adaptation in several psychrophilic organisms, are widespread in this two polar species. Achanthes minutissima isolated as dominant diatom has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. Other antibacterial compounds are monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria and many Gram-negative pathogen. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Domoic acid -a neurotoxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia accumulates in marine invertebrates. Evidences of sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and human poisoning following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is mainly due to this toxin. Among the most prominent features described in human beings was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Silicon utilizing organisms can act as a bioindicator of environmental contamination, thus a rapid change in phytochelatins to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress was found in Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii. Some of them also can produce biofuels particularly diatoms have significant

  7. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  8. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  10. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  11. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  12. Removable coating for contamination protection of concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Beaulardi, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to research protective coatings for concrete surfaces, assuring an effective protection against contamination and that it be easily removed before dismantling the structures, commercial stripping paints have been characterized for their conventional and nuclear properties: water and chemicals, abrasion, impact, tensile stress resistance, stripping capacity, decontaminability. The protective power of the coatings against contamination has been checked by recording the surface activity before and after stripping the paint film: the activity filtered through the coating was, in any case, very low (< 1% of the deposited activity). Indications from large scale application of a stripping paint in NUCLEO (Rome) establishments and technical evaluation of the possible utilization of removable coatings in the CAORSO Nuclear Power Station, are also reported

  13. Assessment of arsenic surface contamination in a museum anthropology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovich, Andrey; Lacey, Steven; Franke, John; Hinkamp, David

    2013-02-01

    To assess potential arsenic (As) contamination of work surfaces to improve upon the control strategy at an anthropology department in a large natural history museum. Work practices were observed and control strategy reviewed to inform an occupational hygiene assessment strategy utilizing surface wipe sampling. A total of 35 sampling targets were identified, focusing on surfaces that receive high touch traffic, including workstations, artifact transport carts, and elevator buttons. Arsenic sampling and analysis were performed using reference method Occupational Safety and Health Administration ID-125G. Four of the sampling areas returned detectable levels of As, ranging from 0.052 to 0.350 μg/100 cm. Workplace observations and wipe sampling data enabled the development of recommendations to help to further reduce potential occupational exposure to As. Continuous reduction of surface contamination is prudent for known human carcinogens.

  14. Sites in the United States contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbarst, A.B.; Blom, P.F.; Chan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the century that radioactive materials have been mined, processed, produced, and utilized, many sites across the US have become contaminated. Such sites include bases and installations of the Department of Defense, weapons production and research facilities of the Department of Energy, properties under the authority of other Federal agencies, privately-owned and governmental facilities that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Agreement States, and sites licensed by or the responsibility of states. This review reports on aspects of work by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others to identify sites contaminated with radioactive materials. It also describes the principal programs that have been instituted to deal with them

  15. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 m 3 of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 m 3 was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant

  16. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Holliger, Christof; Gaspard, Sarra; Glod, Guy; Heijman, Cornelis; Schumacher, Wolfram; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Vazquez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low ...

  17. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliger, C; Gaspard, S; Glod, G; Heijman, C; Schumacher, W; Schwarzenbach, R P; Vazquez, F

    1997-07-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low biomass production and good electron acceptor availability, and they are sometimes the only possible solution. This review will focus on three important groups of environmental organic contaminants: hydrocarbons, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds. Whereas hydrocarbons are oxidized and completely mineralized under anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron acceptors such as nitrate, iron, sulfate and carbon dioxide, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds are reductively transformed. For the aerobic often persistent polychlorinated compounds, reductive dechlorination leads to harmless products or to compounds that are aerobically degradable. The nitroaromatic compounds are first reductively transformed to the corresponding amines and can subsequently be bound to the humic fraction in an aerobic process. Such new findings and developments give hope that in the near future contaminated aquifers can efficiently be remediated, a prerequisite for a sustainable use of the precious-subsurface drinking water resources.

  18. Materials contamination control in the microelectronic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with many aspects of the contamination of materials in the microelectronic industry. The contamination's control of chemicals, process gases, silicon and the survey of the ions free water's purity are treated. (TEC). 29 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  20. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  1. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  2. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  3. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Karrow, N A; Boermans, H J

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The diets included (1) control; (2) low level of contaminated grains (5.9 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON), 19.1 mg/kg fusaric acid (FA), 0.4 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.3 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; (3) high level of contaminated grains (9.5 mg/kg DON, 21.4 mg/kg FA, 0.7 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.5 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol); and (4) high level of contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer). Body weight gains and feed consumption of chickens fed contaminated grains decreased linearly with the inclusion of contaminated grains during the grower phase (d 21 to 42). Efficiency of feed utilization, however, was not affected by diet. Production parameters were not significantly affected by the supplementation of GM polymer to the contaminated grains. Peripheral blood monocytes decreased linearly in birds fed contaminated grains. The feeding of contaminated diets linearly reduced the B-cell count at the end of the experiment, whereas the T-cell count on d 28 responded quadratically to the contaminated diets. The feeding of contaminated diets did not significantly alter serum or bile immunoglobulin concentrations, contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, or antibody response to SRBC. Supplementation with GM polymer in the contaminated diet nonspecifically increased white blood cell count and lymphocyte count, while preventing mycotoxin-induced decreases in B-cell counts. It was concluded that broiler chickens are susceptible during extended feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins.

  4. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  6. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  7. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminated soils; Phytoremediation des sols contamines aux metaux lourds et aux hydrocarbures recalcitrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Chateauneuf, G.; Sura, C. [Inspec-Sol Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Labrecque, M.; Galipeau, C. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale; Greer, C.; Delisle, S.; Roy, S.; Labelle, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Research in Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to decontaminate soils and underground water. Inspec-Sol, a company located in Montreal, Quebec, conducted a two-year study to evaluate the decontamination capabilities of this technology. Trials in greenhouses and field studies at the Pitt Park along the Lachine Canal were conducted. The soils chosen for the studies were soils with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc) higher than those prescribed for the safe utilization of soils. The trials identified the three plant species (Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Festuca arundinacea) which had the best characteristics for phytoremediation. Controlled experiments were performed to optimize the technology to achieve the maximum extraction of contaminant. It was concluded that phytoremediation has potential for the remediation of urban soils contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants.

  9. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  10. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  11. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits prescribed...

  12. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  13. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for...

  14. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  15. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  16. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: Urine culture contamination is a significant cause of delay in treatment of patients being investigated for urinary tract infection. ... Lowest contamination rates were in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) and intensive ... The female gender was found to be the most significant predictor of higher contamination rate.

  17. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  18. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  19. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  20. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  1. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  2. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, M.-G.

    1959-01-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [fr

  3. Decontamination strategies in contaminated settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Jouve, A.; Tallec, V. Le

    1996-01-01

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident, decontamination actions had been completed in many places, the contamination could be considered as fixed, especially on urban surfaces and the social situation was felt to be stabilized. Under those conditions the efficiency of the 'classical' decontamination techniques was under question, it was worthwhile to look at new specific techniques. Besides it was necessary to discuss the interest of new decontamination actions in settlements. The European Union (EU) sponsored a project ECP 4 in order to look at the opportunities for further dose reduction actions in the contaminated territories of the three republics affected by the accident. The objective was to provide a local decision maker, faced with many alternatives for decontamination, with all the elements for determining what to do according to the various objectives he might pursue. The main results are presented here. (author)

  4. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    After decontamination of radioactive contaminates with d-limonene, a radioactive material separating agent not compatible with liquid wastes caused by decontamination is added to the liquid wastes. Then after stirring, they are stood still to be separated into two phases, and the radioactive materials in the liquid waste phase caused by decontamination are transferred to the phase of the radioactive material separating agent. With such procedures, they can satisfactorily be separated into two phases of d-limonene and the radioactive material separating agent. Further, d-limonene remaining after the separation can be used again as a decontaminating agent for radioactive contaminates. Therefore, the amount of d-limonene to be used can be reduced, to lower the cost for cleaning, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes formed. (T.M.)

  5. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  6. Review of soil contamination guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  7. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lych, G.M.; Babosov, E.M.; Firsakova, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter the system of management of socio economical development of contaminated territories in conditions of transition of the republic to market economy is described. The scientific substantiation of the complex programs of rehabilitation of both Bragin and Vetka areas of the Gomel Region is given. The methods of social support and socio psychological rehabilitation of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl accident are offered

  8. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  9. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  10. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  11. Chernobyl, what happened. [Netherlands; contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwigt, A

    1986-01-01

    In this article a description is given of the accident in the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and the resulting effects in the Netherlands. The Chernobylsk-4 reactor is described and the cause of the accident is followed step by step. The contamination of the Netherlands is mapped. The absorbed doses for the Dutch people are calculated. In the discussion the author recommends agreements about uniformity for sampling, activity measurements and follow-up studies. (Auth.). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table.

  12. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  13. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  14. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  15. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  16. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants. 141.61 Section 141.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.61 Maximum contaminant...

  17. Decontamination method of contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Chikara; Komori, Itaru.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive materials from molten metals in dry-processing method by heating metals contaminated with radioactive materials at a temperature below melting point to oxidize the surface thereof, then heating them to melt and include the radioactive materials into the oxides. Method: Metals contaminated with radioactive materials are heated at a temperature below the melting point thereof in an oxidizing atmosphere to oxidize the surface. Thereafter they are heated to melt at temperature above the melting point of the metals, and the molten metals are separated with the radioactive materials included in the oxides. For instance, radiation-contaminated aluminum pipe placed on the bed of an electrical heating furnace, and heated at 500 0 C which is lower than the melting point 660 0 C of aluminum for 1 - 2 hours while supplying air from an air pipe into the furnace, and an oxide film is formed on the surface of the aluminum pipe. Then, the furnace temperature is increased to 750 0 C wherein molten aluminum is flown down to a container and the oxide film is separated by floating it as the slug on the molten aluminum. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  19. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  20. Risks associated with utilization of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Kumazawa, Shigeru; Aoki, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Takeda, Atsuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Inaba, Jiro; Tanaka, Yasumasa.

    1993-01-01

    When mankind decides action, the conveniences and the risks obtained by the action are weighed up. When socially important judgement is done, the logical discussion based on objective data is indispensable. The utilization of radiation spread from industrial circles to general public, accordingly the circumstances changed from the recognition of its risks by professionals to that by general public. The radiation exposure dose of public has increased rapidly by medical treatment. The global radioactivity contamination accompanying nuclear explosion experiment and the Chernobyl accident raised the psychological risk recognition of public. Now, the fear of the potential radioactivity which may be released from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities expanded. The radiation exposure due to its utilization in recent years is mostly at the level below natural radiation. The acute radiation syndrome by whole body exposure is shown, and the effect is probabilistic. The evaluation of the risks due to radiation in the early effect, the hereditary effect and the delayed effect including canceration is explained. The risks in general human activities, the concept of risks in radiation protection, the effect of Chernobyl accident and the perception of general public on radiation risks are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  2. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  3. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  4. Contamination Tracer Testing With Seabed Rock Drills: IODP Expedition 357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B.; Bergenthal, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Schneiders, L.; Fruh-Green, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed rock drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact core of shallow mantle sequences from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This new drilling approach required the development of a new system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  5. Contamination tracer testing with seabed drills: IODP Expedition 357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Beth N.; Bergenthal, Markus; Freudenthal, Tim; Smith, David; Lilley, Marvin D.; Schnieders, Luzie; Green, Sophie; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.

    2017-11-01

    IODP Expedition 357 utilized seabed drills for the first time in the history of the ocean drilling program, with the aim of collecting intact sequences of shallow mantle core from the Atlantis Massif to examine serpentinization processes and the deep biosphere. This novel drilling approach required the development of a new remote seafloor system for delivering synthetic tracers during drilling to assess for possible sample contamination. Here, we describe this new tracer delivery system, assess the performance of the system during the expedition, provide an overview of the quality of the core samples collected for deep biosphere investigations based on tracer concentrations, and make recommendations for future applications of the system.

  6. Working together: financing the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Local governments and lenders need to work together to encourage and facilitate remediation, redevelopment and full utilization of 'brownfield' sites. Over the past few years in the United States, there has been a trend to develop risk-based clean-up standards and voluntary clean-up programmes that encourage reuse of such sites. Newly available liability protection offered by local governments and private insurers has encouraged this trend. Methods of financing the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties are considered in this article. (author)

  7. Concept of Aided Phytostabilization of Contaminated Soils in Postindustrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Radziemska, Maja; Koda, Eugeniusz; Bilgin, Ayla; Vaverková, Mgdalena D.

    2017-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). The content of trace elements in plants, pseudo-total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl2, were determined using the method of sp...

  8. The distribution of environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals among skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and milk protein fractions through milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-seven environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals encompassing a wide range of physicochemical properties were utilized to determine the effects of milk processing on xenobiotic distribution among milk fractions. Target compounds included radiolabeled antibiotics [ciprofloxacin (CIPR), cl...

  9. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  10. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In rooms ventilated by mixing ventilation, in order to remove contaminants from the occupied zone, the goal of the air distribution system is to achieve a low and even concentration distribution in the room. The experiments showed that the contaminant distribution in a room always will depend...... on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  11. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  12. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  14. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  15. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  16. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  17. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  18. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  19. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  20. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  1. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  2. Bacterial Hand Contamination and Transfer after Use of Contaminated Bulk-Soap-Refillable Dispensers▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Carrie A.; Campbell, Esther J.; Maxwell, Sheri L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Dolan, Michael J.; Arbogast, James W.; Macinga, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk-soap-refillable dispensers are prone to extrinsic bacterial contamination, and recent studies demonstrated that approximately one in four dispensers in public restrooms are contaminated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bacterial hand contamination and transfer after use of contaminated soap under controlled laboratory and in-use conditions in a community setting. Under laboratory conditions using liquid soap experimentally contaminated with 7.51 log10 CFU/ml of Serratia marcesc...

  3. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  4. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  5. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  6. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  7. Soil management planning for military installations: Strategy for identifying contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Baskin, D.A.; Downey, D.; Taffinder, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous federal and state regulations mandate the proper handling and disposal and/or treatment of contaminated soils. The Land Disposal Ban and the increasing lack of new or proximal land disposal facilities, coupled with the increasing liability of off-site disposal, have created a need for altering the traditional methods of managing contaminated sods. To delineate soil management decisions, a Soil Management Plan (SMP) was developed which incorporates the substantive requirements of CERCLA/SARA and RCRA into the ongoing base activities (i.e., construction projects, utility repairs and maintenance) and other environmental projects (i.e., underground storage tank removals) that may involve contaminated soils. The decision-making process is developed to guide base personnel in recognizing contamination, following proper sampling and temporary storage procedures, preventing unnecessary human exposure and isolating soils for removal off-site or treatment on-site. The SMP also contains a comprehensive review of soil remediation technologies, such as biological treatment, soil vapor extraction, soil washing, biofiltering, thermal desorption, soil stabilization/solidification, chemical/physical treatment and incineration. Contaminant types expected at the federal military facility are cross-referenced to the appropriate remediation technologies to determine the specific base needs for a soil treatment unit. An example of a conceptual design for a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment unit is presented for a base where underground fuel tanks are the principal source of soil contamination

  8. In-situ bioremediation: Or how to get nutrients to all the contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.S.; Scovazzo, P.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. Bioremediation is winning favor primarily because the soil may be treated on site and systems can be installed to operate without interfering with facility activities. Although bioremediation has been utilized for many years, its acceptance as a cost-effective approach is only now being realized. KEMRON applied in-situ bioremediation at a retired rail yard which had maintained a diesel locomotive refueling station supplied by two 20,000 gallon above ground storage tanks. Contamination originated from both spillage at the pumps and leaking fuel distribution lines. The contamination spread over a 3 acre area from the surface to a depth of up to 20 feet. Levels of diesel contamination found in the soil ranged from less than a 100 ppm to more than 25,000 ppm. The volume of soil which ultimately required treatment was more than 60,000 cubic yards. Several remedial options were examined including excavation and disposal. Excavation was rejected because it would have been cost prohibitive due to the random distribution of the contaminated soil. In-situ Bioremediation was selected as the only alternative which could successfully treat all the contaminated soils. This paper focuses on how KEMRON solved four major problems which would have prevented a successful remediation project. These problems were: soil compaction, random distribution of contaminated soils, potential free product, and extremely high levels of dissolved iron in the groundwater

  9. Identification of fecal contamination sources in water using host-associated markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Corinne A; Prystajecky, Natalie; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2013-03-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, drinking water is tested for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, but there is currently no routine follow-up testing to investigate fecal contamination sources in samples that test positive for indicator bacteria. Reliable microbial source tracking (MST) tools to rapidly test water samples for multiple fecal contamination markers simultaneously are currently lacking. The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a qualitative MST tool to identify fecal contamination from different host groups, and (ii) to evaluate the MST tool using water samples with evidence of fecal contamination. Singleplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test (i) water from polluted sites and (ii) raw and drinking water samples for presence of bacterial genetic markers associated with feces from humans, cattle, seagulls, pigs, chickens, and geese. The multiplex MST assay correctly identified suspected contamination sources in contaminated waterways, demonstrating that this test may have utility for heavily contaminated sites. Most raw and drinking water samples analyzed using singleplex PCR contained at least one host-associated marker. Singleplex PCR was capable of detecting host-associated markers in small sample volumes and is therefore a promising tool to further analyze water samples submitted for routine testing and provide information useful for water quality management.

  10. A Novel Wound Retractor Combining Continuous Irrigation and Barrier Protection Reduces Incisional Contamination in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstantinou, Harry T; Ricciardi, Rocco; Margolin, David A; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Moesinger, Robert C; Lichliter, Warren E; Birnbaum, Elisa H

    2018-03-09

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a persistent and morbid problem in colorectal surgery. Key to its pathogenesis is the degree of intraoperative bacterial contamination at the surgical site. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel wound retractor at reducing bacterial contamination. A prospective multicenter pilot study utilizing a novel wound retractor combining continuous irrigation and barrier protection was conducted in patients undergoing elective colorectal resections. Culture swabs were collected from the incision edge prior to device placement and from the exposed and protected incision edge prior to device removal. The primary and secondary endpoints were the rate of enteric and overall bacterial contamination on the exposed incision edge as compared to the protected incision edge, respectively. The safety endpoint was the absence of serious device-related adverse events. A total of 86 patients were eligible for analysis. The novel wound retractor was associated with a 66% reduction in overall bacterial contamination at the protected incision edge compared to the exposed incision edge (11.9 vs. 34.5%, P contamination (9.5% vs. 33.3%, P contamination. Improved methods to counteract wound contamination represent a promising strategy for SSI prevention (NCT 02413879).

  11. Plants' use of different nitrogen forms in response to crude oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Ming; Lu Meng; Yang Qiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Xiao Ming; Jiang Lifen; Yang Ji; Fang Changming; Chen Jiakuan; Li Bo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated Phragmites australis' use of different forms of nitrogen (N) and associated soil N transformations in response to petroleum contamination. 15 N tracer studies indicated that the total amount of inorganic and organic N assimilated by P. australis was low in petroleum-contaminated soil, while the rates of inorganic and organic N uptake on a per-unit-biomass basis were higher in petroleum-contaminated soil than those in un-contaminated soil. The percentage of organic N in total plant-assimilated N increased with petroleum concentration. In addition, high gross N immobilization and nitrification rates relative to gross N mineralization rate might reduce inorganic-N availability to the plants. Therefore, the enhanced rate of N uptake and increased importance of organic N in plant N assimilation might be of great significance to plants growing in petroleum-contaminated soils. Our results suggest that plants might regulate N capture under petroleum contamination. - Plant strategies of utilizing nitrogen in crude oil-contaminated soils.

  12. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  13. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  14. Effects of Subsurface Microbial Ecology on Geochemical Evolution of a Crude-Oil Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Godsy, E. M.; Warren, E.; Hostettler, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    We have identified several subsurface habitats for microorganisms in a crude oil contaminated located near Bemidji, Minnesota. These aquifer habitats include: 1) the unsaturated zone contaminated by hydrocarbon vapors, 2) the zones containing separate-phase crude oil, and 3) the aqueous-phase contaminant plume. The surficial glacial outwash aquifer was contaminated when a crude oil pipeline burst in 1979. We analyzed sediment samples from the contaminated aquifer for the most probable numbers of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters, and three types of methanogens. The microbial data were then related to gas, water, and oil chemistry, sediment extractable iron, and permeability. The microbial populations in the various contaminated subsurface habitats each have special characteristics and these affect the aquifer and contaminant chemistry. In the eight-meter-thick, vapor-contaminated vadose zone, a substantial aerobic population has developed that is supported by hydrocarbon vapors and methane. Microbial numbers peak in locations where access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface is maximized. The activity of this population prevents hydrocarbon vapors from reaching the land surface. In the zone where separate-phase crude oil is present, a consortium of methanogens and fermenters dominates the populations both above and below the water table. Moreover, gas concentration data indicate that methane production has been active in the oily zone since at least 1986. Analyses of the extracted separate-phase oil show that substantial degradation of C15 -C35 n-alkanes has occurred since 1983, raising the possibility that significant degradation of C15 and higher n-alkanes has occurred under methanogenic conditions. However, lab and field data suggest that toxic inhibition by crude oil results in fewer acetate-utilizing methanogens within and adjacent to the separate-phase oil. Data from this and other sites indicate that toxic inhibition of

  15. Pulsed high voltage electric discharge disinfection of microbially contaminated liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anpilov, A M; Barkhudarov, E M; Christofi, N; Kop'ev, V A; Kossyi, I A; Taktakishvili, M I; Zadiraka, Y

    2002-01-01

    To examine the use of a novel multielectrode slipping surface discharge (SSD) treatment system, capable of pulsed plasma discharge directly in water, in killing micro-organisms. Potable water containing Escherichia coli and somatic coliphages was treated with pulsed electric discharges generated by the SSD. The SSD system was highly efficient in the microbial disinfection of water with a low energy utilization (eta approximately 10-4 kW h l-1). The SSD treatment was effective in the destruction of E. coli and its coliphages through the generation of u.v. radiation, ozone and free radicals. The non-thermal treatment method can be used for the eradication of micro-organisms in a range of contaminated liquids, including milk, negating the use of pasteurization. The method utilizes multipoint electric discharges capable of treating large volumes of liquid under static and flowing regimes.

  16. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  17. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  18. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  19. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  20. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  1. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  2. Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

    1993-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10(sup -6) torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non

  3. Los Alamos racquetball contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAtee, J.L.; Stafford, R.G.; Dowdy, E.J.; Prestwood, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several employees of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility were found to have low levels of radioactivity on their hands and clothing when they arrived for work one morning. The initial concern was that the stringent contamination or material controls at the facility had failed, and that one or more of the employees had either accidentally or intentionally removed plutonium from the Laboratory premises. Fortunately, however, an investigation revealed that the source of the radioactivity was radon daughters electrostatically collected upon the surface of the racquetball and transferred by physical contact to the employees during an early morning racquetball game. This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of this phenomenon. 1 figure

  4. Contaminant analysis automation, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Ramos, O. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    To meet the environmental restoration and waste minimization goals of government and industry, several government laboratories, universities, and private companies have formed the Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) team. The goal of this consortium is to design and fabricate robotics systems that standardize and automate the hardware and software of the most common environmental chemical methods. In essence, the CAA team takes conventional, regulatory- approved (EPA Methods) chemical analysis processes and automates them. The automation consists of standard laboratory modules (SLMs) that perform the work in a much more efficient, accurate, and cost- effective manner

  5. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  6. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan

    2018-03-01

    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  8. Isotope systematic of contaminant leads in Monterey Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegal, A.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Stephenson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of stable lead ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) were utilized to identify a lead slag deposit as the principal source of contaminant lead in Monterey Bay. This point source had been indicated by anomalously high lead concentrations in native mussels (Mytilus californianus) near that deposit, which were orders of magnitude above the base-line concentration of the species (0.5 μg/g). Subsequent analyses revealed that the lead concentrations of both transplanted mussels and intertidal sediments were positively correlated with their proximity to the slag deposit. Complementary lead isotopic compositions substantiated those empirical correlations by demonstrating that the slag was the predominant source of contaminant lead in both the mussels and the sediments. Analyses of the digestive tracts of mussels from the slag deposit indicated that ingested slag particulates accounted for their elevated lead concentrations, while analyses of their gonads indicated that dissolved lead from other industrial sources was also being bioaccumulated by passive adsorption on exposed surfaces. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the potential of lead isotope systematics both to identify sources of lead contamination in marine organisms and to trace its biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  9. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  10. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  11. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  12. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  13. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  14. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  15. Some bioindicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cozmuta, I.; Micu, C.

    1996-01-01

    The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were numerous and encompassed all areas. One of those lead to the discovery of new monitoring methods which also supply to cost-effective solutions to control contaminant radioactive discharges in the environment. Through the measurements performed, we discovered that some samples, because of their radioactive content restrained also for long periods of time, can be used as bioindicators. Hen eggs between May 1-30 1986 were analysed (identification of radionuclides with a Ge(Li) detector and measuring of total gamma activity with NaI(T1)). Various aspects pursued revealed that eggs are precious witness of vegetable food contamination with fission products, especially Ba-140 and I-131, behaving as radionuclide separators (Ba-140 in egg shell -301 Bq/egg and I-131 in the content - 182 Bq/egg). Some of the most important pharmaceutical plants from Transylvania measured during 1986-1994 period presents high cesium radioactivity. The perennial plants (as Lichen Islandicus) for the same period accumulated a greater activity that the annual ones. Especially the lichen, because of the their slow decreasing activity are suitable as biological detectors also in retrospective measurements. Measuring the activity of some pollen samples was rediscovered. The pollen grains, during their transport in air by the bees, are acting like a filter for radionuclides so that we could use they to monitor the deliverance of these substances in air. (author)

  16. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  17. Studies of EUV contamination mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Samual, Jr.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Steinhaus, Chip; Grunow, Philip A.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2002-07-01

    Carbon contamination removal was investigated using remote RF-O2, RF-H2, and atomic hydrogen experiments. Samples consisted of silicon wafers coated with 100 Angstrom sputtered carbon, as well as bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to atomic hydrogen or RF plasma discharges at 100 W, 200 W, and 300 W. Carbon removal rate, optic oxidation rate, at-wavelength (13.4 nm) peak reflectance, and optic surface roughness were characterized. Data show that RF- O2 removes carbon at a rate approximately 6 times faster RF- H2 for a given discharge power. However, both cleaning techniques induce Mo/Si optic degradation through the loss of reflectivity associated with surface oxide growth for RF-O2 and an unknown mechanism with hydrogen cleaning. Atomic hydrogen cleaning shows carbon removal rates sufficient for use as an in-situ cleaning strategy for EUVoptics with less risk of optic degradation from overexposures than RF-discharge cleaning. While hydrogen cleaning (RF and atomic) of EUV optics has proven effective in carbon removal, attempts to dissociate hydrogen in co-exposures with EUV radiation have resulted in no detectable removal of carbon contamination.

  18. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  19. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  20. A convenient method for estimating the contaminated zone of a subsurface aquifer resulting from radioactive waste disposal into ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Uchida, Shigeo.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to estimate the contamination spread resulting from the radioactive waste disposal into a subsurface aquifer. A general equation, expressing the contaminated zone as a function of radioactive decay, the physical and chemical parameters of soil is presented. A distribution coefficient was also formulated which can be used to judge the suitability of a site for waste disposal. Moreover, a method for predicting contaminant concentration in groundwater at a site boundary is suggested for a heterogeneous media where the subsurface aquifer has different values of porosity, density, flow velocity, distribution coefficient and so on. A general equation was also developed to predict the distribution of radionuclides resulting from the disposal of a solid waste material. The distributions of contamination was evaluated for 90 Sr and 239 Pu which obey a linear adsorption model and a first order kinetics respectively. These equations appear to have practical utility for easily estimating groundwater contamination. (author)