WorldWideScience

Sample records for water-based radiant systems

  1. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiant heating systems has several thousand years of history.1,2 The early stage of radiant system application was for heating purposes, where hot air from flue gas (cooking, fires) was circulated under floors or in walls. After the introduction of plastic piping water-based radiant...

  2. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  3. Performance of Radiant Heating Systems of Low-Energy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Mirza, Matei; Crasmareanu, Emanuel

    2017-10-01

    After the introduction of plastic piping, the application of water-based radiant heating with pipes embedded in room surfaces (i.e., floors, walls, and ceilings), has significantly increased worldwide. Additionally, interest and growth in radiant heating and cooling systems have increased in recent years because they have been demonstrated to be energy efficient in comparison to all-air distribution systems. This paper briefly describes the heat distribution systems in buildings, focusing on the radiant panels (floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling). Main objective of this study is the performance investigation of different types of low-temperature heating systems with different methods. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the energy, environmental, and economic performances of floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling heating using numerical simulation with Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS) software is performed. This study showed that the floor-ceiling heating system has the best performance in terms of the lowest energy consumption, operation cost, CO2 emission, and the nominal boiler power. The comparison of the room operative air temperatures and the set-point operative air temperature indicates also that all radiant panel systems provide satisfactory results without significant deviations.

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  5. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  6. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  7. Load calculations of radiant cooling systems for sizing the plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was, by using a building simulation software, to prove that a radiant cooling system should not be sized based on the maximum cooling load but at a lower value. For that reason six radiant cooling models were simulated with two control principles using 100%, 70% and 50......% of the maximum cooling load. It was concluded that all tested systems were able to provide an acceptable thermal environment even when the 50% of the maximum cooling load was used. From all the simulated systems the one that performed the best under both control principles was the ESCS ceiling system. Finally...... it was proved that ventilation systems should be sized based on the maximum cooling load....

  8. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  9. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Radiant Induction-Unit and the Induction Radiant Air-Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed the novel air-conditioning system which combined induction ventilation and radiant air-conditioning. The indoor terminal device is the radiant induction-unit (RIDU. The RIDU is the induction unit combined with the pore radiant panel on which the copper pipes with rigid aluminum diffusion fins are installed. The two-stage evaporator chiller with the non-azeotropic mixture refrigerant is utilized in the system to reduce the initial investment in equipment. With the performance test and the steady state heat transfer model based on the theory of radiative heat transfer, the relationship between the induction ratio of the RIDU and the characteristic of the air supply was studied. Based on this, it is verified that the RIDU has a lower dew-point temperature and better anti-condensation performance than a traditional plate-type radiant panel. The characteristics of the radiation and convection heat transfer of the RIDU were studied. The total heat exchange of the RIDU can be 16.5% greater than that of the traditional plate-type radiant terminal.

  10. Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Kwan Woo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Control of the heating and cooling system needs to be able to maintain the indoor temperatures within the comfort range under the varying internal loads and external climates. To maintain a stable thermal environment, the control system needs to maintain the balance between the heat gain...

  11. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating......Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...

  12. A RADIANT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING SOLAR-DRIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. ABDALLA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Every air-conditioning system needs some fresh air to provide adequate ventilation air required to remove moisture, gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, disease organisms, and heat from occupied spaces. However, natural ventilation is difficult to control because urban areas outside air is often polluted and cannot be supplied to inner spaces before being filtered. Besides the high electrical demand of refrigerant compression units used by most air-conditioning systems, and fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system draw a significant amount of electrical energy in comparison with electrical energy used by the building thermal conditioning systems. Part of this electricity heats the cooled air; thereby add to the internal thermal cooling peak load. In addition, refrigerant compression has both direct and indirect negative effects on the environment on both local and global scales. In seeking for innovative air-conditioning systems that maintain and improve indoor air quality under potentially more demanding performance criteria without increasing environmental impact, this paper presents radiant air-conditioning system which uses a solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooler. The paper describes the proposed solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling system and the method used for investigating its performance in providing cold water for a radiant air-conditioning system in Khartoum (Central Sudan. The results of the investigation show that the system can operate in humid as well as dry climates and that employing such a system reduces air-conditioning peak electrical demands as compared to vapour compression systems.

  13. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system application on a university building in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrio, Pujo; Sholahudin, S.; Nasruddin

    2017-03-01

    The paper describes a study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in an institutional building in Indonesia. The simulations were carried out using IESVE to evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption and temperature distribution to determine the proportional energy savings and occupant comfort under different systems. The result was radiant cooling which integrated with a Dedicated Outside Air System (DOAS) could make 41,84% energy savings compared to the installed cooling system. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation showed that a radiant system integrated with DOAS provides superior human comfort than a radiant system integrated with Variable Air Volume (VAV). Percentage People Dissatisfied was kept below 10% using the proposed system.

  14. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  15. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  17. Cooling load calculations of radiant and all-air systems for commercial buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when they are......The authors simulated in TRNSYS three radiant systems coupled with a 50% sized variable air volume (VAV) system and a 50% sized all-air VAV system with night ventilation. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the cooling load profiles of the examined systems when...

  18. Dynamic heat transfer modeling and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhongbing; Wang, Yingzi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic model of thermoelectric radiant panel system is established. • The internal parameters of thermoelectric module are dynamically calculated in simulation. • Both artificial neural networks model and system model are verified through experiment data. • Optimized system structure is obtained through parametric study. - Abstract: Radiant panel system can optimize indoor thermal comfort with lower energy consumption. The thermoelectric radiant panel (TERP) system is a new and effective prototype of radiant system using thermoelectric module (TEM) instead of conventional water pipes, as heat source. The TERP can realize more stable and easier system control as well as lower initial and operative cost. In this study, an improved system dynamic model was established by combining analytical system model and artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as the dynamic calculation functions of internal parameters of TEM. The double integral was used for the calculation of surface average temperature of TERP. The ANN model and system model were in good agreement with experiment data in both cooling and heating mode. In order to optimize the system design structure, parametric study was conducted in terms of the thickness of aluminum panel and insulation, as well as the arrangement of TEMs on the surface of radiant panel. It was found through simulation results that the optimum thickness of aluminum panel and insulation are respectively around 1–2 mm and 40–50 mm. In addition, TEMs should be uniformly installed on the surface of radiant panel and each TEM should stand at the central position of a square-shaped typical region with length around 0.387–0.548 m.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of air and radiant cooling systems in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, S. P.; Perino, M.; Fracastoro, G. V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses office cooling systems based on all air mixing ventilation systems alone or coupled with radiant ceiling panels. This last solution may be effectively applied to retrofit all air systems that are no longer able to maintain a suitable thermal comfort in the indoor environment, ...

  20. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draft rate levels calculated in the room. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants’ thermal comfort. The results......The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  1. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  2. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large ......-uniformity air distribution and further led to the draught problem in the occupied zone. This system was recommended to apply in the small offices instead of large, open spaces....

  3. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  4. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  5. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  6. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  7. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...... using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... the small amount of fresh air required by standards to provide a healthy indoor environment.This paper reports on experimental analyses evaluating the dynamic behavior of a test room equipped with a radiant cooling system composed of plastic capillary tubes integrated into the inner layer of sandwich wall...

  8. Experimental study including subjective evaluations of mixing and displacement ventilation combined with radiant floor heating/cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation systems and radiant heating/cooling systems. In the first two tests, the simulated residential room was equipped either by a mixing ventilation system supplying warm air for space heat...

  9. Solar radiation and cooling load calculation for radiant systems: Definition and evaluation of the Direct Solar Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The study of the influence of solar radiation on the built environment is a basic issue in building physics and currently it is extremely important because glazed envelopes are widely used in contemporary architecture. In the present study, the removal of solar heat gains by radiant cooling systems...... is investigated. Particular attention is given to the portion of solar radiation converted to cooling load, without taking part in thermal absorption phenomena due to the thermal mass of the room. This specific component of the cooling load is defined as the Direct Solar Load. A simplified procedure to correctly...... calculate the magnitude of the Direct Solar Load in cooling load calculations is proposed and it is implemented with the Heat Balance method and the Radiant Time Series method. The F ratio of the solar heat gains directly converted to cooling load, in the case of a low thermal mass radiant ceiling...

  10. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  11. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances.

  12. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants' thermal perception. The results revealed that the differences in the thermal conditions achieved...

  13. Control characteristics and heating performance analysis of automatic thermostatic valves for radiant slab heating system in residential apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byung-Cheon [Department of Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea); Song, Jae-Yeob [Graduate School, Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Computer simulations and experiments are carried out to research the control characteristics and heating performances for a radiant slab heating system with automatic thermostatic valves in residential apartments. An electrical equivalent R-C circuit is applied to analyze the unsteady heat transfer in the house. In addition, the radiant heat transfer between slabs, ceilings and walls in the room is evaluated by enclosure analysis method. Results of heating performance and control characteristics were determined from control methods such as automatic thermostatic valves, room air temperature-sensing method, water-temperature-sensing method, proportional control method, and On-Off control method. (author)

  14. The Influence of a Radiant Panel System with Integrated Phase Change Material on Energy Use and Thermal Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lin Flemming; Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect on energy use and thermal comfort when combining microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) with radiant ceiling panels in a two-person office. The performance of the system was studied during the cooling season in the climates of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Rome...

  15. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2018-05-01

    Observed hyperbolic minor bodies might have an interstellar origin, but they can be natives of the Solar system as well. Fly-bys with the known planets or the Sun may result in the hyperbolic ejection of an originally bound minor body; in addition, members of the Oort cloud could be forced to follow inbound hyperbolic paths as a result of secular perturbations induced by the Galactic disc or, less frequently, due to impulsive interactions with passing stars. These four processes must leave distinctive signatures in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic objects, both in terms of coordinates and velocity. Here, we perform a systematic numerical exploration of the past orbital evolution of known hyperbolic minor bodies using a full N-body approach and statistical analyses to study their radiants. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations that strong anisotropies are present in the data. We also identify a statistically significant overdensity of high-speed radiants towards the constellation of Gemini that could be due to the closest and most recent known fly-by of a star to the Solar system, that of the so-called Scholz's star. In addition to and besides 1I/2017 U1 (`Oumuamua), we single out eight candidate interstellar comets based on their radiants' velocities.

  16. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  17. Energy Performance of Water-based and Air-based Cooling Systems in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads E.; Schøtt, Jacob; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    -space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on the system energy performance were investigated while achieving the same thermal indoor conditions. The results show that the water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system in terms of energy...... energy use reductions. The coupling of radiant floor with the ground enables to obtain “free” cooling, although the brine pump power should be kept to a minimum to fully take advantage of this solution. By implementing a ground heat exchanger instead of the heat pump and use the crawl-space air as intake...... air an improvement of 37% was achieved. The cooling demand should be minimized in the design phase as a priority and then the resulting cooling load should be addressed with the most energy efficient cooling strategy. The floor cooling coupled with a ground heat exchanger was shown to be an effective...

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Radiant Heat Transfer in Mirror Systems Considering Deep Reflecting Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing large-sized mirror concentrating systems (MCS for high-temperature solar power plants, one must have at disposal reasonably reliable and economical methods and tools, making it possible to analyze its characteristics, to predict them depending on the operation conditions and accordingly to choose the most suitable system for the solution of particular task.Experimental determination of MCS characteristics requires complicated and expensive experimentation, having significant limitations on interpretation of the results, as well as limitations imposed due to the size of the structure. Therefore it is of particular interest to develop a mathematical model capable of estimating power characteristics of MCS considering the influence of operating conditions, design features, roughness and other surface defects.For efficient solution of the tasks the model must ensure simulation of solar radiant flux as well as simulation of geometrical and optical characteristics of reflection surface and their interaction. In this connection a statistical mathematical model of radiation heat exchange based on use of Monte Carlo methods and Finite Element Method was developed and realized in the software complex, making it possible to determine main characteristics of the MCS.In this paper the main attention is given to definition of MCS radiation characteristics with account for deep reflecting surface defects (cavities, craters. Deep cavities are not typical for MCS, but their occurrence is possible during operation as a result of erosion or any physical damage. For example, for space technology it is primarily micrometeorite erosion.

  19. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid system with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system, which is regarded as an advanced heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, has been applied in many modern buildings worldwide. To date, almost no studies focused on comparative analysis of the indoor...... air distribution and the thermal environment for all combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Therefore, in this article, the indoor air distribution and the thermal environment were comparatively analyzed in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH......) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV) when the supply air temperature ranged from 15.0°C to 19.0°C. The results showed that the temperature effectiveness values were 1.05–1.16 and 0.95–1.02 for MV+ FH and MV+ CH, respectively, and they were 0.78–0.91 and 0.51–0.67 for DV + FH and DV...

  20. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  1. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ning, Xiaohui

    1993-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  2. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  3. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  4. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  5. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spaces...

  6. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  7. Swedish Homeowners' Attitude towards Water-Based Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L; Mahapatra, K [Mid Sweden Univ., Ecotechnology, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners' attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic. Keywords: Heat sector, socio-economic aspects, market implementation

  8. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did...... not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when disregarding the risk of draught), followed by the radiant ceiling. The least uniform conditions were obtained with the cooled floor due to large differences between the sitting...

  9. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    Heating and cooling terminals can be classified in two main categories: convective terminals (e.g air conditioning, active chilled beam, fan coil) and radiant terminals. The two terminals have different modes of heat transfer: the first one is mainly based on convection, whereas the second one...... is based on both radiation and convection. This thesis focuses on characterizing the heat transfer from the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam...... losses, and an air-based terminal might be more energy-efficient than a radiant terminal (in terms of delivered energy). Regarding comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did...

  10. Solar heating by radiant floor: Experimental results and emission reduction obtained with a micro photovoltaic–heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Agustín-Camacho, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a PVT multicrystalline solar heating system for buildings. • The PV DC electricity generated was converted to AC to drive an air–water heat pump. • Experimental results obtained from December 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 are detailed. • An environmental study is also presented. - Abstract: An experimental research with a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) micro grid feeding a reversible air–water, 6 kW heating capacity heat pump, has been carried out from December 2012 to April 2013. Its purpose is to heat a laboratory that is used as a house prototype for the study of heating/cooling systems. It was built in accordance with the 2013 Spanish CTE, and has an area of 35 m 2 divided into two internal rooms: one of them housing the storage system, the solar controller, the inverter and the control system; the other one is occupied by three people. Its main thermal characteristics are: UA = 125 W/°C and a maximum thermal load about 6.0 kW at the initial time. The PVT field consists of 12 modules, with a total area of 15.7 m 2 and useful area of 14 m 2 . Each module is composed of 48 polycrystalline silicon cells of 243.4 cm 2 , which with a nominal efficiency 14% can generate a power of 180 W, being the total nominal power installed 2.16 kW. The PV system stores electricity in 250 Ah batteries from where is converted from DC to AC through a 3.0 kW inverter that feeds the heat pump. This works supplying 840 l/h of hot water at 35–45 °C to the radiant floor. The data storing system is recording variables such as solar radiation; temperatures; input power to batteries; heat produced; heat transferred by the radiant floor; heat pump’s COP; isolated ratio; and solar fraction. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the experimental results and the emission reduction of CO 2 obtained during the period from 01/12/2012 to 30/04/2013, including the detailed results of two representative days of Madrid’s climate: 28

  11. Radiant cooling of an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebihi, Abdeslam; Byun, Ki-Hong; Wen Jin; Smith, Theodore F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero

  12. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  13. Thermal Comfort in Simulated Office Environment with Four Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Mustakallio, Panu; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    with overhead mixing ventilation (MVRC). Whole body thermal sensation (TS) and whole body TS acceptability under the four systems in a simulated office room for one hour exposure were collected. The simulated two-man office (4.12 x 4.20 x 2.89 m, L x W x H) was kept at 26 oC room air temperature. Moderate heat...... to “neutral” compared to male, whose votes were closer to the “slightly warm” thermal sensation. The whole body TS acceptability was rated close to ''clearly acceptable'' (EN 15251-2007) and was independent of subject's gender for all tested systems....

  14. Thermal environment in a simulated double office room with convective and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Rezgals, Lauris

    2017-01-01

    anddraught rate was calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins. CCMV provided slightly more uniform thermal environment and the least sensitive to different workstation layouts than the other systems. CB provided a bit higher draught rate levels than...

  15. STRATEGY WATER-BASED CONDENSER : An Experimental Scale Model for Hybrid Passive Cooling Systems to Improve Indoor Temperature and Hot Water Utilities in Surabaya-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a case of energy saving research, to system water-based condenser for the use of energy efficient with involvement of forced fluid hybrid passive cooling and water heating in building systems. Our argument is based on the fact that series of water copper pipes are to be cooled enough by nocturnal radiant cooling of the night cool air to lower the indoor air temperature at the daytime. We describe the model of working to which we use and to which we believe that series of cool water copper pipes as evaporator allows effectively reducing the energy used for indoor cooling and for water heating utilization. We then measure the model indoor temperature, and water temperature inside the series of copper pipes. Kinds of water coolant used for cooling are an essential factor. Finally, we will discuss some of the achieving of the effective cooled water, setting up the pipes water-based condenser hybrid system on the top of the outside roof as well as setting up the evaporator coils at ceiling. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penulisan ini merupakan suatu penelitian pada golongan sistem penghematan energi yang berupakan kondensor dengan bahan media air dengan bantuan tenaga gerak pompa atau tanpa tenaga pompa air. Pipa-pipa yang berisi air yang diletakkan diatas atap terbuka untuk mendapatkan air yang dingin melalui proses konduksi, konveksi, dan radiasi dari udara alami sepanjang malam, dimana media air yang telah dingin tersebut untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai media pendingin ruangan dengan melalukan ke pipa-pipa dalam ruangan--diatas plafon, sebagai evapurator. Selain media air akan diteliti air pendingin radiator (water coolent apakah akan mendapatkan efek pendinginan yang melebihi media air. Juga akan diteliti cara proses mendapatkan media air dingin, yaitu proses dengan air tenang (still water dan air bergerak (forced fluid, sistim mana yang lebih efektif dalam mendapatkan media air dingin dan percepatan mendapatkan air dingin. Kata

  16. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  17. Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2003-10-01

    The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

  18. Electric radiant heating : a hot profitable idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Due to the high cost of heating oil, natural gas and propane, floor mounted radiant heating systems are now proving to be a cost effective method of heating homes. The systems provide evenly distributed heat across the entire floor area. Unlike hydronic floor systems, radiant floor systems require no maintenance, and are easy to control because no mechanical rooms or boilers are required. The system is comprised of a series of resistant heating cables, a thermostat, and a solid state relay. The cables are installed in a poured concrete pad. Separate temperature control devices are used to heat individual areas of floorspace. Building automation systems can also control the heating system by using simple ambient air- and floor-mounted sensors in conjunction with relays to energize the heating cables. The cost of thermostats and heating cables to heat a standard 2000 square foot home are estimated at $9000.00, with an additional 64 hours of installation costs. It was noted that the systems may prove to be less costly in the long-term than hydronic systems, which require additional boilers, pumps and water treatments. Electric radiant heating can be an even more cost-effective application when used with thermal storage heating applications that use lower-cost off-peak electricity to generate and store heat in concrete floor slabs or ceramic bricks contained in insulated cabinets. It was concluded that radiant heating systems are a viable and cost-effective alternative to expensive hydronic systems, which are costly to install and maintain. 4 figs.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Application of Solar Radiant Systems, Internal Airflow and Occupants’ Presence in the Improvement of Comfort in Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the use of numerical simulation in the application of solar radiant systems, internal airflow and occupants’ presence in the improvement of comfort in winter conditions is made. The thermal comfort, the local thermal discomfort and the air quality in an occupied chamber space are evaluated. In the experimental measurements, a wood chamber, a desk, two seats, two seated hygro-thermal manikins, a warm radiant floor, a solar radiation simulator and a water solar collector are used. The air velocity and the air temperature fluctuation are experimentally evaluated around 15 human body sections. The chamber surface temperature is experimentally measured. In the numerical simulation, a coupling human thermal comfort (HTC integral model, a computational fluids dynamics (CFD differential model and a building thermal response (BTR integral model are applied. The human thermal comfort level is evaluated by the HTC numerical model. The airflow inside the virtual chamber, using the k-epsilon and RNG turbulence models, is evaluated by the CFD numerical model. The chamber surface and the collector temperatures are evaluated by the BTR numerical model. In the human thermal comfort level, in non-uniform environments, the predicted mean vote (PMV and the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD people are numerically evaluated; in the local thermal discomfort level the draught risk (DR is experimentally and numerically analyzed; and in the air quality, the carbon dioxide CO2 concentration is numerically calculated. In the validation tests, the experimental and numerical values of the chamber surface temperature, the air temperature, the air velocity, the air turbulence intensity and the DR are presented.

  20. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Radiator and Radiant Floor Heating Systems for an Office Room Connected to a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP system used to provide the space heating for an office room is a renewable, high performance technology. This paper discusses vapour compression-based HP systems, briefly describing the thermodynamic cycle calculations, as well as the coefficient of performance (COP and CO2 emissions of a HP with an electro-compressor and compares different heating systems in terms of energy consumption, thermal comfort and environmental impact. It is focused on an experimental study performed to test the energy efficiency of the radiator or radiant floor heating system for an office room connected to a GCHP. The main performance parameters (COP and CO2 emissions are obtained for one month of operation of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these parameters is presented. Additionally, two numerical simulation models of useful thermal energy and the system COP in heating mode are developed using the Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS software. Finally, the simulations obtained from TRNSYS software are analysed and compared to the experimental data, showing good agreement and thus validating the simulation models.

  2. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  3. Experimental and modelling analysis of an office building HVAC system based in a ground-coupled heat pump and radiant floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, José Ignacio; Villarino, Alberto; Fernández, Francisco Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of a geothermal heat pump in an office building. • A numerical model in EnergyPlus is validated by experimental results. • An energy, economic and environmental analysis is presented. • A comparison with other technologies demonstrates the potential of the system. - Abstract: This paper shows the evaluation of the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump system monitored building providing heating, ventilating and air conditioning to an office building located in Madrid, in Spain. The system consists of one borehole exchanger, heat pump unit, radiant floor system, mechanical ventilation and data control system. A simulation model was performed with EnergyPlus software and validated. The analyzed period corresponds to the most unfavorable weather conditions in heating and cooling mode. The coefficient of performance obtained in heating and cooling mode was 3.86/5.29, considering all the energy consumption elements of the building and the thermal demand corresponding to an office operation. The CO_2 emissions obtained with a value of 34.68 kg corresponding to the period analyzed represents a low CO_2 emission system. The monitored temperatures reached set point values of 22 °C/25 °C, considered as acceptable comfort temperatures. The values obtained in the validated simulation model presented a deviation of 2% respected experimental results in heating and cooling mode. A comparative of COP_s_y_s and CO_2 emissions with other technologies is performed in order to analyze GCHP compared to other available technologies. The GCHP system is presented as a technology that can fully supply the HVAC conditions for a building and environmentally friendly.

  4. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

  5. Improvement of life and NO{sub x} emission of radiant tube heating system by elastic-plastic creep analysis; Dansosei kuripu kaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuguhiko; Nuta, Kunihiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Okayama, (Japan). Mizushima Warks

    1999-03-10

    The radiant tube heating system has been widely applied to the furnaces which require isolation of the heating atmosphere from the combustion atmosphere. However, the conventional system has a short life and it is difficult to reduce NO{sub x} emission when it is used at a high furnace temperature under high combustion load, because the fuel is burned in a small space. In order to solve this problem, we have studied the cause of radiant tube life depends on the uniformity of the temperature distribution along the radiant tube. We have developed a new burner using a two-stage combustion method with exhaust gas self-recirculation. As a result, the file of the new system has been increased by a factor of two or more, and NO{sub x} emission has been reduced by 20 % from previous levels. This paper presents an outline of the elastic-plastic creep analysis and the new burner, and describes the effect of its use on system life. (author)

  6. Radiant recuperator modelling and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Suzana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators are frequently used in glass production and metallurgical processes to preheat combustion air by heat exchange with high temperature flue gases. Mass and energy balances of a 15 m high, concurrent radiant recuperator used in a glass fiber production process are given. The balances are used: for validation of a cell modeling method that predicts the performance of different recuperator designs, and for finding a simple solution to improve the existing recuperator. Three possible solutions are analyzed: to use the existing recuperator as a countercurrent one, to add an extra cylinder over the existing construction, and to make a system that consists of a central pipe and two concentric annular ducts. In the latter, two air streams flow in opposite directions, whereas air in the inner annular passage flows concurrently or countercurrently to flue gases. Compared with the concurrent recuperator, the countercurrent has only one drawback: the interface temperature is higher at the bottom. The advantages are: lower interface temperature at the top where the material is under maximal load, higher efficiency, and smaller pressure drop. Both concurrent and countercurrent double pipe-in-pipe systems are only slightly more efficient than pure concurrent and countercurrent recuperators, respectively. Their advantages are smaller interface temperatures whereas the disadvantages are their costs and pressure drops. To implement these solutions, the average velocities should be: for flue gas around 5 m/s, for air in the first passage less than 2 m/s, and for air in the second passage more than 25 m/s. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. EE 33027

  7. Experimental investigation and feasibility analysis on a capillary radiant heating system based on solar and air source heat pump dual heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Gu, Z.L.; Kang, W.B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.Y.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, Q.L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Vertical temperature gradient in Case 3, (b) PMV and PPD of the test room in Case 3, (c) operating time of SPCTS and ASHP systems in Case 3 and (d) the proportion of SPCTS operating time. - Highlights: • A capillary heating system based on solar and air source heat pump was developed. • Influence of supply water temperature on solar energy saving rate was investigated. • Heating performance and thermal comfort of capillary heating system were analyzed. • Low temperature heating with capillary is suitable for solar heating system. - Abstract: Due to sustainable development, solar energy has drawn much attention and been widely applied in buildings. However, the application of solar energy is limited because of its instability, intermittency and low energy density in winter. In order to use low density and instable solar energy source for heating and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy, a solar phase change thermal storage (SPCTS) heating system using a radiant-capillary-terminal (RCT) to effectively match the low temperature hot water, a phase change thermal storage (PCTS) to store and continuously utilize the solar energy, and an air source heat pump (ASHP) as an alternate energy, was proposed and set up in this research. Series of experiments were conducted to obtain the relation between the solar radiation utilization rate and the heating supply temperatures, and to evaluate the performance of the RCT module and the indoor thermal environment of the system for its practical application in a residential building in the north-western City of Xi’an, China. The results show that energy saving of the solar heating system can be significantly improved by reducing the supplied water temperature, and the supplied water temperature of the RCT would be no more than 35 °C. The capillary radiation heating can adopt a lower water temperature and create a good thermal comfort environment as well. These results may lead to the

  8. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  9. Radiant heating of petroleum reservoirs; Aquecimento radiante de reservatorios petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidrim, Fernando A.C.

    1990-12-31

    This work presents a proposal of a simplified model for the enhanced oil recovery process through radiant heating of oil reservoirs. The resulting continuity, energy and motion equations were solved analytically for the prediction of the increase in well flow rates. The heat loss to adjacent formations and the necessary for the establishment of the temperature profile,which are transient terms of energy equation, have been neglected. Also, no temperature gradient in the axial direction has been modelled as a cylindrical wave propagating in a loss medium. It is concluded that: the inclusion of a radial conduction term in the energy equation led to higher flow rates than the ones predicted by the literature existing solution; if the absorption coefficient is too large, it is profitable to dry the reservoir around the well bore; the transient terms in the energy equation are significant for extended periods of well production. 47 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...... supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined...

  11. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  12. The multiphase flow system used in exploiting depleted reservoirs: water-based Micro-bubble drilling fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lihui; He Xiaoqing; Wang Xiangchun; Fu Lixia

    2009-01-01

    Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are 'surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer', 'high viscosity fixing membrane', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) and surfactants' from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. 'Surface tension reducing membrane', 'high viscosity layer' and 'high viscosity fixing membrane' bond closely to pack air forming 'air-bag', 'compatibility enhancing membrane' and 'concentration transition layer of LHP and surfactants' absorb outside 'air-bag' to form 'incompact zone'. From another point of view, 'air-bag' and 'incompact zone' compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of 'incompact zone' enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective

  13. Experimental determination of viscosity of water based magnetite nanofluid for application in heating and cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghraie, Davood; Alempour, Seyed Mohammadbagher; Afrand, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, experimental determination of dynamic viscosity of water based magnetite nanofluid (Fe 3 O 4 /water) was performed. The viscosity was measured in the temperature range of 20–55 °C for various samples with solid volume fractions of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 1%, 2% and 3%. The results showed that the viscosity considerably decreases with increasing temperature. Moreover, the viscosity enhances with an increase in the solid volume fraction, remarkably. The calculated viscosity ratios showed that the maximum viscosity enhancement was 129.7%. Using experimental data, a new correlation has been proposed to predict the viscosity of magnetite nanofluid (Fe 3 O 4 /water). A comparison between the experimental results and the correlation outputs showed that the proposed model has a suitable accuracy. - Highlights: • Preparing Magnetite nanofluids with solid volume fractions up to 3%. • Measuring viscosity in temperature range of 20–55 °C using Brookfield Viscometer. • Maximum viscosity enhancement occurred at volume fraction of 3% and was 129.7%. • Proposing new correlation to predict the viscosity of Fe3O4/water nanofluid.

  14. Cyclodextrin-grafted barium titanate nanoparticles for improved dispersion and stabilization in water-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Gómez, R. [Universidad de Navarra, Departamento de Química y Edafología (Spain); Martinez-Tarifa, J. M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica (Spain); González-Benito, J. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales e Ingeniería Química, IQMAAB (Spain); González-Gaitano, G., E-mail: gaitano@unav.es [Universidad de Navarra, Departamento de Química y Edafología (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    preparation of the water-based nanocomposites either as hydrogels or as nanocomposites based on thermoplastic matrices.

  15. Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

  16. Electric radiant heating: A hot item in home comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Electric radiant heating as a floor warming system and its growing popularity in home comfort are discussed. Price can be as low as $2.00 per square foot; cost of operation may be as little as 30 cents per square foot per year, depending on time of use and local hydro rates. The use of radiant cable heating is said to have surged in popularity; it provides the same warmth and comfort as more expensive hydronic systems. Radiant cable is simple and inexpensive to install since unlike hydronic systems, it requires no complicated mechanical system with boiler, heat exchanger, valves, pumps and extensive controls. Nevertheless, prospective end users are warned to make sure that the cable is sturdy, tough, has multiple layers of protection with a thick grounding system and conductor core. In addition to heating floors, electric heating cables can also be used for snow and ice control and for melting in driveways and gutters. In these type of installations heavy duty cables are used which are installed under asphalt, concrete or interlocking stones. Thirty watts per square foot per hour is the typical requirement for melting snow and ice. Based on average electricity prices in Ontario, melting snow on an 800 square foot driveway would cost about $2.20 per hour. Assuming five hours for the system to clear the driveway, installing a heating system under the driveway could be an economically viable solution for the home owner, providing freedom from ice, the inconvenience of shovelling snow, and saving time and money.

  17. Design of Heavy Metals Monitoring System in Water Based on WSN and GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the real-time monitoring of heavy metals in water environment, a new type of heavy metal monitoring system was developed. The system was composed of monitoring terminal, gateway, GPRS network and upper computer monitoring center. The system detected the heavy metal ion concentrations by ion-selective electrode array and came into the system error automatic compensation method in the detection process. The collecting data was transported to the monitoring center through the cooperation between the wireless sensor network constituted by CC2530 and General Packet Radio Service network. The test result shows that the system can increased precision dramatically and strengthens the real-time transmission capacity effectively. The system is reliable in transmission, high real-time performance, flexible in networking and can be applied to continuous remote monitoring of heavy metals pollution.

  18. Research of Electrical Conductivity Measurement System for Mine Bursting Water Based on Dual Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mengran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a double frequency conductivity measurement method for measuring mine bursting water, to solve the capacitance effect of the conductivity sensor itself has the help. The core controller of the system is the single chip microcomputer ATMEGA128. This paper introduces the basic principle of the measurement of the existing problems and the dual frequency measurement method, and then introduces and analyzes the hardware. To test and analyze the collected data, the double frequency method is found to have good stability and accuracy in the measurement of the electrical conductivity of mine inrush water. It is proved that the method and the system design of the hardware circuit can accurately measure the electric conductivity of the mine inrush water source.

  19. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...... as active Thermal Energy Storage (TES), where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the ASHP electricity consumption and the building heating consumption utilizing a heat dynamic model of the building. The results show that the proposed EMPC can save the energy cost by load...

  20. Natural microbial populations in a water-based biowaste management system for space life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Gerhild; Waßer, Kai; Tonat, Tim; Moeller, Ralf; Bohmeier, Maria; Hauslage, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The reutilization of wastewater is a key issue with regard to long-term space missions and planetary habitation. This study reports the design, test runs and microbiological analyses of a fixed bed biofiltration system which applies pumice grain (16-25 mm grain size, 90 m2 /m3 active surface) as matrix and calcium carbonate as buffer. For activation, the pumice was inoculated with garden soil known to contain a diverse community of microorganisms, thus enabling the filtration system to potentially degrade all kinds of organic matter. Current experiments over 194 days with diluted synthetic urine (7% and 20%) showed that the 7% filter units produced nitrate slowly but steadily (max. 2191 mg NO3-N/day). In the 20% units nitrate production was slower and less stable (max. 1411 mg NO3-N/day). 84% and 76% of the contained nitrogen was converted into nitrate. The low conversion rate is assumed to be due to the high flow rate, which keeps the biofilm on the pumice thin. At the same time the thin biofilm seems to prevent the activity of denitrifiers implicating the existence of a trade off between rate and the amount of nitrogen loss. Microbiological analyses identified a comparatively low number of species (26 in the filter material, 12 in the filtrate) indicating that urine serves as a strongly selective medium and filter units for the degradation of mixed feedstock have to be pre-conditioned on the intended substrates from the beginning.

  1. Design and development of low pressure evaporator/condenser unit for water-based adsorption type climate control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Arjun; Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    2016-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of clean transportation and driving range is one of the important parameters which dictates its marketability. In order to increase driving range, electrical battery energy consumption should be minimized. Vapor-compression refrigeration systems currently employed in EVs for climate control consume a significant fraction of the battery charge. Thus, by replacing this traditional heating ventilation and air-conditioning system with an adsorption based climate control system one can have the capability of increasing the drive range of EVs.The Advanced Thermo-adsorptive Battery (ATB) for climate control is a water-based adsorption type refrigeration cycle. An essential component of the ATB is a low pressure evaporator/condenser unit (ECU) which facilitates both the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermal design of the ECU relies predominantly on the accurate prediction of evaporation/boiling heat transfer coefficients since the standard correlations for predicting boiling heat transfer coefficients have large uncertainty at the low operating pressures of the ATB. This work describes the design and development of a low pressure ECU as well as the thermal performance of the actual ECU prototype.

  2. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Different indoor terminal units can be used to heat and cool indoor spaces. These terminal units mostly rely on convection and radiation heat transfer mechanisms but their relative ratios can vary significantly for air-based and water-based systems with implications on whole system performance, i...

  3. Influence of incorrect application of a water-based adhesive system on the marginal adaptation of Class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, A; Blunck, U; Roulet, J F

    2000-10-01

    To determine the influence of incorrectly performed steps during the application of the water-based adhesive system OptiBond FL on the marginal adaptation of Class V composite restorations. In 96 extracted human teeth Class V cavities were prepared. Half of the margin length was situated in dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups. The cavities were filled with Prodigy resin-based composite in combination with OptiBond FL according to the manufacturer's instructions (Group O) and including several incorrect application steps: Group A: prolonged etching (60 s); Group B: no etching of dentin; Group C: excessive drying after etching; Group D: short rewetting after excessive drying; Group E: air drying and rewetting; Group F: blot drying; Group G: saliva contamination; Group H: application of primer and immediate drying; group I: application of only primer; group J: application of only adhesive; Group K: no light curing of the adhesive before the application of composite. After thermocycling, replicas were taken and the margins were quantitatively analyzed in the SEM. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using non-parametric procedures. With exception of the "rewetting groups" (D and E) and the group with saliva contamination (G), all other application procedures showed a significantly higher amount of marginal openings in dentin compared to the control group (O). Margin quality in enamel was only affected when the primer was not applied.

  4. Exergy metrication of radiant panel heating and cooling with heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkis, Birol

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rational Exergy Management Model analytically relates heat pumps and radiant panels. ► Heat pumps driven by wind energy perform better with radiantpanels. ► Better CO 2 mitigation is possible with wind turbine, heat pump, radiant panel combination. ► Energy savings and thermo-mechanical performance are directly linked to CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: Radiant panels are known to be energy efficient sensible heating and cooling systems and a suitable fit for low-exergy buildings. This paper points out the little known fact that this may not necessarily be true unless their low-exergy demand is matched with low-exergy waste and alternative energy resources. In order to further investigate and metricate this condition and shed more light on this issue for different types of energy resources and energy conversion systems coupled to radiant panels, a new engineering metric was developed. Using this metric, which is based on the Rational Exergy Management Model, true potential and benefits of radiant panels coupled to ground-source heat pumps were analyzed. Results provide a new perspective in identifying the actual benefits of heat pump technology in curbing CO 2 emissions and also refer to IEA Annex 49 findings for low-exergy buildings. Case studies regarding different scenarios are compared with a base case, which comprises a radiant panel system connected to a natural gas-fired condensing boiler in heating and a grid power-driven chiller in cooling. Results show that there is a substantial CO 2 emission reduction potential if radiant panels are optimally operated with ground-source heat pumps driven by renewable energy sources, or optimally matched with combined heat and power systems, preferably running on alternative fuels.

  5. Individually and Combined Water-Based Exercise With Ginger Supplement, on Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Indices, Among the Obese Women With Breast Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Niloofar; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Fathi Bayatiyani, Zohreh

    2015-12-01

    Breast neoplasms has known as the most common cancer among the women worldwide, and relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer has been recognized since many years ago. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-weeks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers that have related to metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in obese women with breast neoplasms. Forty women whose have diagnosed with breast neoplasms have volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects have randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group have orally received 4 capsules, 7 days a week and for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program have collected at a progressive intensity and time, have ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sampling has collected at the pretest and post-test. The ginger supplementation and the water-base exercise have resulted in a reduction of hs-CRP, IL-10, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, LDL-C, TG; but an increase in HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C. The water-base exercise and ginger supplement group have significantly shown larger positive effect in all outcomes, in comparison with the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups. Findings have suggested that obese breast neoplasms survivors have commonly shown metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation, which placed them at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, data has indicated a protective effect of the nondrug strategies, such as water-base exercise and ginger supplementation have played an important role in pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic responses, among diagnosed breast neoplasms.

  6. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs.

  7. Electric radiant heating or, why are plumbers getting our work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electric radiant heating (ERH) technologies are now being installed in floors as a means of reducing heating costs. The radiant installations have seen a large increase in sales over the last decade, and are now being used in commercial applications. Sales of hydronic ERH systems have increased by 24 per cent over the last year. ERH systems are energy efficient and do not cause drafts. The systems consist of resistant heating cables installed within the floors of a room. The cables are supplied as loose cables and tracks with predetermined spacings or rugged, heavier cable that can be stapled onto wooden subfloors. Program temperature setbacks can be applied on a room-by-room basis. Electric thermal storage systems allow building owners to store heat in the floors and are ideal for use in combination with time-of-use electric metering. Some electric utilities are now promoting the use of electric thermal storage in order to reduce demand during peak times. Thermostats used with the systems should have floor sensors and ambient air sensors to control space heating in conjunction with the floor sensor. It was concluded that electrical contractors who gain knowledge in the application and installation of the systems will tap into a growing revenue stream. 5 figs

  8. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  9. Numerical Model and Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of Electric Radiant Heating Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrarini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric radiant heating panels are frequently selected during the design phase of residential and industrial heating systems, especially for retrofit of existing buildings, as an alternative to other common heating systems, such as radiators or air conditioners. The possibility of saving living and working space and the ease of installation are the main advantages of electric radiant solutions. This paper investigates the thermal performance of a typical electric radiant panel. A climatic room was equipped with temperature sensors and heat flow meters to perform a steady state experimental analysis. For the dynamic behavior, a mathematical model was created and compared to a thermographic measurement procedure. The results showed for the steady state an efficiency of energy transformation close to one, while in a transient thermal regime the time constant to reach the steady state condition was slightly faster than the typical ones of hydronic systems.

  10. Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 42006

  11. Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

  12. Measurement of radiant properties of ceramic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornstra, J.; Turecky, M.; Maatman, D.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the measurement of the normal spectral and total emissivity and transmissivity of semi-transparent materials in the temperature range of 600 C to 1200 C. The set-up was used for the measurement of radiation properties of highly porous ceramic foam which is used in low NO x radiant burners. Emissivity and transmissivity data were measured and are presented for coated and uncoated ceramic foam of different thicknesses. (orig.)

  13. Airflow and Heat Transfer in the Slot-Vented Room with Radiant Floor Heating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Long Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiant floor heating has received increasing attention due to its diverse advantages, especially the energy saving as compared to the conventional dwelling heating system. This paper presents a numerical investigation of airflow and heat transfer in the slot-vented room with the radiant floor heating unit. Combination of fluid convection and thermal radiation has been implemented through the thermal boundary conditions. Spatial distributions of indoor air temperature and velocity, as well as the heat transfer rates along the radiant floor and the outer wall, have been presented and analyzed covering the domains from complete natural convection to forced convection dominated flows. The numerical results demonstrate that the levels of average temperature in the room with lateral slot-ventilation are higher than those without slot-ventilation, but lower than those in the room with ceiling slot-ventilation. Overall, the slot-ventilation room with radiant floor heating unit could offer better indoor air quality through increasing the indoor air temperature and fresh air exchanging rate simultaneously. Concerning the airborne pollutant transports and moisture condensations, the performance of radiant floor heating unit will be further optimized in our future researches.

  14. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  15. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on SBS symptoms reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels and (4) two radiant panels...... and with radiant panel with attached fans, which also helped people to feel less fatigue. The SBS symptoms increased the most when the cooling fan, generating movement of polluted room air, was used....

  16. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  17. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  18. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  19. The effects of different footprint sizes and cloud algorithms on the top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instrument on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Only one Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instrument is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and it has been placed in cross-track mode since launch; it is thus not possible to construct a set of angular distribution models (ADMs specific for CERES on NPP. Edition 4 Aqua ADMs are used for flux inversions for NPP CERES measurements. However, the footprint size of NPP CERES is greater than that of Aqua CERES, as the altitude of the NPP orbit is higher than that of the Aqua orbit. Furthermore, cloud retrievals from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, which are the imagers sharing the spacecraft with NPP CERES and Aqua CERES, are also different. To quantify the flux uncertainties due to the footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES, and due to both the footprint size difference and cloud property difference, a simulation is designed using the MODIS pixel-level data, which are convolved with the Aqua CERES and NPP CERES point spread functions (PSFs into their respective footprints. The simulation is designed to isolate the effects of footprint size and cloud property differences on flux uncertainty from calibration and orbital differences between NPP CERES and Aqua CERES. The footprint size difference between Aqua CERES and NPP CERES introduces instantaneous flux uncertainties in monthly gridded NPP CERES measurements of less than 4.0 W m−2 for SW (shortwave and less than 1.0 W m−2 for both daytime and nighttime LW (longwave. The global monthly mean instantaneous SW flux from simulated NPP CERES has a low bias of 0.4 W m−2 when compared to simulated Aqua CERES, and the root-mean-square (RMS error is 2.2 W m−2 between them; the biases of daytime and nighttime LW flux are close to zero with RMS errors of 0.8 and 0.2 W m−2. These uncertainties are within the uncertainties of CERES ADMs

  20. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...... water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed...

  1. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  2. Error analysis of thermocouple measurements in the Radiant Heat Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Strait, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    The measurement most frequently made in the Radiant Heat Facility is temperature, and the transducer which is used almost exclusively is the thermocouple. Other methods, such as resistance thermometers and thermistors, are used but very rarely. Since a majority of the information gathered at Radiant Heat is from thermocouples, a reasonable measure of the quality of the measurements made at the facility is the accuracy of the thermocouple temperature data

  3. Self-Cleaning Coatings and Materials for Decontaminating Field-Deployable Land and Water-Based Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Underwood, Lauren; Holekamp, Kara; May, George; Spiering, Bruce; Davis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This technology exploits the organic decomposition capability and hydrophilic properties of the photocatalytic material titanium dioxide (TiO2), a nontoxic and non-hazardous substance, to address contamination and biofouling issues in field-deployed optical sensor systems. Specifically, this technology incorporates TiO2 coatings and materials applied to, or integrated as a part of, the optical surfaces of sensors and calibration sources, including lenses, windows, and mirrors that are used in remote, unattended, ground-based (land or maritime) optical sensor systems. Current methods used to address contamination or biofouling of these optical surfaces in deployed systems are costly, toxic, labor intensive, and non-preventative. By implementing this novel technology, many of these negative aspects can be reduced. The functionality of this innovative self-cleaning solution to address the problem of contamination or biofouling depends on the availability of a sufficient light source with the appropriate spectral properties, which can be attained naturally via sunlight or supplemented using artificial illumination such as UV LEDs (light emitting diodes). In land-based or above-water systems, the TiO2 optical surface is exposed to sunlight, which catalyzes the photocatalytic reaction, facilitating both the decomposition of inorganic and organic compounds, and the activation of superhydrophilic properties. Since underwater optical surfaces are submerged and have limited sunlight exposure, supplementary UV light sources would be required to activate the TiO2 on these optical surfaces. Nighttime operation of land-based or above-water systems would require this addition as well. For most superhydrophilic self-cleaning purposes, a rainwater wash will suffice; however, for some applications an attached rainwater collector/ dispenser or other fresh water dispensing system may be required to wash the optical surface and initiate the removal of contaminates. Deployment of this

  4. Versatile Photocatalytic Systems for H2 Generation in Water Based on an Efficient DuBois-Type Nickel Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The generation of renewable H2 through an efficient photochemical route requires photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a light harvester to an efficient electrocatalyst in water. Here, we report on a molecular H2 evolution catalyst (NiP) with a DuBois-type [Ni(P2R′N2R″)2]2+ core (P2R′N2R″ = bis(1,5-R′-diphospha-3,7-R″-diazacyclooctane), which contains an outer coordination sphere with phosphonic acid groups. The latter functionality allows for good solubility in water and immobilization on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrochemical studies confirm that NiP is a highly active electrocatalyst in aqueous electrolyte solution (overpotential of approximately 200 mV at pH 4.5 with a Faradaic yield of 85 ± 4%). Photocatalytic experiments and investigations on the ET kinetics were carried out in combination with a phosphonated Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Time-resolved luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy studies confirmed that directed ET from RuP to NiP occurs efficiently in all systems on the nano- to microsecond time scale, through three distinct routes: reductive quenching of RuP in solution or on the surface of ZrO2 (“on particle” system) or oxidative quenching of RuP when the compounds were immobilized on TiO2 (“through particle” system). Our studies show that NiP can be used in a purely aqueous solution and on a semiconductor surface with a high degree of versatility. A high TOF of 460 ± 60 h–1 with a TON of 723 ± 171 for photocatalytic H2 generation with a molecular Ni catalyst in water and a photon-to-H2 quantum yield of approximately 10% were achieved for the homogeneous system. PMID:24320740

  5. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  6. Design of a water based cooling system to take out electronics heat load of MUCH detector in CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vikas; Saini, J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    A GEM based detector system is being developed at VECC, Kolkata for use as muon tracker in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the upcoming FAIR facility in Germany. The Muon Chambers (MUCH) consists of alternating layers of six absorbers and detector stations. Out of the six stations, VECC has taken responsibility to build the detectors and related readout electronics for the first two stations where each station consists of three detector layers. MUCH will be use a custom built self-triggering ASIC, which will provide both timing and energy information for each incoming signal in its channel. MUCH uses the sensitive electronics where the desired operating temperature range is 25-30 °C. Temperature going above these limits will drift the biasing scheme and further increase may lead to damage of Front End Electronics (FEE) board itself

  7. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  8. Improvement on life and NO{sub x} discharge of radiant heat transfer tube heating system by the elasto-plasticity creep analysis; Dansosei kuripukaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Futahiko; Ikaruda, Kunihiro; Abe, Yoshio; Arai, Norio

    1999-06-05

    Combustion thermal process using the radiant heat transfer tube has widely been applied as a heating method which separates the combustion atmosphere from the heating-e atmosphere in various heating furnace such as iron and steel industry. In this thermal process, in order to burn the fuel in tight space in radiant heat transfer service area, radiant heat transfer tube and burner life were short under high temperature and high-load combustion, and there was a problem that that and, burning characteristic such as NO{sub x} generation rate are improved was difficult. In this study, large temperature distribution by the combustion in the radiant heat transfer tube clarified that the life of the radiant heat transfer tube was shortened by elasto-plasticity creep analysis of the radiant heat transfer tube. Then, two steps combustion burner of the exhaust gas self recycling type was developed as a method for reducing the NO{sub x} generation rate, while the temperature distribution of the radiant heat transfer tube was equalized. As the result, it was possible to reduce over 20% in comparison with conventional two steps combustion burner, while radiant heat transfer tube and life of the burner are extended over the conventional double, in respect of the NO{sub x} generation rate. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Design and construction of a regenerative radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao, Diego Alberto; Cano C, Carlos Andres; Amell Arrieta, Andres A.

    2002-01-01

    The technological development of the gas industry in Colombia, aiming at efficient and safe use of the natural gas, requires the assimilation and adaptation of new generation, technologies for this purpose in this article results are presented on the design, construction and characterization of a prototype of a burner of regenerative radiant robe with a thermal power of 9,94 kW and a factor of air 1,05. This system takes advantage of the high exit temperature of the combustion smokes, after they go trough a metallic robe where they transfer the heat by radiation, to heat a ceramic channel that has the capacity to absorbing a part of the heat of the smokes and then transferring them to a current of cold air. The benefits of air heating are a saving in fuel, compared with other processes that don't incorporate the recovery of heat from the combustion gases. In this work it was possible to probe a methodology for the design of this type of burners and to reach maximum temperatures of heating of combustion air of 377,9 centigrade degrees, using a material available in the national market, whose regenerative properties should be studied in depth

  10. Effects of short-term heated water-based exercise training on systemic blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cruz, Lais G B; Tavares, Aline C; Dorea, Egidio L; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel M; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2013-12-01

    High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and its control is a clinical challenge. Regular exercise lowers BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. No data are available on the effects of heated water-based exercise in hypertensive patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested the effects of 60-min heated water-based exercise training three times per week in 16 patients with resistant hypertension (age 55±6 years). The protocol included walking and callisthenic exercises. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and after a 2-week exercise program in a heated pool. Systolic office BP was reduced from 162 to 144 mmHg (Pexercise training during 24-h ABPM, systolic BP decreased from 135 to 123 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 83 to 74 mmHg (P=0.001), daytime systolic BP decreased from 141 to 125 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 87 to 77 mmHg (P=0.009), night-time systolic BP decreased from 128 to 118 mmHg (P=0.06), and diastolic BP decreased from 77 to 69 mmHg (P=0.01). In addition, BP cardiovascular load was reduced significantly during the 24-h daytime and night-time period after the heated water-based exercise. Heated water-based exercise reduced office BP and 24-h daytime and night-time ABPM levels. These effects suggest that heated water-based exercise may have a potential as a new therapeutic approach to resistant hypertensive patients.

  11. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  12. Comparison of radiant and convective cooling of office room: effect of workstation layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Rezgals, Lauris

    2014-01-01

    and compared. The room was furnished with two workstations, two laptops and two thermal manikins resembling occupants. Two heat load levels, design (65 W/m2) and usual (39 W/m2), were generated by adding heat from warm panels simulating solar radiation. Two set-ups were studied: occupants sitting......The impact of heat source location (room layout) on the thermal environment generated in a double office room with four cooling ventilation systems - overhead ventilation, chilled ceiling with overhead ventilation, active chilled beam and active chilled beam with radiant panels was measured...

  13. ''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    1994-01-01

    A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work

  14. Radiant heat exchange measurements for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatain, D.; Disdier, F.; Gauthier, A.; Raffin, M.; Renaud, M.

    1984-03-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption of the low temperature cryogenic system connected to the superconducting magnet of TORE-SUPRA, heat exchange from thermal radiation between the vacuum vessels and the thermal shields has been studied. Accordingly large scale cold and hot walls of T.S. have been simulated in a model with reduced dimensions. In this model, the experiment consists in the measurement of the thermal radiated power between two concentric cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel under vacuum conditions. The temperature of the external cylinder was kept constant at 80 K. The internal cylinder was bakeable up to 250 0 C. Various surface treatments were applied on the two cylinders (mechanical polishing and metal deposition of Al, Ag, Ni) [fr

  15. Effect of radiant heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio; Yamada, Yukio

    1975-01-01

    The development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors is motivated by the consideration of the application of nuclear heat for industrial uses or direct steelmaking and chemical processes. For these purposes, reliable and efficient heat exchangers should be developed. This report analyzes the effect of radiant heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchangers. The heat transfer model is as follows: the channel composed with two parallel adiabatic walls is divided with one parallel plate between the walls. Non-radiative fluid flows in the two separated channels in opposite direction. Heat transfer equations for this system were obtained, and these equations were solved by some approximate method and numerical analysis. The effect of radiation on heat transfer became larger as the radiant heat transfer between two walls was larger. In the heat exchangers of counter flow type, the thermal efficiency is controlled with three parameters, namely radiation-convection parameter, Stanton number and temperature difference. The thermal efficiency was larger with the increase of these parameters. (Iwase, T.)

  16. The efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers' heat stress around the blast furnace of a steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi, Omid; Darvishi, Ebrahim; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Khoubi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Workers' exposure to excessive heat in molten industries is mainly due to radiant heat from hot sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers heat stress around a typical blast furnace. Two main interventions were applied for reducing radiant heat around the blast furnace of a steel industry located in western Iran. These included using a heat absorbing system in the furnace body and installing reflective aluminum barrier in the main workstation. Heat stress indexes were measured before and after each intervention using the digital WBGT-meter. The results showed MRT and WBGT indexes decreased by 20 °C and 3.9 °C, respectively after using heat absorbing system and also decreased by 18.6 °C and 2.5 °C, respectively after installing a reflective barrier. These indexes decrease by 26.5 °C and 5.2 °C, respectively due to the simultaneous application of the two interventions which were statistically significant (p steel industries.

  17. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A.J.

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting to alternate energy forms includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past the window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  18. Radiant science, dark politics: a memoir of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer describes Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age in contrast to a memoir by James R. Killian, Jr., a contemporary of Kamen. Kamen, co-discoverer of carbon-14 and a valued member of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, was fired in 1944 and blackballed as a security risk. Rehabilitated by the end of the war, his continued fight against political injustice through the McCarthy era colors the book and, for the reviewer, makes it self-serving. Kamen's later scientific work reflected his desire to work alone rather than in collaboration

  19. Radiant energy during infrared neural stimulation at the target structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Stafford, Ryan; Stock, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) describes a method, by which an infrared laser is used to stimulate neurons. The major benefit of INS over stimulating neurons with electrical current is its spatial selectivity. To translate the technique into a clinical application it is important to know the energy required to stimulate the neural structure. With this study we provide measurements of the radiant exposure, at the target structure that is required to stimulate the auditory neurons. Flat polished fibers were inserted into scala tympani so that the spiral ganglion was in front of the optical fiber. Angle polished fibers were inserted along scala tympani, and rotating the beveled surface of the fiber allowed the radiation beam to be directed perpendicular to the spiral ganglion. The radiant exposure for stimulation at the modiolus for flat and angle polished fibers averaged 6.78+/-2.15 mJ/cm2. With the angle polished fibers, a 90º change in the orientation of the optical beam from an orientation that resulted in an INS-evoked maximum response, resulted in a 50% drop in the response amplitude. When the orientation of the beam was changed by 180º, such that it was directed opposite to the orientation with the maxima, minimum response amplitude was observed.

  20. The Super-Radiant Mechanism and the Widths of Compound Nuclear States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2012-01-01

    In the introduction I will present the theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena. I will then discuss the statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open decay channels. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states through the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. The results I will present are important for the understanding of recent experimental data concerning the width distribution of compound neutron resonances in nuclei.

  1. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side...

  2. Human response to local convective and radiant cooling in a warm environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The response of 24 human subjects to local convective cooling, radiant cooling, and combined radiant and convective cooling was studied at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. The local cooling devices used were (1) a tabletop cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing a stream of clean air, (3...

  3. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  4. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90-200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  5. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  6. Results from radiant treatment in no Hodgkin's lymphomas of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Mesa, E.; Diaz, C.

    1982-01-01

    From 1973 to 1979, at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, Havana City, 91 adults were irradiated because they underwent no Hodgkin's lymphomas at Stage I (located) and Stage II (regional extension) to whom radiant treatment was the basic therapeutic selection, with single or multiple fields and dose ranging between 3 500 and 4 000 rads-tumor, and some of them at Stage III, where primary treatment was chemotherapy. Present survival for all of them after 3 and 5 years is 55.7% and 54.7%, with 84.4% for patients at Stage I, 55.8% and 52.4% for Stage II and 33.8% for Stage III. Survival was similar for both sexes; in the same way ganglionar processes and those of extraganglionar localization presented no significant survival differences. Only to 7 patients (7.7%) modular forms were diagnosed. (author)

  7. Methods of total spectral radiant flux realization at VNIIOFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashin, Evgeniy; Lalek, Jan; Rybczyński, Andrzej; Ogarev, Sergey; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dobroserdov, Dmitry; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-02-01

    VNIIOFI carries out works on realization of independent methods for realization of the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) of incoherent optical radiation sources - reference high-temperature blackbodies (BB), halogen lamps, and LED with quasi-Lambert spatial distribution of radiance. The paper describes three schemes for measuring facilities using photometers, spectroradiometers and computer-controlled high class goniometer. The paper describes different approaches for TSRF realization at the VNIIOFI National radiometric standard on the basis of high-temperature BB and LED sources, and gonio-spectroradiometer. Further, they are planned to be compared, and the use of fixed-point cells (in particular, based on the high-temperature δ(MoC)-C metal-carbon eutectic with a phase transition temperature of 2583 °C corresponding to the metrological optical “source-A”) as an option instead of the BB is considered in order to enhance calibration accuracy.

  8. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  9. Radiant heat transfer during the natural evaporation from free surfaces exposed to solar radiation; Transferencia de calor radiante durante a evaporacao natural em superficies livres expostas a radiacao solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, C O.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Hackenberg, C M [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1985-12-31

    In this work a conductive-convective-radiant model which includes phase change behavior, is developed in order to determine the rate of evaporation from free surface exposed to solar radiation and consequently the most important parameters, and their effects, on the design of salt solutions concentrating natural evaporation reservoirs may be analysed. The numerical solutions of the resulting of system of equations are shown to represent very well the experimental results measured on evaporation chambers specially built for daily operations. The thermal effect of spectrally selective surfaces as coating agents for the reservoir is also analysed. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs

  10. A new protocol for evaluating the efficacy of some dispensing systems of a packaging in the microbial protection of water-based preservative-free cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieghere, F; De Loy-Hendrickx, A; Rademaker, M; Pipelers, P; Crozier, A; De Baets, B; Joly, L; Keromen, S

    2015-12-01

    A new protocol is described for assessing the efficacy of the dispenser of some packaging systems (PSs) of preservative-free cosmetic products in protecting both their contained formula and their delivered doses. Practically, aiming at mimicking contacts with a non-sterile skin or fingers, the dispensing system is put into contact with a pre-contaminated fabric by a standardized colonization of P. aeruginosa. When applied to three different types of packaging, results show clear differences in both criteria between these conditioning articles, that is variable efficacies in protecting the contained product and the delivered doses, knowing that the first aspect is of paramount importance. The proposed protocol is proved being able to discriminate between different PSs and provides information on strong and weak features of certain types dispensing technologies prone to efficiently decrease either the dose contamination or to prevent contamination in reaching the contained product. Therefore, the proposed protocol can contribute to an objective selection of a PS for protecting a cosmetic care product with a low content of preservative or preservative free. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality......, a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  12. Tunable Water-based Microwave Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanova, Polina; Odit, Mikhail; Dobrykh, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    A water-based dynamically tunable microwave metasurface is developed and experimentally investigated. A simple approach to tune the metasurface properties by changing the shape of water-based unit cells by gravitation force is proposed. The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear...... angle. The proposed approach can be used to design cheap metasurfaces for electromagnetic wave control in the microwave frequency range....

  13. Ignition of Cellulosic Paper at Low Radiant Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The ignition of cellulosic paper by low level thermal radiation is investigated. Past work on radiative ignition of paper is briefly reviewed. No experimental study has been reported for radiative ignition of paper at irradiances below 10 Watts/sq.cm. An experimental study of radiative ignition of paper at these low irradiances is reported. Experimental parameters investigated and discussed include radiant power levels incident on the sample, the method of applying the radiation (focussed vs. diffuse Gaussian source), the presence and relative position of a separate pilot ignition source, and the effects of natural convection (buoyancy) on the ignition process in a normal gravity environment. It is observed that the incident radiative flux (in W/sq.cm) has the greatest influence on ignition time. For a given flux level, a focussed Gaussian source is found to be advantageous to a more diffuse, lower amplitude, thermal source. The precise positioning of a pilot igniter relative to gravity and to the fuel sample affects the ignition process, but the precise effects are not fully understood. Ignition was more readily achieved and sustained with a horizontal fuel sample, indicating the buoyancy plays a role in the ignition process of cellulosic paper. Smoldering combustion of doped paper samples was briefly investigated, and results are discussed.

  14. Automatic drawing and CAD actualization in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get expain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyse and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  15. Automatic drawing and cad actualiztion in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get explain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyses and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  16. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  17. Radiant heat increases piglets’ use of the heated creep area on the critical days after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Thodberg, Karen; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how piglets’ use of a creep area is affected by using radiant heat compared to an incandescent light bulb. It was hypothesised that radiant heat would increase the use of the creep area. Twenty litters were randomly assigned to one of two heat sources...... in the creep area: (1) an incandescent light bulb (STANDARD, n=10) or (2) a radiant heat source (RADIANT, n=10) with five of each type of heat source in each of two batches. Observations on piglets’ position in the pen were made by scan sampling every ten minutes in a 4-hour period from 1100 to 1500 h on day 1......–7, 14 and 21 post partum. A higher percentage of piglets in the creep area was seen for RADIANT litters compared to STANDARD litters on day 2 (P=0.002) and day 3 (P=0.005), and percentage of piglets in the creep area increased for RADIANT litters from day 1 to 2 (P

  18. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  19. Water-based vs. non-water-based physiotherapy for rehabilitation of postural deformities in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Daniele; Giantin, Maria Giulia; Manuela, Pilleri; Filippetto, Consuelo; Pelosin, Elisa; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Antonini, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of two physiotherapy protocols (water-based vs. non-water-based) on postural deformities of patients with Parkinson's disease. A single blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Inpatient (Rehabilitative Department). A total of 30 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two eight-week treatment groups: Water-based ( n = 15) or non-water-based physiotherapy exercises ( n = 15). Changes in the degree of cervical and dorsal flexion and in the angle of lateral inclination of the trunk (evaluated by means of a posturographic system) were used as primary outcomes. Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale section III, Time Up and Go Test, Berg Balance Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Falls Efficacy Scale and the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (39 items) were the secondary outcomes. All outcomes were assessed at baseline, at the end of training and eight weeks after treatment. Patients were always tested at the time of their optimal antiparkinsonian medication ('on' phase). After the treatment, only Parkinson's disease subjects randomized to water-based treatment showed a significant improvement of trunk posture with a significant reduction of cervical flexion (water-based group: -65.2°; non-water-based group: +1.7°) and dorsal flexion (water-based group: -22.5°; non-water-based group: -6.5°) and lateral inclination of the trunk (water-based group: -2.3°; non-water-based group: +0.3°). Both groups presented significant improvements in the secondary clinical outcomes without between-group differences. Our results show that water-based physiotherapy was effective for improving postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  20. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  1. Health Benefits of Water-based Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pools Operating Public Hot Tubs/Spas Recommendations for Hydrotherapy Tanks Preventing Pool Chemical-Associated Health Events Chloramines & ... arthritis have more health improvements after participating in hydrotherapy than with other activities 8 . Water-based exercise ...

  2. Development and demonstration of a gas-fired recuperative confined radiant burner (deliverable 42/43). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative, efficient, low-pollutant, recuperative gas-fired IR-system (infrared radiation) for industrial processes (hereafter referred to as the CONRAD-system). The CONRAD-system is confined, so flue gases from the combustion can be kept separated from the product. The gas/air mixture to the burner is preheated by means of the flue gas, which increases the radiant efficiency of the CONRAD-system significantly over traditional gas-fired IR burners. During the first phase of the project, the CONRAD-system was designed and developed. The conducted work included a survey on suitable burner materials, modelling of the burner system, basic design of burner construction, control etc., experimental characterisation of several preprototypes and detailed design of the internal heat exchanger in the burner. The result is a cost effective burner system with a documented radiant efficiency up to 66% and low emissions (NO{sub x} and CO) all in accordance with the criteria of success set up at the start of the project. In the second phase of the project, the burner system was established and tested in laboratory and in four selected industrial applications: 1) Drying of coatings on sand cores in the automotive industry. 2) Baking of bread/cake. 3) General purpose painting/powder curing process 4. Curing of powder paint on wood components. The results from the preliminary tests Overe used to optimise the CONRAD-system, before it was applied in the industrial processes and demonstrated. However, the optimised burners manufactured for demonstration suffered from different 'infant failures', which made the installation in an industrial environment very cumbersome, and even impossible in the food industry and the automotive industry. In the latter cases realistic laboratory tests Overe carried out and the established know how reported for use when the burner problems are overcome.(au)

  3. Energy efficiency and indoor thermal perception. A comparative study between radiant panel and portable convective heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Morsy, Mahmoud Gaber [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, 71516 (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates experimentally the thermal perception of indoor environment for evaluating the ability of radiant panel heaters to produce thermal comfort for space occupants as well as the energy consumption in comparison with conventional portable natural convective heaters. The thermal perception results show that, compared with conventional convection heater, a radiantly heated office room maintains a lower ambient air temperature while providing equal levels of thermal perception on the thermal dummy head as the convective heater and saves up to 39.1% of the energy consumption per day. However, for human subjects' vote experiments, the results show that for an environmentally controlled test room at outdoor environment temperatures of 0C and 5C, using two radiant panel heaters with a total capacity of 580 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional portable natural convective heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 13.4%. In addition, for an outdoor environment temperature of 10C, using one radiant panel heater with a capacity of 290 W leads to a better comfort sensation than the conventional convection heater with a 670 W capacity, with an energy saving of about 56.7%. From the analytical results, it is found that distributing the radiant panel heater inside the office room, one on the wall facing the window and the other on the wall close to the window, provides the best operative temperature distribution within the room.

  4. Solar radiation, phytoplankton pigments and the radiant heating of the equatorial Pacific warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Ohlmann, J. Carter; Washburn, Libe; Bidigare, Robert R.; Nosse, Craig T.; Fields, Erik; Zhou, Yimei

    1995-01-01

    Recent optical, physical, and biological oceanographic observations are used to assess the magnitude and variability of the penetrating flux of solar radiation through the mixed layer of the warm water pool (WWP) of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Typical values for the penetrative solar flux at the climatological mean mixed layer depth for the WWP (30 m) are approx. 23 W/sq m and are a large fraction of the climatological mean net air-sea heat flux (approx. 40 W/sq m). The penetrating solar flux can vary significantly on synoptic timescales. Following a sustained westerly wind burst in situ solar fluxes were reduced in response to a near tripling of mixed layer phytoplankton pigment concentrations. This results in a reduction in the penetrative flux at depth (5.6 W/sq m at 30 m) and corresponds to a biogeochemically mediated increase in the mixed layer radiant heating rate of 0.13 C per month. These observations demonstrate a significant role of biogeochemical processes on WWP thermal climate. We speculate that this biogeochemically mediated feedback process may play an important role in enhancing the rate at which the WWP climate system returns to normal conditions following a westerly wind burst event.

  5. Linearization of the interaction principle: Analytic Jacobians in the 'Radiant' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, R.J.D.; Christi, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new linearization of the Radiant radiative transfer model. Radiant uses discrete ordinates for solving the radiative transfer equation in a multiply-scattering anisotropic medium with solar and thermal sources, but employs the adding method (interaction principle) for the stacking of reflection and transmission matrices in a multilayer atmosphere. For the linearization, we show that the entire radiation field is analytically differentiable with respect to any surface or atmospheric parameter for which we require Jacobians (derivatives of the radiance field). Derivatives of the discrete ordinate solutions are based on existing methods developed for the LIDORT radiative transfer models. Linearization of the interaction principle is completely new and constitutes the major theme of the paper. We discuss the application of the Radiant model and its linearization in the Level 2 algorithm for the retrieval of columns of carbon dioxide as the main target of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission

  6. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  7. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Yang, Z.; Park, Gun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    A simulation of coherent and super-radiant Smith-Purcell radiation is performed in the gigahertz regime using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The simulation model supposes a rectangular grating to be driven by a single electron bunch and a train of periodic bunches, respectively. The true Smith-Purcell radiation is distinguished from the evanescent wave, which has an angle independent frequency lower than the minimum allowed Smith-Purcell frequency. We also find that the super-radiant radiations excited by periodic bunches are emitted at higher harmonics of the bunching frequency and at the corresponding Smith-Purcell angles

  9. Fixed, low radiant exposure vs. incremental radiant exposure approach for diode laser hair reduction: a randomized, split axilla, comparative single-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, M D; Adamič, M; Nenadić, D

    2015-12-01

    Diode lasers are the most commonly used treatment modalities for unwanted hair reduction. Only a few controlled clinical trials but not a single randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the impact of various laser parameters, especially radiant exposure, onto efficacy, tolerability and safety of laser hair reduction. To compare the safety, tolerability and mid-term efficacy of fixed, low and incremental radiant exposures of diode lasers (800 nm) for axillary hair removal, we conducted an intrapatient, left-to-right, patient- and assessor-blinded and controlled trial. Diode laser (800 nm) treatments were evaluated in 39 study participants (skin type II-III) with unwanted axillary hairs. Randomization and allocation to split axilla treatments were carried out by a web-based randomization tool. Six treatments were performed at 4- to 6-week intervals with study subjects blinded to the type of treatment. Final assessment of hair reduction was conducted 6 months after the last treatment by means of blinded 4-point clinical scale using photographs. The primary endpoint was reduction in hair growth, and secondary endpoints were patient-rated tolerability and satisfaction with the treatment, treatment-related pain and adverse effects. Excellent reduction in axillary hairs (≥ 76%) at 6-month follow-up visit after receiving fixed, low and incremental radiant exposure diode laser treatments was obtained in 59% and 67% of study participants respectively (Z value: 1.342, P = 0.180). Patients reported lower visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score on the fixed (4.26) than on the incremental radiant exposure side (5.64) (P diode laser treatments were less painful and better tolerated. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Radiant Ceilings Combined with Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Domínguez, L. Marcos; Rage, Niels

    2018-01-01

    using TABS, most building simulation models assume an uncovered ceiling; however, this might not be the case in practice, due to the use of free-hanging horizontal (or vertical) sound absorbers for the control of room acoustic conditions. The use of sound absorbers will decrease the performance...... of radiant ceiling cooling systems. Therefore, the quantification of the effects during the design phase is important for predicting the resulting thermal indoor environment and for system dimensioning. In this study, a two-person office room equipped with TABS was simulated using a commercially available...... simulation software with a recently developed plug-in that allows simulating the effects of horizontal sound absorbers on the performance of TABS and on the thermal indoor environment. The change in thermal indoor environment and in performance of TABS were quantified, and the simulation results were...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Panel Tester...

  12. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  13. Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)

  14. Surface radiant flux densities inferred from LAC and GAC AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, F.; Klaes, D.

    To infer surface radiant flux densities from current (NOAA-AVHRR, ERS-1/2 ATSR) and future meteorological (Envisat AATSR, MSG, METOP) satellite data, the complex, modular analysis scheme SESAT (Strahlungs- und Energieflüsse aus Satellitendaten) could be developed (Berger, 2001). This scheme allows the determination of cloud types, optical and microphysical cloud properties as well as surface and TOA radiant flux densities. After testing of SESAT in Central Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment (more than 400scenes U including a detailed validation with various surface measurements) it could be applied to a large number of NOAA-16 AVHRR overpasses covering the globe.For the analysis, two different spatial resolutions U local area coverage (LAC) andwere considered. Therefore, all inferred results, like global area coverage (GAC) U cloud cover, cloud properties and radiant properties, could be intercompared. Specific emphasis could be made to the surface radiant flux densities (all radiative balance compoments), where results for different regions, like Southern America, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe, and Indonesia, will be presented. Applying SESAT, energy flux densities, like latent and sensible heat flux densities could also be determined additionally. A statistical analysis of all results including a detailed discussion for the two spatial resolutions will close this study.

  15. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  16. Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)

  17. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1993-07-01

    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D0.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  19. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Venture seed pickup type international cooperative research project (Development of multi-beam semiconductor laser-aided preparation system for photogravure printing using water-based ink); 1999 nendo venture seeds hakkutsugata kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo seika hokokusho - venture seeds No.8. Suisei ink wo mochiita gurabia (oban) insatsuyo multi beam handotai laser seihan system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the prevention of environmental contamination due to oil-based ink used in the photogravure printing process, efforts were exerted to develop a technique of laser-aided photogravure printing using a water-based ink. It was learned that the laser optical system technology of CR Corporation of Canada was practical and high in quality, and a delay occurred in the development of an evaporation type resin for use under this project. Then the initially planned design was abandoned for a type using a new optical system manufactured by CR Corporation. In the development of plate making materials, it was found that resin evaporation was incomplete in a 1-layer structure design. A 2-layer structure design was then employed instead, and the evaporation goal was achieved. Now that the optical system was changed, the resin was also replaced with a thermosensitive type, which enhanced work efficiency. The CR Corporation-manufactured laser optical system was installed on a mount, the processor system was controlled and adjusted, and a printing test was conducted using a water-based ink of German make. It was found that the product of the new system was higher in quality than that printed by the conventional mechanical perforation type printer using an oil-based ink. (NEDO)

  20. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  1. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal inertia and radiating average Temperature. A brief analysis of some causes of discomfort; Inercia Termica y Temperatura media radiante. Un breve analisis de algunas causas de disconfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroba, M.

    2008-07-01

    Radiant average temperature in walls is as important as dry air temperature to achieve thermal comfort of users of a local. An excessive discrepancy between these levels, or an asymmetric distribution of the surface temperature of fences, may cause localized thermal discomfort, an effect impossible to compensate by rising dry air temperature. Thermal inertia and its concentration must be properly studied in order to handle this parameters, inside or outside the building, on both sides of the cladding or none depending on the weather, the bio climatic strategies used, heating and air conditioning systems and planned use of the building. (Author)

  3. Super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation from periodic line charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Hangyo, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S; Asakawa, M.R.; Imasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Purcell radiation occurs when an electron passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. The radiation becomes coherent when the length of the electron bunch is smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. A train of periodic bunches can enhance the spectral intensity by changing the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation. This is called super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation, and has been observed in experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. In this paper, we introduce a new method to study this effect by calculating the reflected waves of an incident evanescent wave from periodic line charges. The reflection coefficients are numerically computed, and the spectral distributions of the super-radiant radiation are demonstrated. These analytical results are in agreement with those obtained through part-in-cell simulations.

  4. Free of pollution gas - an utopia or attainable goal? Gas radiant burner with a small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, P.; Bornscheuer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The firm Viessmann has developed a gas radiant burner for boiler capacities up to 100 kN combusting gas with extremely low pollutant emissions. This is possible since from the reaction zone a considerable part of the combustion heat is delivered through radiation by means of a glowing special steel structure. The theoretical fundamentals are explained by means of considerations regarding the equilibrium and a reaction kinetic numerical model. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis of excimer laser radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume at LASIK procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, Rima Fitria; Rini Rizki, Artha Bona; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Rahmadiansah, Andi

    2016-11-01

    LASIK (Laser Asissted In Situ Interlamelar Keratomilieusis) is a technique for correcting refractive disorders of the eye such as myopia and astigmatism using an excimer laser. This procedure use photoablation technique to decompose corneal tissues. Although preferred due to its efficiency, permanency, and accuracy, the inappropriate amount radiant exposure often cause side effects like under-over correction, irregular astigmatism and problems on surrounding tissues. In this study, the radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume has been modelled through several processes. Data collecting results is laser data specifications with 193 nm wavelength, beam diameter of 0.065 - 0.65 cm, and fluence of 160 mJ/cm2. For the medical data, the myopia-astigmatism value, cornea size, corneal ablation thickness, and flap data are taken. The first modelling step is determining the laser diameter between 0.065 - 0.65 cm with 0.45 cm increment. The energy, power, and intensity of laser determined from laser beam area. Number of pulse and total energy is calculated before the radiant exposure of laser is obtained. Next is to determine the parameters influence the ablation volume. Regression method used to create the equation, and then the spot size is substituted to the model. The validation used is statistic correlation method to both experimental data and theory. By the model created, it is expected that any potential complications can be prevented during LASIK procedures. The recommendations can give the users clearer picture to determine the appropriate amount of radiant exposure with the corneal ablation volume necessary.

  6. Effects of cryogen spray cooling and high radiant exposures on selective vascular injury during laser irradiation of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James W; Chang, David W; Johnston, Carol; Torres, Jorge H; Patrick, Charles W; Miller, Michael J; Thomsen, Sharon L; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-06-01

    Increasing radiant exposure offers a means to increase treatment efficacy during laser-mediated treatment of vascular lesions, such as port-wine stains; however, excessive radiant exposure decreases selective vascular injury due to increased heat generation within the epidermis and collateral damage to perivascular collagen. To determine if cryogen spray cooling could be used to maintain selective vascular injury (ie, prevent epidermal and perivascular collagen damage) when using high radiant exposures (16-30 J/cm2). Observational study. Academic hospital and research laboratory. Twenty women with normal abdominal skin (skin phototypes I-VI). Skin was irradiated with a pulsed dye laser (wavelength = 585 nm; pulse duration = 1.5 milliseconds; 5-mm-diameter spot) using various radiant exposures (8-30 J/cm2) without and with cryogen spray cooling (50- to 300-millisecond cryogen spurts). Hematoxylin-eosin-stained histologic sections from each irradiated site were examined for the degree of epidermal damage, maximum depth of red blood cell coagulation, and percentage of vessels containing perivascular collagen coagulation. Long cryogen spurt durations (>200 milliseconds) protected the epidermis in light-skinned individuals (skin phototypes I-IV) at the highest radiant exposure (30 J/cm2); however, epidermal protection could not be achieved in dark-skinned individuals (skin phototypes V-VI) even at the lowest radiant exposure (8 J/cm2). The red blood cell coagulation depth increased with increasing radiant exposure (to >2.5 mm for skin phototypes I-IV and to approximately 1.2 mm for skin phototypes V-VI). In addition, long cryogen spurt durations (>200 milliseconds) prevented perivascular collagen coagulation in all skin types. Cryogen spurt durations much longer than those currently used in therapy (>200 milliseconds) may be clinically useful for protecting the epidermis and perivascular tissues when using high radiant exposures during cutaneous laser therapies

  7. Influence of increment thickness on radiant energy and microhardness of bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem; Boyacioglu, Hayal; Ferracane, Jack L

    2018-03-30

    Determining the energy transferred at the bottom of eleven bulk-fill resin composites, comparing top and bottom microhardness's and evaluating the correlation between microhardness and radiant energy were aimed. Samples were placed over the bottom sensor of a visible light transmission spectrophotometer and polymerized for 20 s. The bottom and top Knoop microhardness were measured. Paired t-test and correlation analysis were used for statistics (p≤0.05). In all groups, the bottom radiant energy decreased significantly with increasing thickness. For groups of Aura 2 mm, X-tra Fil 2 and 4 mm, SDR 2 and 4 mm, X-tra Base 2 mm no significant difference was found between top and bottom microhardness. For the bottom levels of Aura, X-tra Fil, Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior, SDR, X-tra Base groups no significant difference was found between the microhardness's of 2 and 4 mm thicknesses. For X-tra Fil, Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk-Fill, Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable and Z100 groups radiant energy affected positively the microhardness.

  8. Inverse optimal design of the radiant heating in materials processing and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. G.; Lee, K. H.; Viskanta, R.

    1998-12-01

    Combined convective, conductive, and radiative heat transfer is analyzed during heating of a continuously moving load in the industrial radiant oven. A transient, quasi-three-dimensional model of heat transfer between a continuous load of parts moving inside an oven on a conveyor belt at a constant speed and an array of radiant heaters/burners placed inside the furnace enclosure is developed. The model accounts for radiative exchange between the heaters and the load, heat conduction in the load, and convective heat transfer between the moving load and oven environment. The thermal model developed has been used to construct a general framework for an inverse optimal design of an industrial oven as an example. In particular, the procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares optimization algorithm has been developed to obtain the optimal temperatures of the heaters/burners that need to be specified to achieve a prescribed temperature distribution of the surface of a load. The results of calculations for several sample cases are reported to illustrate the capabilities of the procedure developed for the optimal inverse design of an industrial radiant oven.

  9. Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

  10. Optimum pulse duration and radiant exposure for vascular laser therapy of dark port-wine skin: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, James W.; Anvari, Bahman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2003-01-01

    Laser therapy for cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port-wine stain birthmarks is currently not feasible for dark-skinned individuals. We study the effects of pulse duration, radiant exposure, and cryogen spray cooling (CSC) on the thermal response of skin, using a Monte Carlo based optical-thermal model. Thermal injury to the epidermis decreases with increasing pulse duration during irradiation at a constant radiant exposure; however, maintaining vascular injury requires that the radiant exposure also increase. At short pulse durations, only a minimal increase in radiant exposure is necessary for a therapeutic effect to be achieved because thermal diffusion from the vessels is minimal. However, at longer pulse durations the radiant exposure must be greatly increased. There exists an optimum pulse duration at which minimal damage to the epidermis and significant injury within the targeted vasculature occur. For example, the model predicts optimum pulse durations of approximately 1.5, 6, and 20 ms for vessel diameters of 40, 80, and 120 μm, respectively. Optimization of laser pulse duration and radiant exposure in combination with CSC may offer a means to treat cutaneous lesions in dark-skinned individuals

  11. Water-based exercise for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio Jose; Silva, Valter; Andriolo, Brenda N G; Riera, Rachel; Parra, Sergio A; Peccin, Maria S

    2014-07-17

    Asthma is a common condition characterised by airway inflammation and airway narrowing, which can result in intermittent symptoms of wheezing, coughing and chest tightness, possibly limiting activities of daily life. Water-based exercise is believed to offer benefits for people with asthma through pollen-free air, humidity and effects of exercise on physical function. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of water-based exercise for adults with asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials (CAGR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), PsycINFO, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) and Google Scholar on 13 May 2014. We handsearched ongoing clinical trial registers and meeting abstracts of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the British Thoracic Society (BTS). We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with asthma comparing a water-based exercise group versus one or more of the following groups: usual care, land-based exercise, non-exercise. Two review authors (AJG, VS) independently extracted data from the primary studies using a standard form developed for this purpose, which includes methods, participants, interventions and outcomes. We contacted trial authors to request additional data. Data were input by one review author and were double-checked by a second review author. In this systematic review, we provide a narrative synthesis of available evidence from three small studies including 136 adult participants. The studies were at high risk of bias. No meta-analysis was possible because of methodological and interventional heterogeneity between included

  12. Radiant heat loss, an unexploited path for heat stress reduction in shaded cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A; Horovitz, T

    2012-06-01

    Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m⁻², whereas if roof height were 10 m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m⁻². A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m⁻². Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was > 8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10 m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m⁻². Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m⁻² was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m⁻². Their combined effects were lower

  13. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10 6 Gy (10 8 rad) are expected

  14. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10/sup 6/ Gy (10/sup 8/ rad) are expected.

  15. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  16. Application of roof radiant burners in large pusher-type furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Varga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on measurements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions, the advantages and disadvantages of indirectly oriented radiant heat transfer are analysed in relation to the heat transfer in classically fired furnaces.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the thermal performance of radiant and convective terminals for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, J.; Heiselberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling terminals can be classified in two main categories: convective terminals (e.g. active chilled beam, air conditioning) and radiant terminals. The mode of heat transfer of the two emitters is different: the first one is mainly based on convection, whereas the second one is based...... conducted to determine the parameters influencing their thermal performance the most. The air change rate, the outdoor temperature and the air temperature stratification have the largest effect on the cooling need (maintaining a constant operative temperature). For air change rates higher than 0.5 ACH...

  18. Three dimensional modelling and numerical analysis of super-radiant harmonic emission in FEL (optical klystron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.

    1986-09-01

    A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Perceived air quality, thermal comfort, and SBS symptoms at low air temperature and increased radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Foldbjerg, P.

    2002-01-01

    source present at the low temperature. To maintain overall thermal neutrality, the low air temperature was partly compensated for by individually controlled radiant heating, and partly by allowing subjects to modify clothing insulation. A reduction of the air temperature from 23 deg.C to 18 deg.......C suggested an improvement of the perceived air quality, while no systematic effect on symptom intensity was observed. The overall indoor environment was evaluated equally acceptable at both temperatures due to local thermal discomfort at the low air temperature....

  20. Cooling load calculation by the radiant time series method - effect of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre M.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], E-mail: amscosta@uem.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work was analyzed numerically the effect of three different models for solar radiation on the cooling load calculated by the radiant time series' method. The solar radiation models implemented were clear sky, isotropic sky and anisotropic sky. The radiant time series' method (RTS) was proposed by ASHRAE (2001) for replacing the classical methods of cooling load calculation, such as TETD/TA. The method is based on computing the effect of space thermal energy storage on the instantaneous cooling load. The computing is carried out by splitting the heat gain components in convective and radiant parts. Following the radiant part is transformed using time series, which coefficients are a function of the construction type and heat gain (solar or non-solar). The transformed result is added to the convective part, giving the instantaneous cooling load. The method was applied for investigate the influence for an example room. The location used was - 23 degree S and 51 degree W and the day was 21 of January, a typical summer day in the southern hemisphere. The room was composed of two vertical walls with windows exposed to outdoors with azimuth angles equals to west and east directions. The output of the different models of solar radiation for the two walls in terms of direct and diffuse components as well heat gains were investigated. It was verified that the clear sky exhibited the less conservative (higher values) for the direct component of solar radiation, with the opposite trend for the diffuse component. For the heat gain, the clear sky gives the higher values, three times higher for the peek hours than the other models. Both isotropic and anisotropic models predicted similar magnitude for the heat gain. The same behavior was also verified for the cooling load. The effect of room thermal inertia was decreasing the cooling load during the peak hours. On the other hand the higher thermal inertia values are the greater for the non peak hours. The effect

  1. Failure Investigation of Radiant Platen Superheater Tube of Thermal Power Plant Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Mandal, A.; Roy, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a radiant platen superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis, are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these, metallographic analysis and fractography are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to localized creep at high temperature. The corrective actions has also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  2. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabus, H.; Klein, R.; Scholze, F.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to the ablation of the graphite coating from the copper cavity body. In the case of the new gold-coated cavity absorber, the calculated and measured values of the radiant power agreed in all experiments within the combined relative uncertainties of typically 2.5 x 10 -3 (k = 1). (author)

  3. Literarily -radiant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses radiation emissions from various every day appliances such as mobile telephones, wireless technologic aids, networks, radios and television sets. The health risks are mentioned (tk)

  4. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (pthermal comfort...... compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement in PAQ...

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Process in a W-Shape Radiant Tube Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Jiyong; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Yanlong

    2014-07-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional mathematical models were developed for the heat transfer and combustion in a W-shape radiant tube burner (RTB) and were solved using Fluent software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The standard k- ɛ model, nonpremixed combustion model, and the discrete ordinate model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiant heat transfer, respectively. In addition, the NO x postprocessor was used for the prediction of the NO emission. A corresponding experiment was performed for the validation of mathematical models. The details of fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion in the RTB were investigated. Moreover, the effect of the air/fuel ratio (A/F) and air staging on the performance of RTB was studied with the reference indexes including heat efficiency, maximum temperature difference on shell wall, and NO emission at the outlet. The results indicated that a low speed zone formed in the vicinity of the combustion chamber outlet, and there were two relative high-temperature zones in the RTB, one in combustion chamber that favored the flame stability and the other from the main flame in the RTB. The maximum temperature difference was 95.48 K. As the A/F increased, the temperature increased first and then decreased. As the ratio of the primary to secondary air increased, the recirculation zone at the outlet of combustion chamber shrank gradually to disappear, and the flame length was longer and the temperature in flame decreased correspondingly.

  6. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  7. Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

  8. High-temperature process heat reactor with solid coolant and radiant heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.M.; Bulkin, Yu.M.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    The high temperature graphite reactor with the solid coolant in which heat transfer is realized by radiant heat exchange is described. Neutron-physical and thermal-technological features of the reactor are considered. The reactor vessel is made of sheet carbon steel in the form of a sealed rectangular annular box. The moderator is a set of graphite blocks mounted as rows of arched laying Between the moderator rows the solid coolant annular layings made of graphite blocks with high temperature nuclear fuel in the form of coated microparticles are placed. The coolant layings are mounted onto ring movable platforms, the continuous rotation of which is realizod by special electric drives. Each part of the graphite coolant laying consecutively passes through the reactor core neutron cut-off zones and technological zone. In the core the graphite is heated up to the temperature of 1350 deg C sufficient for effective radiant heat transfer. In the neutron cut-off zone the chain reaction and further graphite heating are stopped. In the technological zone the graphite transfers the accumulated heat to the walls of technological channels in which the working medium moves. The described reactor is supposed to be used in nuclear-chemical complex for ammonia production by the method of methane steam catalytic conversion

  9. Morteros acumuladores con parafinas microencapsuladas para el aprovechamiento de la energía solar en suelos radiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Zetola Vargas, Vicente Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Esta Tesis plantea la pregunta de si el uso de morteros con parafinas microencapsuladas combinado con colectores solares térmicos puede reducir el consumo de energías convencionales, en un sistema tradicional de suelo radiante. Se pretende contribuir al conocimiento acerca del efecto que produce en el edificio, el calor latente acumulado en suelos radiantes, utilizando morteros de cemento Portland con material de cambio de fase (PCM), en conjunto con la energía solar. Para cumplir con este pr...

  10. Towards a uniform specification of light therapy devices for the treatment of affective disorders and use for non-image forming effects: Radiant flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, M P J; Rosemann, A L P

    2018-08-01

    For treating affective disorders like SAD, light therapy is used although the underlying mechanism explaining this success remains unclear. To accelerate the research on defining the light characteristics responsible for inducing a specific effect a uniform manner for specifying the irradiance at the eye should be defined. This allows a genuine comparison between light-affect studies. An important factor impacting the irradiance at the eye are the radiant characteristics of the used light therapy device. In this study the radiant fluxes of five different light therapy devices were measured. The values were weighted against the spectral sensitivity of the five photopigments present in the human eye. A measurement was taken every five minutes to control for a potential stabilizing effect. The results show that all five devices show large differences in radiant flux. The devices equipped with blue LED lights have a much lower spectral radiant flux than the devices equipped with a fluorescent light source or a white LED. The devices with fluorescent lamps needed 30 min to stabilize to a constant radiant flux. In this study only five devices were measured. Radiant flux is just the first step to identify uniform specifications for light therapy devices. It is recommended to provide all five α-opic radiant fluxes. Preferably, the devices should come with a spectral power distribution of the radiant flux. For the devices equipped with a fluorescent lamp it is recommended to provide information on the stabilization time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J L; Desaulty, M [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1997-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  12. Radiant heat transfers in turbojet engines. Two applications, three levels of modeling; Transferts radiatifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs. Deux applications, trois niveaux de modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.L.; Desaulty, M. [SNECMA, Centre de Villaroche, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Taine, J. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several applications linked with the dimensioning of turbojet engines require the use of modeling of radiant heat transfers. Two different applications are presented in this study: the modeling of heat transfers in the main combustion chamber, and modeling of the infrared signature of the post-combustion chamber of a military engine. In the first application, two types of radiant heat transfer modeling are presented: a global modeling based on empirical considerations and used in rapid pre-dimensioning methods, and a modeling based on a grey gases concept and combined to a ray shooting type technique allowing the determination of local radiant heat flux values. In the second application, a specific modeling of the radiant heat flux is used in the framework of a ray shooting method. Each model represents a different level of successive approximations of the radiant heat transfer adapted to flow specificities and to the performance requested. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  13. Solar–terrestrial radiant-energy regimes and temperature anomalies of natural and artificial turfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar and terrestrial radian energy regimes affect temperature response of sports turfs. • Adjacent natural and artificial turfs were monitored with replications on sunny days. • Artificial turf has meager albedo, low specific heat and moisture to augment warming. • Artificial turf surface and substrate reach 70 °C but cool down effectively at night. • Artificial turf may induce heat stress on athletes in hot summer afternoon. - Abstract: Artificial turf can develop unusually high surface temperature on hot sunny days. Solar and terrestrial radiant energy regimes as key determinants of thermal performance deserve detailed investigation. This study evaluated six components of the radiant-energy environment of a natural turf (NT) and a contiguous artificial turf (AT) sports fields in Hong Kong: direct solar, reflected solar, net solar, sky thermal, ground thermal, and net thermal. Temperature was monitored at five positions: air at 150 cm, 50 cm and 15 cm height, turf surface, and substrate. The experiment included four replications, namely two summer sunny days, and two duplicated instrument sets at each turf site. The two sites reacted very differently to the same intense daily sum of solar radiation input of 23.70 MW m −2 with 9 h of bright sunshine (>120 W m −2 ), and daily sum of sky thermal radiation input of 38.59 MW m −2 . The maximum direct solar radiation reached 976.1 W m −2 at 1245 h. NT albedo of 0.23 vis-à-vis AT of merely 0.073, and higher moisture content and specific heat of NT materials, presented critical differences. The hydrophobic and generally dry plastic (polyethylene) pile-fibers and black rubber-granule infill materials have low specific heat. Intense incoming shortwave and longwave radiation absorbed readily by AT materials raised turf surface temperature to 70.2 °C and substrate 69.3 °C, in comparison with <40 °C at NT. A cascading warming effect was triggered, beginning with low albedo, high net solar

  14. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions — Gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    , thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...... the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more...... of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended...

  15. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of an Isothermal Element with Account of the Radiant Heat Transfer Between Parts of a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Paleshkin, A. V.; Terent‧ev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    A methodological approach to determination of the thermal state at a point on the surface of an isothermal element of a small spacecraft has been developed. A mathematical model of heat transfer between surfaces of intricate geometric configuration has been described. In this model, account was taken of the external field of radiant fluxes and of the differentiated mutual influence of the surfaces. An algorithm for calculation of the distribution of the density of the radiation absorbed by surface elements of the object under study has been proposed. The temperature field on the lateral surface of the spacecraft exposed to sunlight and on its shady side has been calculated. By determining the thermal state of magnetic controls of the orientation system as an example, the authors have assessed the contribution of the radiation coming from the solar-cell panels and from the spacecraft surface.

  16. Influencia del tiempo de explotación del Láser de CO2 y la cantidad de ventiladores del Sistema de Enfriamiento sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante a la salida del Sistema Láser SYNRAD 48-2. // The Influences of the time of exploitation of the Laser o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramirez Chi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En el diseño de un Sistema Láser para ser utilizado con fines médicos, un aspecto a tener en cuenta por su importancia es lagarantía de lograr un Sistema de Ventilación que implique mantener estable el flujo radiante de láser a la salida del equipodurante el período de explotación. En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC se han hechoinvestigaciones en estos equipos de Sistemas Láser con el objetivo de determinar en que medida influyen la cantidad deventiladores dispuestos sobre el flujo radiante del láser a la salida del equipo de Láser de CO2 y el tiempo de explotacióndel equipo sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante del láser de salida. Mediante la modelación, la simulación, el Diseño deExperimento y métodos estadísticos se determinó que el tiempo de explotación del equipo durante cada intervenciónmédica y la cantidad de ventiladores implican una influencia significativa sobre la estabilidad del flujo radiante de salida.Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en el equipo de Láser de CO2 SYNRAD 48-2 y se empleó en la misma el programa decomputación para el Diseño de Experimentos Statgrafics-Plus.Palabras claves: Láser, flujo radiante.____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the design of a Laser System/s to be used with ends doctors, an aspect to keep in mind for its importance is the guaranteeof achieving a System of Ventilation that implies to maintain stable the radiant flow of exit of the Laser during the periodof exploitation. In the CENIC investigations have been made in these Laser System/s with the objective of determining inthat measured they influence the quantity of willing fans about the radiant flow of exit of the Laser of CO2 and the time ofexploitation of the Laser about the stability of the radiant flow of exit. By means of the modelación, the simulation, theDesign of Experiment and statistical methods were determined that the time of

  17. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  18. A METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF NON-UNIFORM RADIANT-CONVECTIVE LOAD ON HUMAN BODY DURING MENTAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Prokšová Zuská

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a documentation for the amendment of the microclimatic part of the Czech Government Regulation, particularly in a non-uniform radiant-convective load evaluation. Changes in regulation were made based on experimental data obtained on a group of experimental individuals in a climatic chamber. One of the objectives of the climatic chamber experiments was to evaluate whether there was a possibility to use an alternative method, which utilizes a new value – stereotemperature, for the assessment. A group of 24 women was exposed to a non-uniform radiant-convective load in a climatic chamber for 1 hour during their computer work. Measurements were divided according to the globe temperature into 3 stages. The physical parameters of air were continuously measured: the air temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, radiant temperature, relative humidity, stereotemperature and physiological parameters. Thermal sensations of experimental subjects were expressed in the seven-point scale according to EN ISO 7730. The thermal sensation correlated very well with the difference of stereotemperature and the globe temperature. The stereotemperature correlated very well with the radiant temperature. In this work, the composed equations were used to develop the limit values for the thermal stress evaluation in the uniform and non-uniform thermal environment at workplaces. It is possible to determine how the body of an exposed person perceives the non-uniform climatic conditions in the indoor environment, by adding the stereotemperature to government regulations.

  19. An experimental study about effect of far infrared radiant ceramics on efficient methane fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, A.; Yamazaki, M.; Oida, A.

    2003-01-01

    Methane fermentation, well known as one of the methods for organic wastes treatment, has been used as an energy production process in order to produce a gaseous fuel. But methane fermentation has some problems to be solved about gas production rate and volatile solids reduction efficiency. Simple methods to improve these problems are needed. In this study, we focused on far infrared radiant ceramics as a stimulating substance to activate methanogenic bacteria. Firstly, through the experiment of one batch fermentation, it was confirmed that the ceramics in the fermenter caused increase of total gas production. Next, even through the experiment of continuous fermentation, same stimulating effect was confirmed. It was considered that this effect was caused not only by a function of bio-contactor of the ceramics but also by far infrared radiation from ceramics. (author)

  20. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors

  1. A critical examination of the validity of simplified models for radiant heat transfer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, J. S.; Viskanta, R.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the directional effects of the simplified models by comparing the experimental data with the predictions based on simple and more detailed models for the radiation characteristics of surfaces. Analytical results indicate that the constant property diffuse and specular models do not yield the upper and lower bounds on local radiant heat flux. In general, the constant property specular analysis yields higher values of irradiation than the constant property diffuse analysis. A diffuse surface in the enclosure appears to destroy the effect of specularity of the other surfaces. Semigray and gray analyses predict the irradiation reasonably well provided that the directional properties and the specularity of the surfaces are taken into account. The uniform and nonuniform radiosity diffuse models are in satisfactory agreement with each other.

  2. Thermal Texture Selection and Correction for Building Facade Inspection Based on Thermal Radiant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jarzabek-Rychard, M.; Schneider, D.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic building façade thermal texture mapping approach, using uncooled thermal camera data, is proposed in this paper. First, a shutter-less radiometric thermal camera calibration method is implemented to remove the large offset deviations caused by changing ambient environment. Then, a 3D façade model is generated from a RGB image sequence using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. Subsequently, for each triangle in the 3D model, the optimal texture is selected by taking into consideration local image scale, object incident angle, image viewing angle as well as occlusions. Afterwards, the selected textures can be further corrected using thermal radiant characteristics. Finally, the Gauss filter outperforms the voted texture strategy at the seams smoothing and thus for instance helping to reduce the false alarm rate in façade thermal leakages detection. Our approach is evaluated on a building row façade located at Dresden, Germany.

  3. Radiant thinking and the use of the mind map in nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie R; Anderson, Kelley M; Ellis, Kathryn K

    2013-05-01

    The concept of radiant thinking, which led to the concept of mind mapping, promotes all aspects of the brain working in synergy, with thought beginning from a central point. The mind map, which is a graphical technique to improve creative thinking and knowledge attainment, utilizes colors, images, codes, and dimensions to amplify and enhance key ideas. This technique augments the visualization of relationships and links between concepts, which aids in information acquisition, data retention, and overall comprehension. Faculty can promote students' use of the technique for brainstorming, organizing ideas, taking notes, learning collaboratively, presenting, and studying. These applications can be used in problem-based learning, developing plans of care, health promotion activities, synthesizing disease processes, and forming differential diagnoses. Mind mapping is a creative way for students to engage in a unique method of learning that can expand memory recall and help create a new environment for processing information. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  5. Progress Report on Computational Analyses of Water-Based NSTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lisowski, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nunez, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    CFD analysis has been focused on important component-level phenomena using STARCCM+ to supplement the system analysis of integral system behavior. A notable area of interest was the cavity region. This area is of particular interest for CFD analysis due to the multi-dimensional flow and complex heat transfer (thermal radiation heat transfer and natural convection), which are not simulated directly by RELAP5. CFD simulations allow for the estimation of the boundary heat flux distribution along the riser tubes, which is needed in the RELAP5 simulations. The CFD results can also provide additional data to help establish what level of modeling detail is necessary in RELAP5. It was found that the flow profiles in the cavity region are simpler for the water-based concept than for the air-cooled concept. The local heat flux noticeably increases axially, and is higher in the fins than in the riser tubes. These results were utilized in RELAP5 simulations as boundary conditions, to provide better temperature predictions in the system level analyses. It was also determined that temperatures were higher in the fins than the riser tubes, but within design limits for thermal stresses. Higher temperature predictions were identified in the edge fins, in part due to additional thermal radiation from the side cavity walls.

  6. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori de; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; Silva, Maria Izabel Mota da

    2016-08-08

    to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. comparar a temperatura axilar dos recém-nascidos acomodados - imediatamente após o nascimento - em contato pele a pele, sob o Top Maternal, em berço de calor radiante. estudo comparativo observacional do tipo Caso-Controle sobre a temperatura de 60 bebês nascidos no Centro Obstétrico e Centro de Parto Normal de um hospital público do município de São Paulo, sendo: 29 assistidos em berço aquecido e 31 em contato pele a pele, protegidos por uma malha de algodão colocada sobre o tórax da mãe, denominada Top Maternal. a temperatura dos bebês do grupo de contato pele a pele teve maior valor na maioria dos tempos verificados comparada à dos que foram colocados em berço de calor radiante, independentemente do local de nascimento. A diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significante. o estudo contribui com a geração de um novo conhecimento que sustenta a

  7. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Boundary lubrication of bearing steel in water-based lubricants with functional additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effect of additives on boundary lubrication of bearing steel for water-based lubrication systems. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and the water-glycol based liquid were selected as the base fluids for research. Sulfur compounds, nitrogen heterocycles and graphene

  9. Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Huskyes, E.; O Connor, K.

    2006-01-01

    In consultation with key agencies and stakeholders, the Marine Institute is drafting a Development Strategy for the marine/water-based tourism and leisure sector for the period 2007-2013. Preparation and research for this has involved the completion of a Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit. The Institute worked in collaboration with Royal Haskoning, spatial planning consultants, and Kevin O’Connor, Donegal County Council, to complete the audit. The objective of the audit is to syste...

  10. Taking water-based mud to extremes : new ultra-high temperature water-based mud development and applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, L.; Cullum, D.; Ray, R.; Marinescu, P. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The design, development and field applications of an ultra-high temperature water-based mud used for drilling very deep and hot wells in continental Europe was described. Basin-centred gas production from unconventional tight sands represents a significant resources that may revive exploration and gas production. However, these accumulations lie deep down from normal-pressure reservoirs and the bottom hole static temperatures are greater than 200 degrees C. In addition, they host acid gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. As such, there are severe limitations on the design and choice of drilling fluids. This paper also described the extensive laboratory work that is needed to optimize the formulation of drilling fluids for high densities and extreme high temperatures. The lessons learned were described with reference to critical engineering guidelines for running a water-based system in such harsh conditions. The effectiveness of new fluids in delivering optimum drilling in extreme high temperature high pressure (HTHP) conditions were demonstrated using a unique software program that predicted the rheological behaviour, pressure losses, equivalent circulating density and equivalent static density. The new water-based system proved to be effective in drilling HTHP wells in areas where invert emulsion drilling fluid systems are not allowed.

  11. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  12. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  13. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1st week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first...

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN A SPIRALLY COILED CORRUGATED TUBE WITH RADIANT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Đorđević

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Archimedean spiral coil made of a transversely corrugated tube was exposed to radiant heating in order to represent a heat absorber of the parabolic dish solar concentrator. The main advantage of the considered innovative design solution is a coupling effect of the two passive methods for heat transfer enhancement - coiling of the flow channel and changes in surface roughness. The curvature ratio of the spiral coil varies from 0.029 to 0.234, while water and a mixture of propylene glycol and water are used as heat transfer fluids. The unique focus of this study is on specific boundary conditions since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but in the axial direction as well. Instrumentation of the laboratory model of the heat absorber mounted in the radiation field includes measurement of inlet fluid flow rate, pressure drop, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and 35 type K thermocouples welded to the coil surface. A thermal analysis of the experimentally obtained data implies taking into consideration the externally applied radiation field, convective and radiative heat losses, conduction through the tube wall and convection to the internal fluid. The experimental results have shown significant enhancement of the heat transfer rate compared to spirally coiled smooth tubes, up to 240% in the turbulent flow regime.

  15. Analysis of directional radiative behavior and heating efficiency for a gas-fired radiant burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.X.; Lu, Y.P.; Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Tan, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and uniform heating of object surface, a gas-fired porous radiant burner with a bundle of reflecting tubes is developed. A physical model is developed to simulate the directional radiative behavior of this heating device, in which the Monte Carlo method based on the concept of radiation distribution factor is used to compute the directional radiative behavior. The effects of relating parameters on the directional behavior of radiative heating and the heating efficiency are analyzed. With the increase of the length-to-radius ratio of tube, the radiation heating efficiency decreases, but the radiation energy incident on the object surface is more collimated. The radiation heating efficiency increases with the specular reflectivity. With the increase in length of tube segment with specular reflective surface, the radiation heating efficiency increases, but the extent of concentration and collimation of radiative energy decreases. For real design of the heating device, some trade-offs are needed to balance the radiation heating efficiency and the uniformity of radiative heating of object surface

  16. Evolution of arbitrary moments of radiant intensity distribution for partially coherent general beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Youquan; Xu, Yonggen

    2018-04-01

    The evolution law of arbitrary order moments of the Wigner distribution function, which can be applied to the different spatial power spectra, is obtained for partially coherent general beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. A coupling coefficient of radiant intensity distribution (RID) in turbulence is introduced. Analytical expressions of the evolution of the first five-order moments, kurtosis parameter, coupling coefficient of RID for general beams in turbulence are derived, and the formulas are applied to Airy beams. Results show that there exist two types for general beams in turbulence. A larger value of kurtosis parameter for Airy beams also reveals that coupling effect due to turbulence is stronger. Both theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the maximum value of kurtosis parameter for an Airy beam in turbulence is independent of turbulence strength parameter and is only determined by inner scale of turbulence. Relative angular spread, kurtosis and coupling coefficient are less influenced by turbulence for Airy beams with a smaller decay factor and a smaller initial width of the first lobe.

  17. Extinction of radiant energy by large atmospheric crystals with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The calculated results of extinction characteristics of visible and infrared radiation for large semi-transparent crystals are obtained by hybrid technique, which is a combination of the geometric optics method and the physical optics method. Energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation extinction in terms of the elements of the extinction matrix for individual large crystals and ensemble of crystals are discussed. Influences of particle shapes, aspect ratios, parameters of size distribution, complex refractive index, orientation of crystals, wavelength, and the polarization state of an incident radiation on the extinction are illustrated. It is shown that the most expressive and stable features of energy and polarization characteristics of the extinction are observed in the midinfrared region, despite the fact that the ice particles significantly absorb the radiant energy of this spectrum. It is demonstrated that the polarized extinction characteristics can reach several tens of percent at IR wavelengths. For the large crystals, the conditions of occurrence of the spectral behavior of the extinction coefficient in the visible, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength ranges are determined. - Highlights: • Method of physical optics is used at coherent sum of diffracted and refracted fields. • The extinction characteristics in terms of elements of extinction matrix are obtained. • Influence of shapes and sizes of large particles on the extinction is evaluated. • Conditions of occurrence of extinction features are determined.

  18. Numerical investigation on the convective heat transfer in a spiral coil with radiant heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milan Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to numerically investigate the heat transfer in spiral coil tube in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The Archimedean spiral coil was exposed to radiant heating and should represent heat absorber of parabolic dish solar concentrator. Specific boundary conditions represent the uniqueness of this study, since the heat flux upon the tube external surfaces varies not only in the circumferential direction, but also in the axial direction. The curvature ratio of spiral coil varies from 0.029 at the flow inlet to 0.234 at the flow outlet, while the heat transfer fluid is water. The 3-D steady-state transport equations were solved using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. Results showed that secondary flows strongly affect the flow and that the heat transfer is strongly asymmetric, with higher values near the outer wall of spiral. Although overall turbulence levels were lower than in a straight pipe, heat transfer rates were larger due to the curvature-induced modifications of the mean flow and temperature fields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42006

  19. Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Ryan, Robert T; Kim, Jeehyun; Choi, Bernard; Arakeri, Navanit V; Teichman, Joel M H; Welch, A J

    2004-08-01

    During pulsed laser lithotripsy, the calculus is subject to a strong recoil momentum which moves the calculus away from laser delivery and prolongs the operation. This study was designed to quantify the recoil momentum during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. The correlation among crater shape, debris trajectory, laser-induced bubble and recoil momentum was investigated. Calculus phantoms made from plaster of Paris were ablated with free running Ho:YAG lasers. The dynamics of recoil action of a calculus phantom was monitored by a high-speed video camera and the laser ablation craters were examined with Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT). Higher radiant exposure resulted in larger ablation volume (mass) which increased the recoil momentum. Smaller fibers produced narrow craters with a steep contoured geometry and decreased recoil momentum compared to larger fibers. In the presence of water, recoil motion of the phantom deviated from that of phantom in air. Under certain conditions, we observed the phantom rocking towards the fiber after the laser pulse. The shape of the crater is one of the major contributing factors to the diminished recoil momentum of smaller fibers. The re-entrance flow of water induced by the bubble collapse is considered to be the cause of the rocking of the phantom.

  20. Influence on living body by radiant rays produced in low power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Isao; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Usuyama, Hideo; Usui, Akinori; Hosomi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yoshinao; Nakai, Takahide; Egashira, Masamichi

    1984-01-01

    There is possibility of a risk that a living body is irradiated by those for slightly indifference to radiant rays, radiation source or devices of low level dose or dose rate. Accordingly, a low power reactor (UTR-KINKI) was utilized for a observation of influence by radiation of low level dose or dose rate, the rabbits were irradiated in it at output 1 w. The large influence was not expected for the low level dose rate of 1.313 Rad/hr even if they were irradiated for the several hours, but in a part of blood components a slight change was recognized. The change of M pattern in white blood corpuscle number was indicated likewise as irradiation of 500R X-ray, reported from Jacobson and others, by irradiation to about 13 Rads. In addition, lymphocyte number was increased considerably in an early stage. This fact will be useful for a recovery of an injury as mentioned by Lucky. The rabbits of alloxan diabetes mellitus and hepatitis were irradiated in the same way as above, but they scarcely showed the alterations. However, numerous rabbits can't be used in this experiment for the equipment and others. (author)

  1. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    2007-05-15

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.

  2. General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A

    2007-01-01

    An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure

  3. A new integrating sphere design for spectral radiant flux determination of light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselaer, P.; Keppens, A.; Forment, S.; Ryckaert, W. R.; Deconinck, G.

    2009-09-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is developing very quickly and may be considered an alternative for traditional light sources. However, at this moment, manufacturers and end users of LEDs are facing a rather basic but major problem. The lack of standardization regarding optical and electrical characterization of LEDs appears to compromise a successful implementation. In particular, numbers quoted for the luminous flux, and consequently for the efficacy of LEDs, are very sensitive data because they are used to impress and push the LED market. In this paper, the most was made of the typical hemispherical radiation of high-power LEDs to increase the accuracy of the flux determination using a custom-made integrating sphere. Recently developed measurement techniques such as the use of an external spectral irradiance standard and an optimized spectral irradiance detection head are combined with a very particular port geometry and a minimized baffle area. This results in a uniform spatial response distribution function (SRDF), which guarantees an accurate radiant and luminous flux determination, irrespective of the spatial intensity distribution of the LED package or luminaire. The effect of the directional response of the detector head on the SRDF has been explored. Measurements on LED devices with and without external optics are presented, illustrating the possibilities of the measurement setup.

  4. A new integrating sphere design for spectral radiant flux determination of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanselaer, P; Keppens, A; Forment, S; Ryckaert, W R; Deconinck, G

    2009-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is developing very quickly and may be considered an alternative for traditional light sources. However, at this moment, manufacturers and end users of LEDs are facing a rather basic but major problem. The lack of standardization regarding optical and electrical characterization of LEDs appears to compromise a successful implementation. In particular, numbers quoted for the luminous flux, and consequently for the efficacy of LEDs, are very sensitive data because they are used to impress and push the LED market. In this paper, the most was made of the typical hemispherical radiation of high-power LEDs to increase the accuracy of the flux determination using a custom-made integrating sphere. Recently developed measurement techniques such as the use of an external spectral irradiance standard and an optimized spectral irradiance detection head are combined with a very particular port geometry and a minimized baffle area. This results in a uniform spatial response distribution function (SRDF), which guarantees an accurate radiant and luminous flux determination, irrespective of the spatial intensity distribution of the LED package or luminaire. The effect of the directional response of the detector head on the SRDF has been explored. Measurements on LED devices with and without external optics are presented, illustrating the possibilities of the measurement setup

  5. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  6. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  7. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fonseca Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG, according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2 and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave. The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  8. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail: mracuciu@yahoo.com; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  9. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, Mihaela; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

    2007-01-01

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species

  10. A Mini-channel Heat Exchanger System for Heating, Boiling, and Superheating Water by Radiant Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-15

    al. (2002) and Yu, et al., (2002) Bowers and Mudawar (1994a) along with Peng and Peterson (1996) analyzed the geometry and layout of multiple...maintain a more uniform wall temperature; whereas, a single phase fluid must rise in temperature to absorb sensible heat. Qu and Mudawar (2002) and...experiments. In another study of the ONB, Qu and Mudawar (2002) varied flow conditions and visually observed the factors influ- encing ONB. They

  11. Effects of heated water-based exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awassi Yuphiwa Ngomane

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Systemic arterial hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors affecting several population. In this context, heated water-based exercise has emerged as a potential alternative to land- based physical exercise to reduce blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients. Objective: To systematically synthesize evidence for the lowering effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in a non-specific population. Methods: Scielo, Pubmed and Scopus electronic databases were searched for studies from 2005 to 2016, with the following descriptors in English: “blood pressure, exercise, immersion, blood pressure and hydrotherapy”. A total of 10,461 articles were found and, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles were selected and included in the final analysis. All included articles evaluated individuals from different populations and age groups, submitted to a heated water-based exercise session and/or program. Results: The results suggest that both an acute single session and chronic training period (12 to 24 weeks of heated water-based exercise may reduce BP in different populations (normotensive, hypertensive, postmenopausal women, and heart transplant populations. The magnitude and duration of acute and chronic hypotensive effect of exercise ranged substantially, which was probably due to the variety of exercise frequency, duration and intensity, as well as due to the studied population. Conclusion: These results suggest that heated water-based exercise may promote acute and chronic hypotensive effects in different populations. However, there is no homogeneity in the protocols used, which may have led to the heterogeneity in magnitude and duration of BP reductions.

  12. Highly Controlled Synthesis and Super-Radiant Photoluminescence of Plasmonic Cube-in-Cube Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Sungi; Son, Jiwoong; Lee, Yeonhee; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-12-14

    The plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures have been heavily utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), but the direct photoluminescence (PL) from plasmonic metal nanostructures, especially with plasmonic coupling, has not been widely used as much as SERS and MEF due to the lack of understanding of the PL mechanism, relatively weak signals, and the poor availability of the synthetic methods for the nanostructures with strong PL signals. The direct PL from metal nanostructures is beneficial if these issues can be addressed because it does not exhibit photoblinking or photobleaching, does not require dye-labeling, and can be employed as a highly reliable optical signal that directly depends on nanostructure morphology. Herein, we designed and synthesized plasmonic cube-in-cube (CiC) nanoparticles (NPs) with a controllable interior nanogap in a high yield from Au nanocubes (AuNCs). In synthesizing the CiC NPs, we developed a galvanic void formation (GVF) process, composed of replacement/reduction and void formation steps. We unraveled the super-radiant character of the plasmonic coupling-induced plasmon mode which can result in highly enhanced PL intensity and long-lasting PL, and the PL mechanisms of these structures were analyzed and matched with the plasmon hybridization model. Importantly, the PL intensity and quantum yield (QY) of CiC NPs are 31 times and 16 times higher than those of AuNCs, respectively, which have shown the highest PL intensity and QY reported for metallic nanostructures. Finally, we confirmed the long-term photostability of the PL signal, and the signal remained stable for at least 1 h under continuous illumination.

  13. Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

  14. Modeling of hydronic radiant cooling of a thermally homeostatic building using a parametric cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Peizheng; Wang, Lin-Shu; Guo, Nianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated cooling of thermally homeostatic buildings in 7 U.S. cities by modeling. • Natural energy is harnessed by cooling tower to extract heat for building cooling. • Systematically studied possibility and conditions of using cooling tower in buildings. • Diurnal ambient temperature amplitude is taken into account in cooling tower cooling. • Homeostatic building cooling is possible in locations with large ambient T amplitude. - Abstract: A case is made that while it is important to mitigate dissipative losses associated with heat dissipation and mechanical/electrical resistance for engineering efficiency gain, the “architect” of energy efficiency is the conception of best heat extraction frameworks—which determine the realm of possible efficiency. This precept is applied to building energy efficiency here. Following a proposed process assumption-based design method, which was used for determining the required thermal qualities of building thermal autonomy, this paper continues this line of investigation and applies heat extraction approach investigating the extent of building partial homeostasis and the possibility of full homeostasis by using cooling tower in one summer in seven selected U.S. cities. Cooling tower heat extraction is applied parametrically to hydronically activated radiant-surfaces model-buildings. Instead of sizing equipment as a function of design peak hourly temperature as it is done in heat balance design-approach of selecting HVAC equipment, it is shown that the conditions of using cooling tower depend on both “design-peak” daily-mean temperature and the distribution of diurnal range in hourly temperature (i.e., diurnal temperature amplitude). Our study indicates that homeostatic building with natural cooling (by cooling tower alone) is possible only in locations of special meso-scale climatic condition such as Sacramento, CA. In other locations the use of cooling tower alone can only achieve homeostasis

  15. The Role of Some Retention Aids in Water Based Gravure Printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, S.; Morsy, F.A.; Abdel- Sayed, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Several commercial retention systems employing either synthetic or natural additives are now able to achieve an acceptable level of filler retention even during high speed paper forming. However, despite their importance, there have been very few reports in the literature regarding the influence of different retention aids on gravure water based ink printability. In the current work, a series of uncoated hand sheets containing the retention aids rosin aids rosin-alum, cationic starch, polyacrylamide and chitosan were prepared under controlled ph conditions. Chitosan is a natural additive only very recently employed in commercial papermaking systems. After printing with two water based ink systems, both printability and print quality were then assessed in terms of print density, gloss and ink transfer. The effect of surfactant addition to gravure water based ink was also studied. The results showed that the amount of ink transferred and the print density both decreased as the percentage of the selected additives increased. The addition of chitosan to the paper furnish led to a substantial decrease in both the amount of ink transferred and the print density compared to the other additives. Conversely, the presence of surfactant in the printing ink enhanced the print density and also increased the amount of ink transferred. In addition, results obtained demonstrated that printing with water based ink greatly decreased the print gloss in comparison to the paper gloss. Increasing the addition level of the selected additives led to an increase of print gloss due to a decrease in the amount of ink transferred. Increasing the ph of the pulp suspension containing 1 % of the selected additives increased the print density in all cases, except when using cationic starch

  16. Water-based adhesives with tailored hydrophobic association: dilution resistance and improved setting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundua, Alexander; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Hydrophobic association and stimuli-responsiveness is a powerful tool towards water-based adhesives with strongly improved properties, which is demonstrated based on the example of hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble latexes (HASE) with modulated association. Their rheological properties are highly tunable due to the hydrophobic domains that act as physical crosslinking sites of adjustable interaction strength. Ethanol, propanol, and butanol are used as water-soluble model additives with different hydrophobicity in order to specifically target the association sites and impact the viscoelastic properties and stimuli-responsiveness. The rheological and mechanical property response upon dilution with water can be tailored, and dilution-resistant or even dilution-thickening systems are obtained. The investigations are of high importance for water-based adhesives, as our findings provide insight into general structure-property relationships to improve their setting behavior, especially upon contact with wet substrates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Everolimus in advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional neuroendocrine tumors: RADIANT-4 lung subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Nicola; Buzzoni, Roberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Tesselaar, Margot E; Wolin, Edward; Van Cutsem, Eric; Tomassetti, Paola; Strosberg, Jonathan; Voi, Maurizio; Bubuteishvili-Pacaud, Lida; Ridolfi, Antonia; Herbst, Fabian; Tomasek, Jiri; Singh, Simron; Pavel, Marianne; Kulke, Matthew H; Valle, Juan W; Yao, James C

    2018-01-01

    In the phase III RADIANT-4 study, everolimus improved median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated (grade 1 or grade 2), non-functional lung or gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.67; P < .00001). This exploratory analysis reports the outcomes of the subgroup of patients with lung NETs. In RADIANT-4, patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/d or placebo, both with best supportive care. This is a post hoc analysis of the lung subgroup with PFS, by central radiology review, as the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints included objective response rate and safety measures. Ninety of the 302 patients enrolled in the study had primary lung NET (everolimus, n = 63; placebo, n = 27). Median PFS (95% CI) by central review was 9.2 (6.8-10.9) months in the everolimus arm vs 3.6 (1.9-5.1) months in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88). More patients who received everolimus (58%) experienced tumor shrinkage compared with placebo (13%). Most frequently reported (≥5% incidence) grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events (everolimus vs. placebo) included stomatitis (11% vs. 0%), hyperglycemia (10% vs. 0%), and any infections (8% vs. 0%). In patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, non-functional lung NET, treatment with everolimus was associated with a median PFS improvement of 5.6 months, with a safety profile similar to that of the overall RADIANT-4 cohort. These results support the use of everolimus in patients with advanced, non-functional lung NET. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT01524783). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Direct evaluation of reflector effects on radiant flux from InGaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Hisashi; Fellows, Natalie N.; Sato, Hitoshi; Asamizu, Hirokuni; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.

    2007-08-01

    A metal layer formed on the backside of InGaN/sapphire-based light-emitting diodes deteriorates the inherent optical power output. An experimental approach of a suspended die is employed to study the effects of such metal layers via a direct comparison in radiant flux from a discrete die with and without a reflector. A sphere package that employs no reflector is proposed and fabricated. Light extraction of the sphere design is discussed; a light source in the sphere package would not have to be either an ideal point or placed at the center of the sphere, due to a finite critical angle at the sphere/air interface.

  19. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; George Hilley,; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  20. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Roberto; Carnaghi, Carlo; Strosberg, Jonathan; Fazio, Nicola; Singh, Simron; Herbst, Fabian; Ridolfi, Antonia; Pavel, Marianne E; Wolin, Edward M; Valle, Juan W; Oh, Do-Youn; Yao, James C; Pommier, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS) by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of lung or gastrointestinal (GI) tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67; P <0.00001) in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) on everolimus activity. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients were randomized (2:1) to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) were analyzed and reported. A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54%) had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control), 77 (25%) received chemotherapy, and 63 (21%) were previously exposed to radiotherapy. Patients who received everolimus had longer median PFS compared with placebo, regardless of previous SSA (with SSA: 11.1 vs 4.5 months [HR, 0.56 {95% CI, 0.37-0.85}]; without SSA: 9.5 vs 3.7 months [0.57 {0.36-0.89}]), chemotherapy (with chemotherapy: 9.2 vs 2.1 months [0.35 {0.19-0.64}]; without chemotherapy: 11.2 vs 5.4 months [0.60 {0.42-0.86}]), or radiotherapy (with radiotherapy: 9.2 vs 3.0 months [0.47 {0.24-0.94}]; without radiotherapy: 11 vs 5.1 months [0.59 {0.42-0.83}]) exposure. The most frequent drug-related adverse events included stomatitis (59%-65%), fatigue (27%-35%), and diarrhea (24%-34%) among the subgroups. These results suggest that everolimus improves PFS in patients with advanced, progressive lung or GI NET, regardless of prior therapies. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus in NET.

  1. Application of cellulose nanofibers to remove water-based flexographic inks from wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balea, Ana; Monte, M Concepción; de la Fuente, Elena; Negro, Carlos; Blanco, Ángeles

    2017-02-01

    Water-based or flexographic inks in paper and plastic industries are more environmentally favourable than organic solvent-based inks. However, their use also creates new challenges because they remain dissolved in water and alter the recycling process. Conventional deinking technologies such as flotation processes do not effectively remove them. Adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, biological and membrane processes are either expensive or have negative health impacts, making the development of alternative methods necessary. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are biodegradable, and their structural and mechanical properties are useful for wastewater treatment. TEMPO-oxidised CNF have been evaluated for the decolourisation of wastewaters that contained copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments. CNF in combination with a cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM) has also been tested. Jar-test methodology was used to evaluate the efficiency of the different treatments and cationic/anionic demand, turbidity and ink concentration in waters were measured. Results show that dual-component system for ink removal has a high potential as an alternative bio-based adsorbent for the removal of water-based inks. In addition, experiments varying CNF and cPAM concentrations were performed to optimise the ink-removal process. Ink concentration reductions of 100%, 87.5% and 83.3% were achieved for copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments, respectively. Flocculation studies carried out show the decolourisation mechanism during the dual-component treatment of wastewaters containing water-based inks.

  2. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  3. The effects of radiant cooling versus convective cooling on human eye tear film stability and blinking rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation. The subj......The effect of indoor temperature, radiant and convective cooling on tear film stability and eye blink frequency was examined. 24 human subjects were exposed to the non-uniform environment generated by localised chilled beam and a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation....... The subjects participated in four two-hour experiments. The room air temperature was kept at 26 °C or 28 °C. Tear film samples were collected after 30 min of acclimatisation and at the end of the exposures. Eye blinking frequency was analysed for the first and last 15 min of each exposure. The tear film...... stability decreased as the temperature increased. The highest number of subjects with unchanged or improved tear film quality was observed with the localised chilled beam at 26 °C. A trend was found between subjects who reported eye irritation and had a bad tear film quality....

  4. Thermal insulation coating based on water-based polymer dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Iuliia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For Russia, due to its long winter period, improvement of thermal insulation properties of envelope structures by applying thermal insulation paint and varnish coating to its inner surface is considered perspective. Thermal insulation properties of such coatings are provided by adding aluminosilicate microspheres and aluminum pigment to their composition. This study was focused on defining the effect of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres and aluminum pigment on the paint thermal insulation coating based on water-based polymer dispersion and on its optimum filling ratio. The optimum filling ratio was determined using the method of critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC. The optimum filling ratio was found equal to 55%.

  5. Impact of prior therapies on everolimus activity: an exploratory analysis of RADIANT-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzzoni R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Buzzoni,1 Carlo Carnaghi,2 Jonathan Strosberg,3 Nicola Fazio,4 Simron Singh,5 Fabian Herbst,6 Antonia Ridolfi,7 Marianne E Pavel,8 Edward M Wolin,9 Juan W Valle,10 Do-Youn Oh,11 James C Yao,12 Rodney Pommier13 1IRCCS Foundation, National Institute of Tumors, Milan, Italy; 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy; 3Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 4European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; 5Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma S.A.S., Rueil-Malmaison, France; 8Medizinische Klinik 1, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 9Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Bronx, NY, USA; 10Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, The Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK; 11Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 12University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 13Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Background: Recently, everolimus was shown to improve median progression-free survival (PFS by 7.1 months in patients with advanced, progressive, well-differentiated, nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NET of lung or gastrointestinal (GI tract compared with placebo (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35–0.67; P<0.00001 in the Phase III, RADIANT-4 study. This post hoc analysis evaluates the impact of prior therapies (somatostatin analogs [SSA], chemotherapy, and radiotherapy on everolimus activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01524783. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized (2:1 to everolimus 10 mg/day or placebo, both with best supportive care. Subgroups of patients who received prior SSA, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were analyzed and reported. Results: A total of 302 patients were enrolled, of whom, 163 (54% had any prior SSA use (mostly for tumor control, 77 (25% received

  6. Effects of ammonia concentration on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia–water based power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Han, Chul Ho; Kim, Kyoungjin

    2012-01-01

    The power generation systems using a binary working fluid such as ammonia–water mixture are proven to be the feasible method for utilizing a low-temperature waste heat source. In this work, ammonia–water based Rankine (AWR) regenerative Rankine (AWRR) power generation cycles are comparatively analyzed by investigating the effects of ammonia mass concentration in the working fluid on the thermodynamic performances of systems. Temperature distributions of fluid streams in the heat exchanging devices are closely examined at different levels of ammonia concentration and they might be the most important design consideration in optimizing the power systems using a binary working fluid. The analysis shows that the lower limit of workable ammonia concentration decreases with increasing turbine inlet pressure. Results also show that both the thermal and exergy efficiencies of AWRR system are generally better than those of AWR system, and can have peaks at the minimum allowable ammonia concentrations in the working range of system operation.

  7. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3 m x 3 m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m 2 . The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m 2 resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m 2 to 5 + kW/m 2 (exposure times from 25 s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m 2 and 5 kW/m 2 range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m 2 for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m 2 (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m 2 average heat flux

  8. Disseny de calefacció amb terra radiant d'una casa a l'horta de Lleida mitjançant energia geotèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Sobrino, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    S'ha realitzat el disseny de calefacció d'una vivenda mitjançant energia geotèrmica de baixa temperatura, amb un bescanviador vertical de 80 m de profunditat. El sistema de calefacció és de terra radiant en forma d'espiral.

  9. The effects of mixing air distribution and heat load arrangement on the performance of ceiling radiant panels under cooling mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    arrangement and air distribution generated in a room by linear slot diffuser, radial multi-nozzle diffuser and radial swirl induction unit on the cooling power of radiant panels was compared. The impact on the thermal environment was also studied. Measurements were carried out without and with supply air...

  10. Process evaluation of the RaDIANT community study: a dialysis facility-level intervention to increase referral for kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, Reem E; Gander, Jennifer C; McPherson, Laura J; Arriola, Kimberly J; Cobb, Loren; Pastan, Stephen O; Plantinga, Laura; Browne, Teri; Hartmann, Erica; Mulloy, Laura; Zayas, Carlos; Krisher, Jenna; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-01-15

    The Reducing Disparities in Access to kidNey Transplantation Community Study (RaDIANT) was an End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network 6-developed, dialysis facility-level randomized trial testing the effectiveness of a 1-year multicomponent education and quality improvement intervention in increasing referral for kidney transplant evaluation among selected Georgia dialysis facilities. To assess implementation of the RaDIANT intervention, we conducted a process evaluation at the conclusion of the intervention period (January-December 2014). We administered a 20-item survey to the staff involved with transplant education in 67 dialysis facilities randomized to participate in intervention activities. Survey items assessed facility participation in the intervention (fidelity and reach), helpfulness and willingness to continue intervention activities (sustainability), suggestions for improving intervention components (sustainability), and factors that may have influenced participation and study outcomes (context). We defined high fidelity to the intervention as completing 11 or more activities, and high participation in an activity as having at least 75% participation across intervention facilities. Staff from 65 of the 67 dialysis facilities completed the questionnaire, and more than half (50.8%) reported high adherence (fidelity) to RaDIANT intervention requirements. Nearly two-thirds (63.1%) of facilities reported that RaDIANT intervention activities were helpful or very helpful, with 90.8% of facilities willing to continue at least one intervention component beyond the study period. Intervention components with high participation emphasized staff and patient-level education, including in-service staff orientations, patient and family education programs, and patient educational materials. Suggested improvements for intervention activities emphasized addressing financial barriers to transplantation, with financial education materials perceived as most helpful among RaDIANT

  11. Safety Cultures in Water-Based Outdoor Activities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...

  12. Everolimus for Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Subgroup Analysis Evaluating Japanese Patients in the RADIANT-3 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Okusaka, Takuji; Ikeda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Hisato; Morizane, Chigusa; Nakachi, Kohei; Tajima, Takeshi; Kasuga, Akio; Fujita, Yoshie; Furuse, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has recently demonstrated efficacy and safety in a Phase III, double-blind, randomized trial (RADIANT-3) in 410 patients with low- or intermediate-grade advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Everolimus 10 mg/day provided a 2.4-fold improvement compared with placebo in progression-free survival, representing a 65% risk reduction for progression. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the efficacy and safety of everolimus in the Japanese subgroup enrolled in the RADIANT-3 study. Methods Subgroup analysis of the Japanese patients was performed comparing efficacy and safety between everolimus 10 mg/day orally (n = 23) and matching placebo (n = 17). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Safety was evaluated on the basis of the incidence of adverse drug reactions. Results Progression-free survival was significantly prolonged with everolimus compared with placebo. The median progression-free survival was 19.45 months (95% confidence interval, 8.31–not available) with everolimus vs 2.83 months (95% confidence interval, 2.46–8.34) with placebo, resulting in an 81% risk reduction in progression (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.48; P< 0.001). Adverse drug reactions occurred in all 23 (100%) Japanese patients receiving everolimus and in 13 (77%) patients receiving placebo; most were grade 1/2 in severity. The most common adverse drug reactions in the everolimus group were rash (n = 20; 87%), stomatitis (n = 17; 74%), infections (n = 15; 65%), nail disorders (n = 12; 52%), epistaxis (n = 10; 44%) and pneumonitis (n = 10; 44%). Conclusions These results support the use of everolimus as a valuable treatment option for Japanese patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:22859827

  13. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  14. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J V; Cadene, V; Occelli, R [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  15. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  16. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20...

  17. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.

  18. Performance of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator: An Independent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Beznosko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-based liquid scintillator (WbLS is a new material currently under development. It is based on the idea of dissolving the organic scintillator in water using special surfactants. This material strives to achieve the novel detection techniques by combining the Cerenkov rings and scintillation light, as well as the total cost reduction compared to pure liquid scintillator (LS. The independent light yield measurement analysis for the light yield measurements using three different proton beam energies (210 MeV, 475 MeV, and 2000 MeV for water, two different WbLS formulations (0.4% and 0.99%, and pure LS conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, is presented. The results show that a goal of ~100 optical photons/MeV, indicated by the simulation to be an optimal light yield for observing both the Cerenkov ring and the scintillation light from the proton decay in a large water detector, has been achieved.

  19. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Poynot, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research and experimentation to the full scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Design and construction of these HX's led to successful testing of both PCM HX's.

  20. A Study of UV Resistance of a Water-based Polyurethane Lacquer Containing Nano Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Saadat-Monfared

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide (Ceria nano particle, as photodegradation prevention agent was studied in water-based polyurethane clear coat  systems. Polyurethane coatings show superior weathering resistance compared with acrylic melamine systems. However, any chemical change has detrimental effects on the property profile of PU coatings. Coatings containing various amounts of cerium oxide nanoparticles were prepared and their weathering resistance was evaluated using simulated UV cabinet. To this end the extent and mechanism of degradation was studied utilizing UV-Vis and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as DMTA analysis. The results revealed that Ceria nano particles with concentration of 1.44 % (wt absorb beyond 92.5% of UV light of UV-B region and showed an efficiency of 2000 times as of organic UV absorbers.

  1. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  2. Applying Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Near-surface Temperature Dynamics of Broadacre Cereals During Radiant Frost Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsel, B.; Callow, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Radiant frost events, particularly those during the reproductive stage of winter cereal growth, cost growers millions of dollars in lost yield. Whilst synoptic drivers of frost and factors influencing temperature variation at the landscape scale are relatively well understood, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding small-scale temperature dynamics within paddocks and plot trials. Other work has also suggested a potential significant temperature gradient (several degrees) vertically from ground to canopy, but this is poorly constrained experimentally. Subtle changes in temperature are important as frost damage generally occurs in a very narrow temperature range (-2 to -5°C). Once a variety's damage threshold is reached, a 1°C difference in minimum temperature can increase damage from 10 to 90%. This study applies Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using fibre optics to understand how minimum temperature evolves during a radiant frost. DTS assesses the difference in attenuation of Raman scattering of a light pulse travelling along a fibre optic cable to measure temperature. A bend insensitive multimode fibre was deployed in a double ended duplex configuration as a "fence" run through four times of sowing at a trial site in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. The fibre optic fence was 160m long and 800mm tall with the fibre optic cable spaced 100mm apart vertically, and calibrated in ambient water ( 10 to 15oC) and a chilled glycol ( -8 to-10 oC) baths. The temperature measurements had a spatial resolution of 0.65m and temporal resolution of 60s, providing 2,215 measurements every minute. The results of this study inform our understanding of the subtle temperature changes from the soil to canopy, providing new insight into how to place traditional temperature loggers to monitor frost damage. It also addresses questions of within-trial temperature variability, and provides an example of how novel techniques such as DTS can be used to improve the way temperature

  3. Modeling of mean radiant temperature based on comparison of airborne remote sensing data with surface measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Matzarakis, Andreas; Liu, Jin-King; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of outdoor thermal comfort is becoming increasingly important due to the urban heat island effect, which strongly affects the urban thermal environment. The mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) quantifies the effect of the radiation environment on humans, but it can only be estimated based on influencing parameters and factors. Knowledge of Tmrt is important for quantifying the heat load on human beings, especially during heat waves. This study estimates Tmrt using several methods, which are based on climatic data from a traditional weather station, microscale ground surface measurements, land surface temperature (LST) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data measured using airborne devices. Analytical results reveal that the best means of estimating Tmrt combines information about LST and surface elevation information with meteorological data from the closest weather station. The application in this method can eliminate the inconvenience of executing a wide range ground surface measurement, the insufficient resolution of satellite data and the incomplete data of current urban built environments. This method can be used to map a whole city to identify hot spots, and can be contributed to understanding human biometeorological conditions quickly and accurately.

  4. Modelling and Simulation of the Radiant Field in an Annular Heterogeneous Photoreactor Using a Four-Flux Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alvarado-Rolon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on modeling and simulating the absorption and scattering of radiation in a photocatalytic annular reactor. To achieve so, a model based on four fluxes (FFM of radiation in cylindrical coordinates to describe the radiant field is assessed. This model allows calculating the local volumetric rate energy absorption (LVREA profiles when the reaction space of the reactors is not a thin film. The obtained results were compared to radiation experimental data from other authors and with the results obtained by discrete ordinate method (DOM carried out with the Heat Transfer Module of Comsol Multiphysics® 4.4. The FFM showed a good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo method (MC and the six-flux model (SFM. Through this model, the LVREA is obtained, which is an important parameter to establish the reaction rate equation. In this study, the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was carried out, and the kinetic equation for this process was obtained. To perform the simulation, the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics v. 4.4 was employed.

  5. Blanchability and sensory quality of large runner peanuts blanched in a radiant wall oven using infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Katrina; Adhikari, Koushik; Singh, Rakesh K

    2017-10-01

    The main factors behind the growing popularity of infrared radiation heating in food processing include its energy efficiency, food quality retention and process speed, as well as the simplicity of equipment. Infrared radiation was employed as an alternative heat treatment to the conventional hot air method used in peanut blanching. The present study aimed to investigate the application of infrared heating for blanching peanuts and determine their blanchability and sensory quality under various processing conditions. The total blanchabilities (expressed as a percentage of total blanched) of the infrared radiation trials (radiant wall oven) at 343 °C for 1.5 min, 316 °C for 1.5 min, 288 °C for 1.5 min and 343 °C for 1 min did not differ significantly compared to the hot air control trials (impingement oven) at 100 °C for 30 and 20 min. All infrared trials had significantly lower (P infrared samples demonstrated the possible initiation of oxidation for the conventionally blanched sample at 18 weeks of storage at 24 °C (room temperature), with no indication of oxidation in the infrared samples stored at the same temperature. Infrared radiation peanut blanching is a viable alternative to conventional hot air blanching because of the shorter process time and longer shelf-life, as evident from the sensory storage study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  7. The influence of burner material properties on the acoustical transfer function of radiant surface burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Modern central heating systems use low NO$_x$ premixed burners with a largemodulation range. This can lead to noise problems which cannot be solved viatrial and error, but need accurate modelling. An acoustical analysis as part ofthe design phase can reduce the time-to-market considerably, but the

  8. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  9. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group; Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  10. Evaluation of a Water-based Bolus Device for Radiotherapy to the Extremities in Kaposi's Sarcoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung Kwon; Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae

    2008-01-01

    We designed a water-based bolus device for radiation therapy in Kaposi's sarcoma. This study evaluated the usefulness of this new device and compared it with the currently used rice-based bolus. Materials and Methods: We fashioned a polystyrene box and cut a hole in order to insert patient's extremities while the patient was in the supine position. We used a vacuum-vinyl based polymer to reduce water leakage. Next, we eliminated air using a vacuum pump and a vacuum valve to reduce the air gap between the water and extremities in the vacuum-vinyl box. We performed CT scans to evaluate the density difference of the fabricated water-based bolus device when the device in which the rice-based bolus was placed directly, the rice-based bolus with polymer-vinyl packed rice, and the water were all put in. We analyzed the density change with the air gap volume using a planning system. In addition, we measured the homogeneity and dose in the low-extremities phantom, attached to six TLD, and wrapped film exposed in parallel-opposite fields with the LINAC under the same conditions as the set-up of the CT-simulator. Results: The density value of the rice-based bolus with the rice put in directly was 14% lower than that of the water-based bolus. Moreover, the value of the other experiments in the rice-based bolus with the polymer-vinyl packed rice showed an 18% reduction in density. The analysis of the EDR2 film revealed that the water-based bolus shows a more homogeneous dose plan, which was superior by 4.0-4.4% to the rice-base bolus. The mean TLD readings of the rice-based bolus, with the rice put directly into the polystyrene box had a 3.4% higher density value. Moreover, the density value in the case of the rice-based bolus with polymer-vinyl packed rice had a 4.3% higher reading compared to the water-based bolus. Conclusion: Our custom-made water-based bolus device increases the accuracy of the set-up by confirming the treatment field. It also improves the accuracy of the

  11. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft, the... along and among the hull and auxiliary floats, if used, in a rational and conservative manner, assuming...

  12. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  13. Study of radiation heating (part 1). UR spectroscopic characteristics of radiant heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Yoshikazu; Ajisaka, Kazuhiro; Toyonaga, Hajime; Kitahata, Hiroki; Oshida, Shun' ichi; Sugihara, Tomonori

    1987-09-01

    There are many IR permeable substances. When this is heated with IR beam, UR beam penetrated into the substance and heat up the substance from the inside. In this case, the inside gets hot quicker than the surface which gives much difference in the finish of the product. Characteristics of permeation and absorption of the IR beam vary by the type of the substance and the wave-length of the UR beam. Examples of effectiveness of far infra-red heater are: Baking of rice cake. Baking of PVC granules as a slip-stop for a working gloves. Far infra-red sauna (sweating effect around 50/sup 0/C). Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and other companies introduced an IR spectroscopic radiometer of Minarad Systems of USA to establish a data exchange system in 1984. The spectroscopic radio-meter system consists of 3 components, i.e., a spectrophotometric radiometer, a black body furnace, and a computer for data processing. (14 figs, 5 tabs)

  14. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  15. Daytime relapse of the mean radiant temperature based on the six-directional method under unobstructed solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the knowledge about the capabilities of the popular "six-directional method" describing the radiation fields outdoors. In Taiwan, measurements were carried out with three orthogonally placed net radiometers to determine the mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). The short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the six perpendicular directions were recorded in the daylight hours of 12 days. During unobstructed direct irradiation, a specific daytime relapse was found in the temporal course of the T(mrt) values referring to the reference shapes of a standing man and also of a sphere. This relapse can be related to the short-wave fluxes reaching the body from the lateral directions. Through deeper analysis, an instrumental shortcoming of the six-directional technique was discovered. The pyranometer pairs of the same net radiometer have a 10-15-min long "blind spot" when the sun beams are nearly perpendicular to them. The blind-spot period is supposed to be shorter with steeper solar azimuth curve on the daylight period. This means that the locations with lower geographical latitude, and the summertime measurements, are affected less by this instrumental problem. A methodological shortcoming of the six-directional technique was also demonstrated. Namely, the sum of the short-wave flux densities from the lateral directions is sensitive to the orientation of the radiometers, and therefore by deviating from the original directions, the T(mrt) decrease on clear sunny days will occur in different times and will be different in extent.

  16. Thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness in an office room with radiant floor cooling and displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2016-01-01

    conditions, varying the nominal air change rate from 4.5h-1 down to 1.5h-1. Contaminant removal and mean-age-of-air measurements were performed to characterize the ventilation effectiveness and air velocity; air and operative temperature profiles were measured, together with thermal manikin equivalent...... temperatures, to evaluate the thermal environment. The combined system was able to achieve good ventilation effectiveness close to a heat source, so that in the occupant's breathing zone the ventilation effectiveness was significantly better than for ideal mixing, even at a nominal air change rate as low as 1......% at the highest nominal air change rate of 4.5h-1, even for an occupant sitting 1 meter in front of the supply diffuser, the local thermal discomfort occasioned by the excessive vertical temperature differences gives chilled ceilings the advantage over chilled floors for use with displacement ventilation....

  17. A determination of the absolute radiant energy of a Robertson-Berger meter sunburn unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuisi, John J.; Harris, Joyce M.

    Data from a Robertson-Berger (RB) sunburn meter were compared with concurrent measurements obtained with an ultraviolet double monochromator (DM), and the absolute energy of one sunburn unit measured by the RB-meter was determined. It was found that at a solar zenith angle of 30° one sunburn unit (SU) is equivalent to 35 ± 4 mJ cm -2, and at a solar zenith angle of 69°, one SU is equivalent to 20 ± 2 mJ cm -2 (relative to a wavelength of 297 nm), where the rate of change is non-linear. The deviation is due to the different response functions of the RB-meter and the DM system used to simulate the response of human skin to the incident u.v. solar spectrum. The average growth rate of the deviation with increasing solar zenith angle was found to be 1.2% per degree between solar zenith angles 30 and 50° and 2.3% per degree between solar zenith angles 50 and 70°. The deviations of response with solar zenith angle were found to be consistent with reported RB-meter characteristics.

  18. Influence of radiant heating treatments on fusion of high-temperature superconducting yttrium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Regardless of the fact that the materials made of HTSC-ceramics are promising, there is no any information about their successful practical application in publications. To our opinion, it is explained by the fact, first of all, that the conservative technologies of the powder metallurgy do not allow producing HTSC systems with excellent operating performance (structure homogeneity, long-term stability of Sc properties and etc.). This report presents outcomes of experiments on fusion of yttrium ceramics containing raw components irradiated by g-rays 60 Co under the temperature exceeding 500 degrees C. HTSC properties of ceramics were studied according to their differential spectra of radio-frequency (RF) field absorption. The RF absorption spectrum of yttrium ceramics samples produced according to conservative technology is sufficiently permitted triplet with the Sc transition temperatures range of 80 K, 90 K, 95 K. Irradiation under the increased temperatures and mechanical limitation allow producing samples of yttrium HTSC-ceramics with sufficient homogeneous structure and superconducting properties that are stable to air conditions for not less than one year

  19. Operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in three office buildings using radiant heating/ cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    , Madrid, Spain (16000 m2), TiFS, Padua, Italy (2200 m2). Continuous measurements of operative temperature were conducted at four workplaces in each building for one year. Occupants’ satisfaction was assessed by internet based questionnaire. Results showed that mostly exceeded limits were those for 4-hour...

  20. Well successfully drilled with high performance water-based fluid: Santos Basins, offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, Frank C.; Luzardo, Juan P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Bishnoi, M.L. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Santos Basin is a 352,260 square kilometers (136,010 sq mi) offshore pre-salt basin. It is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, some 300 kilometers (190 mi) South East of Sao Paulo, Brazil. One of the largest Brazilian sedimentary basins, it is the site of several recent significant oil fields, including Tupi and Jupiter. The criteria for drilling fluid selection is based upon the following factors: maximum cost efficiency, environmental friendliness, optimum borehole stability, and ease of use. The recommended drilling fluid formulation takes into consideration the experience gained during the drilling of wells in the Santos Basin area. The operator wanted to use a high-performance water-based fluid (HPWBF) that could provide shale inhibition, wellbore stability, lubricity and improved rate of penetration (ROP) as an alternative to synthetic-based drilling fluids to present value in terms of economics and environmental friendliness. The HPWBF consists of three synergistic products: a hydration suppressant, a dispersion suppressant, and an accretion suppressant. The system is formulated based on customized solutions for managing the clay reactivity. High logistics costs require drilling fluids that can be prepared with sea water and discharged to the sea without environmental impact. The HPWBF is a clay-free system designed for maximum shale inhibition in highly reactive formations. The system can provide wellbore stability, high rates of penetration, and acceptable rheological properties over a wide range of temperatures, with the added benefit of allowing cuttings discharge based upon water base environmental restrictions. Since no oil is used in the formulation, the HPWBF eliminates the need for cuttings processing and monitoring equipment, and exceeds the environmental requirements by achieving an LC50 value of 345,478.22 ppm in comparison with the minimum requirement (LC50 > 30,000 ppm in 96 hr), permitting use and discharge to the sea. The HPWBF selected

  1. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains......: overheating has been observed due to the absence of solar shading and the limited cooling capacity of the terminals. No local discomfort has been observed although some segments of the thermal manikin were slightly colder....

  2. Mathematical modelling, variational formulation and numerical simulation of the energy transfer process in a gray plate in the presence of a thermal radiant source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-05-01

    The energy transfer process in a gray, opaque and rigid plate, heated by an external thermal radiant source, is considered. The source is regarded as a spherical black body, with radius a (a → 0) and uniform heat generation, placed above the plate. A mathematical model is constructed, assuming that the heat transfer from/to the plate takes place by thermal radiation. The obtained mathematical model is nonlinear. Is presented a suitable variational principle which is employed for simulating some particular cases. (author)

  3. Radiant and convective heat transfer for flow of a transparent gas in a short tube with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lemos, M.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The present analysis accounts for radiant and convective heat transfer for a transparent fluid flowing in a short tube with prescribed wall heat flux. The heat flux distribution used was of sine shape with maximum at the middle of the tube. Such a solution is the approximate one for axial power in a nuclear reactor. The solutions for the tube wall and gas bulk temperatures were obtained by successive substitutions for the wall and gas balance energy equations. The results show a decrease of 30% for the maximum wall temperature using black surface (e = 1). In this same case, the increasing in the gas temperature shows a decrease of 58%

  4. Parameter optimization through performance analysis of model based control of a batch heat treatment furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sanyal, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    A model based control structure for heat treating a 0.5% C steel slab in a batch furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner is designed and tested for performance to yield optimal parameter values using the model developed in the companion paper. Combustion is considered in a highly preheated and product gas diluted mode. Controlled combustion with a proposed arrangement for preheating and diluting the air by recirculating the exhaust gas that can be retrofitted with an existing burner yields satisfactory performance and emission characteristics. Finally, the effect of variable property considerations are presented and critically analyzed

  5. A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Matthew J; Österlund, Viking; Bergfelt, Andreas; Jeschull, Fabian; Bowden, Tim; Brandell, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm -2 capacity and 97-98 % coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65 % total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Water-Based Coating Simplifies Circuit Board Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Structures and Materials Division at Glenn Research Center is devoted to developing advanced, high-temperature materials and processes for future aerospace propulsion and power generation systems. The Polymers Branch falls under this division, and it is involved in the development of high-performance materials, including polymers for high-temperature polymer matrix composites; nanocomposites for both high- and low-temperature applications; durable aerogels; purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their use in composites; computational modeling of materials and biological systems and processes; and developing polymer-derived molecular sensors. Essentially, this branch creates high-performance materials to reduce the weight and boost performance of components for space missions and aircraft engine components. Under the leadership of chemical engineer, Dr. Michael Meador, the Polymers Branch boasts world-class laboratories, composite manufacturing facilities, testing stations, and some of the best scientists in the field.

  7. Effects of Temperature on the Density of Water Based Drilling Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Effects of Temperature on the Density of Water Based Drilling Mud. EBIKAPAYE ... Commons Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any .... is tapped briskly on the side until air bubbles are.

  8. A radiant black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1993-01-01

    On the 13 October the Bavarian police seized 2.2kg of uranium and arrested a group of seven people who had offered to sell it for $500.000. The existence of a black market for uranium may be a proliferation risk but it is not a serious health hazard - even if the material is negligently packed, as it seems to have been in all the recent cases. The situation is quite different when it comes to dealing with highly radioactive materials such as fission productions. Two such cases have been reported this summer involving Cs-137 and Sr-90, both emitters of hard beta rays. Little is known about the provenance of the radioactive and fissile material discovered. Obviously it originates from the ex-USSR, and the absence of highly enriched material suggests a civil rather than a military source. The governments of ex-Soviet states have apparently tried to intercept smugglers at their western frontiers, but have so far been unable to pinpoint the breaches in their security. It is also uncertain whether the occurrences discovered and reported are merely the tip of an iceberg. (author)

  9. Research on environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers current status of application of water-based fire extinguishing agents, the environmental and research considerations of the need for the study of toxicity research. This paper also offers systematic review of test methods of toxicity and environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents currently available, illustrate the main requirements and relevant test methods, and offer some research findings for future research considerations. The paper also offers limitations of current study.

  10. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  11. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Forecast Model of Urban Stagnant Water Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, the construction of water resource system has been gradually carried out. In the background of big data, the work of water information needs to carry out the process of quantitative to qualitative change. Analyzing the correlation of data and exploring the deep value of data which are the key of water information’s research. On the basis of the research on the water big data and the traditional data warehouse architecture, we try to find out the connection of different data source. According to the temporal and spatial correlation of stagnant water and rainfall, we use spatial interpolation to integrate data of stagnant water and rainfall which are from different data source and different sensors, then use logistic regression to find out the relationship between them.

  13. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  14. Coupling of a discrete ordinate 3-D radiant heat transfer model with the PHOENICS fluid mechanics software; Couplage d`un modele radiatif tridimensionnel aux ordonnees discretes au logiciel de mecanique des fluides phoenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, J [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1997-12-31

    Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  15. Coupling of a discrete ordinate 3-D radiant heat transfer model with the PHOENICS fluid mechanics software; Couplage d`un modele radiatif tridimensionnel aux ordonnees discretes au logiciel de mecanique des fluides phoenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, J. [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  16. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Anas, Emran Mohammad; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol; Kamrul Hasan, Md

    2011-10-01

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  17. High-quality 3D correction of ring and radiant artifacts in flat panel detector-based cone beam volume CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Hasan, Md Kamrul; Kim, Jae Gon; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2011-01-01

    The use of an x-ray flat panel detector is increasingly becoming popular in 3D cone beam volume CT machines. Due to the deficient semiconductor array manufacturing process, the cone beam projection data are often corrupted by different types of abnormalities, which cause severe ring and radiant artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image, and as a result, the diagnostic image quality is degraded. In this paper, a novel technique is presented for the correction of error in the 2D cone beam projections due to abnormalities often observed in 2D x-ray flat panel detectors. Template images are derived from the responses of the detector pixels using their statistical properties and then an effective non-causal derivative-based detection algorithm in 2D space is presented for the detection of defective and mis-calibrated detector elements separately. An image inpainting-based 3D correction scheme is proposed for the estimation of responses of defective detector elements, and the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements are corrected using the normalization technique. For real-time implementation, a simplification of the proposed off-line method is also suggested. Finally, the proposed algorithms are tested using different real cone beam volume CT images and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove ring and radiant artifacts from cone beam volume CT images compared to other reported techniques in the literature.

  18. Water-based preparation of spider silk films as drug delivery matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Elisa; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-10

    The main focus of this work was to obtain a drug delivery matrix characterized by biocompatibility, water insolubility and good mechanical properties. Moreover the preparation process has to be compatible with protein encapsulation and the obtained matrix should be able to sustain release a model protein. Spider silk proteins represent exceptional natural polymers due to their mechanical properties in combination with biocompatibility. As both hydrophobic and slowly biodegrading biopolymers, recombinant spider silk proteins fulfill the required properties for a drug delivery system. In this work, we present the preparation of eADF4(C16) films as drug delivery matrices without the use of any organic solvent. Water-based spider silk films were characterized in terms of protein secondary structure, thermal stability, zeta-potential, solubility, mechanical properties, and water absorption and desorption. Additionally, this study includes an evaluation of their application as a drug delivery system for both small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight molecules such as proteins. Our investigation focused on possible improvements in the film's mechanical properties including plasticizers in the film matrix. Furthermore, different film designs were prepared, such as: monolayer, coated monolayer, multilayer (sandwich), and coated multilayer. The release of the model protein BSA from these new systems was studied. Results indicated that spider silk films are a promising protein drug delivery matrix, capable of releasing the model protein over 90 days with a release profile close to zero order kinetic. Such films could be used for several pharmaceutical and medical purposes, especially when mechanical strength of a drug eluting matrix is of high importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal variation of VOC emission from solvent and water based wood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Fracchiolla, Roberta; Palmisani, Jolanda; Saracino, Maria Rosaria; Tutino, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Solvent- and water-based wood stains were monitored using a small test emission chamber in order to characterize their emission profiles in terms of Total and individual VOCs. The study of concentration-time profiles of individual VOCs enabled to identify the compounds emitted at higher concentration for each type of stain, to examine their decay curve and finally to estimate the concentration in a reference room. The solvent-based wood stain was characterized by the highest Total VOCs emission level (5.7 mg/m3) that decreased over time more slowly than those related to water-based ones. The same finding was observed for the main detected compounds: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, Styrene, alpha-Pinene and Camphene. On the other hand, the highest level of Limonene was emitted by a water-based wood stain. However, the concentration-time profile showed that water-based product was characterized by a remarkable reduction of the time of maximum and minimum emission: Limonene concentration reached the minimum concentration in about half the time compared to the solvent-based product. According to AgBB evaluation scheme, only one of the investigated water-based wood stains can be classified as a low-emitting product whose use may not determine any potential adverse effect on human health.

  20. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  1. Improvement in the Performance of Potato Starch Used in the Water-Based Drilling Fluid via Its Chemical Modification by Grafting Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the thermal stability and resistance to bacterial attack (bioresistance of the potato starch used in the water-based drilling fluid is the aim of this work. Four types of potato starch grafted with acrylamide and a mixture of each one with acrylic acid, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfuric acid and itaconic acid were synthesized by manganese (IV-induced redox system at the suitable concentrations of initiator and monomer(s. FTIR spectroscopy was used to verify the grafting of monomers onto the starch. The effect of grafted starches on the rheological and fluid loss properties before and after aging of the water-based drilling fluid prepared with fresh water, 4% saline and the South applied method were investigated. The results showed that temperature and aging of fluid enhance the rheological and fluid loss control properties of water-based drilling fluids prepared in the presence of grafted starches. In other words, grafted starches are stable against thermal degradation and can be used in the formulation of water-based drilling fluids for drilling of deep wells.

  2. Thermal bubble inkjet printing of water-based graphene oxide and graphene inks on heated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Simin; Shen, Ruoxi; Qian, Bo; Li, Lingying; Wang, Wenhao; Lin, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Peng; Xie, Yonglin

    2018-04-01

    Stable-jetting water-based graphene oxide (GO) and graphene (GR) inks without any surfactant or stabilizer are prepared from an unstable-jetting water-based starting solvent, with many thermal bubble inkjet satellite drops, by simply increasing the material concentration. The concentration-dependent thermal bubble inkjet droplet generation process is studied in detail. To overcome the low concentration properties of water-based thermal bubble inkjet inks, the substrate temperature is tuned below 60 °C to achieve high-quality print lines. Due to the difference in hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the 2D materials, the printed GO lines show a different forming mechanism from that of the GR lines. The printed GO lines are reduced by thermal annealing and by ascorbic acid, respectively. The reduced GO lines exhibit electrical conductivity of the same order of magnitude as that of the GR lines.

  3. Levels of lead in solvent and water-based paints manufactured in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rauf, M.A.; Chotona, G.A.; Bukhari, N.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of lead in eight popular brands of solvent- and water-based paint manufactured locally in Pakistan are reported. The analysis was done using the flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The lead concentration was found to vary from 3.3 mg/kg to 13179 in different solvent-based brands, whereas the concentration of the metal was in the range of 1768 to less than 0.5mg/kg in water based paints. The lead concentrations were especially high in oil based green (maximum value of 13170 mg/kg) and yellow paints (maximum value of 84940 mg/kg). The corresponding higher concentration were observed in case of emerald (maximum value of 1768 mg/kg) and gray (maximum value of 542 mg/kg) paints in the water-based category. (author)

  4. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  5. Effect of a calcium cathode on water-based nanoparticulate solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ben; Stapleton, Andrew; Xue, Bofei; Sesa, Elisa; Zhou, Xiaojing; Bryant, Glenn; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Water-based nanoparticulate (NP) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices based on blends of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N,N-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,Ndiphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole (F8BT) have been fabricated with aluminium and calcium/aluminium cathodes. The NP devices exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) that are double that of the corresponding BHJ device. Moreover, the addition of calcium into the cathode structure results in a dramatic increase in open circuit voltage and PCEs approaching 1% for water-based polyfluorene OPV devices.

  6. Investigation into the Use of Water Based Brake Fluid for Light Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Akpan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibility of using water based fluid as a brake fluid for light loads. Characterization of both standard and water based braked fluids formulated was carried out. The properties of the latter were compared with that of a standard commercial brake fluid. The actual test of the formulated brake fluid was carried out with a Nissan Sunny vehicle model 1.5 within the speed range of 20km/hr to 80km/hr at the permanent campus of University of Uyo and the braking efficiency obtained attest to its suitability for light loads.

  7. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  8. A portable system for characterizing wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; D. Jimenez; J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; Paul Sopko

    2010-01-01

    A field deployable system for quantifying energy and mass transport in wildland fires is described. The system consists of two enclosures: The first is a sensor/data logger combination package that allows characterization of convective/radiant energy transport in fires. This package contains batteries, a programmable data logger, sensors, and other electronics. The...

  9. Research on the Improvement of a Natural Gas Fired Burner for the CHP Application in a Central Heating Boiler using Radiant Burner Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieleveld, T.

    2010-08-15

    minimized and more heat is transferred via radiation. Because the current engine-burner is of the surface burner type, a model for this burner type is established, showing typical burner characteristics. It is investigated how the radiant efficiency can be improved of this porous surface burner type. Using this burner technology, the maximum possible radiant heat flux would lead to an impractically large burner surface area. It is believed that the radiation efficiency of the burner can be greatly enhanced when combustion takes place inside a porous medium. By doing so, high material temperatures can be achieved due to internal radiation and the heat exchanger effect of the burner material downstream of the flame. The theoretical maximum burner performance is therefore investigated for a certain value of optimum temperature, for which the gas temperature and solid temperature are equal. It is found that a submerged flame inside a porous medium greatly enhances radiant efficiency. From previous, mainly experimental work on dual layer submerged combustion, preferable material parameters per layer are found and a suggestion is made for future practical analysis. Because of the high potential of the dual porous layer submerged radiant burner, a model for this type of burner is initiated. For ease of future changes and implementation, as well as to obtain knowledge on this type of burner, model development was performed by its future user, the author of this thesis.

  10. The spectral optical properties and relative radiant heating contribution of dissolved and particulate matter in the surface waters across the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin

    autumns of 2009 and 2010 comprehensive observations were performed on transects along 79 N across the Fram Strait. Samples for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate absorption were collected and analyzed together with distribution of temperature and salinity in surface waters (0......-100 m). Large spatial variations in the distribution of CDOM and particulate matter as well as in their relative contributions to total absorption were apparent, with high contrast between waters of Arctic and Atlantic origin. In addition, estimates of underwater light profiles and radiant heating rate...... (RHR) of the upper layer were obtained using a simplistic exponential RHR model. This is one of the first detailed overviews of sea water optical properties across the northern Fram Strait, and might have potential implications for biological, biogeochemical and physical processes in the region...

  11. Graphene nanoplatelets as high-performance filtration control material in water-based drilling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, Syahrir; Ibrahim, Arif; Shahari, Radzi; Fonna, Syarizal

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) as filtration control materials in water based drilling fluids. Three (3) general samples of water based drilling fluids were prepared including basic potassium chloride (KCl) drilling fluids, nanosilica (NS) drilling fluids and GNP drilling fluids. Several concentrations of NS and GNP were dispersed in controlled formulations of water based drilling fluids. Standard API filtration tests were carried out for comparison purposes as well as High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) filtration tests at 150 °F (∼66 °C), 250 °F (∼121 °C) and 350 °F (∼177 °C) at a fixed 500 (∼3.45MPa) psi to study the filtration trend as a function of temperature. Mud cake samples from several tests were selectively chosen and analyzed under Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) for its morphology. Results from this work show that nanoparticle concentrations play a factor in filtration ability of colloid materials in water based drilling fluids when studied at elevated temperature. Low temperature filtration, however, shows only small differences in volume in all the drilling fluid samples. 0.1 ppb concentrations of GNP reduced the fluid loss of 350 °F by 4.6 mL as compared to the similar concentration of NS drilling fluids.

  12. Applying Recreation Survey Results to Recreation Planning for Water-Based Recreation Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Duncan; John Mintz; Douglas Rischbieter; John Baas

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying applications of recreation survey results in the context of water-based recreation planning. Recreation researchers have sometimes been criticized for conducting research that is weak in applied value (Cordell 1999). The paper also focuses on the important, but sometimes forgotten role that private entities play (e.g., Pacific Gas and...

  13. Nucleophilic stabilization of water-based reactive ink for titania-based thin film inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, Christophe; Marani, Debora; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Drop on demand deposition (DoD) of titanium oxide thin films (<500 nm) is performed via a novel titanium-alkoxide-based solution that is tailored as a reactive ink for inkjet printing. The ink is developed as water-based solution by a combined use of titanium isopropoxide and n-methyldiethanolami...

  14. Environmental aspect of oil and water-based drilling muds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-03-19

    Mar 19, 2010 ... both oil based and water-based drilling wastes collected from the same depth were analyzed for metals. (iron, copper ... include well cuttings, drilling muds, formation water, cement slurry ..... in the drill wastes (2.38 mg/kg) (Figure 3d). The water .... Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety.

  15. Enhanced thermal conductivity of nano-SiC dispersed water based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle dispersed water based nanofluids were prepared using up to 0.1 vol% of nanoparticles. Use of suitable stirring routine ensured uniformity and stability of dispersion. Thermal conductivity ratio of nanofluid measured using transient hot wire device shows a significant increase of up to 12% ...

  16. Water-Based Automobile Paints Potentially Reduce the Exposure of Refinish Painters to Toxic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Jen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead-containing dusts is a global public health concern. This work addresses an important issue of whether eco-friendly water-based paints reduce the exposure potential of auto-repainting workers to metals. With this aim, metal levels in automobile paints and worker metal exposure were measured using both solvent- and water-based paints. The levels of metals, and particularly Pb, Cr (total, Fe, and Cu, in solvent-based paints varied greatly among colors and brands. Lead concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (~0.25 μg/g to 107,928 μg/g (dry film across all samples. In water-based paints, the concentrations of Pb and Cr (total were generally two to three orders of magnitude lower, but the concentrations of Al and Cu exceeded those in some solvent-based paints. The personal short-term exposure of workers who applied water-based paints of popular colors, such as black and white, were generally low, with Pb levels of less than <4 µg/m3 and Cr (total levels of less than 1 µg/m3. Conversely, mean short-term exposure to Pb during the painting of a yellow cab using solvent-based paints were 2028 µg/m3, which was ~14 times the Taiwan short-term permissible exposure limit, while the mean level of exposure to Cr (total was 290 µg/m3, which was well below the exposure limit. This study demonstrates that water-based paints reduce the exposure potential to lead, and highlights the importance of source control in limiting the toxic metals in paints.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF EVACUATED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR USING WATER-BASED TITANIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahendran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are undertaken to determine the efficiency of an evacuated tube solar collector using water-based Titanium Oxide (TiO2 nanofluid at the Pekan Campus (3˚32’ N, 103˚25’ E, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, for the conversion of solar thermal energy. Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone with an average daily solar insolation of more than 900 W/m², which can reach a maximum of 1200 W/m² for most of the year. Traditionally water is pumped through the collector at an optimum flow rate, for the extraction of solar thermal energy. If the outlet temperature of the water is high, further circulation of the water through the collector is useless. This is due to the low thermal conductivity of water of 0.6 W/m.K compared to metals which is many orders higher. Hence it is necessary to reduce the surface temperature either by pumping water at a higher flow rate or by enhancing the fluid’s properties by the dispersion of nanoparticles. Pumping water at higher flow rates is not advantageous as the overall efficiency of the system is lowered. Liquids in which nanosized particles of metal or their oxides are dispersed in a base liquid such as water are known as 'Nanofluids'. This results in higher values of thermal conductivity compared to the base liquid. The thermal conductivity increases with the concentration and temperature of the nanofluid. The increase in thermal conductivity with temperature is advantageous for application in collectors as the solar insolation varies throughout the day, with a minimum in the morning reaching a maximum at 2.00p.m and reducing thereafter. The efficiency of the collector estimated using a TiO2 nanofluid of 0.3% concentration is about 0.73, compared to water which is about 0.58. The efficiency is enhanced by 16.7% maximum with 30–50nm sized TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in the water, compared to the system working solely with water. The flow rate is fixed at 2.7 liters per

  18. Analysis of the SIAM Infrared Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnado, S.G.

    1974-02-01

    This report describes and presents the results of an analysis of the performance of the infrared acquisition system for a Self-Initiated Antiaircraft Missile (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmission, and background radiance are given. Acquisition probabilities are expressed in terms of the system signal-to-noise ratio. System performance against aircraft and helicopter targets is analyzed, and background discrimination techniques are discussed. 17 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Investigation into the use of water based brake fluid for light loads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The actual test of the formulated brake fluid was carried out with a Nissan Sunny vehicle model 1.5 within the speed range of 20km/hr to 80km/hr at the permanent campus· of University of Uyo and the· braking effiqiency obtained at test to its suitability for light loads. Keywords·: Water-based, Brake fluid properties, Light loads ...

  20. Water-Based Assembly and Purification of Plasmon-Coupled Gold Nanoparticle Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bidault

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple one-pot water-based scheme to produce gold nanoparticle groupings with short interparticle spacings. This approach combines a cross-linking molecule and a hydrophilic passivation layer to control the level of induced aggregation. Suspensions of dimers and trimers are readily obtained using a single electrophoretic purification step. The final interparticle spacings allow efficient coupling of the particle plasmon modes as verified in extinction spectroscopy.

  1. Moisture diffusion coefficients determination of furan bonded sands and water based foundry coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content in furan bonded sand and water based coatings can be one of the main causes for gas related defects in large cast iron parts. Moisture diffusion coefficients for these materials are needed to precisely predict the possible moisture levels in foundry moulds. In this study, we first...... provide an example on how it is possible to apply this knowledge to estimate moisture variation in a sand mould during production....

  2. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Disposal of drilling fluids and solids generated from water-based systems in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parenteau, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The different disposal options for drilling wastes as outlined in Guide 50 of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) are discussed. Guide 50 provides for the cost effective and environmentally sound disposal of drilling waste generated in Alberta. Each disposal option of the guide is reviewed and common methods of operation are outlined. Relative costs, environmental suitability and liability issues associated with each option are described. Issues regarding overall disposal considerations, on-site and off-site disposal options, hydrocarbon contamination, salt contaminated waste, toxic waste, and documentation of waste disposal outlined. Some recent programs which have been in the trial phase for a few years are also addressed

  4. Semiconductor Metal Oxide Sensors in Water and Water Based Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Strobkova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of implementation of In2O3-based semiconductor sensors for oxygen concentration evaluation in water and the LB-nutrient media (15.5 g/l Luria Broth Base, Miller (Sigma, Lot-1900 and NaCl without bacteria and with E.coli bacteria before and after UV-irradiation are presented.

  5. New high-performance, water-based fluid benefits Santos basin operations with excellent inhibition and drilling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Tom; West, Gary [Halliburton Baroid, Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    For decades drilling fluids companies have been striving to create a water-based fluid (WBF) that yields performance similar to that of an invert emulsion in the areas of hole stability, rate of penetration (ROP) and lubricity. The HYDRO-GUARD system is a new highly inhibitive WBF that can yield drilling performance approaching that of an invert emulsion system. The new system uses a new combination of polymeric additives designed to inhibit reactive clays, minimize colloidal solids buildup, and produce a lubricious, gauge wellbore. This paper compares the field performance of the HYDRO-GUARD system on two recent Santos Basin wells drilled to over 5,000 m with the performance of synthetic-based fluids (SBF) used historically in the same area. Bottom hole temperatures (BHT) on these wells exceeded 315 deg F (157 deg C). Performance measures such as hole cleaning, penetration rates, hole stability, and torque and drag will be reviewed as well as general system benefits. (author)

  6. Improved thermal conductivity of Ag decorated carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbod, Mansoor, E-mail: farbod_m@scu.ac.ir; Ahangarpour, Ameneh

    2016-12-16

    The effect of Ag decoration of carbon nanotubes on thermal conductivity enhancement of Ag decorated MWCNTs water based nanofluids has been investigated. The pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were decorated with Ag nanoparticles by mass ratios of 1%, 2% and 4% and used to prepare water based nanofluids with 0.1 vol.%. An enhancement of 1–20.4 percent in thermal conductivity was observed. It was found that the decoration of functionalized MWCNTs can increase the thermal conductivity about 0.16–8.02 percent compared to the undecorated ones. The maximum enhancement of 20.4% was measured for the sample containing 4 wt.% Ag at 40 °C. - Highlights: • MWCNTs were decorated with Ag nanoparticles by the mass ratios of 1, 2 and 4%. • The decorated CNTs were used to prepare water based nanofluids with 0.1 Vol.%. • 1–20.4% increase was observed in thermal conductivity (TC) compared to pure water. • Ag decorated CNTs increased TC of nanofluid up to 8% compared to CNTs nanofluid.

  7. Training-induced increase in nitric oxide metabolites in chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease: an extra benefit of water-based exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Mourot; Daline, Teffaha; Malika, Bouhaddi; Fawzi, Ounissi; Philippe, Vernochet; Benoit, Dugue; Catherine, Monpère; Jacques, Regnard

    2009-04-01

    Rehabilitation programs involving immersed exercises are more and more frequently used, with severe cardiac patients as well. This study investigated whether a rehabilitation program including water-based exercises has additional effects on the cardiovascular system compared with a traditional land-based training in heart disease patients. Twenty-four male stable chronic heart failure patients and 24 male coronary artery disease patients with preserved left ventricular function participated in the study. Patients took part in the rehabilitation program performing cycle endurance exercises on land. They also performed gymnastic exercises either on land (first half of the participants) or in water (second half). Resting plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrate and nitrite) and catecholamine were evaluated, and a symptom-limited exercise test on a cycle ergometer was performed before and after the rehabilitation program. In the groups performing water-based exercises, the plasma concentration of nitrates was significantly increased (P = 0.035 for chronic heart failure and P = 0.042 for coronary artery disease), whereas it did not significantly change in the groups performing gymnastic exercise on land. No changes in plasma catecholamine concentration occurred. In every group, the cardiorespiratory capacity of patients was significantly increased after rehabilitation. The water-based exercises seemed to effectively increase the basal level of plasma nitrates. Such changes may be related to an enhancement of endothelial function and may be of importance for the health of the patients.

  8. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  9. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  10. A controlled, randomized, comparative study of a radiant heat bandage on the healing of stage 3-4 pressure ulcers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David R; Diebold, Marilyn R; Eggemeyer, Linda M

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers, like other chronic wounds, fail to proceed through an orderly and timely process to produce anatomical or functional integrity. Treatment of pressure ulcers is directed to improving host factors and providing an optimum wound environment. In addition to providing a moist wound environment, it has been theorized that preventing hypothermia in a wound and maintaining a normothermic state might improve wound healing. Forty-one subjects with a stage 3 or stage 4 truncal pressure ulcer >1.0 cm(2) were recruited from outpatient clinics, long-term care nursing homes, and a rehabilitation center. The experimental group was randomized to a radiant-heat dressing device and the control group was randomized to a hydrocolloid dressing, with or without a calcium alginate filler. Subjects were followed until healed or for 12 weeks. Eight subjects (57%) in the experimental group had complete healing of their pressure ulcer compared with 7 subjects (44%) with complete healing in the control group (P = .46). Although a 13% difference in healing rate between the two arms of the study was found, this difference was not statistically significant. At almost all points along the healing curve, the proportion not healed was higher in the control arm.

  11. Influence on living body by radiant rays produced in low power reactor. Irradiation of rabbit inside of low power reactor (UTR-KINKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isao; Nakamura, Katsuichi; Usuyama, Hideo; Usui, Akinori; Hosomi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yoshinao; Nakai, Takahide; Egashira, Masamichi

    1984-12-01

    There is possibility of a risk that a living body is irradiated by those for slightly indifference to radiant rays, radiation source or devices of low level dose or dose rate. Accordingly, a low power reactor (UTR-KINKI) was utilized for a observation of influence by radiation of low level dose or dose rate, the rabbits were irradiated in it at output 1 w. The large influence was not expected for the low level dose rate of 1.313 Rad/hr even if they were irradiated for the several hours, but in a part of blood components a slight change was recognized. The change of M pattern in white blood corpuscle number was indicated likewise as irradiation of 500R X-ray, reported from Jacobson and others, by irradiation to about 13 Rads. In addition, lymphocyte number was increased considerably in an early stage. This fact will be useful for a recovery of an injury as mentioned by Lucky. The rabbits of alloxan diabetes mellitus and hepatitis were irradiated in the same way as above, but they scarcely showed the alterations. However, numerous rabbits can't be used in this experiment for the equipment and others. (author).

  12. Analyse thermique de systèmes de chauffage localisé à basse température dans les serres agricoles : paillage radiant et tubes enterrés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, C.; Amouroux, M.

    1993-10-01

    Greenhouse heating can be achieved using various systems, for the generator as well as for the exchanger. The exchanger characteristics involve quite different modes of energy distribution, with differing agronomic and economic consequences. This paper focuses on two ground-level heating systems with low temperature (20 40°C) water circulation: a “radiant mulch” exchanger, composed of a network of ground-level heating hoses, and a “buried pipes” exchanger, composed of a network of under-ground pipes. The first part of the paper develops a model for these exchangers and its integration into a previously described greenhouse global model. The second part compares the effects of these exchangers on the greenhouse energetical behaviour with those of classic aerial metallic pipes with hot (50 70°C) water circulation. Le chauffage des serres agricoles peut être réalisé avec divers types de systèmes, tant pour le générateur que pour l'échangeur situé au sein de la serre. Les caractéristiques de l'échangeur induisent des modes de distribution de l'énergie très différents, dont les conséquences agronomiques et économiques peuvent être importantes. Le présent article s'intéresse à deux types d'échangeurs à circulation d'eau “à basse température” (20 40°C) localisés au niveau du sol de la serre: chauffage par gaines en matière plastique posées à même le sol (ou “paillage radiant”), chauffage par réseau de tubes enterrés à faible profondeur dans le sol de la serre. Une première partie développe une modélisation de ces échangeurs et son intégration dans un modèle plus global de la serre agricole, déjà présenté par ailleurs. Une seconde partie exploite cette modélisation en effectuant une analyse comparative de ces échangeurs avec un échangeur de référence constitué de tubes métalliques aériens à circulation d'eau chaude (50 70°C), très classiquement utilisé dans les serres.

  13. Energy use of the land and water based industries; Uppdrag energikartlaeggning av de areella naeringarna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengaard, Linn; Persson, Tobias; Hoegberg, Martina; Einarson, Elin; Gustafsson, Christel; Karlsson, Stefan; Bengtsberg, Rickard; Rehnfeldt, Laila

    2010-02-15

    The report presents a review of energy use within the land- and water-based industries. A number of proposals are reported on technical measures for energy efficiency and measures for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases that can be implemented in each sector. Instruments which may act to promote the implementation of measures is also reported. As the work with examining the energy use progressed, it became clear that the existing statistics and knowledge base was insufficient to produce a satisfactory quantitative analysis of the socio-economic and financial consequences of the measures proposed. These deficiencies are identified in the report

  14. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  15. Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Metolachlor Carrier: Water-Based Formulation for Hydrophobic Pesticides and Absorption by Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yujia; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Caiyan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jianqing; Xiang, Sheng; Zong, Fulin; Wu, Xuemin

    2017-08-30

    Pesticide formulation is highly desirable for effective utilization of pesticide and environmental pollution reduction. Studies of pesticide delivery system such as microcapsules are developing prosperously. In this work, we chose polymeric nanoparticles as a pesticide delivery system and metolachlor was used as a hydrophobic pesticide model to study water-based mPEG-PLGA nanoparticle formulation. Preparation, characterization results showed that the resulting nanoparticles enhanced "water solubility" of hydrophobic metolachlor and contained no organic solvent or surfactant, which represent one of the most important sources of pesticide pollution. After the release study, absorption of Cy5-labeled nanoparticles into rice roots suggested a possible transmitting pathway of this metolachlor formulation and increased utilization of metolachlor. Furthermore, the bioassay test demonstrated that this nanoparticle showed higher effect than non-nano forms under relatively low concentrations on Oryza sativa, Digitaria sanguinalis. In addition, a simple cytotoxicity test involving metolachlor and metolachlor-loaded nanoparticles was performed, indicating toxicity reduction of the latter to the preosteoblast cell line. All of these results showed that those polymeric nanoparticles could serve as a pesticide carrier with lower environmental impact, comparable effect, and effective delivery.

  16. Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Shen, Yang; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    Naturally occurring water is a promising candidate for achieving broadband absorption. In this work, by virtue of the optically transparent character of the water, the water-based metamaterial absorbers (MAs) are proposed to achieve the broadband absorption at microwave frequencies and optical transparence simultaneously. For this purpose, the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are chosen as the constitutive materials. The water is encapsulated between the ITO backed plate and PMMA, serving as the microwave loss as well as optically transparent material. Numerical simulations show that the broadband absorption with the efficiency over 90% in the frequency band of 6.4-30 GHz and highly optical transparency of about 85% in the visible region can be achieved and have been well demonstrated experimentally. Additionally, the proposed water-based MA displays a wide-angle absorption performance for both TE and TM waves and is also robust to the variations of the structure parameters, which is much desired in a practical application.

  17. Alternative to Water Based Fabric Cleaner in Textile and Detergent Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different detergent formulations, (1 ethyl-hydro-oxides (EHOs, using ethanol + H2O2 + KOH + water, without pH adjustment, at 60°C for 1 h, (2 modified EHOs (using ethanol + H2O2 + KOH + water, with pH adjustment, at 40°C for 1 h, and (3 water based detergent (WBD, using commercial detergent T + water, at 40°C for 1 h, were analyzed for cleaning of dried biodiesel soaked cotton cloth (DBSCC samples. The effects of detergent formulations were analyzed based on cloth sample weights (residual and intact and visual (through photographic images examinations. With EHOs formulations, the increasing concentration of KOH and H2O2 had a significant effect on increasing both brightness and residual content of DBSCC samples. On the contrary, the controlled pH environments (as with modified EHOs formulations had a significant effect in decreasing residual content and increasing brightness of DBSCC samples. The implications of EHOs formulations (with and without modification are discussed with respect to current water based textile and detergent industries practices.

  18. Effects of Water-Based Training on Static and Dynamic Balance of Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Lopes, Maria de Fátima A; Cebolla, Elaine Cristine; Wolf, Renata; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water-based exercise program on static and dynamic balance. Thirty-six older women were randomly assigned to a water-based training (3 days/week for 12 weeks) or control group. Water level was kept at the level of the xiphoid process and temperature at ∼28-30°C. Each session included aerobic activities and lower limb strength exercises. The medial-lateral, the anterior-posterior amplitude, and displacement of the center of pressure (CP-D) were measured in a quiet standing position (60 sec eyes opened and closed). The dynamic balance and 8-Foot Up-and-Go tests were also applied. Group comparisons were made using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No differences were found in the center of pressure variables; however, the WBT group showed better performance in the 8 Foot Up-and-Go Test after training (5.61±0.76 vs. 5.18±0.42; pwater-based training was effective in improving dynamic balance, but not static balance.

  19. Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Pinto Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to relate the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-overall with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during stationary running with the elbow flexion/extension performed with water-floating equipment. The sample consisted of eleven women that performed the water-based exercise at submaximal cadences. The heart rate, oxygen uptake, ventilation, and electromyographic signal (EMG from biceps brachii (%EMG BB, triceps brachii (%EMG TB, biceps femoris (%EMG BF and rectus femoris (%EMG RF muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall RPE was measured immediately following its completion. The Pearson product-moment linear correlation was used to investigate associations between the variables analyzed in the present study. Significant relationships were observed between the RPE-overall and all the cardiorespiratory variables, with the r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.70 (p<0.05. In addition, the RPE-overall showed a significant (p<0.05 relationship with %EMG BB (r=0.55 and %EMG BF (r=0.50. These results suggest an association between the RPE-overall with all cardiorespiratory and two neuromuscular variables during the execution of a water-based aerobic exercise using water-floating equipment.

  20. Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone Conducting Redox Polymers for Water Based Secondary Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterby, Mia; Emanuelsson, Rikard; Huang, Xiao; Gogoll, Adolf; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion technologies show great promise to meet the demands that the transition towards renewable energy sources and the electrification of the transport sector put forward. However, concerns regarding lithium-ion batteries, including limited material resources, high energy consumption during production, and flammable electrolytes, necessitate research on alternative technologies for electrochemical energy storage. Organic materials derived from abundant building blocks and with tunable properties, together with water based electrolytes, could provide safe, inexpensive and sustainable alternatives. In this study, two conducting redox polymers based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a hydroquinone pendant group have been synthesized and characterized in an acidic aqueous electrolyte. The polymers were characterized with regards to kinetics, pH dependence, and mass changes during oxidation and reduction, as well as their conductance. Both polymers show redox matching, i.e. the quinone redox reaction occurs within the potential region where the polymer is conducting, and fast redox conversion that involves proton cycling during pendant group redox conversion. These properties make the presented materials promising candidates as electrode materials for water based all-organic batteries.

  1. High-yield water-based synthesis of truncated silver nanocubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun-Min; Lu, I-Te; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Wu, Pu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a water-based formula to fabricate truncated Ag nanocubes. • The sample exhibits (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) on the facets, edges, and corners. • The sample shows three characteristic absorption peaks due to plasma resonance. -- Abstract: A high-yield water-based hydrothermal synthesis was developed using silver nitrate, ammonia, glucose, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as precursors to synthesize truncated silver nanocubes with uniform sizes and in large quantities. With a fixed CTAB concentration, truncated silver nanocubes with sizes of 49.3 ± 4.1 nm were produced when the molar ratio of glucose/silver cation was maintained at 0.1. The sample exhibited (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) planes on the facets, edges, and corners, respectively. In contrast, with a slightly larger glucose/silver cation ratio of 0.35, well-defined nanocubes with sizes of 70.9 ± 3.8 nm sizes were observed with the (1 0 0) plane on six facets. When the ratio was further increased to 1.5, excess reduction of silver cations facilitated the simultaneous formation of nanoparticles with cubic, spherical, and irregular shapes. Consistent results were obtained from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible absorption measurements

  2. High-yield water-based synthesis of truncated silver nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun-Min; Lu, I-Te; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Wu, Pu-Wei, E-mail: ppwu@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Development of a water-based formula to fabricate truncated Ag nanocubes. • The sample exhibits (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) on the facets, edges, and corners. • The sample shows three characteristic absorption peaks due to plasma resonance. -- Abstract: A high-yield water-based hydrothermal synthesis was developed using silver nitrate, ammonia, glucose, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as precursors to synthesize truncated silver nanocubes with uniform sizes and in large quantities. With a fixed CTAB concentration, truncated silver nanocubes with sizes of 49.3 ± 4.1 nm were produced when the molar ratio of glucose/silver cation was maintained at 0.1. The sample exhibited (1 0 0), (1 1 0), and (1 1 1) planes on the facets, edges, and corners, respectively. In contrast, with a slightly larger glucose/silver cation ratio of 0.35, well-defined nanocubes with sizes of 70.9 ± 3.8 nm sizes were observed with the (1 0 0) plane on six facets. When the ratio was further increased to 1.5, excess reduction of silver cations facilitated the simultaneous formation of nanoparticles with cubic, spherical, and irregular shapes. Consistent results were obtained from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible absorption measurements.

  3. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Measuring Radiant Emissions from Entire Prescribed Fires with Ground, Airborne and Satellite Sensors RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Matthew B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Zajkowski, Thomas; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellison, Luke; Kremens, Robert L.; Holley, William; Martinez, Otto; Paxton, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE) field campaign, we used ground, airborne and spaceborne sensors to measure fire radiative power (FRP) from whole fires, applying different methods to small (2 ha) and large (.100 ha) burn blocks. For small blocks (n1/46), FRP estimated from an obliquely oriented long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera mounted on a boom lift were compared with FRP derived from combined data from tower-mounted radiometers and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS). For large burn blocks (n1/43), satellite FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors were compared with near-coincident FRP measurements derived from a LWIR imaging system aboard a piloted aircraft. We describe measurements and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Until quantitative sensors exist for small RPAS, their use in fire research will remain limited. For oblique, airborne and satellite sensors, further FRP measurement development is needed along with greater replication of coincident measurements, which we show to be feasible.

  5. An oral TRPV1 antagonist attenuates laser radiant-heat-evoked potentials and pain ratings from UV(B)-inflamed and normal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Klaus; Reeh, Peter; Duan, W Rachel; Best, Andrea E; Othman, Ahmed A; Faltynek, Connie R; Locke, Charles; Nothaft, Wolfram

    2013-02-01

    Laser (radiant-heat) evoked potentials (LEPs) from vertex-EEG peak-to-peak (PtP) amplitude were used to determine acute antinociceptive/antihyperalgesic efficacy of ABT-102, a novel TRPV1 antagonist efficacious in preclinical pain models, compared with active controls and placebo in normal and UV(B)-inflamed skin. This was a randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, double-blind, intra-individual, crossover trial. Twenty-four healthy subjects received six sequences of single doses of ABT-102 (0.5, 2, 6 mg), etoricoxib 90 mg, tramadol 100 mg and placebo. Painful stimuli were induced by CO(2) -laser on normal and UV(B) -inflamed skin. LEPs and visual analogue scale (VAS-pain) ratings were taken at baseline and hourly up to 8 h post-dose from both skin types. Compared with placebo, significant mean decreases in the primary variable of LEP PtP-amplitude from UV(B)-inflamed skin were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P < 0.001), ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002), tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.001), and etoricoxib 90 mg (P = 0.001) over the 8 h period; ABT-102 0.5 mg was similar to placebo. ABT-102 6 mg was superior to active controls over the 8 h period (P < 0.05) whereas ABT-102 2 mg was comparable. Improvements in VAS scores compared with placebo were observed with ABT-102 6 mg (P < 0.001) and ABT-102 2 mg (P = 0.002). ABT-102 average plasma concentrations were 1.3, 4.4 and 9.4 ng ml(-1) for the 0.5, 2 and 6 mg doses, respectively. There were no clinically significant safety findings. TRPV-1 antagonism appears promising in the management of clinical pain, but requires further investigation. © 2012 Abbott. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Effects of radiant exposure values using second and third generation light curing units on the degree of conversion of a lucirin-based resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Kelly Antonieta Oliveira Rodrigues de Faria; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Madruga, Camila Ferreira Leite; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão

    2017-01-01

    Using Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) in vitro, the effects of varying radiant exposure (RE) values generated by second and third generation LED LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC) and maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax) of an experimental Lucirin TPO-based RC were evaluated. 1 mm or 2 mm thick silicon molds were positioned on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) unit attached to an infrared spectroscope. The RC was inserted into the molds and exposed to varying REs (18, 36 and 56 J/cm2) using second (Radii Plus, SDI) and third generation LED LCUs (Bluephase G2/Ivoclar Vivadent) or a quartz tungsten based LCU (Optilux 501/SDS Kerr). FTIR spectra (n=7) were recorded for 10 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after their application to the ATR. The DC was calculated using standard techniques for observing changes in aliphatic to aromatic peak ratios both prior to, and 10 min after curing, as well as during each 1 second interval. DC and Rpmax data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p=0.05). No significant difference in DC or Rpmax was observed between the 1 mm or 2 mm thick specimens when RE values were delivered by Optilux 501 or when the 1 mm thick composites were exposed to light emitted by Bluephase G2, which in turn promoted a lower DC when 18 J/cm2 (13 s) were delivered to the 2 mm thick specimens. Radii Plus promoted DC and Rpmax values close to zero under most conditions, while the delivery of 56 J/cm2 (40 s) resulted in low DC values. The third generation LCU provided an optimal polymerization of Lucirin TPO-based RC under most tested conditions, whereas the second generation LED-curing unit was useless regardless of the RE.

  7. Influence of radiant energy exchange on the determination of convective heat transfer rates to Orbiter leeside surfaces during entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Temperatures measured at the aerodynamic surface of the Orbiter's thermal protection system (TPS), and calorimeter measurements, are used to determine heating rates to the TPS surface during atmospheric entry. On the Orbiter leeside, where convective heating rates are low, it is possible that a significant portion of the total energy input may result from solar radiation, and for the wing, cross radiation from the hot (relatively) Orbiter fuselage. In order to account for the potential impact of these sources, values of solar- and cross-radiation heat transfer are computed, based upon vehicle trajectory and attitude information and measured surface temperatures. Leeside heat-transfer data from the STS-2 mission are presented, and the significance of solar radiation and fuselage-to-wing cross-radiation contributions to total energy input to Orbiter leeside surfaces is assessed.

  8. New non-stick expoxy-silicone water-based coatings part 1: Physical and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garti, N. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Smith, J. [Decora Manufacturing, Fort Edward, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In search for tomorrow`s technology for water-based coating, Decora Manufacturing and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have initiated an intensive research program for designing, developing and manufacturing new coatings based on cross-linked, room temperature-cured silicone-expoxy resins. The new water-borne coatings have most exciting characteristics such as: non-stick properties, effective release, high lubricity, corrosion protection and abrasion resistance. The coatings are environmentally-friendly and easy to use. These coatings are ideal for marine, agricultural, industrial and maintenance applications. This paper brings quantitative measurements related to the dispersion technology (particle size, stability, shelf-life), to the non-stick properties (deicing, low surface energy, easy-release and non-stick), lubricity, adhesion to substrates, viscosity, dynamic and static friction coefficients and environmental impact (low VOC, non-toxicity, low-leaching). The coating was tested in various industrial coating systems and was found to exhibit excellent non-stick and release properties. Special attention was given to Zebra Mussels, Quagga Mussels and other bacterial and algeal bioforms. The coating proved to be efficient as foul-release coating with very low biofouling adhesion. The low adhesion applied to many other substances in which foul-release means easy-clean and low-wear.

  9. Water based suspensions of iron oxide obtained by laser target evaporation for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novoselova, I.P. [Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Science and Technology Park “Fabrica”, Gaidara St. 6, 236022 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsena St. 106, 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Samatov, O.M. [Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsena St. 106, 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, I.V.; Medvedev, A.I. [Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsena St. 106, 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    In this work spherical magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of iron oxide were obtained by laser target evaporation technique (LTE). Water based suspensions were prepared on the basis of obtained MNPs and their properties were also studied including inductive heat capacity. Their structure and properties were studied by a number of techniques including magnetometry and heat capacity measurements. Magnetic induction heating experiment show the specific loss power (SLP) value in the narrow range from 1.30 to 1.45 W/g for all samples under consideration when using alternating magnetic field of 1.7 kA/m and frequency of 210 kHz. These parameters insure that LTE MNPs are interesting materials promising for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Spheric oxide nanoparticles obtained by productive laser target evaporation method. • Experiment shows the specific loss power value in the narrow range for all samples. • Obtained results insure these objects as interesting material for hyperthermia.

  10. Water based suspensions of iron oxide obtained by laser target evaporation for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, I.P.; Safronov, A.P.; Samatov, O.M.; Beketov, I.V.; Medvedev, A.I.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work spherical magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of iron oxide were obtained by laser target evaporation technique (LTE). Water based suspensions were prepared on the basis of obtained MNPs and their properties were also studied including inductive heat capacity. Their structure and properties were studied by a number of techniques including magnetometry and heat capacity measurements. Magnetic induction heating experiment show the specific loss power (SLP) value in the narrow range from 1.30 to 1.45 W/g for all samples under consideration when using alternating magnetic field of 1.7 kA/m and frequency of 210 kHz. These parameters insure that LTE MNPs are interesting materials promising for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Spheric oxide nanoparticles obtained by productive laser target evaporation method. • Experiment shows the specific loss power value in the narrow range for all samples. • Obtained results insure these objects as interesting material for hyperthermia.

  11. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used...... capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  12. Preliminary assessment of water-based nano-fluids for use as coolants in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacopo Buongiorno

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The impact of using water-based fluids with small additions (<2% vol.) of nano-sized (10-100 nm) particle populations as coolants for current and advanced PWRs is evaluated. Such 'engineered' fluids (known as nano-fluids) are attractive because the presence of the nano-particles enhances energy transport considerably. As a result, nano-fluids are known to have (i) higher thermal conductivity than water (up to 20% depending on nano-particle material, size and volumetric fraction), (ii) higher heat transfer coefficients (up to 40%), (iii) higher CHF (up to 300% in pool boiling), and (iv) comparable pressure drop. Furthermore, nano-fluids appear to be very stable suspensions with little or no sedimentation, because of the small size of the dispersed particles and their typically low volumetric fractions. The ultimate objective of this work is to assess whether existing PWRs could be retro-fitted with a water-based nano-fluid coolant, to increase safety margins, reduce stored energy, and/or allow for power up-rates. Also, advanced PWRs could be designed with nano-fluids. The linear heat generation rate in PWRs is limited by a) fuel centerline melting, b) cladding overheating (CHF), and c) stored energy release following a large-break LOCA. Mechanisms b) and c) are usually the most limiting. For given geometry and linear power, it is obvious that the core with the nano-fluid coolant will have higher margins to CHF and LOCA limits. Conversely, for given margins, a higher linear power can be accommodated by the nano-fluid-cooled core. Standard thermal-hydraulic models for the PWR hot fuel pin (including a RELAP model for the LOCA) have been used to quantify the benefit of using nano-fluid coolants on the performance of a PWR. (author)

  13. A microband lactate biosensor fabricated using a water-based screen-printed carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, F J; Purcell, W M; Xu, J; Pemberton, R M; Fielden, P R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-15

    The present study demonstrated for the first time that screen-printed carbon microband electrodes fabricated from water-based ink can readily detect H(2)O(2) and that the same ink, with the addition of lactate oxidase, can be used to construct microband biosensors to measure lactate. These microband devices were fabricated by a simple cutting procedure using conventional sized screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing the electrocatalyst cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC). These devices were characterised with H(2)O(2) using several electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammograms were found to be sigmoidal; a current density value of 4.2 mA cm(-2) was obtained. A scan rate study revealed that the mass transport mechanism was a mixture of radial and planar diffusion. However, a further amperometric study under quiescent and hydrodynamic conditions indicated that radial diffusion predominated. A chronoamperometric study indicated that steady-state currents were obtained with these devices for a variety of H(2)O(2) concentrations and that the currents were proportional to the analyte concentration. Lactate microband biosensors were then fabricated by incorporating lactate oxidase into the water-based formulation prior to printing and then cutting as described. Voltammograms demonstrated that lactate oxidase did not compromise the integrity of the electrode for H(2)O(2) detection. A potential of +400 mV was selected for a calibration study, which showed that lactate could be measured over a dynamic range of 1-10mM which was linear up to 6mM; a calculated lower limit of detection of 289 microM was ascertained. This study provides a platform for monitoring cell metabolism in-vitro by measuring lactate electrochemically via a microband biosensor.

  14. Quantifying the radiant exposure and effective dose in patients treated for actinic keratoses with topical photodynamic therapy using daylight and LED white light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M.; Collins, P.; Gray, L.; O'Gorman, S.; McCavana, J.

    2018-02-01

    Daylight photodynamic therapy (dl-PDT) is as effective as conventional PDT (c-PDT) for treating actinic keratoses but has the advantage of reducing patient discomfort significantly. Topical dl-PDT and white light-PDT (wl-PDT) differ from c-PDT by way of light sources and methodology. We measured the variables associated with light dose delivery to skin surface and influence of geometry using a radiometer, a spectral radiometer and an illuminance meter. The associated errors of the measurement methods were assessed. The spectral and spatial distribution of the radiant energy from the LED white light source was evaluated in order to define the maximum treatment area, setup and treatment protocol for wl-PDT. We compared the data with two red LED light sources we use for c-PDT. The calculated effective light dose is the product of the normalised absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), the irradiance spectrum and the treatment time. The effective light dose from daylight ranged from 3  ±  0.4 to 44  ±  6 J cm-2due to varying weather conditions. The effective light dose for wl-PDT was reproducible for treatments but it varied across the treatment area between 4  ±  0.1 J cm-2 at the edge and 9  ±  0.1 J cm-2 centrally. The effective light dose for the red waveband (615-645 nm) was 0.42  ±  0.05 J cm-2 on a clear day, 0.05  ±  0.01 J cm-2 on an overcast day and 0.9  ±  0.01 J cm-2 using the white light. This compares with 0.95  ±  0.01 and 0.84  ±  0.01 J cm-2 for c-PDT devices. Estimated errors associated with indirect determination of daylight effective light dose were very significant, particularly for effective light doses less than 5 J cm-2 (up to 83% for irradiance calculations). The primary source of error is in establishment of the relationship between irradiance or illuminance and effective dose. Use of the O’Mahoney model is recommended using a

  15. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  16. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  17. Radiant-Heat Spray Calcination Studies; Calcination par Pulverisation et Chauffage Radiant; 0418 0421 0421 041b 0415 0414 041e 0412 0410 041d 0418 042f 041d 0410 041a 0410 041b 042c 0426 0418 041d 0410 0422 041e 0420 0410 0425 0424 041e 0420 0421 0423 041d 041e 0427 041d 041e 0413 041e 0422 0418 041f 0410 0421 041d 0410 0413 0420 0415 0412 0410 041d 0418 0415 041c 0422 0415 041f 041b 041e 0412 042b 041c 0418 0417 041b 0423 0427 0415 041d 0418 0415 041c ; Estudios de Calcinacion por Pulverizacion y Calentamiento Radiante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R. T.; Moore, R. L.; Upson, U. L. [Hanford Laboratories General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1963-02-15

    The radiant-heat spray calcination process for conversion of liquid wastes to solids is described and the design of a one-gallon-per-hour spray calcination unit coupled with a small melt pot, capable of being run separately as a pot calciner, is discussed. The units were designed to test the feasibility of the calcination process with actual Purex plant waste in terms of the process as a unit operation, off-gas treatment, fission-product behaviour, condensate and calcined waste characteristics. The entire system was made to fit into an available 7-1/2 ft x 15 ft x 15 ft tall, manipulator-equipped, shielded cell which is also described. Included in the design discussion are: the resistance heating of the spray calciner column, thermal insulation of the column, spray nozzle, method of nozzle replacement, induction heating of the melt pot, radioactivity scanner for the pot, off-gas processing system including condenser, scrubber and filters, off-gas sampling device, liquid sampling device, wash-down system, feed system, instrumentation and control methods. The experience gained in operating the calciners and associated equipment is discussed. Experimental results presented show the effectiveness of off-gas decontamination and behaviour of gross chemical constituents and some specific fission products. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient le procede de calcination par pulverisation et chauffage radiant utilise pour transformer les dechets liquides en solides; ils decrivent notamment une installation de calcination par pulverisation (d'une capacite de 1 gallon par heure) accouplee a un petit creuset que l'on peut utiliser separement comme creuset de calcination. Cet ensemble- a ete concu pour etudier la possibilite de calciner des dechets reels resultant du traitement Purex, en tenant compte des facteurs suivants: operations dans un seul appareil, traitement des gaz d'echappement, comportement des produits de fission, caracteristiques du condense et des dechets

  18. High-Efficiency Glass and Printable Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Water-Based Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Moudam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a flexible and glass dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC with water-based electrolyte solutions is described. High concentrations of alkylamidazoliums were used to overcome the deleterious effect of water and, based on this variable, pure water-based electrolyte DSSCs were tested displaying the highest recorded efficiency so far of 3.45% and 6% for flexible and glass cells, respectively, under a simulated air mass 1.5 solar spectrum illumination at 100 mWcm−2. An improvement in the Jsc with high water content and the positive impact of GuSCN on the enhancement of the performance of pure water-based electrolytes were also observed.

  19. New generation of membrane efficient water-based drilling fluids: pragmatic and cost-effective solutions to borehole stability problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U.A. [Haliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mody, F.K. [Shell International E and P Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Tan, C.P. [CSIRO Petroleum, Kensington, WA (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Drilling and completion operations in shales often suffer as a result of wellbore instability. Mechanical failure of the rock around a wellbore is the primary cause of shale instability. This process can be exacerbated by physico-chemical interactions between drilling fluids and shales. Water-based drilling fluids are used more and more due to environmental awareness that becomes more prevalent. Wellbore instability problems can however result from an improper application of water-based drilling fluids in those cases where drilling occurs in sensitive clay-rich formations. To meet the requirements of the petroleum industry, considerable collaborative efforts were expanded in the development of innovative environmentally acceptable water-based drilling fluids. In this paper, the authors describe the process that leads to the development of these drilling fluids. It is possible to achieve shale stability through an osmotic outflow of pore fluid and prevention/minimization of mud pressure penetration, as laboratory experiments on shale samples under realistic downhole conditions exposed to these drilling fluids prove. High membrane efficiencies, in excess of 80 per cent, were generated by this new generation of membrane efficient water-based drilling fluids. Drilling objectives resulting from an improved application of water-based drilling fluids are made possible by a fundamental understanding of the main drilling fluid-shale interaction mechanisms for shale stability and the application of experimental data to field conditions. The authors indicate that the achievement of trouble-free drilling of shales and notable reductions in non-productive time is accomplished by following the practical guidelines included in this paper for maintaining shale stability with the new generation of water-based drilling fluids. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Water-Based Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.; Forrest, E.; Hu, L.W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate water-based nano-fluids for nuclear applications, preparation and characterization has been performed for nano-fluids being considered for MIT's nano-fluid heat transfer experiments. Three methods of generating these nano-fluids are available: creating them from chemical precipitation, purchasing the nano-particles in powder form and mixing them with the base fluid, and direct purchase of prepared nano-fluids. Characterization of nano-fluids includes colloidal stability, size distribution, concentration, and elemental composition. Quality control of the nano-fluids to be used for heat transfer testing is crucial; an exact knowledge of the fluid constituents is essential to uncovering mechanisms responsible for heat transport enhancement. Testing indicates that nano-fluids created by mixing a liquid with nano-particles in powder form are often not stable, although some degree of stabilization is obtainable with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some commercially available prepared nano-fluids have been found to contain unacceptable levels of impurities and/or include a different weight percent of nano-particles compared to vendor specifications. Tools utilized to characterize and qualify nano-fluids for this study include neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Preparation procedures and characterization results for selected nano-fluids will be discussed in detail. (authors)

  1. Novel epoxy-benzoxazine water-based emulsions with reactive benzoxazine surfactants for coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel epoxy-benzoxazine emulsions designed for water-based coatings were prepared and investigated. Bisphenol A-based epoxy resins with molar weights of 340, 377 and 1750 g/mol along with epoxidized soybean oil were emulsified using mono- and bi-functional benzoxazine surfactants, which are able to react with epoxy resins at their cure temperature. The structure of synthesized surfactants carrying one or two polyether chains was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability of emulsions was verified by particle diameters measurements. Coatings, made directly from emulsions, were dried and cured at elevated temperature using 3,3'-dimetoxybenzidine as curing agent to ensure a highly cross-linked structure of thermosetting films. Curing process, thermal properties and hardness of cured films were investigated. It was found that benzoxazine molecules were well incorporated into the epoxy network upon curing, which ensures no void structure of cured copolymer and enhanced coating properties.

  2. Experimental investigation of the influence of nanoparticles on water-based mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Paritosh; Cheng, Yaoze; Zhang, Yin; Patil, Shirish

    2018-03-01

    This study has investigated the influence of nanoparticles including nanoparticle concentration, size, and type on water-based mud (WBM) properties including rheology, filtration, and lubricity through experimental tests, while the influence of temperature and aging on these properties have been investigated. It has been found that adding SiO2 nanoparticles increase the plastic viscosity and decrease the yield points and gel strengths with the increase of nanoparticle concentration. At fixed 0.5 wt%, the plastic viscosity decreases with the increase of TiO2 nanoparticle size, but the influence of TiO2 nanoparticle size on yield points and gel strengths is not monotonous. In general, adding negative charged SiO2 nanoparticles reduce the yield points and gel strengths, while adding positively charged TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles increase yield points and gel strengths. Adding lower concentrations (mud filtration and lubricity properties, but higher concentrations are adverse to these properties and adding 0.5 wt% TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles impaired these properties. Besides, it is found that there is no consistent influence of aging on mud properties and adding nanoparticles cannot improve aging resistance of mud. Although adding nanoparticles can significantly affect WBM properties, their influences are not consistency, depending on the integrated impact of the nanoparticle properties, such as surface electrical property, specific surface area, concentration, and size.

  3. Flow and heat transfer in water based liquid film fluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhra, Samina; Khan, Noor Saeed; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Waris; Bonyah, Ebenezer

    2018-03-01

    The unsteady flow and heat transfer characteristics of electrically conducting water based thin liquid film non-Newtonian (Casson and Williamson) nanofluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles past a stretching sheet are considered in the presence of transverse magnetic field and non-uniform heat source/sink. Embedding the graphene nanoparticles effectively amplifies the thermal conductivity of Casson and Williamson nanofluids. Ordinary differential equations together with the boundary conditions are obtained through similarity variables from the governing equations of the problem, which are solved by the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method). The solution is expressed through graphs and illustrated which show the influences of all the parameters. The convergence of the HAM solution for the linear operators is obtained. Favorable comparison with previously published research paper is performed to show the correlation for the present work. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented through Tables and graphs which show the validation for the achieved results demonstrating that the thin liquid films results from this study are in close agreement with the results reported in the literature. Results achieved by HAM and residual errors are evaluated numerically, given in Tables and also depicted graphically which show the accuracy of the present work.

  4. Flow and heat transfer in water based liquid film fluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Zuhra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow and heat transfer characteristics of electrically conducting water based thin liquid film non-Newtonian (Casson and Williamson nanofluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles past a stretching sheet are considered in the presence of transverse magnetic field and non-uniform heat source/sink. Embedding the graphene nanoparticles effectively amplifies the thermal conductivity of Casson and Williamson nanofluids. Ordinary differential equations together with the boundary conditions are obtained through similarity variables from the governing equations of the problem, which are solved by the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method. The solution is expressed through graphs and illustrated which show the influences of all the parameters. The convergence of the HAM solution for the linear operators is obtained. Favorable comparison with previously published research paper is performed to show the correlation for the present work. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented through Tables and graphs which show the validation for the achieved results demonstrating that the thin liquid films results from this study are in close agreement with the results reported in the literature. Results achieved by HAM and residual errors are evaluated numerically, given in Tables and also depicted graphically which show the accuracy of the present work. Keywords: Graphene nanoparticles, MHD, Casson and Williamson nanofluids, Stretching sheet, Skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Residual errors, Homotopy Analysis Method

  5. Numerical study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder filled with water-based alumina nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Natural heat convection of water-based alumina (Al2O3/water) nanofluids (with volume fraction 1% and 4%) in a horizontal cylinder is numerically investigated. The whole three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedure is performed in a completely open-source way. Blender, enGrid, OpenFOAM and ParaView are employed for geometry creation, mesh generation, case simulation and post process, respectively. Original solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleFoam' is selected for the present study, and a temperature-dependent solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleTDFoam' is developed to ensure the simulation is more realistic. The two solvers are used for same cases and compared to corresponding experimental results. The flow regime in these cases is laminar (Reynolds number is 150) and the Rayleigh number range is 0.7 × 10(7) ~ 5 × 10(7). By comparison, the average natural Nusselt numbers of water and Al2O3/water nanofluids are found to increase with the Rayleigh number. At the same Rayleigh number, the Nusselt number is found to decrease with nanofluid volume fraction. The temperature-dependent solver is found better for water and 1% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases, while the original solver is better for 4% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases. Furthermore, due to strong three-dimensional flow features in the horizontal cylinder, three-dimensional CFD simulation is recommended instead of two-dimensional simplifications.

  6. Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

  7. LARC powder prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  8. Water-based binary polyol process for the controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles inhibiting human and foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyol process is a widely used strategy for producing nanoparticles from various reducible metallic precursors; however it requires a bulk polyol liquid reaction with additional protective agents at high temperatures. Here, we report a water-based binary polyol process using low concentrations ...

  9. Preparation and Tribological Properties of Dual-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 were synthesized and then dual-coated with silane coupling agent (KH-570 and OP-10 in sequence in order to be dispersed stably in water as lubricant additives. The tribological properties and the application performance in Q235 steel machining of the nanoparticles as water-based lubricant additives were investigated on an MSR-10D four-ball tribotester and on a bench drilling machine, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to analyze the worn surface. The results show that the surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles can remarkably improve the load-carrying capacity, the friction reducing, and anti wear abilities of pure water. The wear scar diameter and the coefficient of friction of the water-based lubricating fluids with TiO2 nanoparticles decreased, and the thick deep furrows on the surface of wear scar also decreased obviously with the increase of TiO2 concentration. The power consumption in drilling process was lower and the cutting surface was smoother using the water-based lubricating fluids added TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the fluid without addition. The reason for nanoparticles improving tribological properties of water based lubricating fluid might be the formation of a dynamic deposition film during rubbing process according to analysis of the worn surface.

  10. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  11. Effect of amphiphilic additives on the behavior of water-based acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives during paper recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman

    2008-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) in recovered paper reduce efficiency and increase operating costs for paper recycling mills. Increased PSA fragmentation during pulping and the corresponding reduction in screening efficiency are indications that a PSA will likely interfere with paper recycling. Water-based PSAs, which dominate the label market, have complex...

  12. Water-based synthesis of hydrophobic ionic liquids for high-energy electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanino, Maria; Alessandrini, Fabrizio; Passerini, Stefano; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water-based synthesis of ionic liquids with high yield. ► Full recycling of reagents. ► High purity pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with exceptional electrochemical stability window. ► Lithium plating from pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. -- Abstract: In this work is described an innovative synthesis route for hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) composed of N-methyl-N-alkylpyrrolidinium (or piperidinium) or imidazolium or tetralkylammonium cations and (perfluoroalkylsulfonyl)imide, ((C n F 2n+1 SO 2 )(C m F 2m+1 SO 2 )N − ), anions. This synthesis does not require the use of any environmental unfriendly solvent such as acetone, acetonitrile or halogen-containing compounds, which is not welcome in industrial applications. Only water is used as the process solvent throughout the entire process. In addition, the commonly used iodine-containing reagents were replaced by the cheaper, more chemically stable and less toxic bromine-containing compounds. A particular care was devoted to the development of the purification route, which is especially important for ILs to be used in high-energy electrochemical devices such as high voltage supercapacitors and lithium batteries. The effect of the reaction temperature, the time and the stoichiometry in the various steps of the synthesis have been investigated in detail. This novel procedure allowed obtaining ultrapure (>99.9 wt.%), clear, colourless, inodorous ILs with an overall yield above 92 wt.% and moisture content below 1 ppm. NMR measurements were run to confirm the chemical structure whereas elemental analysis and electrochemical tests were performed to check the purity of the synthesized ILs

  13. Temperature and particle-size dependent viscosity data for water-based nanofluids - Hysteresis phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Desgranges, F.; Roy, G.; Galanis, N.; Mare, T.; Boucher, S.; Angue Mintsa, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated experimentally the influence of both the temperature and the particle size on the dynamic viscosities of two particular water-based nanofluids, namely water-Al 2 O 3 and water-CuO mixtures. The measurement of nanofluid dynamic viscosities was accomplished using a 'piston-type' calibrated viscometer based on the Couette flow inside a cylindrical measurement chamber. Data were collected for temperatures ranging from ambient to 75 deg. C, for water-Al 2 O 3 mixtures with two different particle diameters, 36 nm and 47 nm, as well as for water-CuO nanofluid with 29 nm particle size. The results show that for particle volume fractions lower than 4%, viscosities corresponding to 36 nm and 47 nm particle-size alumina-water nanofluids are approximately identical. For higher particle fractions, viscosities of 47 nm particle-size are clearly higher than those of 36 nm size. Viscosities corresponding to water-oxide copper are the highest among the nanofluids tested. The temperature effect has been investigated thoroughly. A more complete viscosity data base is presented for the three nanofluids considered, with several experimental correlations proposed for low particle volume fractions. It has been found that the application of Einstein's formula and those derived from the linear fluid theory seems not to be appropriate for nanofluids. The hysteresis phenomenon on viscosity measurement, which is believed to be the first observed for nanofluids, has raised serious concerns regarding the use of nanofluids for heat transfer enhancement purposes

  14. Some biological effects of one water based ferrofluid in cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Olteanu, Z.; Horga, E. I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The biological interest in the ferrofluid effect in living organisms represents an important application field, mainly for biotechnological use, since the small ferrophase size allows the penetration through the biological membranes. Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of an aqueous ferrofluid on the assimilatory pigments, the peroxide level, nucleic acid level and on the substance accumulation. Water based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added in various concentrations (10-50-100- 150-200-250 micro L/L) (after vigorous shaking) in the culture medium of Cucurbita pepo plantlets (pumpkin). Spectrophotometric standard assay methods have been applied in order to get experimental data regarding the levels of assimilatory pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenes), nucleic acids and peroxydase like enzymes. JASCO V350 spectrophotometer provided with. The stimulatory effect of relatively high ferrofluid concentrations have been observed in the ratio chlorophyll a/b, known as a measure of photosynthesis ratio. Non-significant changes in the nucleic acid level were noticed. Inhibitory effect upon the enzyme biosynthesis was assigned to the ferrofluid addition. The statistic analysis was accomplished by considering five repetitions of every measurement in ferrofluid samples and control ones. Average values of ferrofluid samples and control ones have been compared by means of t-test. Statistic significance was revealed in comparison to the significance threshold of 0.05. (Also one figure included.) References: [1] C. Gro , K.Buescher, E. Romanus, C,A, Helm, W.Weitschies, European cells and Materials, 2002, 3(2), 163. [2] M.M.Zamfirache, G. Capraru, D. Creanga, M. Racuciu, Gh. Calugaru, Ferrofluid experiment for simulating pollution effect on plant growth, The Annals of University Galati, 2004(XXVII), Fasc.II, 37. [3] A.Goodarzi, Y.Sahoo, M.T.Swihart, P.N. Prasad, Mat.Res.Soc.Symp.Proc., 2004,Vol.789, N6.6.1

  15. Performance of ammonia–water based cycles for power generation from low enthalpy heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergner, Hanna; Weimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cost efficient power generation from low temperature heat sources requires an optimal usage of the available heat. In addition to the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles), cycles with ammonia and water as working fluid show promising results regarding efficiency. Due to their non-isothermal phase change, mixtures can adapt well to a liquid heat source temperature profile and reduce the exergetic losses. In this analysis thermodynamic calculations on the layouts of two existing ammonia–water cycles are compared: a geothermal power plant based on a Siemens’ patent and a modified lab plant based on a patent invented by Kalina (KCS-34). The difference between the two cycles is the position of the internal heat recovery. Cycle simulations were carried out at defined boundary conditions in order to identify optimal operation parameters. For the selected heat source of 393.15 K (hot water) the ammonia mass fraction between 80% and 90% results in the best performance in both configurations. In general, the layout of Siemens achieves a slightly better efficiency compared to the KCS-34. Compared to an ORC using R245fa as working fluid, the exergetic efficiency can be increased by the ammonia/water based cycles by approximately 25%. - Highlights: • Two NH 3 /H 2 O based cycles based on existing plants are analyzed and compared. • A simple KCS-34 focuses on a high enthalpy difference at the turbine. • The Kalina cycle of a Siemens patent KC SG1 runs on a high vapor mass flow. • The layout of the KC SG1 shows slightly better results compared to the KCS-34. • NH 3 /H 2 O cycles show an efficiency increase compared to a regular ORC with R245fa

  16. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  17. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-01-01

    leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

  18. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  19. Evaluation on the Presence of Nano Silver Particle in Improving a Conventional Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Ahmad, N.; Jamil, N.; Chyuan, O. H.; Roslan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Worldwide demand in oil and gas energy consumption has been driving many of oil and gas companies to explore new oil and gas resource field in an ultra-deep water environment. As deeper well is drilled, more problems and challenges are expected. The successful of drilling operation is highly dependent on properties of drilling fluids. As a way to operate drilling in challenging and extreme surroundings, nanotechnology with their unique properties is employed. Due to unique physicochemical, electrical, thermal, hydrodynamic properties and exceptional interaction potential of nanomaterials, nanoparticles are considered to be the most promising material of choice for smart fluid design for oil and gas field application. Throughout this paper, the effect of nano silver particle in improving a conventional water based drilling fluid was evaluated. Results showed that nano silver gave a significant improvement to the conventional water based drilling fluid in terms of its rheological properties and filtration test performance.

  20. Study of smectite clays of the city Pedra Lavrada - PB for use in water-based drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I.A. da; Costa, J.M.R.; Cardoso, M.A.F.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Paraiba has large reserves of bentonite clays, with the largest deposits in Boa Vista, PB. Recently new deposits were discovered in the cities of Cubati and Pedra Lavrada-PB, creating great expectations for further expansion of reserves for industrial production. The aim of this work is the study of smectite clays from the city of Pedra Lavrada, PB for use in drilling fluids water based. The characterization was made by the diffraction of laser (AG), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA), chemical composition by X-ray fluorescence (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), exchange capacity of cations (ECC) and surface area (SA). The results obtained so far showed that the samples presented at its mineral composition smectite, kaolinite and quartz. In relation to rheological properties showed that the bentonite clay sample Dark presents promising features for use in water based drilling fluids. (author)

  1. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Romero, Alejandro; Estévez-López, Fernando; Samos, Blanca; Casimiro, Antonio J; Sierra, Ángela; Latorre, Pedro A; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in w...

  2. Application of a radiant heat transfer model to complex industrial reactive flows: combustion chambers, electric arcs; Application d`un modele de transfert radiatif a des ecoulements reactifs industriels complexes: chambres de combustion, arcs electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N; Dalsecco, S; Delalondre, C; Simonin, O [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d` Hydraulique

    1997-12-31

    The direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) has been involved for several years in a research program on turbulent reactive flows. The objectives of this program concern: the reduction of pollutant emissions from existing fossil-fueled power plants, the study of new production means (fluidized beds), and the promotion of electric power applications in the industry. An important part of this program is devoted to the development and validation of 3-D softwares and to the modeling of physical phenomena. This paper presents some industrial applications (furnaces, boilers, electric arcs) for which radiant heat transfers play an important role and the radiation models used. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  3. Application of a radiant heat transfer model to complex industrial reactive flows: combustion chambers, electric arcs; Application d`un modele de transfert radiatif a des ecoulements reactifs industriels complexes: chambres de combustion, arcs electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N.; Dalsecco, S.; Delalondre, C.; Simonin, O. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d`Hydraulique

    1996-12-31

    The direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) has been involved for several years in a research program on turbulent reactive flows. The objectives of this program concern: the reduction of pollutant emissions from existing fossil-fueled power plants, the study of new production means (fluidized beds), and the promotion of electric power applications in the industry. An important part of this program is devoted to the development and validation of 3-D softwares and to the modeling of physical phenomena. This paper presents some industrial applications (furnaces, boilers, electric arcs) for which radiant heat transfers play an important role and the radiation models used. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  4. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (Tsk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (Pheat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 Tsk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that of being semi-nude during light exercise, but was greater during moderate exercise, and the storage of body heat can be reduced by wearing WS during rest periods.

  6. Exergy Analysis of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Heating System with Different Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate and improve the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP heating system with radiant floors as terminals, an exergy analysis based on test results is performed in this study. The system is divided into four subsystems, and the exergy loss and exergy efficiency of each subsystem are calculated using the expressions derived based on exergy balance equations. The average values of the measured parameters are used for the exergy analysis. The analysis results show that the two largest exergy losses occur in the heat pump and terminals, with losses of 55.3% and 22.06%, respectively, and the lowest exergy efficiency occurs in the ground heat exchange system. Therefore, GCHP system designers should pay close attention to the selection of heat pumps and terminals, especially in the design of ground heat exchange systems. Compared with the scenario system in which fan coil units (FCUs are substituted for the radiant floors, the adoption of radiant floors can result in a decrease of 12% in heating load, an increase of 3.24% in exergy efficiency of terminals and an increase of 1.18% in total exergy efficiency of the system. The results may point out the direction and ways of optimizing GCHP systems.

  7. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO_2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO_2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO_2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO_2–Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al_2O_3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO_2 particle. - Highlights: • The absorptive power distribution in nanoparticulate system is simulated by FDTD. • FDTD simulation is compared with theoretical model extended from Mie theory. • The parameters and conditions are confirmed based on the comparison. • The influence of Ag nanoparticle on nearby TiO_2 particle's absorption is analyzed.

  8. Development of a solar thermal storage system suitable for the farmhouse heating in northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.K. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2010-07-01

    This study reported on the performance of a passive solar radiant floor heating system designed for standard energy-saving farmhouses in northeast China. Weather data in the region was analyzed in terms of solar radiation, temperature, humidity and light levels. The heating characteristics of the building materials such as windows, doors, walls and roofs were also analyzed along with the indoor thermal environment of the farmhouse. The heating load was then calculated along with the size of the thermal storage element and the area of the collector element. The passive solar radiant floor heating system was designed for heating during the winter and cooling in summer. According to the results, the heating characteristics of the system have the potential to improve farming villages environment and the use of renewable energy.

  9. Simulation of an under-floor heating system integrated with solar energy under the weather conditions of Beirut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, Patrick; Ghali, Kamel [American University of Beirut (Lebanon)], email: pek01@aub.edu.lb, email: ka04@aub.edu.lb

    2011-07-01

    Residential heating indoors can use convective systems, where hot air is blown into the space, or radiant systems, where a radiant panel transfers heat via both convection and radiation. Radiant systems can provide thermal comfort for less energy by directly heating the human body. The aim of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using under-floor solar energy heating systems in the climatic conditions of Beirut. An under-floor heating system with solar/diesel energy system was developed and optimized specifically for Beirut. Results showed that the system could lead to 38% energy savings and a 96% reduction in CO2 emissions with a solar fraction of 95%. An economic analysis was also performed using incremental prices of diesel costs and the cost of land for the installation; it yielded a figure of 19000$/m2 savings over the system's lifetime. This study demonstrated that the use of an under-floor heating system with solar energy in Beirut would have ecological and economic benefits.

  10. Effectiveness of water-based Liuzijue exercise on respiratory muscle strength and peripheral skeletal muscle function in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Weibing Wu,1,* Xiaodan Liu,2,* Jingxin Liu,1 Peijun Li,1 Zhenwei Wang3 1Department of Sports Medicine, Shanghai University of Sport, 2School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objects: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the effects of water-based Liuzijue exercise on patients with COPD and compare it with land-based Liuzijue exercise.Materials and methods: Participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the water-based Liuzijue exercise group (WG, the land-based Liuzijue exercise group (LG, and the control group (CG. CG participants accepted no exercise intervention, while training groups performed Liuzijue exercise according to Health Qigong Liuzijue (People’s Republic of China in different environments for 60-min sessions twice a week for 3 months.Results: Of the 50 patients enrolled, 45 (90% completed the 3-month intervention. The CG showed decreased expiratory muscle strength, extensor and flexor endurance ratio (ER of the elbow joints and flexor peak torque (PT, total work (TW, and ER of the knee joints (p<0.05. Both training groups showed improved respiratory muscle strength, which differed from the CG (p<0.001. In addition, extensor and flexor TW of the elbow joints in the training groups were increased (p<0.01, and the WG differed from the CG in extensor TW and ER and flexor TW (p<0.01, while the LG differed from the CG in flexor TW and extensor ER (p<0.05. PT, PT/body weight (BW, and TW in the knee joint extensor in the training groups were increased as well (PT and PT/BW: p<0.05, TW: p<0.01, and the WG differed from the CG in terms of knee joints outcomes, while the LG differed from the CG in flexor TW only (p<0.05.Conclusion: Water-based Liuzijue exercise has

  11. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  12. Investigation on Synthesis, Stability, and Thermal Conductivity Properties of Water-Based SnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofen; Wu, Qibai; Zhang, Haiyan; Zeng, Guoxun; Li, Wenwu; Qian, Yannan; Li, Yang; Yang, Guoqiang; Chen, Muyu

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, heat removal and management is a major concern for any technology. Heat transfer plays a critically important role in many sectors of engineering; nowadays utilizing nanofluids is one of the relatively optimized techniques to enhance heat transfer. In the present work, a facile low-temperature solvothermal method was employed to fabricate the SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been performed to characterize the SnO2/rGO nanocomposite. Numerous ultrasmall SnO2 nanoparticles with average diameters of 3–5 nm were anchored on the surface of rGO, which contain partial hydrophilic functional groups. Water-based SnO2/rGO nanofluids were prepared with various weight concentrations by using an ultrasonic probe without adding any surfactants. The zeta potential was measured to investigate the stability of the as-prepared nanofluid which exhibited great dispersion stability after quiescence for 60 days. A thermal properties analyzer was employed to measure thermal conductivity of water-based SnO2/rGO nanofluids, and the results showed that the enhancement of thermal conductivity could reach up to 31% at 60 °C under the mass fraction of 0.1 wt %, compared to deionized water. PMID:29280972

  13. A water-based topical Chinese traditional medicine (Zicao) for wound healing developed using 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Chen, Ta; Yu, Song-Cu; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2018-05-01

    Zicao is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for the topical treatment of wounds in the form of oil-based ointment for several hundred years. To overcome the disadvantages of oil-based ointment such as irritation, discomfort, and difficulty in cleaning, this study developed a water-based topical formulation of Zicao. An ethanol extract of Zicao was included in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to form a water-soluble Zicao-HP-β-CD complex. The formation of the Zicao-HP-β-CD complex was determined using LC-MS, 1 H NMR, ROSEY, and solubility analysis. The bioactivity of Zicao-HP-β-CD complex in aqueous solution was evaluated using cellular uptake in vitro and experimental excision wounds in vivo. The LC-MS, 1 H NMR, ROESY, and solubility analyses results show that Zicao extract was successfully included by the HP-β-CD. The results of the cellular uptake in vitro and wound healing in vivo suggest that the effect of Zicao was enhanced following the formation of the Zicao-HP-β-CD complex. Therefore, we concluded that complexation with HP-β-CD might provide a potential method for developing an effective water-based topical solution of Zicao. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formulation and screen printing of water based conductive flake silver pastes onto green ceramic tapes for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddoul, Rita; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Blayo, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Formulation of water-based pastes. ► Viscosity, yield stress, elastic and viscous modulus determination. ► Screen printing onto green ceramic tapes. ► Rheology effect on line dimensions and electrical properties. ► Resistivity ∼18–33 nΩ m. Minimum width ∼60 μm after sintering. - Abstract: Environmentally friendly, water-based silver pastes, adapted for screen printing, were formulated with different silver contents (67–75%). These pastes allowed screen printing onto low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) of narrow conductive tracks with a 60 μm line width and a 3 × 10 −8 Ω m electrical resistivity. Inks were formulated with a mixture of spherical and flake shape silver particles with 2–4 μm mean diameter. Rheological behaviour of pastes was studied in order to determine its effect on printed lines properties. Prepared inks were then screen printed and sintered under normal atmosphere at 875 °C. As expected, electrical properties depended on silver content. Resistivity values varying from 1.6 × 10 −8 to 3.3 × 10 −8 Ω m were calculated over 36.3 cm line length. These values are very close to bulk silver resistivity (1.6 × 10 −8 Ω m). Compared to previous research and commercial pastes, the newly formulated pastes reached equivalent or even better conductivities with lower silver content (70% by weight).

  15. Boron doping induced thermal conductivity enhancement of water-based 3C-Si(B)C nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Peng; Zhai, Famin; Chen, Junhong; Bei, Guo-Ping; Hou, Xinmei; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2018-06-04

    In this paper, the fabrication and thermal conductivity of water-based nanofluids using boron (B) doped SiC as dispersions are reported. Doping B into β-SiC phase leads to the shrinkage of SiC lattice due to the substitution of Si atoms (radius: 0.134 nm) by smaller B atoms (radius: 0.095 nm). The presence of B in SiC phase also promotes crystallization and grain growth of obtained particles. The tailored crystal structure and morphology of B doped SiC nanoparticles are beneficial for the thermal conductivity improvement of the nanofluids by using them as dispersions. Serving B doped SiC nanoparticles as dispersions for nanofluids, a remarkable improvement of the stability was achieved in SiC-B6 nanofluid at pH 11 by means of the Zeta potential measurement. Dispersing B doped SiC nanoparticles in water based fluids, the thermal conductivity of the as prepared nanofluids containing only 0.3 vol. % SiC-B6 nanoparticles is remarkably raised up to 39.3 % at 30 °C compared to the base fluids and is further enhanced with the increased temperature. The main reasons for the improvement of thermal conductivity of SiC-B6 nanofluids are more stable dispersion and intensive charge ions vibration around the surface of nanoparticles as well as the enhanced thermal conductivity of the SiC-B dispersions. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Ubbelohde viscometer measurement of water-based Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic fluid prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, H. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Tang, X. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, R.Y., E-mail: rhong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Feng, W.G. [Suzhou Nanocomp Inc., Suzhou New District, Suzhou 215011 (China); Xie, H.D.; Chen, D.X. [Suzhou YouNuo Plastic Industry Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215021 (China); Badami, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and coated by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to obtain water-based magnetic fluid. The viscosity of the magnetic fluid was measured using an Ubbelohde viscometer. The effects of magnetic particles volume fraction, surfactant mass fraction and temperature on the viscosity were studied. Experimental results showed that the magnetic fluid with low magnetic particle volume fraction behaved as a Newtonian fluid and the viscosity of the magnetic fluid increased with an increase of the suspended magnetic particles volume fraction. The experimental data was compared with the results of a theoretically derived equation. The viscosity of the magnetic fluid also increased with an increase in surfactant mass portion, while it decreased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the viscosity increased with increasing the magnetic field intensity. Increasing the temperature and the surfactant mass fraction weakened the influence of the magnetic field on the viscosity of the magnetic fluid. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation and coated by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate to obtain water-based magnetic fluid. • The viscosity of different magnetic fluids was measured using an Ubbelohde viscometer. • The effects of magnetic particles volume fraction, surfactant mass fraction and temperature on the viscosity of magnetic fluids were studied.

  17. Investigation on Synthesis, Stability, and Thermal Conductivity Properties of Water-Based SnO2/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of industry, heat removal and management is a major concern for any technology. Heat transfer plays a critically important role in many sectors of engineering; nowadays utilizing nanofluids is one of the relatively optimized techniques to enhance heat transfer. In the present work, a facile low-temperature solvothermal method was employed to fabricate the SnO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been performed to characterize the SnO2/rGO nanocomposite. Numerous ultrasmall SnO2 nanoparticles with average diameters of 3–5 nm were anchored on the surface of rGO, which contain partial hydrophilic functional groups. Water-based SnO2/rGO nanofluids were prepared with various weight concentrations by using an ultrasonic probe without adding any surfactants. The zeta potential was measured to investigate the stability of the as-prepared nanofluid which exhibited great dispersion stability after quiescence for 60 days. A thermal properties analyzer was employed to measure thermal conductivity of water-based SnO2/rGO nanofluids, and the results showed that the enhancement of thermal conductivity could reach up to 31% at 60 °C under the mass fraction of 0.1 wt %, compared to deionized water.

  18. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher ( P < 0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher ( P < 0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss ( m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials ( P < 0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 ), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  19. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.; Købler, C.; Jensen, P.S.; Mølhave, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis

  20. In-situ SEM microchip setup for electrochemical experiments with water based solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, E., E-mail: eric.jensen@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Købler, C., E-mail: carsten.kobler@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); DTU CEN, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, P.S., E-mail: psj@kemi.dtu.dk [DTU Kemi, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Mølhave, K., E-mail: kristian.molhave@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, Building 345E, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Studying electrochemical (EC) processes with electron microscopes offers the possibility of achieving much higher resolution imaging of nanoscale processes in real time than with optical microscopes. We have developed a vacuum sealed liquid sample electrochemical cell with electron transparent windows, microelectrodes and an electrochemical reference electrode. The system, called the EC-SEM Cell, is used to study electrochemical reactions in liquid with a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM). The central component is a microfabricated chip with a thin (50 nm) Si-rich silicon nitride (SiNx) window with lithographically defined platinum microelectrodes. We show here the design principles of the EC-SEM system, its detailed construction and how it has been used to perform a range of EC experiments, two of which are presented here. It is shown that the EC-SEM Cell can survive extended in-situ EC experiments. Before the EC experiments we characterized the beam current being deposited in the liquid as this will affect the experiments. The first EC experiment shows the influence of the electron-beam (e-beam) on a nickel solution by inducing electroless nickel deposition on the window when increasing the current density from the e-beam. The second experiment shows electrolysis in EC-SEM Cell, induced by the built-in electrodes. - Highlights: • New in-situ SEM system for electrochemistry. • In-situ Beam current measurements through liquid. • In-situ SEM E-beam-induced electroless deposition of Ni. • In-situ electrolysis.

  1. Nanofluid bioconvection in water-based suspensions containing nanoparticles and oxytactic microorganisms: oscillatory instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this article is to propose a novel type of a nanofluid that contains both nanoparticles and motile (oxytactic microorganisms. The benefits of adding motile microorganisms to the suspension include enhanced mass transfer, microscale mixing, and anticipated improved stability of the nanofluid. In order to understand the behavior of such a suspension at the fundamental level, this article investigates its stability when it occupies a shallow horizontal layer. The oscillatory mode of nanofluid bioconvection may be induced by the interaction of three competing agencies: oxytactic microorganisms, heating or cooling from the bottom, and top or bottom-heavy nanoparticle distribution. The model includes equations expressing conservation of total mass, momentum, thermal energy, nanoparticles, microorganisms, and oxygen. Physical mechanisms responsible for the slip velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid, such as Brownian motion and thermophoresis, are accounted for in the model. An approximate analytical solution of the eigenvalue problem is obtained using the Galerkin method. The obtained solution provides important physical insights into the behavior of this system; it also explains when the oscillatory mode of instability is possible in such system.

  2. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  3. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Mindong; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindi; Yang Bo; Bai Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, OH· radicals were produced by the ionization of O 2 in air and H 2 O in the gaseous state, in order to explore more effective method to treat the ship's ballast water. The surface morphology of Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the size of Al 2 O 3 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm. At the same time, the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied. The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved

  4. A design for a reusable water-based spacecraft known as the spacecoach

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Brian

    2016-01-01

     Based on components already in existence, this manual details a reference design for an interplanetary spacecraft that is simple, durable, fully reusable and comprised mostly of water. Using such an accessible material leads to a spacecraft architecture that is radically simpler, safer and cheaper than conventional capsule based designs. If developed, the potential affordability of the design will substantially open all of the inner solar system to human exploration. A spacecraft that is comprised mostly of water will be much more like a living cell or a terrarium than a conventional rocket and capsule design. It will use water for many purposes before it is superheated in electric engines for propulsion, purposes which include radiation shielding, heat management, basic life support, crew consumption and comfort. The authors coined the term "spacecoaches" to describe them, as an allusion to the Prairie Schooners of the Old West, which were simple, rugged, and could live off the land.

  5. Water Based Inkjet Material Deposition Of Donor-Acceptor Nanoparticles For Usage In Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetcha, Anirudh Raju

    Significant efficiency increases are being made for bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic prototype devices with world records at 11%. However the chlorinated solvents most frequently used in prototype manufacture would cause local health and safety concerns or large scale environmental pollution upon expansion of these techniques for commercialization. Moreover, research to bridge prototype and large-scale production of these solar cells is still in its infancy. Most prototype devices are made in inert glove box environments using spin-coating. There is a need to develop a non-toxic ink and incorporate it into a material deposition system that can be used in mass production. In this thesis, P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic devices were fabricated with the help of inkjet printing. P3HT:PCBM blends were dissolved in organic solvent systems, and this solution was used as the ink for the printer. The "coffee-ring effect" as well as the effect of inkjet printing parameters on film formation were highlighted - thus the inkjet printing method was validated as a stepping stone between lab-scale production of OPVs and large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing. To address the need of a non-toxic ink, P3HT:PCBM blends were then dispersed in water, using the miniemulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized for their size, as well as the blending between the P3HT and PCBM within the nanoparticle. These dispersions were then converted into inks. Finally, these nanoparticle inks were inkjet-printed to fabricate OPV devices. Based on the results obtained here, tentative "next steps" have been outlined in order to improve upon this research work, in the future.

  6. Application of a circulation model in waters, based in the difference method, for bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, P.A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Knowledge of circulation of water in bays, in addition to the possibility of simulation future conditions, can be of great interest in solving problems related to the cooling water for Nuclear Power Plants, study of sediments and water polution, in addition to the study of civil engineering works planned in bays. A Numerical Circulation Model of water in bays, is applied to the conditions of Sepetiba Bay at Rio de Janeiro coast. This System of Partial Differential Equations that constitute the Model, were solved by the Finite Difference Method, using a uniform cartesian grid for uniform time steps generating a bi-dimensional flow measurement of depth. The results obtained by comparing the values of the Model and measurements taken a bay were satisfactory, assuring its credibility and efficiency. A programming code was developed for the application providing outputing at any preditermined time steps, with discrimination of 30 seconds, the average levels, flows, velocities and depths of water of each grid spacing along the length of the bay in addition to a graphic of the flow. (Author) [pt

  7. Performance of Partially-Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide in Water Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Nasiri*

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid properties with constant improvement in efficiency have been noticeable as important criteria in drilling operation. The main drilling fluid properties highly depend on utilization of new polymers with high efficiency in drilling fluid composition. In this paper, the performance of a new polymer, called partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (PHPA, is studied which has recently entered the drilling fluids industry in Iran. Hence viscosity property, fluid loss control and shale inhibition of this polymer have been evaluated based on an international standard method of API-13-I by considering the drilling and operational priorities of thecountry. Then the thermal effect, salt contaminants such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and pH tolerance effect as major pollution indicators are also investigated in relation to polymeric fluid properties. The results obtained by the tests show that furthermore polymer PHPA increases rheological properties (apparent viscosity, plastic fluidity and yield point and it plays important role in increases in fluid loss. This polymer has also demonstrated acceptable resistance toward sodium chloride contaminants, but its efficiency decreases toward calcium and magnesium ion contaminants. The thermal tests show that polymer PHPA has high thermal stability up to 150°C. This polymer improves shale inhibition property and by encapsulation mechanism prevents dispersion of shale cuttings into the drilling fluid system as it stops any changes in fluid properties which will finally results inwellbore stability.

  8. Design and construction of radiant panel for cooling and heating with photovoltaic and thermoelectric element modules; Taiyo denchi to netsuden soshi module wo mochiita fukusha reidanbo panel no sekkei oyobi shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Utilizing cooling properties and current voltage characteristics of a small cooling panel using thermoelectric elements which had been fabricated previously on a trial basis, design and prototype production were executed on a large radiant cooling and heating panel driven by photovoltaic cell modules. The panel design set the cooling area to about 0.5 m {sup 2} and the number of elements to 70 pieces, and optimum number of elements in series and parallel connection was derived. As a result of the analysis, it was made clear that the optimum number of thermoelectric module arrays in series and parallel connection varies depending on insolation intensity. It was found preferable that the number of parallel connection array be set to one to two in a region or time period in which low insolation intensity is distributed in greater amount. In the case where high insolation intensity is distributed in a greater amount, setting it to two to three is preferable. By using the structured design method and the HASP Tokyo data, thermoelectric element modules were interconnected with 35 modules in series and two in parallel on a cooling panel installed on the roof of the Science University of Tokyo. A simulation result revealed that the average temperature difference on the cooled surface in summer is 4.37 degC, and the solar cell utilization rate is 0.67. It is necessary in the future to improve heat dissipation efficiency and area ratio. 1 ref., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity of Dodecylbenzenesulfonic Acid-Doped Polyaniline Particles—Water Based Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Siong Chew

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluid has attracted great attention due to its superior thermal properties. In this study, chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline was carried out in the presence of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA as a dopant. Particles of DBSA-doped polyaniline (DBSA-doped PANI with the size range of 15 to 50 nm were obtained, as indicated by transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results of ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopies as well as thermogravimetric analysis showed that PANI nanoparticles were doped with DBSA molecules. The doping level found was 36.8%, as calculated from elemental analysis data. Thermal conductivity of water was enhanced by 5.4% when dispersed with 1.0 wt% of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles. Specific heat capacity of water-based nanofluids decreased with increasing amount of DBSA-PANI nanoparticles.

  10. 3D Printing of Cytocompatible Water-Based Light-Cured Polyurethane with Hyaluronic Acid for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Ming-You; Chang, Wen-Ching; Wei, Li-Ju; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Han; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shen, Yu-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Diseases in articular cartilages have affected millions of people globally. Although the biochemical and cellular composition of articular cartilages is relatively simple, there is a limitation in the self-repair ability of the cartilage. Therefore, developing strategies for cartilage repair is very important. Here, we report on a new liquid resin preparation process of water-based polyurethane based photosensitive materials with hyaluronic acid with application of the materials for 3D printed customized cartilage scaffolds. The scaffold has high cytocompatibility and is one that closely mimics the mechanical properties of articular cartilages. It is suitable for culturing human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) and the cells in this case showed an excellent chondrogenic differentiation capacity. We consider that the 3D printing hybrid scaffolds may have potential in customized tissue engineering and also facilitate the development of cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:28772498

  11. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy’s law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined. Keywords: Porous medium, Heat generation/absorption, SWCNTs and MWCNTs, Nonlinear radiation

  12. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ullah, Siraj; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.; Zaigham Zia, Q. M.

    2018-03-01

    Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy's law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined.

  13. 3D Printing of Cytocompatible Water-Based Light-Cured Polyurethane with Hyaluronic Acid for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-You Shie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diseases in articular cartilages have affected millions of people globally. Although the biochemical and cellular composition of articular cartilages is relatively simple, there is a limitation in the self-repair ability of the cartilage. Therefore, developing strategies for cartilage repair is very important. Here, we report on a new liquid resin preparation process of water-based polyurethane based photosensitive materials with hyaluronic acid with application of the materials for 3D printed customized cartilage scaffolds. The scaffold has high cytocompatibility and is one that closely mimics the mechanical properties of articular cartilages. It is suitable for culturing human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs and the cells in this case showed an excellent chondrogenic differentiation capacity. We consider that the 3D printing hybrid scaffolds may have potential in customized tissue engineering and also facilitate the development of cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Water-based aerobic and combined training in elderly women: Effects on functional capacity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Ribeiro; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; Nunes, Gabriela Neves; Martin, Daniela Gomez; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two water-based training programs (aerobic and combined) and a non-periodized physical activity program on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of elderly women. Forty-one elderly female volunteers (65 ± 4 years) were divided into three groups: aerobic training group (WBA, n = 13), combined training (sequence: resistance/aerobic; WBC; n = 11) and a control group of non-periodized physical activity program (CG, n = 9). The participants performed the water-based trainings twice a week for 12 weeks. The resistance training sets were performed at maximal effort and the aerobic training was performed in the percentage of the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (85-110%) determined in an aquatic progressive test. Assessments of QoL perception (WHOQOL-BREF) and functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand, 6-Minute Walk and 8-Foot Up-and-go were performed before and after training. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α = 0.05). In CG, QoL perception in the physical domain decreased (12 ± 10%) and there was no difference in the other domains. On the other hand, QoL perception was significantly increased in the water-based training groups after the training period in the physical (WBC: 13 ± 16%), psychological (WBA: 9 ± 16%; WBC: 10 ± 11%), social relationships (WBA: 19 ± 42%; WBC: 16 ± 21%) and environmental (WBA: 10 ± 17%; WBC: 16 ± 28%) domains and overall QoL (WBA: 17 ± 22%). No significant difference was observed in the physical domain for WBA and in the overall for WBC. Significant improvements were observed for all groups in the functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand (WBA: 32 ± 11%; WBC: 24 ± 14%; CG: 20 ± 9), 6-Minute Walk (WBA: 10 ± 7%; WBC: 7 ± 6%; CG: 7 ± 5%) and 8-Foot Up-and-go (WBA: 11 ± 5%; WBC: 10 ± 9%; CG: 10 ± 6

  15. Unsteady free convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate with constant heat flux in water based nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Marneni

    2018-04-01

    The unsteady free convective flow of nanofluids past a semi-infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux has been investigated numerically. An implicit finite difference technique of Crank-Nicolson scheme has been employed to solve the governing partial differential equations. Five different types of water based nanofluids containing Cu, Ag, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles are considered to study the fluid flow characteristics with various time and solid volume fraction parameters. It is found that the local as well as the average Nusselt number for nanofluids is higher than the pure fluid (water). The local skin-friction is higher for pure fluid as compared to the nanofluids. The present numerical results obtained for local Nusselt number are validated with the previously published correlation results for a limiting case and it is found that the results are in good agreement.

  16. Modeling of radiant heat transfers in non-grey gases using the discrete ordinate method in association with a narrow bands statistical model; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs dans des gaz non gris par la methode des ordonnees discretes associee a un modele statistique a bandes etroites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.B. de; Delmas, A; Sacadura, J F [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    A formulation based on the use of the discrete ordinate method applied to the integral form of the radiant heat transfer equation is proposed for non-grey gases. The correlations between transmittances are neglected and no explicit wall reflexion is considered. The configuration analyzed consists in a flat layer of non-isothermal steam-nitrogen mixture. Cavity walls are grey with diffuse reflexion and emission. A narrow band statistical model is used to represent the radiative properties of the gas. The distribution of the radiative source term inside the cavity is calculated along two temperature profiles in a uniform steam concentration. Results obtained using this simplified approach are in good agreement with those found in the literature for the same temperature and concentration distributions. This preliminary study seems to indicate that the algorithm based on the integration of radiant heat transfer along the luminance path is less sensitive to de-correlation effects than formulations based on the differential form the the radiant heat transfer. Thus, a more systematic study of the influence of the neglecting of correlations on the integral approach is analyzed in this work. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  17. Modeling of radiant heat transfers in non-grey gases using the discrete ordinate method in association with a narrow bands statistical model; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs dans des gaz non gris par la methode des ordonnees discretes associee a un modele statistique a bandes etroites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.B. de; Delmas, A.; Sacadura, J.F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    A formulation based on the use of the discrete ordinate method applied to the integral form of the radiant heat transfer equation is proposed for non-grey gases. The correlations between transmittances are neglected and no explicit wall reflexion is considered. The configuration analyzed consists in a flat layer of non-isothermal steam-nitrogen mixture. Cavity walls are grey with diffuse reflexion and emission. A narrow band statistical model is used to represent the radiative properties of the gas. The distribution of the radiative source term inside the cavity is calculated along two temperature profiles in a uniform steam concentration. Results obtained using this simplified approach are in good agreement with those found in the literature for the same temperature and concentration distributions. This preliminary study seems to indicate that the algorithm based on the integration of radiant heat transfer along the luminance path is less sensitive to de-correlation effects than formulations based on the differential form the the radiant heat transfer. Thus, a more systematic study of the influence of the neglecting of correlations on the integral approach is analyzed in this work. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  18. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Romero, Alejandro; Estévez-López, Fernando; Samos, Blanca; Casimiro, Antonio J; Sierra, Ángela; Latorre, Pedro A; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Femia, Pedro; Pérez-López, Isaac J; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Tercedor, Pablo; Lucía, Alejandro; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-02-15

    The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281.

  19. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell-Baeza Ana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome, and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain. Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control group (n = 60, a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60 or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60. Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration Clinical

  20. Synthetic-based fluid replacement: excellent drilling efficiency and imaging evaluation achieved with inhibitive water-based fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo; Fernandez, Jovan Andrade [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anderson, Tom; Loureiro, Mario; Pereira, Alex; Shah, Fayyaz [Halliburton Baroid, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The highly reactive Calumbi shale is encountered in wells drilled by PETROBRAS in the Sergipe area. Normally an invert emulsion fluid would be used. However, the ability to run high resolution imaging logs was crucial to determining the potential of the offshore Sergipe fields, and these tools work best in water-based fluids. PETROBRAS selected a new high performance water-based fluid (WBF) to drill the Poco 3-GA-73-SES well. The fluid selection was based on the results of X-ray diffraction, dispersion/erosion and linear swell meter testing of Calumbi formation samples. The new WBF incorporates a unique polymer chemistry that can provide shale inhibition very similar to that achieved with an invert emulsion fluid, without sacrificing drilling performance. The polymeric additives can effectively flocculate and encapsulate colloidal drill solids so that they can be easily removed mechanically. The polymers also help prevent hole erosion and bit balling. After the high-performance WBF was used, the following results were obtained on the Poco 3- GA-73-SES well: 805 m drilled in 65 hr (12.65 m/hr) in a single bit run; trips completed with minimal use of the pumps or back reaming, considered exceptional for a WBF while drilling the Calumbi shale; imaging logs run successfully with no delays or obstructions while tripping or logging; the average hole diameter was 8.63-in. per the caliper log for the 8 1/2-in. section; no accretion on the bit or drill string observed; no flow line plugging or shaker screen blinding. (author)

  1. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  2. Diagnostic instrumentation development program for the heat recovery/seed recovery system of the open-cycle, coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, D.L.; Cook, R.L.; Bauman, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Highly efficient and environmentally acceptable, the coal-fired MHD power plant is an attractive facility for producing electricity. The design of its downstream system, however, presents technological risks which must be corrected if such a plant is to be commercially viable before the end of the century. The heat recovery/seed recovery system (HRSR) at its present stage is vulnerable to corrosion on the gas side of the radiant furnace, the secondary superheater, and the intermediate temperature air heater. Slagging and fouling of the heat transfer surface have yet to be eliminated. Gas chemistry, radiant heat transfer, and particulate removal are other problematic areas which are being researched in a DOE development program whose test activities at three facilities are contributing to an MHD/HRSR data base. In addition, a 20 MWt system to study HRSR design, is being now assembled in Tennessee

  3. Water-Base Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    115 (General Mills Chemical Company, Inc. ) from the required amine value (the weight of potassium hydroxide in mg that is equiva- lent to the amine...amount of emulsifier to add to the pigment dispersion is about 3.33 times the FP value (33). Since the Acrysol GS is essentially polyacrylic acid, an...containing 500 gm of deoxygen- ated (boiled)-deionized water in which were dissolved 4. 0 gm potassium persulfate, 4. 0 gm sodium bicarbonate, and 2

  4. Thermal conductivity enhancements and viscosity properties of water based Nanofluid containing carbon nanotubes decorated with ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanni; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoshan

    2018-01-01

    The water based nanofluid containing carbon nanotube (CNT) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (Ag/CNT) is prepared. Its thermal conductivity (k) enhancement increases with the thermal filler loading and the decoration quantity of Ag nanoparticles. The low absolute CNT content will decrease the tangles or aggregations among the CNTs, and it will be good at the Brownian motion of CNTs in the water. It has positive effects on the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. With the increase of Ag loading, the average size of Ag nanoparticles increased, and further results in the decrease of dispersing amount of Ag/CNT as the weight of Ag/CNT is fixed. Little dispersing quantity of Ag/CNT makes it possible that the Ag/CNT particles disperse well in the fluid. So it is not easy for CNTs to form aggregation. The high intrinsic k of CNT and the effective thermal conductive networks forming by CNTs and Ag nanoparticles are good at the k enhancement. With temperature increase the k of Ag/CNT nanofluid appears improvement. The study results make it possible to develop high-efficiency nanofluid for advanced thermal management regions.

  5. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  6. Crowding and experience-use history: a study of the moderating effect of place attachment among water-based recreationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Wilhem Stanis, Sonja A; Schneider, Ingrid E; Heisey, Jennifer J

    2008-04-01

    Effective recreation resource management relies on understanding visitor perceptions and behaviors. Given current and increasing pressures on water resources, understanding crowding evaluations seems important. Beyond crowding, however, variables that possibly relate to or influence crowding are of interest and in particular, place attachment and experience-use history (EUH). As EUH is related to place attachment and likely affects crowding, this study explored the moderating effect of place attachment dimensions on the relationships between EUH and visitor crowding evaluations. Water based recreationists at a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers site were contacted onsite and asked questions related to experience-use history, crowding evaluations, place attachment, and activity participation. Anglers and campers at the site identified similar crowding perceptions and place attachments. Only one of eight models tested revealed a moderating effect. Specifically, place identity moderated the relationship between the total times visited in the past twelve months and expected crowding among anglers. As such, the quest continues to understand the relationship among these important variables.

  7. A test to measure the minimum burning pressure of water-based commercial explosives and their precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, R.; Feng, H.; Badeen, C.M.; Goldthorp, S.; Johnson, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    This paper described a testing protocol developed to measure the minimum burning pressure (MBP) of ammonium nitrate water-based emulsions (AWEs). Oxidizer solutions were prepared in a stainless steel beaker. A modified commercial mixer was used to emulsify the oil-surfactant phase with the oxidizer solutions and blend dry ingredients. Five high water content AWEs were then prepared and placed in pressurized vessels. Samples were ignited using a straight length of nichrome wire. Emulsion samples were transferred into a cylindrical test cell painted with non-conductive paint. Copper conductor leg-wires were connected to electrodes passing through the body of the vessel. When samples were equilibrated to the desired initial pressure, a constant current was supplied to the hot wire. Solid state relays were used to switch the current power supply on and off. Hot wire voltage signals were used to obtain temperature profiles for onset and ignition temperatures. The procedure to perform the MBP measurements was based on 3 types of classifying events, namely (1) no reaction, (2) partial reaction, and (3) slow decomposition. Results of the tests demonstrated that the 5 emulsions exhibited large differences in respective MBP values. Data from the study will be used to develop standards for the authorization of high explosives in Canada. 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Preparation and optimization of submicron chitosan capsules by water-based electrospraying for food and bioactive packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sruthi; Lemke, Philipp; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Torres-Giner, Sergio; Lagaron, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, a well-defined set of chitosans, with different degrees of acetylation (DA) and degrees of polymerization (DP), were processed by solution electrospraying from a water-based solvent. The solution properties, in terms of surface tension, conductivity, viscosity, and pH, were characterized and related to the physico-chemical properties of the chitosans. It was observed that both DA and DP values of a given chitosan, in combination with biopolymer concentration, mainly determined solution viscosity. This was, in turn, the major driving factor that defined the electrosprayability of chitosan. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of chitosans highly influenced solution conductivity and results indicated that the chitosan solutions with low or low-to-medium values of conductivity were the most optimal for electrospraying. The results obtained here also demonstrate that a good process control can be achieved by adjusting the working conditions, i.e. applied voltage, flow-rate, and tip-to-collector distance. Finally, it was also shown that electrosprayability of chitosan with inadequate physico-chemical properties can be improved by solution mixing of very different kinds of this polysaccharide. The resultant electrosprayed submicron chitosan capsules can be applied for encapsulation of food additives and to develop bioactive coatings of interest in food packaging, where these particles alone or containing functional ingredients can be released from the package into the food to promote a health benefit.

  9. Thermal conductivity enhancements and viscosity properties of water based Nanofluid containing carbon nanotubes decorated with ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanni; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoshan

    2018-06-01

    The water based nanofluid containing carbon nanotube (CNT) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (Ag/CNT) is prepared. Its thermal conductivity ( k) enhancement increases with the thermal filler loading and the decoration quantity of Ag nanoparticles. The low absolute CNT content will decrease the tangles or aggregations among the CNTs, and it will be good at the Brownian motion of CNTs in the water. It has positive effects on the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. With the increase of Ag loading, the average size of Ag nanoparticles increased, and further results in the decrease of dispersing amount of Ag/CNT as the weight of Ag/CNT is fixed. Little dispersing quantity of Ag/CNT makes it possible that the Ag/CNT particles disperse well in the fluid. So it is not easy for CNTs to form aggregation. The high intrinsic k of CNT and the effective thermal conductive networks forming by CNTs and Ag nanoparticles are good at the k enhancement. With temperature increase the k of Ag/CNT nanofluid appears improvement. The study results make it possible to develop high-efficiency nanofluid for advanced thermal management regions.

  10. Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Fiber as Lost Circulation Material (LCM) in Water Based Mud (WBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N. A.; Sauki, A.; Abu Bakar, N. F.; Mohamed, S.

    2018-05-01

    Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is an additive used to prevent lost of mud to the formation as a results from natural or induced fractured during drilling operation. Losses of mud could give great impact to the oil industry as it increases mud cost and rig time. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of size and concentration of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) as LCM in water based mud (WBM). Several important properties of WBM rheology after adding the OPEFB namely plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, yield point and gel strength were characterized. The sizes of OPEFB added into the WBM were 150μm, 250μm, 500μm and 1000μm while the concentration of OPEFB used were 5g, 10g, 15g and 20g in 350 mL of WBM. Results indicated that the plastic viscosity and apparent viscosity increased with increasing of the OPEFB concentrations. On the other hand, the plastic viscosity and apparent viscosity decreased with increasing sizes of OPEFB. Yield point increased as the concentration and size of OPEFB increases. This study indicated that OPEFB was effective to be used as LCM for size of 150μm and concentration of 15g whereby it produced least amount of filtrate volume as well as good control in mud rheology.

  11. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer.

  12. Tribological Behaviors of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as Water-Based Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy/Steel Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Dai, Jiahong; Peng, Cheng; Li, Chunxia; Li, Quan; Pan, Fusheng

    2018-01-29

    The tribological behaviors of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) as water-based lubricant additives were evaluated by use of a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Three sets of test conditions were examined to investigate the effect of concentration, the capacity of carrying load and the endurance of the lubrication film, respectively. The results showed that the tribological behaviors of water can be improved by adding the appropriate graphene or GO. Compared with pure deionized water, 0.5 wt.% graphene nanofluids can offer reduction of friction coefficient by 21.9% and reduction of wear rate by 13.5%. Meanwhile, 0.5 wt.% GO nanofluids were found to reduce the friction coefficient and wear rate up to 77.5% and 90%, respectively. Besides this, the positive effect of the GO nanofluids was also more pronounced in terms of the load-carrying capacity and the lubrication film endurance. The wear mechanisms have been tentatively proposed according to the observation of the worn surfaces by field emission scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM-EDS) and Raman spectrum as well as the wettability of the nanofluids on the magnesium alloy surface by goniometer.

  13. Influence of radiant heating treatments on fusion of high-temperature superconducting yttrium ceramics; Vliyanie termoradiatsionnykh obrabotok na sintez vysokotempiraturnykh sverkhprovodyaschikh ittrievykh keramik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitenbaev, M I; Polyakov, A I [Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki Natsionalnogo Yadernogo Tsentra Respubliki Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    1999-07-01

    Regardless of the fact that the materials made of HTSC-ceramics are promising, there is no any information about their successful practical application in publications. To our opinion, it is explained by the fact, first of all, that the conservative technologies of the powder metallurgy do not allow producing HTSC systems with excellent operating performance (structure homogeneity, long-term stability of Sc properties and etc.). This report presents outcomes of experiments on fusion of yttrium ceramics containing raw components irradiated by g-rays {sup 60}Co under the temperature exceeding 500 degrees C. HTSC properties of ceramics were studied according to their differential spectra of radio-frequency (RF) field absorption. The RF absorption spectrum of yttrium ceramics samples produced according to conservative technology is sufficiently permitted triplet with the Sc transition temperatures range of 80 K, 90 K, 95 K. Irradiation under the increased temperatures and mechanical limitation allow producing samples of yttrium HTSC-ceramics with sufficient homogeneous structure and superconducting properties that are stable to air conditions for not less than one year.

  14. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall ...

  15. To what extent can dry and water-based EEG electrodes replace conductive gel ones?: A Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-Computer Interface Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.; Peuscher, J

    2011-01-01

    Recent technological advances in the field of skin electrodes and on-body sensors indicate a possibility of having an alternative to the traditionally used conductive gel electrodes for measuring electrical signals of the brain (electroencephalogram, EEG). This paper evaluates whether water-based

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  17. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance.

  18. A Lagrangian parcel based mixing plane method for calculating water based mixed phase particle flows in turbo-machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2015-05-01

    A method for calculating particle transport through turbo-machinery using the mixing plane analogy was developed and used to analyze the energy efficient engine . This method allows the prediction of temperature and phase change of water based particles along their path and the impingement efficiency and particle impact property data on various components in the engine. This methodology was incorporated into the LEWICE3D V3.5 software. The method was used to predict particle transport in the low pressure compressor of the . The was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbo-machinery flow solver. Computations were performed for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20 and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of . The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.18. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22.6 %).

  19. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  20. Randomised controlled trial of the cost-effectiveness of water-based therapy for lower limb osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T; Davey, R C; Matthes Edwards, S M

    2005-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of community water-based therapy for the management of lower limb osteoarthritis (OA) in older patients. A pre-experimental matched-control study was used to estimate efficacy of water-based exercise treatment, to check design assumptions and delivery processes. The main study was a randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of water-based exercise (treatment) compared with usual care (control) in older patients with hip and/or knee OA. The latter was accompanied by an economic evaluation comparing societal costs and consequences of the two treatments. Water exercise was delivered in public swimming pools in the UK. Physical function assessments were carried out in established laboratory settings. 106 patients (93 women, 13 men) over the age of 60 years with confirmed hip and/or knee OA took part in the preliminary study. A similar, but larger, group of 312 patients (196 women, 116 men) took part in the main study, randomised into control (159) and water exercise (153) groups. Control group patients received usual care with quarterly semi-structured telephone interview follow-up only. The intervention in the main study lasted for 1 year, with a further follow-up period of 6 months. Pain score on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index (WOMAC). Additional outcome measures were included to evaluate effects on quality of life, cost-effectiveness and physical function measurements. Short-term efficacy of water exercise in the management of lower limb OA was confirmed, with effect sizes ranging from 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.85] on WOMAC pain to 0.76 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.17) on WOMAC physical function. Of 153 patients randomised to treatment, 82 (53.5%) were estimated to have complied satisfactorily with their treatment at the 1-year point. This had declined to 28 (18%) by the end of the 6-month follow-up period, during which support for the intervention had been removed and those wishing to continue

  1. Estrategias metodológicas para mejorar la motricidad fina en niños de 3 a 4 años en la Unidad de Atención MIES, Creciendo con Nuestros Hijos (CNH) Estrellitas Radiantes de la parroquia Luis Cordero Vega, del cantón Gualaceo, período lectivo 2016-2017

    OpenAIRE

    Banegas Cabrera, Tania Maribel

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación consiste en la elaboración de la Guía Metodológica para el mejoramiento de la Motricidad Fina para los niños y niñas del MIES-CNH Estrellitas Radiantes. Se basa en motricidad fina y técnicas grafoplásticas estructuradas en una guía constituida y organizada en principios, criterios, procedimientos, implementación y evaluación. This research work consists on the development of a Methodological Guide for the improvement of fine motor control for children o...

  2. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Sub-lethal effects of water-based drilling muds on the deep-water sponge Geodia barretti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Johnston, Emma L; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities can result in the discharge of large amounts of drilling muds. While these materials have generally been regarded as non-toxic to marine organisms, recent studies have demonstrated negative impacts to suspension feeding organisms. We exposed the arctic-boreal sponge Geodia barretti to the primary particulate components of two water-based drilling muds; barite and bentonite. Sponges were exposed to barite, bentonite and a natural reference sediment at a range of total suspended solid concentrations (TSS = 0, 10, 50 or 100 mg/L) for 12 h after which we measured a suite of biomarker responses (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and glutathione). In addition, we compared biomarker responses, organic energy content and metal accumulation in sponges, which had been continuously or intermittently exposed to suspended barite and natural sediment for 14 d at relevant concentrations (10 and 30 mg TSS/L). Lysosomal membrane stability was reduced in the sponges exposed to barite at 50 and 100 mg TSS/L after just 12 h and at 30 mg TSS/L for both continuous and intermittent exposures over 14 d. Evidence of compromised cellular viability was accompanied by barite analysis revealing concentrations of Cu and Pb well above reference sediments and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines. Metal bioaccumulation in sponge tissues was low and the total organic energy content (determined by the elemental composition of organic tissue) was not affected. Intermittent exposures to barite resulted in less toxicity than continuous exposure to barite. Short term exposures to bentonite did not alter any biomarker responses. This is the first time that these biomarkers have been used to indicate contaminant exposure in an arctic-boreal sponge. Our results illustrate the potential toxicity of barite and the importance of assessments that reflect the ways in which these contaminants are delivered under environmentally realistic conditions

  4. Performance Analysis of a Reciprocating Piston Expander and a Plate Type Exhaust Gas Recirculation Boiler in a Water-Based Rankine Cycle for Heat Recovery from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Latz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine provides favorable conditions for a waste-heat recovery (WHR system. The highest potential is achieved by the Rankine cycle as a heat recovery technology. There are only few experimental studies that investigate full-scale systems using water-based working fluids and their effects on the performance and operation of a Rankine cycle heat recovery system. This paper discusses experimental results and practical challenges with a WHR system when utilizing heat from the exhaust gas recirculation system of a truck engine. The results showed that the boiler’s pinch point necessitated trade-offs between maintaining adequate boiling pressure while achieving acceptable cooling of the EGR and superheating of the water. The expander used in the system had a geometric compression ratio of 21 together with a steam outlet timing that caused high re-compression. Inlet pressures of up to 30 bar were therefore required for a stable expander power output. Such high pressures increased the pump power, and reduced the EGR cooling in the boiler because of pinch-point effects. Simulations indicated that reducing the expander’s compression ratio from 21 to 13 would allow 30% lower steam supply pressures without adversely affecting the expander’s power output.

  5. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Water-Based Extraction of Substances from Dry Tea Leaves with the Use of Magnetic Field Assisted Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zaguła

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study investigating the feasibility of using a magnetic field assisted technique for the water-based extraction of mineral components, polyphenols, and caffeine from dry black and green tea leaves. The authors present a concept of applying constant and variable magnetic fields in the process of producing water-based infusions from selected types of tea. Analyses investigating the effectiveness of the proposed technique in comparison with conventional infusion methods assessed the contents of selected mineral components—i.e., Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn—which were examined with the use of ICP-OES. The contents of caffeine and polyphenolic compounds were assessed using the HPLC. A changing magnetic field permitted an increased effectiveness of extraction of the mineral components, caffeine, and polyphenols. The findings support the conclusion that a changing magnetic field assisted extraction method is useful for obtaining biologically valuable components from tea infusions.

  6. A Proposal of Branding Water - Based Recreational Activities Within The Destination Management Project in The Dalaman Basin, Muğla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TÜRKER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available "Arrival place" (TDK, 2012 or "a place that has different natural features or attractions where visitors are interested in visiting" (Coltman, 1989: 48 were defined as destination. Nowadays this is one of the topics that attention is paid to in tourism literature. However, destination is drawn in a reg ional boundaries rather than political boundaries where tourist resources in a geographic area are clustered. This in turn necessitates the different local government units and non - governmental organizations (NGOs in acting management and marketing togeth er. Dalaman basin boundaries cover Dalaman, Ortaca and Koycegiz municipalities in the province of Mugla. Dalaman international airport is located in the area that tourists have an easy access to reach accommodation establishments soon after they land and t ourists further benefit from the region's historical and touristic values. This study has primarily presented the findings regarding Dalaman Basin Destination Management Project involving these three municipalities, the tourism business representatives, NG Os and Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University lecturers. Through this consecutive meetings among these parties involved, a main conclusion has drawn upon water - based recreational activities should be focused and these activities should be used in marketing the regi on. Further to this conclusion, these water - based activities should be branded. Within this destination management project, "Turkish Water Land" was proposed as a brand name to describe the region‟s water - based activities. The three local authorities of th e Dalaman basin unanimously agreed upon a protocol stating the roles and allocation of investments and expenditures required. Water based recreation activities are located in the region as follows: Dalaman river, Koycegiz lake, Iztuzu and Sarigerme beaches , Ekin and Sarsala bays and Dalyan canal.

  7. Ageing and Water-Based Processing of LiFeMnPO4 Secondary Agglomerates and Its Effects on Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Starke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available LiFeMnPO4 secondary agglomerates have been aged under different temperature and moisture conditions. The aged and pristine powder samples were then processed to water- and solvent-based cathodes. Structural studies by means of neutron and X-ray diffraction revealed that neither ageing nor water-based processing significantly modified the crystal structure of LiFeMnPO4 secondary agglomerates. Electrochemical characterization was carried out with full-cells. It was found that long-term cycling is similar independent of the solvent used for slurry preparation. Full-cells assembled with water-based cathodes show a better C-rate capability due to a more homogeneous distribution of cathode constituents compared to solvent-based ones. In no case was any negative effect of initial active material ageing on the electrochemical performance found. During ageing and processing, LiFeMnPO4 is effectively protected by carbon coating and water can be completely removed by drying since it is only reversibly bound. This contribution shows that LiFeMnPO4 secondary agglomerates allow simplified active material handling and have a high potential for sustainable water-based electrode manufacturing.

  8. Thermal performance of various multilayer insulation systems below 80K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider dipole cryostat consists of a vacuum shell operating at room temperature, two thermal shields operating near 80K and 20K respectively, and the superconducting magnet assembly operating near 4K. The cryostat design incorporates multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets to limit radiant heat transfer into the 80K and 20K thermal shields. Also, an MLI blanket is used to impede heat transfer through residual gas conduction into the 4K superconducting magnet assembly. A measurement facility at Fermilab has been used to experimentally optimize the thermal insulation system for the dipole cryostat. Previous thermal measurements have been used to define the 80K MLI system configuration and verify system performance. With the 80K MLI system defined, the current effort has focused on experimentally defining the optimum insulation scheme for the 20K thermal shield. The SSC design specification requires that radiant heat transfer be limited to 0.093 W/m 2 at an insulating vacuum of 10 -6 torr

  9. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  10. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  11. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  12. A Water-Based Silver-Nanowire Screen-Print Ink for the Fabrication of Stretchable Conductors and Wearable Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiajie; Tong, Kwing; Pei, Qibing

    2016-07-01

    A water-based silver-nanowire (AgNW) ink is formulated for screen printing. Screen-printed AgNW patterns have uniform sharp edges, ≈50 μm resolution, and electrical conductivity as high as 4.67 × 10(4) S cm(-1) . The screen-printed AgNW patterns are used to fabricate a stretchable composite conductor, and a fully printed and intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistor array is also realized. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Documentation of technical background for realize a comparison study of the current state of four optical and photonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Alpizar, Cristian; Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres; Goldini Garcia, Luis Diego; Ruiz Campos, David

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of four application systems of the optics and photonics is proposes, which are considered important for local disclosure. These four systems can appear in components, techniques, instruments or equipment, but from the standpoint of the analytical approach you want to work, are considered systems and will be studied all its constitutive parts. A thorough job is requested that includes not only the objective search, collecting and analysis of technical background to understand the development of these systems and their initial limitations, but to study improvements, the current state, applications, rules in force of quality control, utilization and maintenance, for its later use in LAFTLA. The four optical and photonic systems proposed are: 1. Meter the optical spectrum, the subject of physical optics, the application of interferometry and diffraction, optoelectronics and spectroscopy. The utilization to obtain optical spectra and the application in calibrations and trials is analyzed. 2. In radiometry, the application of photodetectors in a calibrated meter of radiant power and radiant energy for use with laser devices. The utilization for measuring of power or radiant energy of a laser beam, for calibrations and trials is analyzed, either in free space beam or optical fiber. 3. In optoelectronics, the development of LED and application of white LED, OLED, IRED and UVED. Infinity of applications are performed, but will analyze indicators and lighting as luminescent source and for flat screen projection, research in UV and IR radiometry. 4. In photometry, the measurement of the photopic spectral luminous efficiency V (λ) CIE 1924 of photometric normalized observer. To the photometry and calibration of photometric magnitudes has been vital. (author) [es

  14. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  15. Water-base acrylic terpolymer as a corrosion inhibitor for SAE1018 in simulated sour petroleum solution in stagnant and hydrodynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili Azghandi, M.; Davoodi, A.; Farzi, G.A.; Kosari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion inhibition of a water-base copolymer, ATP, was studied. ► Efficiency more than 90% was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP in 2000 rpm. ► ATP obeys Langmuir isotherm in static and hydrodynamic conditions. ► With the presence of ATP, OM images showed a decrease in surface attack. - Abstract: The effect of static and hydrodynamic conditions (0–2000 rpm) on corrosion inhibition of a water-base acrylic terpolymer (ATP), methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acid, for SAE1018 steel in simulated sour petroleum corrosive solution (NACE 1D196) were investigated by AC/DC electrochemical tests. Increase in rotation speed accelerates the corrosion rate; however the corrosion inhibitor efficiency increases. This was attributed to the enhanced mass transport of inhibitor molecules to the metal surface. OM examinations also demonstrate that in presence of ATP, a decrease in corrosion attacks is observed. Thermodynamic calculations also showed that ATP obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and adsorbs chemically into the surface.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} nano-powders by a water-based sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiangwei [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wen Zhaoyin, E-mail: zywen@mail.sic.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu Xiaogang; Wang Xiuyan; Lin Jiu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-08-01

    The water-based sol-gel process for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} nano-powders was reported for the first time. LiOH.H{sub 2}O and aerosil SiO{sub 2} were used as the starting materials with citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O) as the chelating agent. Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} powders with particle size as small as 100 nm were successfully synthesized at the temperature as low as 675 deg. C. Phase analysis, morphology, sintering behavior of the powders and ionic conductivity of the sintered bodies were investigated systematically. The experimental results showed that the powders obtained by the water-based sol-gel process (SG) possessed excellent sinterability, exhibiting a linear shrinkage of 5.2% while sintered to 900 deg. C, more than 3 times that of the powders obtained by solid state reaction (SSR). The bulk conductivity of the SG sintered bodies was much higher than that of the SSR samples at the same testing temperature.

  17. A novel and efficient water-based composite binder for LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yung-Ju [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Peng, Xing-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Wang, Fu-Ming; Yang, Chang-Rung [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu (China); Li, Chia-Chen [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Lee, Jyh-Tsung

    2007-11-15

    The dispersion, adhesion strength, electrical, and electrochemical properties of LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes in lithium-ion batteries with the addition of a new composite binder composed of two acrylic emulsions, poly(butyl acrylate)-based (PBA) and polyacrylonitrile-based (PA) latex in a ratio of 3:7, were evaluated. PBA binder has a low-glass transition temperature of 10 C, which can improve the flexibility of the electrode. This new composite binder has a very good binding ability as same as the typical organic solvent-based binder, poly(vinylidene fluoride). The dispersions of the water-based cathode slurries with the composite binder were measured by analyzing the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors. The results show that the new composite binder can well disperse the LiCoO{sub 2}. Moreover, using the new composite binder could greatly improve the rate capabilities and the cycle stability of water-based LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes. (author)

  18. Water base drilling fluids for high-angle wells; Fluidos a base de agua para perfuracao de pocos com elevada inclinacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Rui [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Lomba, Rosana Fatima T [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1990-12-31

    Horizontal drilling has experimented a large increase in last years. In Brazil, two horizontal wells were drilled in Fazenda Belem and Carmopolis Fields. The first one reached a final measured depth of 1128 m and the horizontal length was 533 m. The drilling fluid program was elaborated after a large number of laboratory tests, in order to get a composition that best fitted the drilling requirements, mainly the desirable lubricity. The idea of using a water-base fluid instead of an oil-based, known as more suitable in this case, arose because the Company is interested in drilling this kind of well offshore, in deep water, where the use of oil-base muds is forbidden. Different compositions of water base muds were developed and tested in laboratory and the results led to low-solids salt fluids having a lubricant in its composition. The lubricity coefficients of these fluids are similar to those obtained with oil-base muds. 9-FZB-446D-CE well was drilled with the chosen fluid and high values of torque and drag were not registered, being the operation a total success. (author) 10 tabs.

  19. Water base drilling fluids for high-angle wells; Fluidos a base de agua para perfuracao de pocos com elevada inclinacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarelli, Rui [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Lomba, Rosana Fatima T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal drilling has experimented a large increase in last years. In Brazil, two horizontal wells were drilled in Fazenda Belem and Carmopolis Fields. The first one reached a final measured depth of 1128 m and the horizontal length was 533 m. The drilling fluid program was elaborated after a large number of laboratory tests, in order to get a composition that best fitted the drilling requirements, mainly the desirable lubricity. The idea of using a water-base fluid instead of an oil-based, known as more suitable in this case, arose because the Company is interested in drilling this kind of well offshore, in deep water, where the use of oil-base muds is forbidden. Different compositions of water base muds were developed and tested in laboratory and the results led to low-solids salt fluids having a lubricant in its composition. The lubricity coefficients of these fluids are similar to those obtained with oil-base muds. 9-FZB-446D-CE well was drilled with the chosen fluid and high values of torque and drag were not registered, being the operation a total success. (author) 10 tabs.

  20. Comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles on the performance and charge recombination of water-based gel electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Malihe; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar; Mozaffari, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (J sc ) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured. For further characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the charge transfer at Pt/electrolyte interface and charge recombination and electron transport at TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface. Significant improvements in conversion efficiency and short circuit current density of DSSCs fabricated by chitosan nanoparticle were observed that can be attributed to the higher mobility of I 3 - due to the lower viscosity and smaller size of chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s -1 ), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m -2 . Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  2. High Rate Production of Clean Water Based on the Combined Photo-Electro-Thermal Effect of Graphene Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linfan; Zhang, Panpan; Xiao, Yukun; Liang, Yuan; Liang, Hanxue; Cheng, Zhihua; Qu, Liangti

    2018-04-23

    The use of abundant solar energy for regeneration and desalination of water is a promising strategy to address the challenge of a global shortage of clean water. Progress has been made to develop photothermal materials to improve the solar steam generation performance. However, the mass production rate of water is still low. Herein, by a rational combination of photo-electro-thermal effect on an all-graphene hybrid architecture, solar energy can not only be absorbed fully and transferred into heat, but also converted into electric power to further heat up the graphene skeleton frame for a much enhanced generation of water vapor. As a result, the unique graphene evaporator reaches a record high water production rate of 2.01-2.61 kg m -2 h -1 under solar illumination of 1 kW m -2 even without system optimization. Several square meters of the graphene evaporators will provide a daily water supply that is enough for tens of people. The combination of photo-electro-thermal effect on graphene materials offers a new strategy to build a fast and scalable solar steam generation system, which makes an important step towards a solution for the scarcity of clean water. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  4. Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Alongi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption. The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented.

  5. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  6. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  7. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  8. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  9. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  10. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  11. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  12. Numerical comparison of thermal hydraulic aspects of supercritical carbon dioxide and subcritical water-based natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Milan Krishna Singhar; Basu, Dipankar Narayan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati (India)

    2017-02-15

    Application of the supercritical condition in reactor core cooling needs to be properly justified based on the extreme level of parameters involved. Therefore, a numerical study is presented to compare the thermalhydraulic performance of supercritical and single-phase natural circulation loops under low-to-intermediate power levels. Carbon dioxide and water are selected as respective working fluids, operating under an identical set of conditions. Accordingly, a three-dimensional computational model was developed, and solved with an appropriate turbulence model and equations of state. Large asymmetry in velocity and temperature profiles was observed in a single cross section due to local buoyancy effect, which is more prominent for supercritical fluids. Mass flow rate in a supercritical loop increases with power until a maximum is reached, which subsequently corresponds to a rapid deterioration in heat transfer coefficient. That can be identified as the limit of operation for such loops to avoid a high temperature, and therefore, the use of a supercritical loop is suggested only until the appearance of such maxima. Flow-induced heat transfer deterioration can be delayed by increasing system pressure or lowering sink temperature. Bulk temperature level throughout the loop with water as working fluid is higher than supercritical carbon dioxide. This is until the heat transfer deterioration, and hence the use of a single-phase loop is prescribed beyond that limit.

  13. A new Caputo time fractional model for heat transfer enhancement of water based graphene nanofluid: An application to solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Sidra; Khan, Ilyas; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Tlili, I.

    2018-06-01

    In this article the idea of Caputo time fractional derivatives is applied to MHD mixed convection Poiseuille flow of nanofluids with graphene nanoparticles in a vertical channel. The applications of nanofluids in solar energy are argued for various solar thermal systems. It is argued in the article that using nanofluids is an alternate source to produce solar energy in thermal engineering and solar energy devices in industries. The problem is modelled in terms of PDE's with initial and boundary conditions and solved analytically via Laplace transform method. The obtained solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration are expressed in terms of Wright's function. These solutions are significantly controlled by the variations of parameters including thermal Grashof number, Solutal Grashof number and nanoparticles volume fraction. Expressions for skin-friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also determined on left and right walls of the vertical channel with important numerical results in tabular form. It is found that rate of heat transfer increases with increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and Caputo time fractional parameters.

  14. Impact characteristics for high-pressure large-flow water-based emulsion pilot operated check valve reverse opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Chuanhui; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    To improve the dynamic characteristics and cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve, consider the pilot poppet as the research object, analyses working principle and design three different kinds of pilot poppets. The vibration characteristics and impact characteristics are analyzed. The simulation model is established through flow field simulation software. The cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve are studied and discussed. On this basis, high-pressure large-flow impact experimental system is used for impact experiment, and the cavitation index is discussed. Then optimal structure is obtained. Simulation results indicate that the increase of pilot poppet half cone angle can effectively reduce the cavitation area, reducing the generation of cavitation. Experimental results show that the pressure impact is not decreasing with increasing of pilot poppet half cone angle in process of unloading, but the unloading capacity, response speed and pilot poppet half cone angle are positively correlated. The impact characteristics of 60° pilot poppet, and its cavitation index is lesser, which indicates 60° pilot poppet is the optimal structure, with the theory results are basically identical.

  15. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones in water-based paints: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Emmanuelle; Aerts, Olivier; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Debons, Michèle; Milpied, Brigitte; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Waton, Julie; Ferrier-Le Bouëdec, Marie C; Lartigau, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Bernier, Claire; Castelain, Florence; Collet, Evelyne; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Genillier, Nathalie; Girardin, Pascal; Pralong, Pauline; Tetart, Florence; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Soria, Angele; Barbaud, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones has been recognized as a health hazard. To collect epidemiological, clinical and patch test data on airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinone-containing paints in France and Belgium. A descriptive, retrospective study was initiated by the Dermatology and Allergy Group of the French Society of Dermatology, including methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI)- and/or MI-sensitized patients who developed airborne allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to isothiazolinone-containing paint. Forty-four cases were identified, with mostly non-occupational exposure (79.5%). Of the patients, 22.5% of also had mucosal symptoms. In several cases, the dermatitis required systemic corticosteroids (27.3%), hospitalization (9.1%), and/or sick leave (20.5%). A median delay of 5.5 weeks was necessary to enable patients to enter a freshly painted room without a flare-up of their dermatitis. Approximately one-fifth of the patients knew that they were allergic to MI and/or MCI/MI before the exposure to paints occurred. Our series confirms that airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones is not rare, and may be severe and long-lasting. Better regulation of isothiazolinone concentrations in paints, and their adequate labelling, is urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  17. Nontarget effects of aerial mosquito adulticiding with water-based unsynergized pyrethroids on honey bees and other beneficial insects in an agricultural ecosystem of north Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas; Goras, Georgios; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Latham, Mark D; Kashefi, Javid; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the nontarget effects of ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerial adulticiding with two new water-based, unsynergized pyrethroid formulations, Aqua-K-Othrine (FFAST antievaporant technology, 2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin). A helicopter with GPS navigation technology was used. One application rate was tested per formulation that corresponded to 1.00 g (AI)/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 g (AI)/ha of d-phenothrin. Three beneficial nontarget organisms were used: honey bees (domesticated hives), family Apidae (Apis mellifera L.); mealybug destroyers, family Coccinellidae (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant); and green lacewings, family Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)). No significant nontarget mortalities were observed. No bees exhibited signs of sublethal exposure to insecticides. Beehives exposed to the insecticidal applications remained healthy and productive, performed as well as the control hives and increased in weight (25-30%), in adult bee population (14-18%), and in brood population (15-19%).

  18. Hydrosorb® versus control (water based spray) in the management of radio-induced skin toxicity: Results of multicentre controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazire, Louis; Fromantin, Isabelle; Diallo, Alhassane; de la Lande, Brigitte; Pernin, Victor; Dendale, Remi; Fourquet, Alain; Savignoni, Alexia; Kirova, Youlia M

    2015-11-01

    To report the efficacy of Hydrosorb® versus control (water based spray) as topical treatment of grade 1-2 radiodermatitis in patients (pts) treated for early stage breast cancer (BC) with normo fractionated radiotherapy (RT). BC pts were randomized to receive either Hydrosorb® (A) or water based spray (B). The primary endpoint was local treatment failure defined as interruption of RT because of skin radiotoxicity or change of local care because of skin alteration. Secondary endpoints were: evaluation of skin colorimetry, pain, quality of life. Two-hundred seventy-eight pts were enrolled. There were 186 successfully treated pts. There were 60 "failures" in the Hydrosorb® arm, and 62 in the control arm (p=0.72), but mostly without interruption of the RT. Twenty-four pts stopped RT for local care. The average absolute reduction of colorimetric levels between day 28 and day 0 was 4 in the Hydrosorb®, and 4.2 in the water spray groups, respectively (p=0.36). Forty-eight patients in the Hydrosorb® arm had a VAS >2 versus 51 pts in the placebo arm, i.e. 34% and 38%, respectively (p=0.45). A significant reduction of pain was observed on D7 and D21 in the Hydrosorb® arm. The present study showed no significant difference between Hydrosorb® and simple water spray in the treatment of acute radio-induced dermatitis even if there was a trend to an improvement in pain at the first weeks after the treatment. Systematic prevention measures and modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques now allow excellent tolerability, but the place of topical treatment to optimize this tolerability has yet to be defined. It seems that the most important part of the skin care is the prevention of skin reactions using new adapted techniques, as well as strict hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  20. Water-based woody biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Thomas E; Liu, Shijie

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of biomass into chemicals and energy is essential in order to sustain our present way of life. Fossil fuels are currently the predominant energy source, but fossil deposits are limited and not renewable. Biomass is a reliable potential source of materials, chemicals and energy that can be replenished to keep pace with our needs. A biorefinery is a concept for the collection of processes used to convert biomass into materials, chemicals and energy. The biorefinery is a "catch and release" method for using carbon that is beneficial to both the environment and the economy. In this study, we discuss three elements of a wood-based biorefinery, as proposed by the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF): hot-water extraction, hydrolysis, and membrane separation/concentration. Hemicelluloses are the most easily separable main component of woody biomass and thus form the bulk of the extracts obtained by hot-water extraction of woody biomass. Hot-water extraction is an important step in the processes of woody biomass and product generation, replacing alternative costly pre-treatment methods. The hydrolysis of hemicelluloses produces 5-carbon sugars (mainly xylose), 6-carbon sugars (mainly glucose and mannose), and acetic acid. The use of nano-filtration membranes is an efficient technology that can be employed to fractionate hot-water extracts and wood hydrolysate. The residual solid mass after hot-water extraction has a higher energy content and contains fewer easily degradable components. This allows for more efficient subsequent processing to convert cellulose and lignin into conventional products.

  1. Design and fabrication of spectrally selective emitter for thermophotovoltaic system by using nano-imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Moo; Park, Keum-Hwan; Kim, Da-Som; Hwang, Bo-yeon; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Chae, Hee-Man; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Young-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have attracted attention as promising power generation systems that can directly convert the radiant energy produced by the combustion of fuel into electrical energy. However, there is a fundamental limit of their conversion efficiency due to the broadband distribution of the radiant spectrum. To overcome this problem, several spectrally selective thermal emitter technologies have been investigated, including the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. In this paper, we present some design rules based on finite-a difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results for tungsten (W) PhC emitter. The W 2D PhC was fabricated by a simple nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) with an isotropic etching process, the benefits and parameters of which are presented. The fabricated W PhC emitter showed spectrally selective emission near the infrared wavelength range, and the optical properties varied depending on the size of the nano-patterns. The measured results of the fabricated prototype structure correspond well to the simulated values. Finally, compared with the performance of a flat W emitter, the total thermal emitter efficiency was almost 3.25 times better with the 2D W PhC structure.

  2. Effects of water-based exercise on bone health of middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas V

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vini Simas,1 Wayne Hing,1 Rodney Pope,1 Mike Climstein1,2 1Water-Based Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, 2Exercise, Health and Performance Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Age-related bone loss is a major health concern. Only exercises associated with high-impact and mechanical loading have been linked to a positive effect on bone turnover; however, these types of exercises may not always be appropriate for middle-aged and older adults due to physical decline or chronic disorders such as osteoarthritis. Water-based exercise (WBE has been shown to affect different components of physical fitness, has lower risks of traumatic fracture, and applies less stress to joints. However, the effects of WBE on bone health are unclear.Objective: This study aimed to explore whether WBE is effective in preventing age-related bone deterioration in middle-aged and older adults.Methods: A search of relevant databases and the references of identified studies was performed. Critical narrative synthesis and meta-analyses were conducted.Results: Eleven studies, involving 629 participants, met all inclusion criteria. All participants were postmenopausal women. Eight studies compared WBE to a sedentary control group, and four studies had land-based exercise (LBE participants as a comparison group. Meta-analyses revealed significant differences between WBE and control group in favor of WBE for changes in bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine (mean difference [MD] 0.03 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01 to 0.05 and femoral neck (MD 0.04 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.07. Significant differences were also revealed between WBE and LBE in favor of LBE for changes in lumbar spine BMD (MD −0.04 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.06 to −0.02. However, there was no significant difference between WBE and LBE for

  3. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantham, T.S.; Biancardi, F.R.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrail applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times

  4. Effectiveness of inorganic membrane mixture of natural zeolite and portland white cement in purifying of peat water based on turbidity parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfiana; Fuadi, A.; Diana, S.

    2018-04-01

    Peat water is water surface that brownish red colour caused by the contained constituents. Solving the peat watercolor problem requires special attention considering the quantity of peat water and suitable to be used to meet the daily needs. This study aims to know the inorganic membrane capability of mix nature zeolite and white Portland cement to purifying the peat water based on turbidity parameter. The study was conducted by varying the composition of nature zeolite (Za) and white Portland cement (Sp) in the ratio of Za: Sp is (25%:75%; 50%:50%; 75%:25%) with zeolite condition activated using HCl 2M and nonactivated zeolite treatments. The result of the characteristic test on membrane morphology using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) showed that the pore surface size of the membrane is 2 μm that could classified in microfiltration membrane an organic type. The characteristic test showed also resulted in the density of 0.77 to 0.86 gr/cm3, porosity 26.22% to 35.93%, and permeability 2736.19 to 8428.15. While the water retention capacity is in range of 30.64% to 46.46%, The result of inorganic membrane application on peat water showed turbidity of peat water decreased 94.17%, from 10.3 NTU to 0.6 NTU.

  5. Conduction and convection heat transfer characteristics of water-based au nanofluids in a square cavity with differentially heated side walls subjected to constant temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternik Primož

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the natural convection in a square cavity filled with the water-based Au nanofluid. The cavity is heated on the vertical and cooled from the adjacent wall, while the other two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing differential equations have been solved by the standard finite volume method and the hydrodynamic and thermal fields were coupled together using the Boussinesq approximation. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the nanoparticles’ volume fraction on the heat transfer characteristics of Au nanofluids at the given base fluid’s (i.e. water Rayleigh number. Accurate results are presented over a wide range of the base fluid Rayleigh number and the volume fraction of Au nanoparticles. It is shown that adding nanoparticles in a base fluid delays the onset of convection. Contrary to what is argued by many authors, we show by numerical simulations that the use of nanofluids can reduce the heat transfer rate instead of increasing it.

  6. Fabrication of microband glucose biosensors using a screen-printing water-based carbon ink and their application in serum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Pittson, R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-01

    Microband glucose biosensors were fabricated by screen-printing a water-based carbon ink formulation containing cobalt phthalocyanine redox mediator and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme, then insulating and sectioning through the thick (20mum) film to expose a 3mm-long working electrode edge. The performance of these biosensors for glucose analysis was investigated at 25 degrees C. Voltammetry in glucose-containing buffer solutions established that an operating potential of +0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl was suitable for analysis under both stirring and quiescent conditions. The influence of pH on biosensor performance was established and an operational pH of 8.0 was selected. Steady-state responses were obtained under quiescent conditions, suggesting a mixed mechanism predominated by radial diffusion, indicative of microelectrode behaviour. Calibration studies obtained with these biosensors showed steady-state currents that were linearly dependent on glucose concentration from the limit of detection (0.27mM) up to 2.0mM, with a precision for replicate biosensors of 6.2-10.7%. When applied to the determination of glucose in human serum, the concentration compared favourably to that determined by a spectroscopic method. These results have demonstrated a simple means of fabricating biosensors for glucose measurement and determination in situations where low-current real-time monitoring under quiescent conditions would be desirable.

  7. A facile method to enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoogil; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Gong, Seokhyeon; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2018-01-01

    To enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene (PE) separators, their surfaces were treated with thin and hydrophilic polydopamine layers. As a result, an aqueous ceramic coating slurry consisting of Al2O3 particles, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) binders, and water solvent was easily spread on the separator surface, and a uniform ceramic layer was formed after solvent drying. Moreover, the ceramic coating layer showed greatly improved adhesion properties to the PE separator surface. Whereas the adhesion strength within the bulk coating layer (Fmid) ranged from 43 to 86 N m-1 depending on the binder content of 1.5-3.0 wt%, the adhesion strength at the interface between the ceramic coating layer and PE separator (Fsepa-Al2O3) was 245-360 N m-1, a value equivalent to an increase of four or five times. Furthermore, an additional ceramic coating layer of approximately 7 μm did not degrade the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the bare PE separators. Thus, all the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with ceramic-coated separators delivered an improved cycle life and rate capability compared with those of the control cells with bare PE separators.

  8. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a plate heat exchanger using water based Al2O3 nanofluid for 30° and 60° chevron angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M. M.; Saidur, R.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Hepbasli, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Jesbains, K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanofluid is a new class of engineering fluid that has good heat transfer characteristics which is essential to increase the heat transfer performance in various engineering applications such as heat exchangers and cooling of electronics. In this study, experiments were conducted to compare the heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristics in a plate heat exchanger (PHE) for 30° and 60° chevron angles using water based Al2O3 nanofluid at the concentrations from 0 to 0.5 vol.% for different Reynolds numbers. The thermo-physical properties has been determined and presented in this paper. At 0.5 vol% concentration, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, the overall heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate for 60° chevron angle have attained a higher percentage of 15.14%, 7.8% and 15.4%, respectively in comparison with the base fluid. Consequently, when the volume concentration or Reynolds number increases, the heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat transfer rate of the PHE (Plate Heat Exchangers) increases respectively. Similarly, the pressure drop increases with the volume concentration. 60° chevron angle showed better performance in comparison with 30° chevron angle.

  9. Water-based inhibitive drilling fluids for oil wells: preliminary study; Fluidos aquosos inibidos para perfuracao de pocos de petroleo: estudo preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Kassie V.; Amorim, Luciana V.; Silva, Aline R.V.; Ferreira, Heber C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work is to do formulations of water-based inhibitive drilling fluids and to evaluate their rheologic, filtration and lubrication properties and the degree of swell of clays. It was studied eight formulations containing the following additives: viscosity, filtered reducer, controlling of pH, hydratable clays inhibitors, anti-foamy, bactericide, lubricant and sealant. The fluids were prepared according to the field practice that consists of adding to water the additives under constant agitation. After 24 h resting, it was carried out a study of the rheologic behavior, in a Fann 35 A viscosimeter, and of the filtration properties in a Fann press-filter and of lubricity in a Ofite Lubricity tester through the determination of the flow curves, apparent and plastic viscosities, yield limit, gel force, filtered volume, filter-cake thickness and lubricity coefficient. It was also been essays to evaluate the capacity of inhibition of clay with the chemical inhibitors isolated and in set. The results had proven that the presence of inhibitor of clay in drilling fluids has great importance and promotes the inhibition of the swell of clay in all concentrations studied and amongst the formulations developed, six had presented performance next to the fluid Standard. (author)

  10. Hydromagnetic slip flow of water based nano-fluids past a wedge with convective surface in the presence of heat generation (or) absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Al-Salti, N.

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady hydromagnetic slip flow of water based nano-fluids (TiO 2 -water, Al 2 O 3 -water, and Cu-water) over a wedge with convective surface taking into account the effects of heat generation (or absorption) has been investigated numerically. The local similarity solutions are obtained by using very robust computer algebra software MATLAB and presented graphically as well as in a tabular form. The results show that nano-fluid velocity is lower than the velocity of the base fluid and the existence of the nano-fluid leads to the thinning of the hydrodynamic boundary layer. The rate of shear stress is significantly influenced by the surface convection parameter and the slip parameter. It is higher for nano-fluids than the base fluid. The results also show that within the boundary layer the temperature of the nano-fluid is higher than the temperature of the base fluid. The rate of heat transfer is found to increase with the increase of the surface convection and the slip parameters. Addition of nano-particles to the base fluid induces the rate of heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer in the Cu-water nano-fluid is found to be higher than the rate of heat transfer in the TiO 2 -water and Al 2 O 3 -water nano-fluids. (authors)

  11. The effect of using nano-silver dispersed water based nanofluid as a passive method for energy efficiency enhancement in a plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrangzade, Ali; Heyhat, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using nano-silver on a commercial plate heat exchanger was studied. • An experimental rig was designed to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic features of nanofluid. • The overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger 16.79% for 100 ppm nanofluid. • No significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. • The process temperatures have important role in nanofluid influence. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to verify the potential using of nano-silver dispersed water based nanofluid on efficiency improvement of a commercial corrugated plate heat exchanger. In this regards, an experimental rig was provided to recognize the heat transfer rate and pressure drop of Ag–water nanofluid as the working fluid. The two most key thermo-physical properties, i.e. dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids were experimentally gauged. The findings, which were achieved, displayed that the overall heat transfer coefficient becomes larger, from 6.18% to 16.79%, for 100 ppm silver nanofluid. While using nanofluid, no significant growth in pressure drop values was observed. Moreover, the process temperatures and flow rates have significant impacts on the helpfulness of applying nanofluid in a plate heat exchanger.

  12. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  13. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  14. Preparation of magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites with phenyl-functionalized pore-walls as the restricted access matrix solid phase extraction adsorbent for the rapid extraction of parabens from water-based skin toners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianan; He, Xinying; Liu, Xiaodan; Sun, Xueni; Li, Yan

    2016-09-23

    In this work, phenyl-functionalized magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites (MG-mSiO2-Ph) were prepared and applied as restricted access matrix solid phase extraction (RAM-SPE) adsorbents to determine the parabens in commercially available retail cosmetics. MG-mSiO2-Ph composites were synthesized by a surfactant-mediated co-condensation reaction in which mesoporous silica with phenyl-functionalized pore-walls was coated on a magnetic graphene sheet. The obtained nano-composites were proven to be of sufficient quality for an ideal RAM-SPE adsorbent with a large specific surface area of 369m(2)g(-1), uniform mesopores of 2.8nm, and special phenyl-functionalized pore-walls. Parabens, such as methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben, were extracted from water-based skin toners using one step of the RAM-SPE and were then analysed by a HPLC-DAD system. The SPE conditions were optimized by studying the parameters, such as the adsorbent amount, elution solvent type, adsorption time and desorption time, that influence the extraction efficiency. For each analyte, there were good linearities of approximately 0.10-120μgmL(-1) with determination coefficients (R(2))>0.995. The sensitivity was as low as 0.01-0.025μgmL(-1) for the LOD, and the percent recoveries were 98.37-105.84%. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 1.44-6.11% (n=6) and 3.12-11.70% (n=6), respectively. The results indicated that this method with novel RAM-SPE adsorbents is sensitive and convenient. The results also offered an attractive alternative for the extraction and determination of paraben preservatives in a complex matrix, such as cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amperometric, screen-printed, glucose biosensor for analysis of human plasma samples using a biocomposite water-based carbon ink incorporating glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the optimisation of a screen-printing water-based carbon ink containing cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and glucose oxidase (GOD) for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. To optimise the performance of the biosensor, the loadings of the electrocatalyst (CoPC) and enzyme (GOD) were varied. It was found that the maximum linear range was achieved with a CoPC loading of 20% (m/m, relative to the mass of carbon) and a GOD loading of 628 U per gram of carbon. In our studies we chose to employ chronoamperometry, as this technique is commonly used for commercial devices. The optimum operating applied potential was found to be +0.5 V, following an incubation period of 60 s. The optimum supporting electrolyte was found to be 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, which resulted in a linear range of 0.2-5 mM, the former represents the detection limit. The sensitivity was 1.12 microA mM(-1). The effect of temperature was also investigated, and it was found that 40 degrees C gave optimal performance. The resulting amperometric biosensors were evaluated by measuring the glucose concentrations for 10 different human plasma samples containing endogenous glucose and also added glucose. The same samples were analysed by a standard spectrophotometric method, and the results obtained by the two different methods were compared. A good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95) and slope (0.98) were calculated from the experimental data, indicating that the new devices hold promise for biomedical studies.

  16. Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Thaís; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Meinerz, Andressa Pellegrini; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-03-27

    Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide removal in water-based drilling fluid by metal oxide nanoparticle and ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Morgani, M.; Saboori, R.; Sabbaghi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Advanced approaches to the application of nanomaterials for environmental studies, such as waste-water treatment and pollution removal/adsorption, have been considered in recent decades. In this research, hydrogen sulfide removal from water-based drilling fluid by ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles and a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sedimentation and the sol-gel method. A sol-chemical was employed to synthesize the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the produced ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles, and the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. The results showed that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased from 800 ppm to about 250 ppm (about 70% removal) and less than 150 ppm (more than 80% removal) using the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles with a 0.67 wt% concentration, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide removal using the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite with a 0.67 wt% showed the highest value of removal in comparison with the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The hydrogen sulfide level was lowered from 800 ppm to less than 5 ppm (99% removal) by the nanocomposite.

  18. Ceramics and healthy heating and cooling systems: thermal ceramic panels in buildings. Conditions of comfort and energy demand versus convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Echarri Iribarren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcelain stoneware is a widely used building material. In recent years, its range of uses has expanded to encompass a new spectrum of innovative and inventive applications in architecture. In this research, we analysed the patented Thermal Ceramic Panel. This consists of a thin porcelain stoneware panel that incorporates a capillary system of polypropylene tubes measuring 3.5 mm in diameter embedded in a conductive ceramic interface. The system works with hot or cold water, producing healthy heating and cooling by means of radiant surfaces. Following an initial prototype test in which panels were placed on the walls of an office, we conducted simulations at the University of Alicante Museum using wall, ceiling and baffle panels, having previously monitored the state of the building. Thermal behaviour parameters were analysed and compared with those of other standard finishing materials, obtaining results for thermal comfort and energy savings in comparison with all-air systems.

  19. Global Change and the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2004-08-01

    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  20. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up