Sample records for water water recharged

  1. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.


    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  2. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.


    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  3. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.


    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  4. Handling the decline of ground water using artificial recharge areas (United States)

    Hidayatullah, Muhammad Shofi; Yoga, Kuncaraningrat Edi; Muslim, Dicky


    Jatinagor, a region with rapid growth cause increasing in water demand. The ground water surface in the observation area shows a decrease based on its potential. This deflation is mainly caused by the inequality between inputs and outputs of the ground water itself. The decrease of this ground water surface is also caused by the number of catchment areas that keeps decreasing. According to the data analysis of geology and hydrology, the condition of ground water in Jatinangor on 2015 had indicated a decrease compared to 2010. Nowadays, the longlivity of clean water can be ensure by the hydrogeology engineering, which is to construct an artificial recharge for ground water in use. The numerical method is aims to determine the number of ground water supply in Jatinangor. According to the research, the most suitable artificial recharge is in the form of a small dam located in the internment river. With the area of 209.000 m2, this dam will be able to contain 525 m3 runoff water with the intensity of maximum rainfall effectively 59,44 mm/hour. The increase of water volume generate by this artificial recharge, fulfilled the demand of clean water.

  5. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge. (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià


    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  6. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools. (United States)

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  7. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR in Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Page


    Full Text Available To meet increasing urban water requirements in a sustainable way, there is a need to diversify future sources of supply and storage. However, to date, there has been a lag in the uptake of managed aquifer recharge (MAR for diversifying water sources in urban areas. This study draws on examples of the use of MAR as an approach to support sustainable urban water management. Recharged water may be sourced from a variety of sources and in urban centers, MAR provides a means to recycle underutilized urban storm water and treated wastewater to maximize their water resource potential and to minimize any detrimental effects associated with their disposal. The number, diversity and scale of urban MAR projects is growing internationally due to water shortages, fewer available dam sites, high evaporative losses from surface storages, and lower costs compared with alternatives where the conditions are favorable, including water treatment. Water quality improvements during aquifer storage are increasingly being documented at demonstration sites and more recently, full-scale operational urban schemes. This growing body of knowledge allows more confidence in understanding the potential role of aquifers in water treatment for regulators. In urban areas, confined aquifers provide better protection for waters recharged via wells to supplement potable water supplies. However, unconfined aquifers may generally be used for nonpotable purposes to substitute for municipal water supplies and, in some cases, provide adequate protection for recovery as potable water. The barriers to MAR adoption as part of sustainable urban water management include lack of awareness of recent developments and a lack of transparency in costs, but most importantly the often fragmented nature of urban water resources and environmental management.

  8. Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge of Aquifers in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandha, D. K.


    India has proud traditions and wisdom which have evolved over thousands of years for developing technologies for water conservation and groundwater recharge using surplus monsoon precipitation runoff. This is imperative as the average rainfall/precipitation period is about 27 days/year and with uneven distribution across the country. Groundwater development is now the mainstay for sustaining agricultural production and rural water supplies. As such, groundwater development is increasing at an exponential rate and the estimated draft is now 231 000 hm{sup 3} with the result that almost 15% of the groundwater development areas are showing a continuous decline of water levels. There is an anomalous situation whereby water levels are declining in 831 blocks (assessment units) out of a total of 5 723 blocks across the country, and availability of excessive 864 000 hm{sup 3} runoff in different river basins brings floods and creates water logging in some parts of the country. This non-utilizable water can be planned for creating small surface water storage and to create additional sub-surface storage through groundwater recharge. At present, total water available is estimated at 660 000 hm{sup 3} and the minimum estimated water demand will be 843 000 hm{sup 3} in 2025 and 973 000 hm{sup 3} in 2050. Therefore, if India wants sustainable food supplies and to meet domestic/industrial water requirements, there is no other option than to implement projects for water conservation/groundwater recharge. Although a number of forward looking steps have been planned by the government and other institutions, many lacunae have been observed which need to be addressed for the successful implementation of water conservation and recharge programmes. This paper discusses various practices from the pre-historic to the present day, with case studies showing technological intervention. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source


    Nyoman Suwartha; Resky Pramadin


    The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recha...

  10. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover. (United States)

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A


    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  11. Recharge Estimation Using Water, Chloride and Isotope Mass Balances (United States)

    Dogramaci, S.; Firmani, G.; Hedley, P.; Skrzypek, G.; Grierson, P. F.


    Discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may elevate groundwater levels and alter the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers but it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid subtropical Hamersley Basin that has received continuous mine discharge for more than five years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 74 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.24‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ~ 65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ~35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the creek has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic

  12. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells. (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J


    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

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    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  14. Catchment-scale groundwater recharge and vegetation water use efficiency (United States)

    Troch, P. A. A.; Dwivedi, R.; Liu, T.; Meira, A.; Roy, T.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Durcik, M.; Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.


    Precipitation undergoes a two-step partitioning when it falls on the land surface. At the land surface and in the shallow subsurface, rainfall or snowmelt can either runoff as infiltration/saturation excess or quick subsurface flow. The rest will be stored temporarily in the root zone. From the root zone, water can leave the catchment as evapotranspiration or percolate further and recharge deep storage (e.g. fractured bedrock aquifer). Quantifying the average amount of water that recharges deep storage and sustains low flows is extremely challenging, as we lack reliable methods to quantify this flux at the catchment scale. It was recently shown, however, that for semi-arid catchments in Mexico, an index of vegetation water use efficiency, i.e. the Horton index (HI), could predict deep storage dynamics. Here we test this finding using 247 MOPEX catchments across the conterminous US, including energy-limited catchments. Our results show that the observed HI is indeed a reliable predictor of deep storage dynamics in space and time. We further investigate whether the HI can also predict average recharge rates across the conterminous US. We find that the HI can reliably predict the average recharge rate, estimated from the 50th percentile flow of the flow duration curve. Our results compare favorably with estimates of average recharge rates from the US Geological Survey. Previous research has shown that HI can be reliably estimated based on aridity index, mean slope and mean elevation of a catchment (Voepel et al., 2011). We recalibrated Voepel's model and used it to predict the HI for our 247 catchments. We then used these predicted values of the HI to estimate average recharge rates for our catchments, and compared them with those estimated from observed HI. We find that the accuracies of our predictions based on observed and predicted HI are similar. This provides an estimation method of catchment-scale average recharge rates based on easily derived catchment

  15. Natural groundwater recharge and water balance at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.


    The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert. (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo


    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  17. Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal


    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers.

  18. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

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    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana


    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  19. Impact of recharge water temperature on bioclogging during managed aquifer recharge: a laboratory study (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Gao, Zongjun; Zheng, Xilai; Wei, Jiuchuan


    To investigate the effect of recharge water temperature on bioclogging processes and mechanisms during seasonal managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two groups of laboratory percolation experiments were conducted: a winter test and a summer test. The temperatures were controlled at 5±2 and 15±3 °C, and the tests involved bacterial inoculums acquired from well water during March 2014 and August 2015, for the winter and summer tests, respectively. The results indicated that the sand columns clogged 10 times faster in the summer test due to a 10-fold larger bacterial growth rate. The maximum concentrations of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the winter test were approximately twice those in the summer test, primarily caused by a 200 μg/g sand increase of both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). In the first half of the experimental period, the accumulation of bacteria cells and EPS production induced rapid bioclogging in both the winter and summer tests. Afterward, increasing bacterial growth dominated the bioclogging in the summer test, while the accumulation of LB-EPS led to further bioclogging in the winter test. The biological analysis determined that the dominant bacteria in experiments for both seasons were different and the bacterial community diversity was 50% higher in the winter test than that for summer. The seasonal inoculums could lead to differences in the bacterial community structure and diversity, while recharge water temperature was considered to be a major factor influencing the bacterial growth rate and metabolism behavior during the seasonal bioclogging process.

  20. Ground Water Recharge Estimation Using Water Table Fluctuation Method And By GIS Applications (United States)

    Vajja, V.; Bekkam, V.; Nune, R.; M. v. S, R.


    Quite often it has become a debating point that how much recharge is occurring to the groundwater table through rainfall on one hand and through recharge structures such as percolation ponds and checkdams on the other. In the present investigations Musi basin of Andhra Pradesh, India is selected for study during the period 2005-06. Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon groundwater levels are collected through out the Musi basin at 89 locations covering an area11, 291.69 km2. Geology of the study area and rainfall data during the study period has been collected. The contour maps of rainfall and the change in groundwater level between Pre-monsoon and Post- monsoon have been prepared. First the change in groundwater storage is estimated for each successive strips of areas enclosed between two contours of groundwater level fluctuations. In this calculation Specific yield (Sy) values are adopted based on the local Geology. Areas between the contours are estimated through Arc GIS software package. All such storages are added to compute the total storage for the entire basin. In order to find out the percent of rainfall converted into groundwater storage as well as to find out the ground water recharge due to storageponds, a contour map of rainfall for the study area is prepared and areas between successive contours have been calculated. Based on the Geology map, Infiltration values are adopted for each successive strip of the contour area. Then the amount of water infiltrated into the ground is calculated by adjusting the infiltration values for each strip, so that the total infiltrated water for the entire basin is matched with change in Ground water storage, which is 1314.37 MCM for the upper Musi basin while it is 2827.29 MCM for entire Musi basin. With this procedure on an average 29.68 and 30.66 percent of Rainfall is converted into Groundwater recharge for Upper Musi and for entire Musi basin respectively. In the total recharge, the contribution of rainfall directly to

  1. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.


    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches

  2. Estimated ground-water recharge from streamflow in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

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    Savard, C.S.


    The two purposes of this report are to qualitatively document ground-water recharge from stream-flow in Fortymile Wash during the period 1969--95 from previously unpublished ground-water levels in boreholes in Fortymile Canyon during 1982--91 and 1995, and to quantitatively estimate the long-term ground-water recharge rate from streamflow in Fortymile Wash for four reaches of Fortymile Wash (Fortymile Canyon, upper Jackass Flats, lower Jackass Flats, and Amargosa Desert). The long-term groundwater recharge rate was estimated from estimates of the volume of water available for infiltration, the volume of infiltration losses from streamflow, the ground-water recharge volume from infiltration losses, and an analysis of the different periods of data availability. The volume of water available for infiltration and ground-water recharge in the four reaches was estimated from known streamflow in ephemeral Fortymile Wash, which was measured at several gaging station locations. The volume of infiltration losses from streamflow for the four reaches was estimated from a streamflow volume loss factor applied to the estimated streamflows. the ground-water recharge volume was estimated from a linear relation between infiltration loss volume and ground-water recharge volume for each of the four reaches. Ground-water recharge rates were estimated for three different periods of data availability (1969--95, 1983--95, and 1992--95) and a long-term ground-water recharge rate estimated for each of the four reaches.

  3. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

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    Nyoman Suwartha


    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  4. A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method (United States)

    Crosbie, Russell S.; Binning, Philip; Kalma, Jetse D.


    The water table fluctuation method for determining recharge from precipitation and water table measurements was originally developed on an event basis. Here a new multievent time series approach is presented for inferring groundwater recharge from long-term water table and precipitation records. Additional new features are the incorporation of a variable specific yield based upon the soil moisture retention curve, proper accounting for the Lisse effect on the water table, and the incorporation of aquifer drainage so that recharge can be detected even if the water table does not rise. A methodology for filtering noise and non-rainfall-related water table fluctuations is also presented. The model has been applied to 2 years of field data collected in the Tomago sand beds near Newcastle, Australia. It is shown that gross recharge estimates are very sensitive to time step size and specific yield. Properly accounting for the Lisse effect is also important to determining recharge.

  5. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal


    Full Text Available Innovation born of necessity to secure water for the U.S. state of Arizona has yielded a model of water banking that serves as an international prototype for effective use of aquifers for drought and emergency supplies. If understood and adapted to local hydrogeological and water supply and demand conditions, this could provide a highly effective solution for water security elsewhere. Arizona is a semi-arid state in the southwestern United States that has growing water demands, significant groundwater overdraft, and surface water supplies with diminishing reliability. In response, Arizona has developed an institutional and regulatory framework that has allowed large-scale implementation of managed aquifer recharge in the state’s deep alluvial groundwater basins. The most ambitious recharge activities involve the storage of Colorado River water that is delivered through the Central Arizona Project (CAP. The CAP system delivers more than 1850 million cubic meters (MCM per year to Arizona’s two largest metropolitan areas, Phoenix and Tucson, along with agricultural users and sovereign Native American Nations, but the CAP supply has junior priority and is subject to reduction during declared shortages on the Colorado River. In the mid-1980s the State of Arizona established a framework for water storage and recovery; and in 1996 the Arizona Water Banking Authority was created to mitigate the impacts of Colorado River shortages; to create water management benefits; and to allow interstate storage. The Banking Authority has stored more than 4718 MCM of CAP water; including more than 740 MCM for the neighboring state of Nevada. The Nevada storage was made possible through a series of interrelated agreements involving regional water agencies and the federal government. The stored water will be recovered within Arizona; allowing Nevada to divert an equal amount of Colorado River water from Lake Mead; which is upstream of CAP’s point of diversion

  6. Ground-water recharge in Fortymile Wash near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.


    Quantification of the ground-water recharge from streamflow in the Fortymile Wash watershed will contribute to regional ground-water studies. Regional ground-water studies are an important component in the studies evaluating the ground-water flow system as a barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Knowledge gained in understanding the ground-water recharge mechanisms and pathways in the Pah Canyon area, which is 10 km to the northeast of Yucca Mountain, may transfer to Yucca site specific studies. The current data collection network in Fortymile Canyon does not permit quantification of ground-water recharge, however a qualitative understanding of ground-water recharge was developed from these data

  7. Inferring time‐varying recharge from inverse analysis of long‐term water levels (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse; Hanson, R.T.; Ferré, T.P.A.; Leake, S.A.


    Water levels in aquifers typically vary in response to time‐varying rates of recharge, suggesting the possibility of inferring time‐varying recharge rates on the basis of long‐term water level records. Presumably, in the southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, southern California, and southern Utah), rates of mountain front recharge to alluvial aquifers depend on variations in precipitation rates due to known climate cycles such as the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation index and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This investigation examined the inverse application of a one‐dimensional analytical model for periodic flow described by Lloyd R. Townley in 1995 to estimate periodic recharge variations on the basis of variations in long‐term water level records using southwest aquifers as the case study. Time‐varying water level records at various locations along the flow line were obtained by simulation of forward models of synthetic basins with applied sinusoidal recharge of either a single period or composite of multiple periods of length similar to known climate cycles. Periodic water level components, reconstructed using singular spectrum analysis (SSA), were used to calibrate the analytical model to estimate each recharge component. The results demonstrated that periodic recharge estimates were most accurate in basins with nearly uniform transmissivity and the accuracy of the recharge estimates depends on monitoring well location. A case study of the San Pedro Basin, Arizona, is presented as an example of calibrating the analytical model to real data.

  8. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.


    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  9. Reclaimed water quality during simulated ozone-managed aquifer recharge hybrid

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min; Amy, Gary L.


    A synergistic hybrid of two treatment processes, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) combined with ozonation, was proposed for wastewater reclamation and water reuse applications. Batch reactor and soil-column experiments were performed to evaluate

  10. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Drewes, Jö rg E.; Amy, Gary L.; Maliva,, Robert G.; Keller, Stephanie


    , such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge

  11. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral–water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge (United States)

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has a potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows among many beneficial environmental application...

  12. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment


    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent


    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  13. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve


    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  14. Water quality considerations on the rise as the use of managed aquifer recharge systems widens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Niels; Stuijfzand, Pieter


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making

  15. Water quality considerations on the rise as the use of managed aquifer recharge systems widens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Niels; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making

  16. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.


    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  17. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.


    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  18. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.


    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  19. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.


    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  20. Water quality considerations on the rise as the use of managed aquifer recharge systems widens


    Hartog, Niels; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making alternative water resources available, such as reuse of communal effluents for agriculture, industry and even indirect potable reuse. As exemplified by the papers in this Special Issue, consideration...

  1. Pathogen Decay during Managed Aquifer Recharge at Four Sites with Different Geochemical Characteristics and Recharge Water Sources. (United States)

    Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S; Hodgers, L; Barry, K; Page, D; Li, Y; Dillon, P


    Recycling of stormwater water and treated effluent via managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has often been hampered because of perceptions of low microbiological quality of recovered water and associated health risks. The goal of this study was to assess the removal of selected pathogens in four large-scale MAR schemes and to determine the influence of aquifer characteristics, geochemistry, and type of recharge water on the pathogen survival times. Bacterial pathogens tested in this study had the shortest one log removal time (, 200 d). Human adenovirus and rotavirus were relatively persistent under anaerobic conditions (, >200 d). Human adenovirus survived longer than all the other enteric virus tested in the study and hence could be used as a conservative indicator for virus removal in groundwater during MAR. The results suggest that site-specific subsurface conditions such as groundwater chemistry can have considerable influence on the decay rates of enteric pathogens and that viruses are likely to be the critical pathogens from a public health perspective. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.


    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  3. Variations in water balance and recharge potential at three western desert sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Andraski, B.J.


    Radioactive and hazardous waste landfills exist at numerous desert locations in the USA. At these locations, annual precipitation is low and soils are generally dry, yet little is known about recharge of water and transport of contaminants to the water table. Recent water balance measurements made at three desert locations, Las Cruces, NM, Beatty, NV, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in the state of Washington, provide information on recharge potential under three distinctly different climate and soil conditions. All three sites show water storage increases with time when soils are coarse textured and plants are removed from the surface, the rate of increase being influenced by climatic variables such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, and wind. Lysimeter data from Hanford and Las Cruces indicate that deep drainage (recharge) from bare, sandy soils can range from 10 to > 50% of the annual precipitation. At Hanford, when desert plants are present on sandy or gravelly surface soils, deep drainage is reduced but not eliminated. When surface soils are silt loams, deep drainage is eliminated whether plants are present or not. At Las Cruces and Beatty, the presence of plants eliminated deep drainage at the measurement sites. Differences in water balance between sites are attributed to precipitation quantity and distribution and to soil and vegetation types. The implication of waste management at desert locations is that surface soil properties and plant characteristics must be considered in waste site design in order to minimize recharge potential. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Surface coal mining effects on ground water recharge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... Areas Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C., 1990 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other t...

  5. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.


    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  6. Minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge - Towards a water reuse regulatory instrument at EU level Réédition




    As an input to the design of a Legal Instrument on Water Reuse in Europe, this report recommends minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge based on a risk management approach.

  7. Water Chemistry Impacts on Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation: Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge (United States)

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic remobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is important to identify the mechanism of arse...

  8. Managed aquifer recharge with reclaimed water: approaches to a European guidance framework. (United States)

    Hochstrat, R; Wintgens, T; Kazner, C; Jeffrey, P; Jefferson, B; Melin, T


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) with reclaimed water plays a particular role in water stress mitigation, due to both the large potential benefits achieved in terms of sustainable water resources management as well as the complexity of the planning and implementation. This paper focuses on the role of policy in establishing water quality related legal frameworks that are crucial for MAR development. It analyses and compares the current practice of shaping boundary conditions, particularly in a European context but with some international comparison. The work reports on the legal aspects considered most relevant for MAR in the European Union and summarises issues addressed in aquifer recharge regulations and guidelines. Some potential actions are proposed to develop a suitable guidance framework for further exploitation of MAR benefits.

  9. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann


    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  10. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea


    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  11. Hydrologic conditions, recharge, and baseline water quality of the surficial aquifer system at Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2012-13 (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Torak, Lynn J.


    An increase of groundwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system on Jekyll Island, Georgia, prompted an investigation of hydrologic conditions and water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey during October 2012 through December 2013. The study demonstrated the importance of rainfall as the island’s main source of recharge to maintain freshwater resources by replenishing the water table from the effects of hydrologic stresses, primarily evapotranspiration and pumping. Groundwater-flow directions, recharge, and water quality of the water-table zone on the island were investigated by installing 26 shallow wells and three pond staff gages to monitor groundwater levels and water quality in the water-table zone. Climatic data from Brunswick, Georgia, were used to calculate potential maximum recharge to the water-table zone on Jekyll Island. A weather station located on the island provided only precipitation data. Additional meteorological data from the island would enhance potential evapotranspiration estimates for recharge calculations.

  12. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John


    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  13. Ecotoxicity assessment of artificial groundwater recharge with reclaimed water: a pilot-scale study. (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan


    A demonstration of artificial groundwater recharge with tertiary effluent was evaluated using a set of bioassays (acute toxicity to Daphnia, genotoxicity, estrogenic and antiestrogenic toxicity). Around 95 % genotoxicity and 53 % antiestrogenicity were removed from the feed water by ozonation, whereas significant reduction of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was achieved during a 3 days vadose soil treatment. The toxicity was further removed to the same level as the local groundwater during a 20 days aquifer soil treatment. The pilot study has shown that ozonation and soil treatments can improve the quality of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents for possible groundwater recharge purposes.

  14. Annotated bibliography on artificial recharge of ground water, 1955-67 (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.; Growitz, Douglas J.; Kam, William


    Artificial ground-water recharge has become more important as water use by agriculture, industry, and municipalities increases. Water management agencies are increasingly interested in potential use of recharge for pollution abatement, waste-water disposal, and re-use and reclamation of locally available supplies. Research projects and theoretical analyses of operational recharge systems show increased scientific emphasis on the practice. Overall ground-water basin management systems generally now contain considerations of artificial recharge, whether by direct or indirect methods. Artificial ground-water recharge is a means of conserving surface runoff for future use in places where it would otherwise be lost, of protecting ground-water basins from salt-water encroachment along coastal areas, and of storing and distributing imported water. The biblio-graphy emphasizes technology; however, annotations of articles on waste-water reclamation, ground-water management and ground-water basin management are included. Subjects closely related to artificial recharge, including colloidal flow through porous media, field or laboratory instrumentation, and waste disposal by deep well injection are included where they specifically relate to potential recharge problems. Where almost the same material has been published in several journals, all references are included on the assumption that some publications may be more readily available to interested persons than others. Other publications, especially those of foreign literature, provided abstracts that were used freely as time limitations precluded obtaining and annotating all materials. Abstracts taken from published sources are noted. These are: "Abstracts of North American Geology," U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; "Abstracts of Recent Published Material on Foil and Water Conservation," ARS-41 series, Agricultural F.esearch Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; "Water and1 Water

  15. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.


    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins, two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most reliable results are those derived from a reduced form of the chloride-ion model because they reflect integrated, basinwide processes in terms of only three measured variables: precipitation amount, precipitation chemistry, and streamflow chemistry

  16. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010 (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.


    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  17. Assessment of check-dam groundwater recharge with water-balance calculations (United States)

    Djuma, Hakan; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Eliades, Marinos


    Studies on the enhancement of groundwater recharge by check-dams in arid and semi-arid environments mainly focus on deriving water infiltration rates from the check-dam ponding areas. This is usually achieved by applying simple water balance models, more advanced models (e.g., two dimensional groundwater models) and field tests (e.g., infiltrometer test or soil pit tests). Recharge behind the check-dam can be affected by the built-up of sediment as a result of erosion in the upstream watershed area. This natural process can increase the uncertainty in the estimates of the recharged water volume, especially for water balance calculations. Few water balance field studies of individual check-dams have been presented in the literature and none of them presented associated uncertainties of their estimates. The objectives of this study are i) to assess the effect of a check-dam on groundwater recharge from an ephemeral river; and ii) to assess annual sedimentation at the check-dam during a 4-year period. The study was conducted on a check-dam in the semi-arid island of Cyprus. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth and check-dam topography in order to establish check-dam water height, volume, evaporation, outflow and recharge relations. Topographic surveys were repeated at the end of consecutive hydrological years to estimate the sediment built up in the reservoir area of the check dam. Also, sediment samples were collected from the check-dam reservoir area for bulk-density analyses. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water balance model was applied at two locations: at the check-dam and corresponding reservoir area, and at a 4-km stretch of the river bed without check-dam. Results showed that a check-dam with a storage capacity of 25,000 m3 was able to recharge to the aquifer, in four years, a total of 12 million m3 out of the 42 million m3 of measured (or modelled) streamflow. Recharge from the analyzed 4-km long river section without

  18. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  19. Estimates of ground-water recharge rates for two small basins in central Nevada (United States)

    Lichty, R.W.; McKinley, P.W.


    Estimates of ground-water recharge rates developed from hydrologic modeling studies are presented for 3-Springs and East Stewart basins. two small basins (analog sites) located in central Nevada. The analog-site studies were conducted to aid in the estimation of recharge to the paleohydrologic regime associated with ground water in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain under wetter climatic conditions. The two analog sites are located to the north and at higher elevations than Yucca Mountain, and the prevailing (current) climatic conditions at these sites is thought to be representative of the possible range of paleoclimatic conditions in the general area of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Two independent modeling approaches were conducted at each of the analog sites using observed hydrologic data on precipitation, temperature, solar radiation stream discharge, and chloride-ion water chemistry for a 6-year study period (October 1986 through September 1992). Both models quantify the hydrologic water-balance equation and yield estimates of ground-water recharge, given appropriate input data. The first model uses a traditional approach to quantify watershed hydrology through a precipitation-runoff modeling system that accounts for the spatial variability of hydrologic inputs, processes, and responses (outputs) using a dailycomputational time step. The second model is based on the conservative nature of the dissolved chloride ion in selected hydrologic environments, and its use as a natural tracer allows the computation of acoupled, water and chloride-ion, mass-balance system of equations to estimate available water (sum ofsurface runoff and groundwater recharge). Results of the modeling approaches support the conclusion that reasonable estimates of average-annual recharge to ground water range from about 1 to 3 centimeters per year for 3-Springs basin (the drier site), and from about 30 to 32 centimeters per year for East Stewart basin (the wetter site). The most

  20. Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds, which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge.

  1. Impact assessment of artificial recharge and geo-chemical characterization of the waters of the slick Tebolba (Eastern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Hajer


    This study concerned the impact assessment of artificial recharge of a coastal aquifer (Tebolba) from the waters of the dam Nebhana and chemical characterization of its waters. The analysis maps piezometric drawn and salinity at various dates since 1940, the establishment of chronic recharge from the years 1992 to 2006, as well as geochemical study of groundwater in the slick Tebolba have enabled us to reach the many results. This study using a multidisciplinary approach (hydrodynamics and geochemical) seeks an assessment of impacts of recharging the water table in Tebolba from the waters of the dam Nebhana through the history of the qualitative and quantitative water the water and a hydro-geochemical study the current state of the waters of the water. (Author). 45 refs

  2. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú


    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  3. Stable isotope study of ground water recharge and movement in the Shogawa Fan, Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Oda, Matsuhisa


    Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements of ground and river waters of the Shogawa Fan, Toyama, have been used to identify sources of water in aquifers in the Fan. A significant difference exists in deltaD and delta 18 O values between two major rivers flowing onto the Fan. On the basis of this difference, it is indicated that aquifers in the eastern half of the Fan are recharged from the Sho River and those in the western half of the Fan are from the Oyabe River. Chloride measurements of the waters support this identification of water sources. Contributions of other water sources to the aquifers are also indicated. The flow rate of infiltration from the Sho River is estimated to be 10-13 m/day in the confined aquifers in the northern part of the Fan. (author)

  4. Recharge and discharge areas of the Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity, Florida (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.


    The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of most of the freshwater used in the St. Johns River Water Management District. An important step in managing water resources is the delineation of recharge and discharge areas. Geohydrologic factors to be considered when delineating recharge and discharge areas include: altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface; direction and magnitude of the gradient between the water table and the potentiometric surface; and thickness and permeability of the overlying sediments. Recharge to the aquifer comes almost entirely from rainfall within the Water Management District. Significant recharge occurs where the aquifer is at or very near land surface, and where the overlying sediments are very permeable sand so that recharge takes place downward leakage. Recharge also occurs through sinkholes, sinkhole lakes, and other lakes that have a good connection to the aquifer. Major recharge areas are delineated on the map. Discharge occurs in areas of artesian flow (where the potentiometric surface is above land surface), primarily by diffuse upward leakage and by discharge from springs. Fifty-five springs, with total discharge of about 1,600 million gallons per day, are in the Water Management District. Areas of discharge and the location of springs are shown on the map. In 1980, total pumpage in the Water Management District was about 1,000 million gallons per day. Under predevelopment conditions, discharge by springs and upward leakage approximately balanced recharged. Additional discharge by pumpage may or may not be balanced by decreased spring discharge of increased downward leakage. Examination of long-term water level trends can indicate if recharge and discharge balance. Graphs of rainfall, water levels, and municipal pumpage for Jacksonville, Orlando, and Daytona Beach are shown on the map. (USGS)

  5. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012 (United States)

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    The city of Wichita artificially recharged about 1 billion gallons of water into the Equus Beds aquifer during 2007–2012 as part of Phase I recharge of the Artificial Storage and Recovery project. This report, prepared in cooperation by the U.S. Geological Survey and the city of Wichita, Kansas, summarizes Little Arkansas River (source-water for artificial recharge) andEquus Beds aquifer water quality before (1995–2006) and during (2007–2012) Artificial Storage and Recovery Phase I recharge. Additionally, aquifer water-quality distribution maps are presented and water-quality changes associated with Phase I recharge timing are described.

  6. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien


    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  7. Fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine in recycled water after recharge into anaerobic aquifer. (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Pitoi, M M; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; McKinley, A J


    Laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to assess the fate of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in aerobic recycled water that was recharged into a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer, as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. Laboratory studies demonstrated a high mobility of NDMA in the Leederville aquifer system with a retardation coefficient of 1.1. Anaerobic degradation column and (14)C-NDMA microcosm studies showed that anaerobic conditions of the aquifer provided a suitable environment for the biodegradation of NDMA with first-order kinetics. At microgram per litre concentrations, inhibition of biodegradation was observed with degradation half-lives (260±20 days) up to an order of magnitude greater than at nanogram per litre concentrations (25-150 days), which are more typical of environmental concentrations. No threshold effects were observed at the lower ng L(-1) concentrations with NDMA concentrations reduced from 560 ng L(-1) to recharge bore. These microcosm experiments showed a faster degradation rate than anaerobic microcosms, with a degradation half-life of 8±2 days, after a lag period of approximately 10 days. Results from a MAR field trial recharging the Leederville aquifer with aerobic recycled water showed that NDMA concentrations reduced from 2.5±1.0 ng L(-1) to 1.3±0.4 ng L(-1) between the recharge bore and a monitoring location 20 m down gradient (an estimated aquifer residence time of 10 days), consistent with data from the aerobic microcosm experiment. Further down gradient, in the anaerobic zone of the aquifer, NDMA degradation could not be assessed, as NDMA concentrations were too close to their analytical detection limit (<1 ng L(-1)). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MARSOL: Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought (United States)

    Schueth, Christoph


    Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demonstration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

  9. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  10. Ground-water recharge from small intermittent streams in the western Mojave Desert, California: Chapter G in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703) (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.


    Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed.Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans.Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not

  11. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi


    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  12. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.


    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country\\'s treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Restoration of wadi aquifers by artificial recharge with treated waste water. (United States)

    Missimer, Thomas M; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary; Maliva, Robert G; Keller, Stephanie


    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country's treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone. (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon


    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water Quality Considerations on the Rise as the Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems Widens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hartog


    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making alternative water resources available, such as reuse of communal effluents for agriculture, industry and even indirect potable reuse. As exemplified by the papers in this Special Issue, consideration of water quality plays a major role in developing the full potential for MAR application, ranging from the improvement of water quality to operational issues (e.g., well clogging or sustainability concerns (e.g., infiltration of treated waste water. With the application of MAR expanding into a wider range of conditions, from deserts to urban and coastal areas, and purposes, from large scale strategic storage of desalinated water and the reuse of waste water, the importance of these considerations are on the rise. Addressing these appropriately will contribute to a greater understanding, operational reliability and acceptance of MAR applications, and lead to a range of engineered MAR systems that help increase their effectiveness to help secure the availability of water at the desired quality for the future.

  16. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site (United States)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  17. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site. (United States)

    Tobella, J.


    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  18. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson


    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  19. Increasing the utility of regional water table maps: a new method for estimating groundwater recharge (United States)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Johnson, M.


    Groundwater table elevations are one of the most fundamental measurements used to characterize unconfined aquifers, groundwater flow patterns, and aquifer sustainability over time. In this study, we developed an analytical model that relies on analysis of groundwater elevation contour (equipotential) shape, aquifer transmissivity, and streambed gradient between two parallel, perennial streams. Using two existing regional water table maps, created at different times using different methods, our analysis of groundwater elevation contours, transmissivity and streambed gradient produced groundwater recharge rates (42-218 mm yr-1) that were consistent with previous independent recharge estimates from different methods. The three regions we investigated overly the High Plains Aquifer in Nebraska and included some areas where groundwater is used for irrigation. The three regions ranged from 1,500 to 3,300 km2, with either Sand Hills surficial geology, or Sand Hills transitioning to loess. Based on our results, the approach may be used to increase the value of existing water table maps, and may be useful as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the quality of groundwater table maps, identify areas in need of detailed aquifer characterization and expansion of groundwater monitoring networks, and/or as a first approximation before investing in more complex approaches to groundwater recharge estimation.

  20. Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California; Phase 3 (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.


    Infiltration tests were used to evaluate the potential of basin spreading surface water as a means of artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, California. Two infiltration sites near Lockeford and Linden were selected on the basis of information collected during the first two phases of the study. Data from the infiltration tests indicate that the two sites are acceptable for recharge by the basin-spreading method. Infiltration rates ranged between 6.7 and 10.5 ft/day near Lockeford and between 2.6 and 11.2 ft/day near Linden. Interpretation of these data is limited by lack of information on the response of the saturated zone during testing and by the inherent difficulty in extrapolating the results of small-scale tests to larger long-term operations. Lithology is a major factor that controls infiltration rates at the test sites. The unsaturated zone is characterized by heterogeneous layers of coarse- and fine- grained materials. Clay layers of low hydraulic conductivity commonly form discontinuous lenses that may cause a transient perched water table to develop during recharge. Water level measurements from wells screened in the unsaturated zone indicate that the perched water table could reach the land surface after 2 and 5 months of recharge near Lockeford and Linden, respectively. These figures probably represent the minimum time necessary for saturation of the land. Another major factor that affects infiltration rates is the quality of the recharge water, particularly the suspended sediment content. The clogging action of suspended sediment may be minimized by: (1) pretreatment of recharge water in a settling pond, (2) adherence to a routine program of monitoring and maintenance, and (3) proper design of the recharge facility. Other factors that affect infiltration rates include basin excavation technique, basin shape, and maintenance procedures. Efficient operation of the recharge facility requires careful attention to the

  1. Climate change impacts on the temperature of recharge water in a temporate climate (United States)

    Murdock, E. A.


    Groundwater outflows into headwater streams play an important role in controlling local stream temperature and maintaining habitat for cool and cold water fisheries. Because of the ecological and economic importance of these fisheries, there is significant concern about the impacts of climate change on these habitats. Many studies of stream temperature changes under climate change assume that groundwater outflows will vary with long-term mean air temperature, perhaps with a temporal lag to account for the relatively slow rate of heat diffusion through soils. This assumption, however, ignores the fact that climate change will also impact the temporal patterns of recharge in some regions. In Southern Wisconsin, much of the annual recharge comes from the spring snowmelt event, as a large amount of meltwater is released onto saturated soils with little to no active transpiration. Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model populated with climate date from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), we show that the temperature of water passing below the rooting zone in a simulated corn planting in Southern Wisconsin will change significantly less than the air temperature by midcentury. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the variability of heat flow mechanisms in the subsurface while assessing climate change impacts on surface water resources. In landscapes such as Wisconsin's driftless area, where deep aquifers feed numerous localized headwater streams, meltwater-driven recharge may provide a buffer against rising air temperatures for some time into the future. Fully understanding this dynamic will allow for targeted conservation efforts in those streams that are likely to show higher than average resilience to rising temperatures, but which remain vulnerable to development, stormwater runoff, agricultural pollution and other ecological threats. In a world with dwindling coldwater resources, identifying and

  2. Sources of high-chloride water and managed aquifer recharge in an alluvial aquifer in California, USA (United States)

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Metzger, Loren F.


    As a result of pumping in excess of recharge, water levels in alluvial aquifers within the Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Subbasin, 130 km east of San Francisco (California, USA), declined below sea level in the early 1950s and have remained so to the present. Chloride concentrations in some wells increased during that time and exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L, resulting in removal of some wells from service. Sources of high-chloride water include irrigation return in 16 % of sampled wells and water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater in 50 % of sampled wells. Chloride concentrations resulting from irrigation return commonly did not exceed 100 mg/L, although nitrate concentrations were as high as 25 mg/L as nitrogen. Chloride concentrations ranged from less than 100-2,050 mg/L in wells affected by water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater. Sequential electromagnetic logs show movement of high-chloride water from delta sediments to pumping wells through permeable interconnected aquifer layers. δD and δ18O data show most groundwater originated as recharge along the front of the Sierra Nevada, but tritium and carbon-14 data suggest recharge rates in this area are low and have decreased over recent geologic time. Managed aquifer recharge at two sites show differences in water-level responses to recharge and in the physical movement of recharged water with depth related to subsurface geology. Well-bore flow logs also show rapid movement of water from recharge sites through permeable interconnected aquifer layers to pumping wells.

  3. Sources of high-chloride water and managed aquifer recharge in an alluvial aquifer in California, USA (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Izbicki, John A.; Metzger, Loren F.


    As a result of pumping in excess of recharge, water levels in alluvial aquifers within the Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Subbasin, 130 km east of San Francisco (California, USA), declined below sea level in the early 1950s and have remained so to the present. Chloride concentrations in some wells increased during that time and exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L, resulting in removal of some wells from service. Sources of high-chloride water include irrigation return in 16 % of sampled wells and water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater in 50 % of sampled wells. Chloride concentrations resulting from irrigation return commonly did not exceed 100 mg/L, although nitrate concentrations were as high as 25 mg/L as nitrogen. Chloride concentrations ranged from less than 100–2,050 mg/L in wells affected by water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater. Sequential electromagnetic logs show movement of high-chloride water from delta sediments to pumping wells through permeable interconnected aquifer layers. δD and δ18O data show most groundwater originated as recharge along the front of the Sierra Nevada, but tritium and carbon-14 data suggest recharge rates in this area are low and have decreased over recent geologic time. Managed aquifer recharge at two sites show differences in water-level responses to recharge and in the physical movement of recharged water with depth related to subsurface geology. Well-bore flow logs also show rapid movement of water from recharge sites through permeable interconnected aquifer layers to pumping wells.

  4. Characteristics and conditions of the recharging water in the Guarani Aquifer System in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risiga, A.; Venecio, M.; Sosa, D.; Lenzi, L.


    In order to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of the water recharging The Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG) in Eastern Paraguay, and their relation to hydrological and environmental issues, this work focussed on the aquifers integrating that System, Independence Group, Misiones Formation and the Basalts of Alto Parana Formation.The regional climatic characterization for the period 1901/2000 was elaborated with monthly precipitation information from a grid of spatially distributed data, and a series Hydric balance on a monthly basis was made with available information from the whole record length at each station in the studied area, which shows the predominance of annual excesses s in all the gauging stations.The infiltration and hydraulic conductivity tests performed in different soils evidence values of basic infiltration and hydraulic conductivity oscillating between 3 and 9 mm/h.The previously compiled information and the one elaborated for the project were integrated into a geographic information system.Besides, three causes originating potential risk of soil, surface water and groundwater contamination were identified: the increasing use of agr i-chemicals, the deficit in basic sanitary infrastructure and the absence of monitoring and adequate environmental conditions in the industrial activities and effluent removal.Therefore, there is the need to work with a monitoring network, to implement actions of environmental control and to encourage more detailed studies to enable the follow up and control of recharge water

  5. All-Organic Rechargeable Battery with Reversibility Supported by "Water-in-Salt" Electrolyte. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Yu, Hongchuan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao


    Rechargeable batteries with organic electrodes are preferred to those with transition-metal-containing electrodes for their environmental friendliness, and resource availability, but all such batteries reported to date are based on organic electrolytes, which raise concerns of safety and performance. Here an aqueous-electrolyte all-organic rechargeable battery is reported, with a maximum operating voltage of 2.1 V, in which polytriphenylamine (PTPAn) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived polyimide (PNTCDA) serve as cathode and anode material, respectively. A key feature of the design is use of a "water-in-salt" electrolyte to bind "free" water; this impedes the side reaction of water oxidation, thereby enabling excellent reversibility in aqueous solution. The battery can deliver a maximum energy density of 52.8 Wh kg -1 , which is close to most of the all-organic batteries with organic electrolytes. The battery exhibits a supercapacitor-like high power of 32 000 W kg -1 and a long cycle life (700 cycles with capacity retention of 85 %), due to the kinetics not being limited by ion diffusion at either electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin


    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  7. Analytical Analyses of Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Infiltrated Water for Managed Aquifer Recharge (United States)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Ledder, G.; Kacimov, A. R.


    Disposal of excessive runoff or treated sewage into wadis and ephemeral streams is a common practice and an important hydrological problem in many Middle Eastern countries. While chemical and biological properties of the injected treated wastewater may be different from those of the receiving aquifer, the density contrast between the two fluids can be small. Therefore, studies of the fluid interface for variable density fluids or water intrusion are not directly relevant in many Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) problems. Other factors, such as the transient nature of injection and lack of detailed aquifer information must be considered. The disposed water reaching the water table through the vadose zone creates groundwater mounds, deforms the original water table, and develops finite-size convex-concave lenses of treated water over receiving water. After cessation of infiltration, these mounds flatten, water levels become horizontal, and infiltrated water becomes fully embedded in the receiving aquifer. The shape of the treated water body is controlled by the aquifer parameters, the magnitude of ambient flow, and the duration, rate, and cyclicity of infiltration. In case of limited aquifer data, advective transport modeling offers the most appropriate tools for predicting plume shapes over time, but surprisingly little work has been done on this important 3D flow problem. We investigate the lateral and vertical spreading of infiltrated water combining techniques of spatial velocity analyses by Zlotnik and Ledder (1992, 1993) with particle tracking. This approach allows for evaluating the geometry of the plume and the protection zone, the flow development phases, and other temporal and spatial effects and results can be used in conditions of limited data availability and quality. (Funding was provided by the USAID, DAI Subcontract 1001624-12S-19745)

  8. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13 (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott


    Discharge from springs in Florida is sourced from aquifers, such as the Upper Floridan aquifer, which is overlain by an upper confining unit that locally can have properties of an aquifer. Water levels in aquifers are affected by several factors, such as precipitation, recharge, and groundwater withdrawals, which in turn can affect discharge from springs. Therefore, identifying groundwater sources and recharge characteristics can be important in assessing how these factors might affect flows and water levels in springs and can be informative in broader applications such as groundwater modeling. Recharge characteristics include the residence time of water at the surface, apparent age of recharge, and recharge water temperature.The groundwater sources and recharge characteristics of three springs that discharge from the banks of the Suwannee River in northern Florida were assessed for this study: Bell Springs, White Springs, and Suwannee Springs. Sources of groundwater were also assessed for a 150-foot-deep well finished within the Upper Floridan aquifer, hereafter referred to as the UFA well. Water samples were collected for geochemical analyses in November 2012 and October 2013 from the three springs and the UFA well. Samples were analyzed for a suite of major ions, dissolved gases, and isotopes of sulfur, strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Daily means of water level and specific conductance at White Springs were continuously recorded from October 2012 through December 2013 by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Suwannee River stage at White Springs was computed on the basis of stage at a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage about 2.4 miles upstream. Water levels in two wells, located about 2.5 miles northwest and 13 miles southeast of White Springs, were also used in the analyses.Major ion concentrations were used to differentiate water from the springs and Upper Floridan aquifer into three groups: Bell Springs, UFA well, and White and Suwannee Springs. When

  9. Trace element patterns in Dutch coastal dunes after 50 years of artificial recharge with Rhine River water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, P.J.


    Trace elements (TEs) are important in water quality monitoring of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, because they need to be tested against maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs), and some can be used as a tracer of either infiltration water, pollution or geochemical processes. The behavior

  10. Evaluation of water harvesting and managed aquifer recharge potential in Upper Fara'basin in Palestine : Comparing MYWAS and water productivity approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiehatten, B.M.H.; Assaf, K; Barhumic, Hala; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Ghaneme, Marwan; Jayyousi, Anan; Marei, Amer; Mostert, E.; Shadeed, Sameer; Schoups, G.H.W.; Smidt, Ebel; Zayed, O


    The Upper Wadi Fara' basin, located at the West Bank, Palestine, has an average annual rainfall of 500 mm, which occurs only during winter. Agriculture uses stored soil water and complimentary irrigation from groundwater. Water harvesting (WH) and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) therefore is

  11. Water circulation within a high-Arctic glaciated valley (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Recharge of a glacial river (United States)

    Marciniak, Marek; Dragon, Krzysztof; Chudziak, Łukasz


    This article presents an investigation of the runoff of a glacial river located in the high Arctic region of Spitsbergen. The Ebba River runoff was measured during three melting seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The most important component of the river recharge is the flow of melting water from glaciers (76-82% of total river runoff). However, the other components (surface water and groundwater) also made a significant contribution to the river recharge. The contribution of groundwater flow in total river runoff was estimated by measurements performed in four groups of piezometers located in different parts of the valley. The hydrogeological parameters that characterize shallow aquifer (thickness of the active layer, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater level fluctuations) were recognized by direct field measurements. The groundwater recharging river was the most variable recharge component, and ranged from 1% of the total runoff at the beginning of the melting season to even 27% at the end of summer.

  12. Bacterial community and groundwater quality changes in an anaerobic aquifer during groundwater recharge with aerobic recycled water. (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Morris, Christina; Shackelton, Mark; Patterson, Bradley M


    Managed aquifer recharge offers the opportunity to manage groundwater resources by storing water in aquifers when in surplus and thus increase the amount of groundwater available for abstraction during high demand. The Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA) is undertaking a Groundwater Replenishment Trial to evaluate the effects of recharging aerobic recycled water (secondary treated wastewater subjected to ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection) into the anaerobic Leederville aquifer in Perth, WA. Using culture-independent methods, this study showed the presence of Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Cytophaga, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria, and a decrease in microbial diversity with an increase in depth of aquifer. Assessment of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater before and after recharge revealed that recharging the aquifer with aerobic recycled water resulted in elevated redox potentials in the aquifer and increased bacterial numbers, but reduced microbial diversity. The increase in bacterial numbers and reduced microbial diversity in groundwater could be a reflection of an increased denitrifier and sulfur-oxidizing populations in the aquifer, as a result of the increased availability of nitrate, oxygen, and residual organic matter. This is consistent with the geochemical data that showed pyrite oxidation and denitrification within the aquifer after recycled water recharge commenced. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge? (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.


    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  14. Fate of benzotriazole and 5-methylbenzotriazole in recycled water recharged into an anaerobic aquifer: column studies. (United States)

    Alotaibi, M D; Patterson, B M; McKinley, A J; Reeder, A Y; Furness, A J; Donn, M J


    The fate of benzotriazole (BTri) and 5-methylbenzotriazole (5-MeBT) was investigated under anaerobic conditions at nano gram per litre concentrations in large-scale laboratory columns to mimic a managed aquifer recharge replenishment strategy in Western Australia. Investigations of BTri and 5-MeBT sorption behaviour demonstrated mobility of the compounds with retardation coefficients of 2.0 and 2.2, respectively. Degradation processes over a period of 220 days indicated first order biodegradation of the BTri and 5-MeBT under anaerobic aquifer conditions after a biological lag-time of approximately 30-60 days. Biodegradation half-lives of 29 ± 2 and 26 ± 1 days for BTri and 5-MeBT were respectively observed, with no threshold effect to biodegradation observed at the 200 ng L(-1). The detection of degradation products provided further evidence of BTri and 5-MeBT biodegradation. These results suggested that if BTri and 5-MeBT were present in recycled water recharged to the Leederville aquifer, biodegradation during aquifer passage is likely given sufficient aquifer residence times or travel distances between recycled water injection and groundwater extraction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating geochemical aspects of managed aquifer recharge by column experiments with alternating desalinated water and groundwater. (United States)

    Ronen-Eliraz, Gefen; Russak, Amos; Nitzan, Ido; Guttman, Joseph; Kurtzman, Daniel


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) events are occasionally carried out with surplus desalinated seawater that has been post-treated with CaCO 3 in infiltration ponds overlying the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. This water's chemical characteristics differ from those of any other water recharged to the aquifer and of the natural groundwater. As the MAR events are short (hours to weeks), the sediment under the infiltration ponds will intermittently host desalinated and natural groundwater. As part of comprehensive research on the influence of those events, column experiments were designed to simulate the alternation of the two water types: post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) and natural groundwater (GW). Each experiment included three stages: (i) saturation with GW; (ii) inflow of PTDES; (iii) inflow of GW. Three runs were conducted, each with different sediments extracted from the field and representing a different layer below the infiltration pond: (i) sand (<1% CaCO 3 ), (ii) sand containing 7% CaCO 3 , and (iii) crushed calcareous sandstone (35% CaCO 3 ). The results from all columns showed enrichment of K + and Mg 2+ (up to 0.4meq/L for 20 pore volumes) when PTDES replaced GW, whereas an opposite trend of Ca 2+ depletion (up to 0.5meq/L) was observed only in the columns that contained a high percentage of CaCO 3 . When GW replaced PTDES, depletion of Mg 2+ and K + was noted. The results indicated that adsorption/desorption of cations are the main processes causing the observed enrichment/depletion. It was concluded that the high concentration of Ca 2+ (relative to the total concentration of cations) and the low concentration of Mg 2+ in the PTDES relative to natural GW are the factors controlling the main sediment-water interaction. The enrichment of PTDES with Mg 2+ may be viewed as an additional post-treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA


    Thomas M. Missimer; Weixing Guo; John Woolschlager; Robert G. Maliva


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the en...

  17. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.


    Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek

  18. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model (United States)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John


    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  19. Flow Velocity Effects on Fe(III Clogging during Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Urban Storm Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du


    Full Text Available Storm water harvesting and storage has been employed for nearly a hundred years, and using storm water to recharge aquifers is one of the most important ways to relieve water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. However, it cannot be widely adopted because of clogging problems. The risk of chemical clogging is mostly associated with iron oxyhydroxide precipitation; anhydrous ferric oxide (HFO clogging remains a problem in many wellfields. This paper investigates Fe(III clogging levels at three flow velocities (Darcy velocities, 0.46, 1.62 and 4.55 m/d. The results indicate that clogging increases with flow velocity, and is mostly affected by the first 0–3 cm of the column. The highest water velocity caused full clogging in 35 h, whereas the lowest took 53 h to reach an stable 60% reduction in hydraulic conductivity. For the high flow velocity, over 90% of the HFO was deposited in the 0–1 cm section. In contrast, the lowest flow velocity deposited only 75% in this section. Fe(III deposition was used as an approximation for Fe(OH3. High flow velocity may promote Fe(OH3 flocculent precipitate, thus increasing Fe(III deposition. The main mechanism for a porous matrix interception of Fe(III colloidal particles was surface filtration. Thus, the effects of deposition, clogging phenomena, and physicochemical mechanisms, are more significant at higher velocities.

  20. Hydrogeophysics and geochemistry reveal heterogeneity and water quality improvements in aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) (Invited) (United States)

    Parsekian, A.; Regnery, J.; Wing, A.; Knight, R. J.; Drewes, J. E.


    Aquifer recharge and recover (ARR) is the process of infiltrating water into the ground for storage and withdrawal through wells at a later time. Two significant challenges faced during the design of ARR systems are 1) evaluating aquifer heterogeneity and 2) understanding the rock fluid interactions; these knowledge gaps may have profound impacts on the volume of recoverable water and the improvement in water quality in comparison with the source-water. Our objective in this research is to leverage the advantages of hydrogeophysical measurements and geochemical sampling to reveal the properties of an aquifer through which ARR water travels with the goal of informing current operations and future design decisions. Combined geophysical and geochemical investigations reveal subsurface heterogeneity, indicate possible flow paths though the aquifer and quantify specific reductions in contaminant concentrations. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used to image the subsurface throughout two key infiltration/extraction areas of an ARR site in Colorado, USA. The most valuable results came from 2.5D ERT revealing the structural patterns and suggesting the distribution of textural composition of unconsolidated sediments. Geochemical measurements on transects intersecting the geophysical measurements resolved bulk parameters (i.e. total organic carbon, cations, anions) and trace organic contaminants (e.g. trace organic compounds) and were also used to estimate mixing and water travel times and assess the performance of the ARR site regarding water quality and quantity. Our results indicate that the subsurface is highly heterogeneous at our study site and that the coarse-grained sedimentary units, acting as the best conduit for transporting water, are likely discontinuous. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate certain areas of the infiltration basins may have good hydraulic connections to

  1. Rechargeable biofilm-controlling tubing materials for use in dental unit water lines. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Porteous, Nuala; Sun, Yuyu


    A simple and practical surface grafting approach was developed to introduce rechargeable N-halamine-based antimicrobial functionality onto the inner surfaces of continuous small-bore polyurethane (PU) dental unit waterline (DUWL) tubing. In this approach, tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of a free-radical initiator, dicumyl peroxide (DCP), flowed through the PU tubing (inner diameter of 1/16 in., or 1.6 mm) to diffuse DCP into the tubing's inner walls, which was used as initiator in the subsequent grafting polymerization of methacrylamide (MAA) onto the tubing. Upon chlorine bleach treatment, the amide groups of the grafted MAA side chains were transformed into acyclic N-halamines. The reactions were confirmed with attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR) spectra and iodometric titration. The mechanical properties of the tubing were not significantly affected by the grafting reactions. The biofilm-controlling function of the new N-halamine-based PU tubing was evaluated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), one of the most isolated water bacteria from DUWLs, in a continuous bacterial flow model. Bacteria culturing and SEM studies showed that the inner surfaces of the new N-halamine-based PU tubing completely prevented bacterial biofilm formation for at least three to four weeks. After that, bacteria began to colonize the tubing surface. However, the lost function was fully regenerated by exposing the tubing inner surfaces to diluted chlorine bleach. The recharging process could be repeated periodically to further extend the biofilm-controlling duration for long-term applications.

  2. Recharge contribution to the Guarani Aquifer System estimated from the water balance method in a representative watershed. (United States)

    Wendland, Edson; Gomes, Luis H; Troeger, Uwe


    The contribution of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems is essential information required to establish sustainable water resources management. The objective of this work was to determine the groundwater outflow in the Ribeirão da Onça Basin using a water balance model of the saturated soil zone. The basin is located in the outcrop region of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The water balance method involved the determination of direct recharge values, groundwater storage variation and base flow. The direct recharge was determined by the water table fluctuation method (WTF). The base flow was calculated by the hydrograph separation method, which was generated by a rain-flow model supported by biweekly streamflow measurements in the control section. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths corresponding to the variation zone of the groundwater level to determine the specific yield of the soil (drainable porosity). Water balances were performed in the saturated zone for the hydrological years from February 2004 to January 2007. The direct recharge ranged from 14.0% to 38.0%, and groundwater outflow from 0.4% to 2.4% of the respective rainfall during the same period.

  3. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral-water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Jun, Young-Shin


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows, among many other beneficial environmental applications. However, field MAR sites have experienced arsenic mobilization from aquifer formation minerals due to induced changes in groundwater chemistry. To address this environmental concern, it is crucial to understand the potential sources and sinks impacting arsenic mobilization. This paper outlines important mineral-water interactions that can occur at MAR sites. Detailed information on minerals of concern, physiochemical processes for arsenic mobilization or attenuation, and the potential impact of microbial activity and hydrology on these processes is provided. Based on these mineral-water interactions, guidelines for predicting arsenic mobility are presented, and recommendations are made concerning MAR site monitoring. The review emphasizes important aspects in correlating interfacial reactions to reactive transport modeling and elucidating future challenges, a first step toward developing safer and more sustainable MAR operations.

  4. Water (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  5. Characterizing Field Biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater with Active Reclaimed Water Recharge (United States)

    McCraven, S.; Zhou, Q.; Garcia, J.; Gasca, M.; Johnson, T.


    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging contaminant in groundwater, because of its aqueous miscibility, exceptional animal toxicity, and human carcinogenicity. NDMA detections in groundwater have been tracked to either decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) used in rocket fuel facilities or chlorine disinfection in wastewater reclamation plants. Laboratory experiments on both unsaturated and saturated soil samples have demonstrated that NDMA can be biodegraded by microbial activity, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, very limited direct evidence for its biodegradation has been found from the field in saturated groundwater. Our research aimed to evaluate photolysis and biodegradation of NDMA occurring along the full travel path - from wastewater reclamation plant effluent, through rivers and spreading grounds, to groundwater. For this evaluation, we established an extensive monitoring network to characterize NDMA concentrations at effluent discharge points, surface water stations, and groundwater monitoring and production wells, during the operation of the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge facilities in Los Angeles County, California. Field monitoring for NDMA has been conducted for more than six years, including 32 months of relatively lower NDMA concentrations in effluent, 43 months of elevated NDMA effluent concentrations, and 7 months with significantly reduced NDMA effluent concentrations. The NDMA effluent concentration increase and significant concentration decrease were caused by changes in treatment processes. The NDMA sampling data imply that significant biodegradation occurred in groundwater, accounting for a 90% mass reduction of NDMA over the six-year monitoring period. In addition, the occurrence of a discrete well monitored effluent release during the study period allowed critical analysis of the fate of NDMA in a well- characterized, localized groundwater flow subsystem. The data indicate that 80% of the

  6. Effect of urban stormwater runoff on ground water beneath recharge basins on Long Island, New York (United States)

    Ku, H.F.; Simmons, D.L.


    Urban stormwater runoff was monitored during 1980-82 to investigate the source, type, quantity, and fate of contaminants routed to the more than 3,000 recharge basins on Long Island and to determine whether this runoff might be a significant source of contamination to the groundwater reservoir. Forty-six storms were monitored at five recharge basins in representative land use areas (strip commercial, shopping-mall parking lot, major highway, low-density residential, and medium-density residential). Runoff:precipitation ratios indicate that all storm runoff is derived from precipitation on impervious surfaces in the drainage area, except during storms of high intensity or long duration, when additional runoff can be derived from precipitation on permeable surfaces. Lead was present in highway runoff in concentrations up to 3300 micrograms/L, and chloride was found in parking lot runoff concentrations up to 1,100 mg/L during winter, when salt is used for deicing. In the five composite stormwater samples and nine groundwater grab samples that were analyzed for 113 EPA-designated ' priority pollutants, ' four constituents were detected in concentrations exceeding New York State guidelines of 50 micrograms/L for an individual organic compound in drinking water: p-chloro-m-cresol (79 micrograms/L); 2 ,4-dimethylphenol (96 micrograms/L); 4-nitrophenol (58 micrograms/L); and methylene chloride (230 micrograms/L in either groundwater or stormwater at the highway basin). One stormwater sample and two groundwater samples exceeded New York State guidelines for total organic compounds in drinking water (100 micrograms/L). The presence of these constituents is attributed to contamination from point sources rather than to the quality of runoff from urban areas. The median number of indicator bacteria in stormwater ranged from 0.1 to 10 billion MPN/100 ml. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude during the warm season. The use of recharge

  7. Interactions between deep bedrock aquifers and surface water in function of recharge and topography: a numerical study (United States)

    Goderniaux, P.; Davy, P.; Le Borgne, T.; Bresciani, E.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.


    In crystalline rock regions, such as Brittany (France), important reserves of groundwater into deep fractured aquifers are increasingly used and provide high quality water compared to shallow aquifers which can be subject to agricultural contamination. However, recharge processes of these deep aquifers and interactions with surface water are not yet fully understood. In some areas, intensive pumping is carried out without guarantee of the resource quantity and quality. Understanding these processes is crucial for sustainable management of the resource. In this study, we study how deep groundwater fluxes, pathways, ages, and river-aquifer interactions vary according to recharge. We assume that water flowing from the ground surface is distributed between shallow more permeable layers and deep layers. This repartition mostly depends on recharge rates. With high recharge, groundwater levels are high and subsurface streamlines are relatively short between recharge areas and existing draining rivers, which constitutes a very dense network. Therefore, most of the groundwater fluxes occur through the more permeable shallow layers. With low recharge, groundwater levels are lower, and river and shallow permeable levels are partly disconnected from each other. This induces a general increase of the groundwater streamlines length from the recharge areas to more sporadic discharge areas, and more fluxes occur through the deep layers. Recharge conditions and river-aquifer interactions have changed over the last thousands of years, due to change in precipitation, temperatures, existence of permafrost, etc. They have strongly influenced deep groundwater fluxes and can explain current groundwater age and flux distribution. To study these interactions, a regional-scale finite difference flow model was implemented. The model covers an area of 1400 km 2 , a depth of 1 km, and the topography is characteristic of Brittany. As rivers are mainly fed by groundwater drainage, seepages faces

  8. Integrated Assessment Of Groundwater Recharge In The North Kelantan River Basin Using Environmental Water Stable Isotopes, Tritium And Chloride Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Nur Hayati Hussin; Ismail Yusof; Kamaruzaman Mamat; Johari Abdul Latif; Rohaimah Demanah


    Estimation and understanding of groundwater recharge mechanism and capacity of aquifer are essential issues in water resources investigation. An integrated study of environmental chloride content in the unsaturated zone using chloride mass balance method (CMB) and isotopic analyses of deuterium, oxygen-18, and tritium values range in the alluvial channel aquifer profiles (quaternary sediments) of the North Kelantan River basin has been carried out in order to estimate and understand groundwater recharge processes. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is one of the most difficult factors to measure in the evaluation of ground water resources. Estimation of recharge, by whatever method, is normally subject to large uncertainties and errors. In this paper, changes in stable isotopic signatures in different seasons and tritium analysis of the sampled groundwater observed at different depth in the aquifer system were evaluated. Stable isotope data are slightly below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) indicating that there is some isotopic enrichment due to direct evaporation through the soil surface which is exposed prior or during the recharging process. The overall data on water isotopic signatures from boreholes and production wells (shallow and relatively deep aquifer system) are spread over a fairly small range but somewhat distinct compared to river water isotopic compositions. Such a narrow variation in isotopic signatures of the sampled groundwaters may suggest that all groundwater samples originated from the same area of direct recharge predominantly from rainfall and nearby rivers. Environmental tritium data measured in groundwater at different depths and locations together with a medium-term of limited monthly rainfall collections were used to investigate the groundwater age distributions (residence times). The existence of groundwater in the aquifer system (sampled wells) is predominantly designated as modern (young) water that has undergone recharged

  9. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994 (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid


    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  10. Experimental and numerical investigations of soil water balance at the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert for groundwater recharge estimation (United States)

    Hou, Lizhu; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Hu, Bill X.; Shang, Jie; Wan, Li


    Quantification of groundwater recharge from precipitation in the huge sand dunes is an issue in accounting for regional water balance in the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD) where about 100 lakes exist between dunes. In this study, field observations were conducted on a sand dune near a large saline lake in the BJD to investigate soil water movement through a thick vadose zone for groundwater estimation. The hydraulic properties of the soils at the site were determined using in situ experiments and laboratory measurements. A HYDRUS-1D model was built up for simulating the coupling processes of vertical water-vapor movement and heat transport in the desert soil. The model was well calibrated and validated using the site measurements of the soil water and temperature at various depths. Then, the model was applied to simulate the vertical flow across a 3-m-depth soil during a 53-year period under variable climate conditions. The simulated flow rate at the depth is an approximate estimation of groundwater recharge from the precipitation in the desert. It was found that the annual groundwater recharge would be 11-30 mm during 1983-2012, while the annual precipitation varied from 68 to 172 mm in the same period. The recharge rates are significantly higher than those estimated from the previous studies using chemical information. The modeling results highlight the role of the local precipitation as an essential source of groundwater in the BJD.

  11. Identification of source and recharge zones in an aquifer system from water stable isotope. Case Study Bajo Cauca Antioqueno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio B, Paola Andrea; Betancur V, Teresita


    Hydrology and hydrogeochemical are auxiliary techniques to valid conceptual hydrogeology an recharge models. Stable isotopes from water trace sources and path flow and Tritium indicates age. This paper is about the use of D 18, D 2H y 3H to study the aquifer system on Bajo Cauca antioqueno

  12. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter


    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  13. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.


    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  14. Transitioning Groundwater from an Extractive Resource to a Managed Water Storage Resource: Geology and Recharge in Sedimentary Basins (United States)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Liu, Y.


    Civilizations have typically obtained water from natural and constructed surface-water resources throughout most of human history. Only during the last 50-70 years has a significant quantity of water for humans been obtained through pumping from wells. During this short time, alarming levels of groundwater depletion have been observed worldwide, especially in some semi-arid and arid regions that rely heavily on groundwater pumping from clastic sedimentary basins. In order to reverse the negative effects of over-exploitation of groundwater resources, we must transition from treating groundwater mainly as an extractive resource to one in which recharge and subsurface storage are pursued more aggressively. However, this remains a challenge because unlike surface-water reservoirs which are typically replenished over annual timescales, the complex geologic architecture of clastic sedimentary basins impedes natural groundwater recharge rates resulting in decadal or longer timescales for aquifer replenishment. In parts of California's Central Valley alluvial aquifer system, groundwater pumping has outpaced natural groundwater recharge for decades. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been promoted to offset continued groundwater overdraft, but MAR to the confined aquifer system remains a challenge because multiple laterally-extensive silt and clay aquitards limit recharge rates in most locations. Here, we simulate the dynamics of MAR and identify potential recharge pathways in this system using a novel combination of (1) a high-resolution model of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity and (2) a physically-based model of variably-saturated, three-dimensional water flow. Unlike most groundwater models, which have coarse spatial resolution that obscures the detailed subsurface geologic architecture of these systems, our high-resolution model can pinpoint specific geologic features and locations that have the potential to `short-circuit' aquitards and provide orders

  15. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001 (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel


    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  16. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling. (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi


    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  17. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel


    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  18. Water (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  19. Optimization of an artificial-recharge-pumping system for water supply in the Maghaway Valley, Cebu, Philippines (United States)

    Kawo, Nafyad Serre; Zhou, Yangxiao; Magalso, Ronnell; Salvacion, Lasaro


    A coupled simulation-optimization approach to optimize an artificial-recharge-pumping system for the water supply in the Maghaway Valley, Cebu, Philippines, is presented. The objective is to maximize the total pumping rate through a system of artificial recharge and pumping while meeting constraints such as groundwater-level drawdown and bounds on pumping rates at each well. The simulation models were coupled with groundwater management optimization to maximize production rates. Under steady-state natural conditions, the significant inflow to the aquifer comes from river leakage, whereas the natural discharge is mainly the subsurface outflow to the downstream area. Results from the steady artificial-recharge-pumping simulation model show that artificial recharge is about 20,587 m3/day and accounts for 77% of total inflow. Under transient artificial-recharge-pumping conditions, artificial recharge varies between 14,000 and 20,000 m3/day depending on the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The steady-state optimisation results show that the total optimal abstraction rate is 37,545 m3/day and artificial recharge is increased to 29,313 m3/day. The transient optimization results show that the average total optimal pumping rate is 36,969 m3/day for the current weir height. The transient optimization results for an increase in weir height by 1 and 2 m show that the average total optimal pumping rates are increased to 38,768 and 40,463 m3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the increase in the height of the weir can significantly increase the artificial recharge rate and production rate in Maghaway Valley.

  20. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin


    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  1. Evaluating the performance of water purification in a vegetated groundwater recharge basin maintained by short-term pulsed infiltration events. (United States)

    Mindl, Birgit; Hofer, Julia; Kellermann, Claudia; Stichler, Willibald; Teichmann, Günter; Psenner, Roland; Danielopol, Dan L; Neudorfer, Wolfgang; Griebler, Christian


    Infiltration of surface water constitutes an important pillar in artificial groundwater recharge. However, insufficient transformation of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as clogging of sediments often cause major problems. The attenuation efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients and pathogens versus the risk of bioclogging for intermittent recharge were studied in an infiltration basin covered with different kinds of macrovegetation. The quality and concentration of organic carbon, major nutrients, as well as bacterial biomass, activity and diversity in the surface water, the porewater, and the sediment matrix were monitored over one recharge period. Additionally, the numbers of viral particles and Escherichia coli were assessed. Our study showed a fast establishment of high microbial activity. DOC and nutrients have sustainably been reduced within 1.2 m of sediment passage. Numbers of E. coli, which were high in the topmost centimetres of sediment porewater, dropped below the detection limit. Reed cover was found to be advantageous over bushes and trees, since it supported higher microbial activities along with a good infiltration and purification performance. Short-term infiltration periods of several days followed by a break of similar time were found suitable for providing high recharge rates, and good water purification without the risk of bioclogging.

  2. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li


    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  3. Ion exchange and trace element surface complexation reactions associated with applied recharge of low-TDS water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Walt W.; Singleton, Michael J.; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Bradley K.


    Stable isotope data, a dissolved gas tracer study, groundwater age dating, and geochemical modeling were used to identify and characterize the effects of introducing low-TDS recharge water in a shallow aerobic aquifer affected by a managed aquifer recharge project in California's San Joaquin Valley. The data all consistently point to a substantial degree of mixing of recharge water from surface ponds with ambient groundwater in a number of nearby wells screened at depths above 60 m below ground surface. Groundwater age data indicate that the wells near the recharge ponds sample recently recharged water, as delineated by stable O and C isotope data as well as total dissolved solids, in addition to much older groundwater in various mixing proportions. Where the recharge water signature is present, the specific geochemical interactions between the recharge water and the aquifer material appear to include ion exchange reactions (comparative enrichment of affected groundwater with Na and K at the expense of Ca and Mg) and the desorption of oxyanion-forming trace elements (As, V, and Mo), possibly in response to the elevated pH of the recharge water

  4. Modeling and Optimization of Recycled Water Systems to Augment Urban Groundwater Recharge through Underutilized Stormwater Spreading Basins. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan L; Luthy, Richard G


    Infrastructure systems that use stormwater and recycled water to augment groundwater recharge through spreading basins represent cost-effective opportunities to diversify urban water supplies. However, technical questions remain about how these types of managed aquifer recharge systems should be designed; furthermore, existing planning tools are insufficient for performing robust design comparisons. Addressing this need, we present a model for identifying the best-case design and operation schedule for systems that deliver recycled water to underutilized stormwater spreading basins. Resulting systems are optimal with respect to life cycle costs and water deliveries. Through a case study of Los Angeles, California, we illustrate how delivering recycled water to spreading basins could be optimally implemented. Results illustrate trade-offs between centralized and decentralized configurations. For example, while a centralized Hyperion system could deliver more recycled water to the Hansen Spreading Grounds, this system incurs approximately twice the conveyance cost of a decentralized Tillman system (mean of 44% vs 22% of unit life cycle costs). Compared to existing methods, our model allows for more comprehensive and precise analyses of cost, water volume, and energy trade-offs among different design scenarios. This model can inform decisions about spreading basin operation policies and the development of new water supplies.

  5. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge estimated using a water-budget model for the Island of Maui, Hawai`i, 1978–2007 (United States)

    Johnson, Adam G.; Engott, John A.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Rotzoll, Kolja


    Demand for freshwater on the Island of Maui is expected to grow. To evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater, estimates of groundwater recharge are needed. A water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Maui for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is about 1,309 million gallons per day, or about 44 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 39 percent of total water inflow consisting of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Most recharge occurs on the wet, windward slopes of Haleakalā and on the wet, uplands of West Maui Mountain. Dry, coastal areas generally have low recharge. In the dry isthmus, however, irrigated fields have greater recharge than nearby unirrigated areas. For drought conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is about 1,010 million gallons per day, which is 23 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. For individual aquifer-system areas used for groundwater management, recharge for drought conditions is about 8 to 51 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. The spatial distribution of rainfall is the primary factor determining spatially distributed recharge estimates for most areas on Maui. In wet areas, recharge estimates are also sensitive to water-budget parameters that are related to runoff, fog interception, and forest-canopy evaporation. In dry areas, recharge estimates are most sensitive to irrigated crop areas and parameters related to evapotranspiration.

  6. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.


    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  7. A post audit and inverse modeling in reactive transport: 50 years of artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes (United States)

    Karlsen, R. H.; Smits, F. J. C.; Stuyfzand, P. J.; Olsthoorn, T. N.; van Breukelen, B. M.


    SummaryThis article describes the post audit and inverse modeling of a 1-D forward reactive transport model. The model simulates the changes in water quality following artificial recharge of pre-treated water from the river Rhine in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes using the PHREEQC-2 numerical code. One observation dataset is used for model calibration, and another dataset for validation of model predictions. The total simulation time of the model is 50 years, from 1957 to 2007, with recharge composition varying on a monthly basis and the post audit is performed 26 years after the former model simulation period. The post audit revealed that the original model could reasonably predict conservative transport and kinetic redox reactions (oxygen and nitrate reduction coupled to the oxidation of soil organic carbon), but showed discrepancies in the simulation of cation exchange. Conceptualizations of the former model were inadequate to accurately simulate water quality changes controlled by cation exchange, especially concerning the breakthrough of potassium and magnesium fronts. Changes in conceptualization and model design, including the addition of five flow paths, to a total of six, and the use of parameter estimation software (PEST), resulted in a better model to measurement fit and system representation. No unique parameter set could be found for the model, primarily due to high parameter correlations, and an assessment of the predictive error was made using a calibration constrained Monte-Carlo method, and evaluated against field observations. The predictive error was found to be low for Na+ and Ca2+, except for greater travel times, while the K+ and Mg2+ error was restricted to the exchange fronts at some of the flow paths. Optimized cation exchange coefficients were relatively high, especially for potassium, but still within the observed range in literature. The exchange coefficient for potassium agrees with strong fixation on illite, a main clay mineral in

  8. Identification of Hazardous Events for Drinking Water Production Process Using Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Nakdong River Delta, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-Il, L.; Ji, H.W.


    Various hazardous events can cause chemical, microbial or physical hazards to a water supply system. The World Health Organization (WHO) and some countries have introduced the hazardous event analysis for identifying potential events which may be harmful to the safety of drinking water. This study extends the application of the hazardous event analysis into drinking water production using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). MAR is a way of using an aquifer to secure water resources by storing freshwater for future use and pumping it whenever necessary. The entire drinking water production process is subjected to the analysis from the catchment area to the consumer. Hazardous event analysis incorporates site-specific data as well as common issues occurring in the process of drinking water production. The hazardous events are classified based on chemical, microbial or physical characteristics. Likelihood and severity values are assigned, resulting in quantitative risk by multiplying them. The study site is located at a coastal area in the delta of the Nakdong River, South Korea. The site has suffered from salt water intrusion and surface water pollution from the water upstream. Nine major hazardous events were identified out of total 114 events from 10 drinking water production processes. These major hazardous events will provide useful information on what to be done to secure the water quality produced by a new water supply method. (author)

  9. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters. (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià


    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  10. Reclaimed water quality during simulated ozone-managed aquifer recharge hybrid

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min


    A synergistic hybrid of two treatment processes, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) combined with ozonation, was proposed for wastewater reclamation and water reuse applications. Batch reactor and soil-column experiments were performed to evaluate reclaimed water quality using various chemical and bacterial analyses. The ozone process was optimized at low ozone dose (0.5 mg O3/mg DOC) based on the control of N-nitrosodimethylamine (<5 ng L-1) and bromate (<10 μg L-1), and applied prior to (i.e., O3-MAR) and after MAR (i.e., MAR-O3). This work demonstrates that effluent organic matter (EfOM) and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) are effectively removed during the hybrid process of MAR combined ozonation, compared to MAR only. Based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrices analyses, both MAR and ozonation reduce soluble microbial (protein-like) products while only ozonation contributes in reducing humic and fulvic substances. Even at low ozone dose of 0.5 mg O3/mg DOC, the O3-MAR hybrid significantly reduced UV absorbance by ≥2 m-1, BDOC by ≥64 %, and total (Σ) TOrC concentrations by ≥70 % in the effluent water quality. However, no significant improvement (<10 %) in the removal of Σ16 TOrC concentrations was observed for the increased ozone dose at 1.0 mg O3/mg DOC during MAR combined ozonation processes. Overall, O3-MAR was effective by 10-30 % in treating effluent water than MAR based on DOC, UV254 nm EfOM, TOrC and bacterial analyses. In addition, MAR-O3 was better than O3-MAR for the reduction of fluorescence (close MQ), TOrCs (≥74 %) and total bacteria cell concentrations (>3 log reduction). Therefore, implementing MAR prior to ozonation appears to remove the bio-amenable compounds that react rapidly with ozone, thereby reducing oxidant demand and treatment efficiency. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  12. Water


    Hertie School of Governance


    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  13. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida (United States)

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin


    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Changes in the isotopic and chemical composition of ground water resulting from a recharge pulse from a sinking stream (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Catches, John S.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Michel, Robert L.


    The Little River, an ephemeral stream that drains a watershed of approximately 88 km 2 in northern Florida, disappears into a series of sinkholes along the Cody Scarp and flows directly into the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer, the source of water supply in northern Florida. The changes in the geochemistry of ground water caused by a major recharge pulse from the sinking stream were investigated using chemical and isotopic tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Nine monitoring wells were installed open to the uppermost part of the aquifer in areas near the sinks where numerous subterranean karst solution features were identified using ground penetrating radar. During high-flow conditions in the Little River, the chemistry of water in some of the monitoring wells changed, reflecting the mixing of river water with ground water. Rapid recharge of river water into some parts of the aquifer during high-flow conditions was indicated by enriched values of delta 18O and delta deuterium (-1.67 to -3.17 per mil and -9.2 to -15.6 per mil, respectively), elevated concentrations of tannic acid, higher (more radiogenic) 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, and lower concentrations of 222Rn, silica, and alkalinity compared to low-flow conditions. The proportion of river water that mixed with ground water ranged from 0.10 to 0.67 based on binary mixing models using the tracers 18O, deuterium, tannic acid, silica, 222Rn, and 87Sr/ 86Sr. On the basis of mass-balance modeling during steady-state flow conditions, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water are the dissolution of calcite and dolomite in aquifer material, and aerobic degradation of organic matter.

  16. Modeling of water transfer to aquifers: application to the determination of groundwater recharge by inversion in a complex hydrogeological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane-Mamadou-Maina, Fadji-Zaouna


    Groundwater is the main available water resource for many countries; they are mainly replenished by water from precipitation, called groundwater recharge. Due to its great importance, management of groundwater resources is more essential than ever, and is achieved through mathematical models which offer us a better understanding of physical phenomena as well as their prediction. Hydrogeological Systems are generally complex thus characterized by a highly variable dynamic over time and space. These complexities have attracted the attention of many hydro geologists and many sophisticated models that can handle these issues and describe these Systems accurately were developed. Unfortunately, modeling groundwater recharge is still a challenge in groundwater resource management. Generally, groundwater models are used to simulate aquifers flow without a good estimation of recharge and its spatial-temporal distribution. as groundwater recharge rates show spatial-temporal variability due to climatic conditions, land use, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, these methods have limitations in dealing with these characteristics. To overcome these limitations, a coupled model which simulates flow in the unsaturated zone and recharge as well as groundwater flow was developed. The flow in the unsaturated zone is solved either with resolution of Richards equation or with empirical models while the diffusivity equation governs flow in the saturated zone. Robust numerical methods were used to solve these equations: we apply nonconforming finite element to solve the diffusivity equation and we used an accurate and efficient method for solving the Richards equation. In the natural environments, parameters that control these hydrological mechanisms aren't accurately known or even unknowns, only variations of piezometric heads are commonly available. Hence, ail parameters related to unsaturated and saturated flows will be identified by using only these piezometric data

  17. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.


    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  18. Fate of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in soil profiles at a water recharge site in Basel, Switzerland. (United States)

    Abraham, Johannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Waldis, Judith Kobler; Ketterer, Michael E; Zehringer, Markus


    An important process in the production of drinking water is the recharge of the withdrawn ground water with river water at protected recharge fields. While it is well known that undisturbed soils are efficiently filtering and adsorbing radionuclides, the goal of this study was to investigate their behaviour in an artificial recharge site that may receive rapid and additional input of radionuclides by river water (particularly when draining a catchment including nuclear power plants (NPP)). Soil profiles of recharge sites were drilled and analysed for radionuclides, specifically radiocesium ( 137 Cs), radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) and plutonium ( 239+240 Pu). The distribution of the analysed radionuclides were compared with an uncultivated reference soil outside the recharge site. The main activity of 137 Cs was located in the top soil (4.5-7.5 cm) and reached down to a depth of 84 cm and 48 cm for the recharge and the reference site, respectively. The found activities of 239+240 Pu originate from the global fallout after 1950. 239+240 Pu appeared to be strongly adsorbed onto soil particles. The shape of the depth profile was similar to 137 Cs, but also similar between the recharge and the reference site. In contrast, 90 Sr showed a uniform distribution over the entire depth of the recharge and reference profiles indicating that 90 Sr already entered the gravel zone and the ground water. Elevated inventories of the radionuclides were observed for the recharge site. The soil of the recharge field exhibited a threefold higher activity of 137 Cs compared to the reference soil. Also for 239+240 Pu higher inventories where observed for the recharge sites (40%). 90 Sr behaved differently, showing similar inventories between reference and recharge site. We estimate that 75-89% of the total inventory of 137 Cs in the soil at the recharge site (7.000 Bq/m 2 ) originated from the fallout of the Chernobyl accident and from emissions of Swiss NPPs. This estimate is based on the

  19. Impact of surface water recharge on the design of a groundwater monitoring system for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.R.


    Recent hydrogeologic studies have been initiated to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Measured water levels in wells penetrating the Snake River Plain aquifer near the RWMC and the corresponding direction of flow show change over time. This change is related to water table mounding caused by recharge from excess water diverted from the Big Lost River for flood protection during high flows. Water levels in most wells near the RWMC rise on the order of 10 ft (3 m) in response to recharge, with water in one well rising over 60 ft (18 m). Recharge changes the normal south-southwest direction of flow to the east. Design of the proposed groundwater monitoring network for the RWMC must account for the variable directions of groundwater flow. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.


    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  1. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Missimer


    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the environmental and water supply issues. Groundwater modeling has demonstrated that the injection of about 150,000 m3/day into the Avon Park High Permeable Zone will result in the creation of a 1000 m wide plume of fresh and brackish-water (due to mixing extending across the water short area over a 10-year period. The operational cost of the MAR injection system would be less than $0.106/m3 and the environmental benefits would alone more than cover this cost in the long term. In addition, the future unit water supply cost to the consumer would be reduced from $1 to $1.25/m3 to $0.45 to $0.65/m3.

  2. Accounting for intracell flow in models with emphasis on water table recharge and stream-aquifer interaction: 1. Problems and concepts (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Signor, Donald C.; Imes, Jeffrey L.


    Intracell flow is important in modeling cells that contain both sources and sinks. Special attention is needed if recharge through the water table is a source. One method of modeling multiple sources and sinks is to determine the net recharge per cell. For example, for a model cell containing both a sink and recharge through the water table, the amount of recharge should be reduced by the ratio of the area of influence of the sink within the cell to the area of the cell. The reduction is the intercepted portion of the recharge. In a multilayer model this amount is further reduced by a proportion factor, which is a function of the depth of the flow lines from the water table boundary to the internal sink. A gaining section of a stream is a typical sink. The aquifer contribution to a gaining stream can be conceptualized as having two parts; the first part is the intercepted lateral flow from the water table and the second is the flow across the streambed due to differences in head between the water level in the stream and the aquifer below. The amount intercepted is a function of the geometry of the cell, but the amount due to difference in head across the stream bed is largely independent of cell geometry. A discharging well can intercept recharge through the water table within a model cell. The net recharge to the cell would be reduced in proportion to the area of influence of the well within the cell. The area of influence generally changes with time. Thus the amount of intercepted recharge and net recharge may not be constant with time. During periods when the well is not discharging there will be no intercepted recharge even though the area of influence from previous pumping may still exist. The reduction of net recharge per cell due to internal interception of flow will result in a model-calculated mass balance less than the prototype. Additionally the “effective transmissivity” along the intercell flow paths may be altered when flow paths are occupied by

  3. Water movements in the unsaturated zone and recharge of the aquifer in the Champagne Chalk (France): Isotopic and chemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachier, P.; Dever, L.; Fontes, J.C.


    Water from the unsaturated zone in the chalk, obtained from porous plugs, was subjected to chemical and isotope analyses over a three-year period. Tensiometric and volumetric water content measurements were carried out at the same time. The results obtained make it possible to establish an outline of the hydrodynamics of this porous, fissured chalk medium. Matrix porosity was 0.42 while fissure porosity was in the region of 0.01. The tritium and nitrate concentrations in the water fix the mean residence time in the 20-metre unsaturated zone at about 30 years. The isotope profiles ( 18 O and 3 H) and their downward displacements make it possible to estimate the mean annual recharge into the unconfined groundwater in the chalk (200 to 300 mm, depending on plant cover). The vertical movement of the solution in the porous matrix is dominated by the piston effect. Variations in 18 O concentration can be correlated with local climatic fluctuations. The recharge period runs from November to March, with summer rainfall playing no part. A comparison of 2 H and 18 O concentrations shows that even winter rainfall is partially removed by evaporation. (author). 17 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Meijer; E. Kwicklis


    This analysis is governed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Analysis and Modeling Report Development Plan entitled ''Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Directions, Mixing and Recharge at Yucca Mountain'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). As stated in this Development Plan, the purpose of the work is to provide an analysis of groundwater recharge rates, flow directions and velocities, and mixing proportions of water from different source areas based on groundwater geochemical and isotopic data. The analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data is intended to provide a basis for evaluating the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain independently of analyses based purely on hydraulic arguments. Where more than one conceptual model for flow is possible, based on existing hydraulic data, hydrochemical and isotopic data may be useful in eliminating some of these conceptual models. This report documents the use of geochemical and isotopic data to constrain rates and directions of groundwater flow near Yucca Mountain and the timing and magnitude of recharge in the Yucca Mountain vicinity. The geochemical and isotopic data are also examined with regard to the possible dilution of groundwater recharge from Yucca Mountain by mixing with groundwater downgradient from the potential repository site. Specifically, the primary tasks of this report, as listed in the AMR Development Plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a), consist of the following: (1) Compare geochemical and isotopic data for perched and pore water in the unsaturated zone with similar data from the saturated zone to determine if local recharge is present in the regional groundwater system; (2) Determine the timing of the recharge from stable isotopes such as deuterium ( 2 H) and oxygen-18 ( 18 O), which are known to vary over time as a function of climate, and from radioisotopes such as carbon-14 ( 14 C) and chlorine-36 ( 36 Cl); (3) Determine the magnitude of recharge from relatively

  5. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D.; Magaritz, M.


    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient (-0.10) and a 0. 83-meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone

  6. Geophysical characterization of the role of fault and fracture systems for recharging groundwater aquifers from surface water of Lake Nasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Mansour


    Full Text Available The role of the fracture system is important for enhancing the recharge or discharge of fluids in the subsurface reservoir. The Lake Nasser is consider one of the largest artificial lakes all over the world and contains huge bulk of storage water. In this study, the influence of fracture zones on subsurface fluid flow in groundwater reservoirs is investigated using geophysical techniques including seismicity, geoelectric and gravity data. These data have been utilized for exploring structural structure in south west Lake Nasser, and subsurface discontinuities (joints or faults notwithstanding its related fracture systems. Seismicity investigation gave us the comprehension of the dynamic geological structure sets and proposing the main recharging paths for the Nubian aquifer from Lake Nasser surface water. Processing and modelling of aerogravity data show that the greater thickness of sedimentary cover (700 m is located eastward and northward while basement outcrops occur at Umm Shaghir and Al Asr areas. Sixty-nine vertical electrical soundings (VES’s were used to delineate the subsurface geoelectric layers along eight profiles that help to realize the subsurface geological structure behind the hydrogeological conditions of the studied area. Keywords: Fracture system, Seismicity, Groundwater reservoir, Gravity, VES

  7. Field evidence of biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater with incidental and active recycled water recharge. (United States)

    Zhou, Quanlin; McCraven, Sally; Garcia, Julio; Gasca, Monica; Johnson, Theodore A; Motzer, William E


    Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been found through laboratory incubation in unsaturated and saturated soil samples under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, direct field evidence of in situ biodegradation in groundwater is very limited. This research aimed to evaluate biodegradation of NDMA in a large-scale groundwater system receiving recycled water as incidental and active recharge. NDMA concentrations in 32 monitoring and production wells with different screen intervals were monitored over a period of seven years. Groundwater monitoring was used to characterize changes in the magnitude and extent of NDMA in groundwater in response to seasonal hydrogeologic conditions and, more importantly, to significant concentration variations in effluent from water reclamation plants (associated with treatment-process changes). Extensive monitoring of NDMA concentrations and flow rates at effluent discharge locations and surface-water stations was also conducted to reasonably estimate mass loading through unlined river reaches to underlying groundwater. Monitoring results indicate that significant biodegradation of NDMA occurred in groundwater, accounting for an estimated 90% mass reduction over the seven-year monitoring period. In addition, a discrete effluent-discharge and groundwater-extraction event was extensively monitored in a well-characterized, localized groundwater subsystem for 626 days. Analysis of the associated NDMA fate and transport in the subsystem indicated that an estimated 80% of the recharged mass was biodegraded. The observed field evidence of NDMA biodegradation is supported by groundwater transport modeling accounting for various dilution mechanisms and first-order decay for biodegradation, and by a previous laboratory study on soil samples collected from the study site [Bradley, P.M., Carr, S.A., Baird, R.B., Chapelle, F.H., 2005. Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in soil from a water reclamation facility

  8. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply (United States)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa


    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  9. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water. (United States)

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo


    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater-surface water exchange (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.


    Bank exchange processes within 50 m of the Tambo River, southeast Australia, have been investigated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River, which suggests the absence of significant bank storage. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 years) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank infiltration. Furthermore, the more saline deeper groundwater likely controls the geochemistry of water in the river bank, minimising the chemical impact that bank infiltration has in this setting. These processes, coupled with the strongly gaining nature of the Tambo River are likely to be the factors reducing the chemical impact of bank storage in this setting. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  11. Technique of tritium-tagging of soil moisture for determination of ground water recharge. Some results from north eastern region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.


    The technique of reactor produced tritium for tracing downward movement of soil moisture and its application for detemination of ground water recharge is described. Data of rainfall infiltration and the consequent recharge in purely sandy sites and one clayey site of semi-arid climate are described. Tritiated water was injected below 70-90 cm ground surface in five radially concentric points 10 cm appart. Sampling of soil was carried out after one year, at every 10 cm depth interval. Soil samples were vacuum distilled and tritium in distilled moisture was determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author) [pt

  12. The significance of natural ground-water recharge in site selection for mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.B.


    Milling operations throughout the world have created vast amounts of waste by-products, or tailings, which are often disposed on the land surface. The wastes may be disposed behind dams, on untreated ground, or on compacted clay or synthetic liners of impoundments and trenches. Often one of the principle concerns of environmental regulatory agencies is whether seepage from the waste pile could move through the vadose zone to the water table and possibly contaminate an aquifer. The seepage may be generated by the drainage of liquids initially deposited along with the tailings or by infiltrating meteoric water which leaches soluted from the tailings. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the commonly held assumptions regarding storage of seepage wastes in the unsaturated zone. The significance of recent studies of water movement in dry climates which pertain to tailings site selection are presented

  13. A simple daily soil-water balance model for estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in temperate humid areas (United States)

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.


    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of natural groundwater recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective groundwater modeling and management. As flow models become increasingly utilized for management decisions, there is an increased need for simple, practical methods to delineate recharge zones and quantify recharge rates. Existing models for estimating recharge distributions are data intensive, require extensive parameterization, and take a significant investment of time in order to establish. The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) has developed a simple daily soil-water balance (SWB) model that uses readily available soil, land cover, topographic, and climatic data in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge at the watershed scale for temperate humid areas. To demonstrate the methodology and the applicability and performance of the model, two case studies are presented: one for the forested Trout Lake watershed of north central Wisconsin, USA and the other for the urban-agricultural Pheasant Branch Creek watershed of south central Wisconsin, USA. Overall, the SWB model performs well and presents modelers and planners with a practical tool for providing recharge estimates for modeling and water resource planning purposes in humid areas. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  14. Water reclamation for aquifer recharge at the eight case study sites: a cross case analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Corre, K


    Full Text Available , Tredoux, Gideon, Wintgens, Thomas, Cheng Xuzhou, Yu, Liang and Zhao, Xuan Abstract: Water scarcity combined with the quality deterioration of freshwater due to the rapid augmentation of population and industrial development is a major concern... stream_source_info Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1118 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Water...

  15. Storm Water Infiltration and Focused Groundwater Recharge in a Rain Garden: Finite Volume Model and Numerical Simulations for Different Configurations and Climates (United States)

    Aravena, J.; Dussaillant, A. R.


    Source control is the fundamental principle behind sustainable management of stormwater. Rain gardens are an infiltration practice that provides volume and water quality control, recharge, and multiple landscape, ecological and economic potential benefits. The fulfillment of these objectives requires understanding their behavior during events as well as long term, and tools for their design. We have developed a model based on Richards equation coupled to a surface water balance, solved with a 2D finite volume Fortran code which allows alternating upper boundary conditions, including ponding, which is not present in available 2D models. Also, it can simulate non homogeneous water input, heterogeneous soil (layered or more complex geometries), and surface irregularities -e.g. terracing-, so as to estimate infiltration and recharge. The algorithm is conservative; being an advantage compared to available finite difference and finite element methods. We will present performance comparisons to known models, to experimental data from a bioretention cell, which receives roof water to its surface depression planted with native species in an organic-rich root zone soil layer (underlain by a high conductivity lower layer that, while providing inter-event storage, percolates water readily), as well as long term simulations for different rain garden configurations. Recharge predictions for different climates show significant increases from natural recharge, and that the optimal area ratio (raingarden vs. contributing impervious area) reduces from 20% (humid) to 5% (dry).

  16. Tritium profiles in Kalahari sands as a measure of rain water recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; McGeorge, I.; Dziembowski, Z.


    This paper attempts to relate recharge measurements in the Kalahari by tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone to isotopic, hydrochemical and hydrologic data from an underlying, semi-confined aquifer. Auger holes into the sand cover were drilled along a line of experimental deeper holes penetrating the saturated zone. A further line of auger holes was drilled into the dune sand cover of a control area. Variable moisture contents, apparently indepent of grain size distribution and indicating transients are observed in the different profiles. 3 H and 18 O measurements on the moisture contents allow for the identification of the 1962/63 bomb tritium rise and successive drier and wetter periods. Infiltration, or potential recharge as percentage of infiltration was found to be strongly dependent on the annual rainfall. The distribution of 14 C, 13 C, 3 H and chemistry in the shallower of two underlying aquifers leads to the consideration of three possible mechanisms of recharge. Arguments favouring vertical recharge are presented, which lead to possible extrapolations into the sand covered areas of the Kalahari in general. (orig.) [de

  17. Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS) artificial recharge scientific and operational support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa


    Full Text Available Scheme (AWSS) artifi cial recharge scientifi c and operational support N JOVANOVIC1, RDH BUGAN1, S ISRAEL1, C PETERSEN1, B GENTHE1, M STEYN1, G TREDOUX1, D ALLPASS2, R BISHOP2, V MARINUS2, P FLOWER2, 1CSIR, Natural Resources and Environment...

  18. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Shackleton, M.; Furness, A. J.; Bekele, E.; Pearce, J.; Linge, K. L.; Busetti, F.; Spadek, T.; Toze, S.


    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12 month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life NDMA and NMOR) did not degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic aquifer geochemical conditions (half life > 50 days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required.

  19. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer. (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Bekele, E; Pearce, J; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T; Toze, S


    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life aquifer geochemical conditions (half life >50days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater - surface water exchange (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.


    The residence time of groundwater within 50 m of the Tambo River, South East Australia, has been estimated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River which implies a gaining river system and not increasing bank storage with proximity to the Tambo River. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 yr) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank storage, as rapid pressure propagation into the semi-confined aquifer during flooding will minimise bank infiltration. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  1. Characterization of organic precursors in DBP formation and AOC in urban surface water and their fate during managed aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Won Mo; Lee, Seunghak; Choi, Jaewon; Maeng, Sung Kyu


    In this study, the organic components were identified that are mainly responsible for the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and for the biostability of urban surface water. The compositional distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was strongly associated with the potential for both DBP formation and bacterial growth. Further evaluation was carried out (1) to compare the potential for DBP formation upon chlorination of treated water, (2) to determine the biostability that might result from minimizing assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and (3) to use laboratory-scale soil-column experiments to compare the effects of removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) between managed aquifer recharge (MAR) hybrid systems (such as bank filtration followed by artificial recharge and recovery: ARR), and ozonation followed by ARR. Our fractionation and removal methods provided useful insights into the removal of problematic organic components using MAR hybrid systems. Pretreatment with a small amount of ozone (∼0.7 mg-O 3 mg-C -1 ) resulted in improved ARR performance, especially from removing organic acids from DOM, which substantially decreased the potential for DBP formation, while the robust removal of AOC was attributed to a significant decrease in non-acidic and more hydrophilic fractions during soil passage. Both pretreatments used in this study were effective in the removal of selected TOrCs, but carbamazepine was persistent during soil passage. The pretreatment, which used ozonation before ARR, significantly enhanced the removal of carbamazepine; therefore, ozonation followed by ARR is considered an effective way to enhance removal of persistent compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ground water chlorinated ethenes in tree trunks: case studies, influence of recharge, and potential degradation mechanism (United States)

    Don A. Vroblesky; Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Clifton C. Casey; Gregory J. Harvey; Paul M. Bradley


    Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected in cores of trees growing above TCE-contaminated ground at three sites: the Carswell Golf Course in Texas, Air Force Plant PJKS in Colorado, and Naval Weapons Station Charleston in South Carolina. This was true even when the depth to water was 7.9 m or when the contaminated aquifer was confined beneath ~3 m of clay. Additional ground...

  3. The future of Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: the European FPVII MARSOL Project and the European Innovation Partnership on Water Mar to Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rossetto


    Full Text Available Water scarcity, especially in the Mediterranean rim, poses the relevant issue of water saving in human activities and of finding new sources of water, also for agro-ecosystem maintenance. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR techniques constitute a promising solution to the above-mentioned issue. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy also in relation to some projects co-funded by the European Union. Some ideas for the large scale application of these techniques for non-conventional water use are presented.

  4. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer (United States)

    Morrissey, Daniel J.


    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  5. Tracing groundwater recharge sources in the northwestern Indian alluvial aquifer using water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H and 3H) (United States)

    Joshi, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Shive Prakash; Sinha, Rajiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Densmore, Alexander Logan; Rawat, Yadhvir Singh; Shekhar, Shashank


    Rapid groundwater depletion from the northwestern Indian aquifer system in the western Indo-Gangetic basin has raised serious concerns over the sustainability of groundwater and the livelihoods that depend on it. Sustainable management of this aquifer system requires that we understand the sources and rates of groundwater recharge, however, both these parameters are poorly constrained in this region. Here we analyse the isotopic (δ18O, δ2H and tritium) compositions of groundwater, precipitation, river and canal water to identify the recharge sources, zones of recharge, and groundwater flow in the Ghaggar River basin, which lies between the Himalayan-fed Yamuna and Sutlej River systems in northwestern India. Our results reveal that local precipitation is the main source of groundwater recharge. However, depleted δ18O and δ2H signatures at some sites indicate recharge from canal seepage and irrigation return flow. The spatial variability of δ18O, δ2H, d-excess, and tritium reflects limited lateral connectivity due to the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of the aquifer system in the study area. The variation of tritium concentration with depth suggests that groundwater above c. 80 mbgl is generally modern water. In contrast, water from below c. 80 mbgl is a mixture of modern and old waters, and indicates longer residence time in comparison to groundwater above c. 80 mbgl. Isotopic signatures of δ18O, δ2H and tritium suggest significant vertical recharge down to a depth of 320 mbgl. The spatial and vertical variations of isotopic signature of groundwater reveal two distinct flow patterns in the aquifer system: (i) local flow (above c. 80 mbgl) throughout the study area, and (ii) intermediate and regional flow (below c. 80 mbgl), where water recharges aquifers through large-scale lateral flow as well as vertical infiltration. The understanding of spatial and vertical recharge processes of groundwater in the study area provides important base-line knowledge

  6. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06 (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, R. Steve; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven


    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  7. Isotopic and geochemical evidence of recharge sources and water quality in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinzhu; Pan Feng; Chen Lihua; Edmunds, W. Mike; Ding Zhenyu; He Jianhua; Zhou Kunpeng; Huang Tianming


    Multiple isotopic and hydrogeochemical tracers were utilized to understand the recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city and the adjacent Gobi desert area. The groundwater shows markedly depleted stable isotopic composition compared to modern rainfall. The signature of groundwaters from Jinchang and the northern Gobi desert area differ clearly from that of the alluvial fan in the south Yongchang basin and modern rainfall, and has lower or non-detectable 3 H activity, implying that the aquifer is likely maintained by palaeowater. This groundwater in the Gobi desert has a 14 C age older than 12 ka, indicating that the groundwater resources are non-renewable. The build-up of dissolved solids through evaporation is a major control on groundwater composition, and the dominant anion species change systematically from HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- to Cl - , but cations from weathering of albite, calcite, dolomite and gypsum also make a significant contribution. The scientific results have important implications for groundwater management in Jinchang city and as well as in the Shiyang River basin under China's West Development Strategy. It is recommended that the water allocation program of diverting water from the Dongda river to the Minqin basin be reconsidered.

  8. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu


    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca2+ and HCO3 -) for the BF site

  9. Contamination risk and drinking water protection for a large-scale managed aquifer recharge site in a semi-arid karst region, Jordan (United States)

    Xanke, Julian; Liesch, Tanja; Goeppert, Nadine; Klinger, Jochen; Gassen, Niklas; Goldscheider, Nico


    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions are particularly threatened by surface contamination, especially during winter seasons when extremely variable rainfall of high intensities prevails. An additional challenge is posed when managed recharge of storm water is applied, since karst aquifers display a high spatial variability of hydraulic properties. In these cases, adapted protection concepts are required to address the interaction of surface water and groundwater. In this study a combined protection approach for the surface catchment of the managed aquifer recharge site at the Wala reservoir in Jordan and the downstream Hidan wellfield, which are both subject to frequent bacteriological contamination, is developed. The variability of groundwater quality was evaluated by correlating contamination events to rainfall, and to recharge from the reservoir. Both trigger increased wadi flow downstream of the reservoir by surface runoff generation and groundwater seepage, respectively. A tracer test verified the major pathway of the surface flow into the underground by infiltrating from pools along Wadi Wala. An intrinsic karst vulnerability and risk map was adapted to the regional characteristics and developed to account for the catchment separation by the Wala Dam and the interaction of surface water and groundwater. Implementation of the proposed protection zones for the wellfield and the reservoir is highly recommended, since the results suggest an extreme contamination risk resulting from livestock farming, arable agriculture and human occupation along the wadi. The applied methods can be transferred to other managed aquifer recharge sites in similar karstic environments of semi-arid regions.

  10. Spatiotemporal variation of the surface water effect on the groundwater recharge in a low-precipitation region: Application of the multi-tracer approach to the Taihang Mountains, North China (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie


    Groundwater recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management, especially in low-precipitation regions. To determine comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with large seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted in the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed located in the Taihang Mountains, North China, during three different times of the year: beginning of the rainy season (June 2011), mid-rainy season (August 2012), and dry season (November 2012). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analyses were conducted on the groundwater, spring water, stream water, and reservoir water of the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed. The results were processed using endmember mixing analysis to determine the amount of contribution of the groundwater recharging processes. Similar isotopic and chemical signatures between the surface water and groundwater in the target area indicate that the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and the Wangkuai Reservoir are the principal groundwater recharge sources, which result from the highly permeable geological structure of the target area and perennial large-scale surface water, respectively. Additionally, the widespread and significant effect of the diffuse groundwater recharge on the Wangkuai Reservoir was confirmed with the deuterium (d) excess indicator and the high contribution throughout the year, calculated using endmember mixing analysis. Conversely, the contribution of the stream water to the groundwater recharge in the mountain-plain transitional area clearly decreases from the beginning of the rainy season to the mid-rainy season, whereas that of the precipitation increases. This suggests that the main groundwater recharge source shifts from stream water to episodic/continuous heavy precipitation in the mid-rainy season. In other words, the surface water and precipitation commonly affect the groundwater recharge in the rainy season, whereas the

  11. Intercalated Water and Organic Molecules for Electrode Materials of Rechargeable Batteries. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Jang Wook


    The intrinsic limitations of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with regard to safety, cost, and the availability of raw materials have promoted research on so-called "post-LIBs". The recent intense research of post-LIBs provides an invaluable lesson that existing electrode materials used in LIBs may not perform as well in post-LIBs, calling for new material designs compliant with emerging batteries based on new chemistries. One promising approach in this direction is the development of materials with intercalated water or organic molecules, as these materials demonstrate superior electrochemical performance in emerging battery systems. The enlarged ionic channel dimensions and effective shielding of the electrostatic interaction between carrier ions and the lattice host are the origins of the observed electrochemical performance. Moreover, these intercalants serve as interlayer pillars to sustain the framework for prolonged cycles. Representative examples of such intercalated materials applied to batteries based on Li + , Na + , Mg 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions and supercapacitors are considered, along with their impact in materials research. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The evolution of 17O-excess in surface water of the arid environment during recharge and evaporation. (United States)

    Surma, J; Assonov, S; Herwartz, D; Voigt, C; Staubwasser, M


    This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ 18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰. 17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor ( * R V ) and of inflowing water ( * R WI ) determine the isotope distribution in 17 O-excess over δ 18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts. A complementary on-site simple (pan) evaporation experiment over a change in TDS, δ 18 O, and 17 O-excess by 392 g/l, 25.0‰, and -130 per meg, respectively, was used to determine the effects of sluggish brine evaporation and of wind turbulence. These effects translate to uncertainty in E/I rather than h. The local composition of * R V relative to * R WI pre-determines the general ability to resolve changes in h. The triple O-isotope system is useful for quantitative hydrological balancing of lakes and for paleo-humidity reconstruction, particularly if complemented by D/H analysis.

  13. Hydro-geochemical characterization of Treated Domestic Waste Water for possible use in homestead irrigation and managed aquifer recharge in the coastal city of Khulna, Bangladesh (United States)

    Hamid, T.; Ahmed, K. M.


    Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world. Rapid and unplanned urbanization in Bangladesh has resulted in heterogeneous land use pattern and larger demands for municipal water. To meet the ever-increasing demand of water for such population, the usage of treated domestic waste water (DWW) has become a viable option that can serve specific purposes, i.e. homestead irrigation, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in major cities like Khulna, the largest city in the southwest coastal region. It is an attractive solution to minimize the deficit between the demand and supply of water in the study area where, in specific parts, city-dwellers suffer year round shortage of potable water due to high salinity in shallow depths. However, certain degree of treatment is mandatory for DWW in order to ensure the compliance of the output water with a set of standards and regulations for the DWW reuse. At present, the DWW is being treated through Constructed Wetlands but the treated water is not used and discharged into the sewer system. Wastewater that has been treated through a constructed wetland is a resource that can be used for productive uses in homestead garden irrigation, artificial aquifer recharge, and other non-potable uses. The study addresses the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in improving the quality of wastewater through on the hydro-geochemical characterization of both raw and treated DWW as well as baseline water quality analysis of surface and ground water in and around the treatment plant with consideration of seasonal variations. The study aims at sustainable development through conservation of water, satisfaction of demands, reliability of water supply, contribution to urban food supply, sustenance of livelihood and replenishment of the depleting aquifer by assessing the suitability of the treated DWW for various non-potable uses and also to provide guidelines for possible uses of treated DWW without adverse impact on environment

  14. Geochemical and isotopic evidence on the recharge and circulation of geothermal water in the Tangshan Geothermal System near Nanjing, China: implications for sustainable development (United States)

    Lu, Lianghua; Pang, Zhonghe; Kong, Yanlong; Guo, Qi; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Chenghua; Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lingling; Yu, Dandan


    Geothermal resources are practical and competitive clean-energy alternatives to fossil fuels, and study on the recharge sources of geothermal water supports its sustainable exploitation. In order to provide evidence on the recharge source of water and circulation dynamics of the Tangshan Geothermal System (TGS) near Nanjing (China), a comprehensive investigation was carried out using multiple chemical and isotopic tracers (δ2H, δ18O, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, 14C and 3H). The results confirm that a local (rather than regional) recharge source feeds the system from the exposed Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks area on the upper part of Tangshan Mountain. The reservoir temperature up to 87 °C, obtained using empirical as well as theoretical chemical geothermometers, requires a groundwater circulation depth of around 2.5 km. The temperature of the geothermal water is lowered during upwelling as a consequence of mixing with shallow cold water up to a 63% dilution. The corrected 14C age shows that the geothermal water travels at a very slow pace (millennial scale) and has a low circulation rate, allowing sufficient time for the water to become heated in the system. This study has provided key information on the genesis of TGS and the results are instructive to the effective management of the geothermal resources. Further confirmation and even prediction associated with the sustainability of the system could be achieved through continuous monitoring and modeling of the responses of the karstic geothermal reservoir to hot-water mining.

  15. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12 (United States)

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.


    Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, is a historically rural area that in recent years has experienced an increase in population and in the construction of new housing units, most of which are not connected to a centralized wastewater treatment system. Increasing water use has raised concerns about the effect of development on the available groundwater resources in the area. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bernalillo County Public Works Natural Resource Services, used a water-budget approach to quantify the amount of potential groundwater recharge occurring from the domestic sewage (effluent) dosed to the sewage disposal field at two locations—sites A and B—in eastern Bernalillo County, N. Mex. The amount of effluent that is potentially available for groundwater recharge was determined as the mean daily volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field in excess of the mean daily volume of effluent loss from evapotranspiration from the disposal field.

  16. Using GRACE Amplitude Data in Conjunction with the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Recharge to Estimate the Components of the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly across the Contiguous United States (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Reitz, M.; Zell, W.


    The GRACE satellite project by NASA has been mapping the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) across the globe since 2002. To date most of the studies using this data have focused on estimating long-term storage declines in groundwater aquifers or the cryosphere. In this study we are focusing on using the amplitude of the seasonal storage signal to estimate the sources and values of the different water components that are contributing to the TWSA signal across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Across the CONUS the TWSA seasonal amplitude observed by GRACE varies by a factor of ten or more (from 1 to 10+ cm of liquid water equivalent). For a seasonal sinusoidal recharge rate, the change in storage in either the soil (unsaturated zone beneath the root zone) or groundwater (by water-table fluctuation) is limited to the amplitude of the recharge rate divided by π or 2π, respectively. We compiled the GRACE signal for the 18 major HUC watersheds across the CONUS and compared them to estimates of seasonal recharge-rate amplitudes based on a recent map of recharge rates generated by the USGS. The ratios of the recharge to GRACE amplitudes suggest that all but two of the HUCs must have other substantial sources of storage change in addition to soil or groundwater. The most likely additional sources are (1) winter snowpack, (2) seasonal irrigation withdrawals, and/or (3) surface water (rivers or reservoirs). Estimates of the seasonal amplitudes of these three signals across the CONUS suggest they can explain the remaining GRACE seasonal signal that cannot be explained by soil or groundwater fluctuations. Each of these signals has its own unique spatial distribution, with snowpack limited to the northern states, surface water limited to large rivers or reservoirs, and irrigation as a dominant signal limited to arid to semi-arid agricultural regions. Use of the GRACE seasonal signal shows promise in constraining the hydraulic diffusivities of surficial aquifer

  17. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04 (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.


    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  18. Integrating urban recharge uncertainty into standard groundwater modeling practice: A case study on water main break predictions for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Austin, Texas (United States)

    Sinner, K.; Teasley, R. L.


    Groundwater models serve as integral tools for understanding flow processes and informing stakeholders and policy makers in management decisions. Historically, these models tended towards a deterministic nature, relying on historical data to predict and inform future decisions based on model outputs. This research works towards developing a stochastic method of modeling recharge inputs from pipe main break predictions in an existing groundwater model, which subsequently generates desired outputs incorporating future uncertainty rather than deterministic data. The case study for this research is the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas. Researchers and water resource professionals have modeled the Edwards Aquifer for decades due to its high water quality, fragile ecosystem, and stakeholder interest. The original case study and model that this research is built upon was developed as a co-design problem with regional stakeholders and the model outcomes are generated specifically for communication with policy makers and managers. Recently, research in the Barton Springs segment demonstrated a significant contribution of urban, or anthropogenic, recharge to the aquifer, particularly during dry period, using deterministic data sets. Due to social and ecological importance of urban water loss to recharge, this study develops an evaluation method to help predicted pipe breaks and their related recharge contribution within the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer. To benefit groundwater management decision processes, the performance measures captured in the model results, such as springflow, head levels, storage, and others, were determined by previous work in elicitation of problem framing to determine stakeholder interests and concerns. The results of the previous deterministic model and the stochastic model are compared to determine gains to stakeholder knowledge through the additional modeling

  19. Migration of recharge waters downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson basin aquifer, Arizona, USA (United States)

    Cunningham, Erin E. B.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Chris; Bassett, R. L.

    Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams and playas within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins. The Tucson basin of southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (ca. 700mm/year) as does the basin itself (ca. 300mm/year). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through shallow joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs and runoff in the Santa Catalina Mountains and from wells in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and thermonuclear-bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterization of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable-isotope measurements show no direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs and wells discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960s or later. Résumé La recharge des aquifères des bassins alluviaux arides du sud-ouest des États-Unis est assurée surtout à partir des lits des cours d'eau et des playas dans les bassins, ainsi que par l'eau entrant à la bordure de ces bassins. Le bassin du Tucson, dans le sud-est de l'Arizona, est l'un de ceux-ci. La chaîne montagneuse de Santa Catalina constitue la limite nord de ce bassin et reçoit plus de deux fois plus de précipitations (environ 700mm/an) que le bassin (environ 300mm/an). Dans cette étude, les isotopes du milieu ont été utilisés pour analyser le déplacement de l'eau de pluie vers le bassin au travers des fissures et des fractures proches de la surface. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés dans les sources et dans l'écoulement de surface de la chaîne montagneuse et dans des puits au pied de la chaîne. Les isotopes stables (δD et δ18O) et le tritium d

  20. Evaluating prediction uncertainty of areas contributing recharge to well fields of multiple water suppliers in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt River Basins, Rhode Island (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.


    Three river basins in central Rhode Island-the Hunt River, the Annaquatucket River, and the Pettaquamscutt River-contain 15 production wells clustered in 4 pumping centers from which drinking water is withdrawn. These high-capacity production wells, operated by three water suppliers, are screened in coarse-grained deposits of glacial origin. The risk of contaminating water withdrawn by these well centers may be reduced if the areas contributing recharge to the well centers are delineated and these areas protected from land uses that may affect the water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began an investigation in 2009 to improve the understanding of groundwater flow and delineate areas contributing recharge to the well centers as part of an effort to protect the source of water to these well centers. A groundwater-flow model was calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression to obtain the optimal set of parameter values, which provide a single, best representation of the area contributing recharge to a well center. Summary statistics from the calibrated model were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well centers. This uncertainty analysis was done so that the contributing areas to the well centers would not be underestimated, thereby leaving the well centers inadequately protected. The analysis led to contributing areas expressed as a probability distribution (probabilistic contributing areas) that differ from a single or deterministic contributing area. Groundwater flow was simulated in the surficial deposits and the underlying bedrock in the 47-square-mile study area. Observations (165 groundwater levels and 7 base flows) provided sufficient information to estimate parameters representing recharge and horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial deposits and hydraulic conductance of streambeds. The calibrated value for recharge

  1. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.


    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the

  2. The Role of Science in Managed Aquifer Recharge--the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas Andrew Ziegler, Director Brian Kelly, Office Chief Michael Jacobs, Manager of Water Planning and Production Debra Ary, Engineer, Water Systems Planning (Invited) (United States)

    Ziegler, A. C.; Jacobs, M.; Ary, D.; Kelly, B.


    Data collection and interpretation using statistical, geochemical, and numerical simulation tools are essential parts of a long-term cooperative study between the city of Wichita, U.S. Geological Survey, and others to describe water quantity and quality conditions in a 165 square-mile part of the Equus Beds aquifer and Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers. The Equus Beds aquifer, eastern part of the High Plains Aquifer in south-central Kansas, is a vital water resource for agriculture and city of Wichita. Withdrawals for public supply began in the 1940s and agricultural irrigation began in the 1950-60s. These withdrawals led to water-level declines of up to 40 feet (historic low in 1993), a storage loss of 250,000 acre feet compared to predevelopment, and may enhance movement of chloride contamination from a past oilfield disposal area near Burrton and from natural chloride along the Arkansas River. Monitoring data and modeling show chloride near Burrton moved about 3 miles in 45 years, is about 1 mile away from the nearest public supply wells, and will continue to move for decades to centuries making the water unusable for irrigation or water supply without treatment. These concerns led to development of Wichita's 1993 integrated local water-supply plan that increased use of Cheney Reservoir and implemented aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) within the aquifer using high flows from the Little Arkansas River. ASR benefits include replacing depleted storage and slowing chloride movement. Decreased withdrawals, increased precipitation, and artificial recharge increased water levels and added 100,000 acre feet of storage through 2010, but drought since 2011 has increased withdrawals. A calibrated model will be used to simulate transport of chloride under several withdrawal scenarios using MODFLOW coupled with SEAWAT. Since 1995, water-quality data collection for more than 400 organic and inorganic compounds in surface water, treated source water for artificial recharge

  3. The artificial recharge as a tool for the water resources management: case of the aquifer recharge system of Geneva (Switzerland); La recarga artificial de acuifero como ayuda a la gestion de los recursos hidricos; el ejemplo del sistema de Ginebra (Suiza)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobos, G. de los


    The drinking water supply for the Geneva area comes partly (80%) from the lake Geneva and partly (20%) from a large transboundary aquifer called Genevois aquifer. During the 70's, over pumping lowered the groundwater level by more than 7m. Artificial recharge has been carried out from the Arve river into the Genevois aquifer in order to maintain the groundwater level and enable water resources management. Located near the Arve river, this artificial recharge plant started its activity in 1980. For the last almost 30 years the artificial recharge system of Geneva has brought over 230 hm{sup 3} of treated water into the Genevois aquifer. The impacts of the recharge on the Genevois aquifer and on the aquifer management are described in this paper. (Author) 20 refs.

  4. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  5. Use of Water Balance and Tracer-Based Approaches to Monitor Groundwater Recharge in the Hyper-Arid Gobi Desert of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Akiyama


    Full Text Available The groundwater recharge mechanism in the hyper-arid Gobi Desert of Northwestern China was analyzed using water balance and tracer-based approaches. Investigations of evaporation, soil water content, and their relationships with individual rainfall events were conducted from April to August of 2004. Water sampling of rainwater, groundwater, and surface water was also conducted. During this period, 10 precipitation events with a total amount of 41.5 mm, including a maximum of 28.9 mm, were observed. Evaporation during the period was estimated to be 33.1 mm. Only the soil water, which was derived from the heaviest precipitation, remained in the vadose zone. This is because a dry surface layer, which was formed several days after the heaviest precipitation event, prevented evaporation. Prior to that, the heaviest precipitation rapidly infiltrated without being affected by evaporation. This is corroborated by the isotopic evidence that both the heaviest precipitation and the groundwater retained no trace of significant kinetic evaporation. Estimated δ-values of the remaining soil water based on isotopic fractionation and its mass balance theories also demonstrated no trace of kinetic fractionation in the infiltration process. Moreover, stable isotopic compositions of the heaviest precipitation and the groundwater were very similar. Therefore, we concluded that the high-intensity precipitation, which rapidly infiltrated without any trace of evaporation, was the main source of the groundwater.

  6. Sustainability of Water Reclamation: Long-Term Recharge with Reclaimed Wastewater Does Not Enhance Antibiotic Resistance in Sediment Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. McLain


    Full Text Available Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR in environmental bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Though scientific studies have reported high levels of AR in soils irrigated with wastewater, these works often fail to address the soil resistome, or the natural occurrence of AR. This study compared AR patterns in sediment Enterococcus isolated from water storage basins containing either reclaimed water or groundwater in central Arizona. Resistance to 16 antibiotics was quantified in isolates to a depth of 30 cm. Results reveal high levels of resistance to certain antibiotics, including lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin, exists in sediments regardless of the water source (groundwater, reclaimed water, and higher AR was not detectable in reclaimed water sediments. Furthermore, multiple-antibiotic-resistance (MAR was substantially reduced in isolates from reclaimed water sediments, compared to freshwater sediment isolates. Comparing the development of AR in sediment bacteria at these two sites will increase awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of using reclaimed water for irrigation of municipal areas, and illustrates the necessity for control sites in studies examining AR development in environmental microbiota.

  7. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C


    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  8. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  9. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  10. Estimation of surface runoff for calculating recharge in the karstic massif of Ports of Beseit (Tarragona, Spain) combining water balance in the soil and analysis of flow hydrographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa Martinez, S.; Custodio, E.


    For the right estimation of aquifer recharge by precipitation surface taking into account runoff is particularly relevant. Non considering it in the estimation of the groundwater resources can overestimate them. In the Baix Ebre aquifer system, in southern Catalonia, the surface and vadose zone runoff produced in the karstified carbonate formations in the Ports de Beseit massif has to be evaluated in order to achieve a better estimation of the resources transferred from this massif to the Plana de La Galera plain. Starting from the conceptual hydrogeological model, the average annual runoff is estimated. It includes the discharge from temporal perched aquifers in the Ports de Beseit massif, in the Matarraña river basin, and in the SE watershed to the Plana de La Galera plain. This is performed by analyzing the river and tributaries hydrographs, the filling and emptying hydrographs of the Ulldecona reservoir, and the soil water balance using the Visual Balan code applied to obtain the runoff in the Ulldecona reservoir watershed. The runoff has been estimated about 105±20 mm·yr−1, which represents 20–30% of average annual recharge in the Ports, estimated with soil water balance and atmospheric chloride deposition balance, about 350–500 mm·yr−1, which is mostly transferred laterally to the Plana de La Galera plain. (Author)

  11. Estimation of surface runoff for calculating recharge in the karstic massif of Ports of Beseit (Tarragona, Spain) combining water balance in the soil and analysis of flow hydrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Martinez, S.; Custodio, E.


    For the right estimation of aquifer recharge by precipitation surface taking into account runoff is particularly relevant. Non considering it in the estimation of the groundwater resources can overestimate them. In the Baix Ebre aquifer system, in southern Catalonia, the surface and vadose zone runoff produced in the karstified carbonate formations in the Ports de Beseit massif has to be evaluated in order to achieve a better estimation of the resources transferred from this massif to the Plana de La Galera plain. Starting from the conceptual hydrogeological model, the average annual runoff is estimated. It includes the discharge from temporal perched aquifers in the Ports de Beseit massif, in the Matarraña river basin, and in the SE watershed to the Plana de La Galera plain. This is performed by analyzing the river and tributaries hydrographs, the filling and emptying hydrographs of the Ulldecona reservoir, and the soil water balance using the Visual Balan code applied to obtain the runoff in the Ulldecona reservoir watershed. The runoff has been estimated about 105±20 mm·yr−1, which represents 20–30% of average annual recharge in the Ports, estimated with soil water balance and atmospheric chloride deposition balance, about 350–500 mm·yr−1, which is mostly transferred laterally to the Plana de La Galera plain. (Author)

  12. Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed  Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Jokela


    Full Text Available The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions.

  13. Biofouling potential and material reactivity in a simulated water distribution network supplied with stormwater recycled via managed aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dennis; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Barry, Karen; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Kaksonen, Anna H; Dillon, Peter; Puzon, Geoff J; Sidhu, Jatinder; Wylie, Jason; Goodman, Nigel; Low, Jason


    The injection of stormwater into aquifers for storage and recovery during high water demand periods is a promising technology for augmenting conventional water reserves. Limited information exists regarding the potential impact of aquifer treated stormwater in distribution system infrastructure. This study describes a one year pilot distribution pipe network trial to determine the biofouling potential for cement, copper and polyvinyl chloride pipe materials exposed to stormwater stored in a limestone aquifer compared to an identical drinking water rig. Median alkalinity (123 mg/L) and colour (12 HU) in stormwater was significantly higher than in drinking water (82 mg/L and 1 HU) and pipe discolouration was more evident for stormwater samples. X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence analyses confirmed this was driven by the presence of iron rich amorphous compounds in more thickly deposited sediments also consistent with significantly higher median levels of iron (∼0.56 mg/L) in stormwater compared to drinking water (∼0.17 mg/L). Water type did not influence biofilm development as determined by microbial density but faecal indicators were significantly higher for polyvinyl chloride and cement exposed to stormwater. Treatment to remove iron through aeration and filtration would reduce the potential for sediment accumulation. Operational and verification monitoring parameters to manage scaling, corrosion, colour, turbidity and microbial growth in recycled stormwater distribution networks are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of environmental isotope distribution in the Aswan High Dam Lake (Egypt) for estimation of evaporation of lake water and its recharge to adjacent groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Nada, A.; Awad, M.; Hamza, M.; Salem, W.M.


    Oxygen-18 ( 18 O) and deuterium isotopes were used to estimate the evaporation from the Aswan High Dam Lake and to investigate the inter-relation between the lake water and adjacent groundwater. According to stable isotopic analysis of samples taken in 1988 and 1989, the lake can be divided into two sections. In the first section extending between Abu Simbel and a point between El-Alaki and Krosko, a remarkable vertical gradient of 18 O and deuterium isotopic composition was observed. The second northern sector extending to the High Dam is characterised by a lower vertical isotopic gradient. In this sector in general, higher values of 18 O and deuterium contents were found at the top and lower values at the bottom. Also a strong horizontal increase of the heavy isotope content was observed. Thus, in the northern section evaporation is of dominating influence on the isotopic composition of the lake water. With the help of an evaporation pan experiment it was possible to calibrate the evaporative isotope enrichment in the lake and to facilitate a preliminary estimate of evaporative losses of lake water. The evaporation from the lake was estimated to be about 19% of the input water flow rate. The groundwater around the lake was investigated and samples from production wells and piezometers were subjected to isotopic analysis. The results indicate that recent recharge to the groundwater aquifer is limited to wells near to the lake and up to a maximum distance of about 10 km. The contribution of recent Nile water to the groundwater in these wells was estimated to range between 23 and 70%. Beyond this distance, palaeowater was observed with highly depleted deuterium and 18 O contents, which was also confirmed by 14c dating. The age of palaeo groundwater in this area can reach values of more than 26,000 years. Recommendations are given for efficient water management of the lake water. (Author)

  15. Managed aquifer recharge in weathered crystalline basement aquifers in India: Monitoring of the effect of tank infiltration on water quality over several monsoon events (United States)

    Alazard, Marina; Boisson, Alexandre; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Perrin, Jérôme; Pettenati, Marie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Ahmed, Shakeel; Thiéry, Dominique; Kloppmann, Wolfram


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structures like percolation tanks are considered by the Indian national and regional governments as major option for tackling declining groundwater levels due to overexploitation for irrigation purposes (Boisson et al., 2014). Their main purpose is to restore groundwater availability under strong climatic and anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, MAR-induced dilution with fresh surface water is generally expected to improve groundwater quality with respect to both anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants (total mineralisation, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates and fluoride contents). The impact of a percolation tank on groundwater quality was investigated in a context that is typical for hydro-climatic and geological settings in southern and eastern India: fractured crystalline basement aquifers overlain by a weathering zone under semi-arid climate. Water level data and geochemical indicators (stable isotopes and major ions) were monitored for both groundwater and surface water, over several successive monsoon events. In case of high to very high water levels, the groundwater quality is globally improved. However, in a few cases, the quality of the groundwater can be negatively impacted due to leaching of salts under the tank, particularly during the first rain events of the monsoon. Geogenic fluoride contents in groundwater, induced by water-rock interaction and enhanced by recycling of agricultural return flow under paddy fields, is found to be relatively stable over the year. This finding points out that the underlying processes, mainly dissolution of F-bearing phases like fluorapatites combined with Ca/Na cation exchange and calcite precipitation, both limiting the possibility of F-removal via fluorite precipitation (Pettenati et al., 2013, 2014), are not impacted by the hydrological conditions. This work highlights the complexity of the recharge processes in crystalline aquifers, enhanced by the variability of hydrological conditions

  16. Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies. (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T


    Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isotope based assessment of groundwater recharge and pollution in water scarce areas: A case study in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H.; Kilani, S.; Jawawdeh, J.; Abd El-Din, I.; Rayan, M.


    The study of environmental chloride, deuterium and nitrate has been carried out in sand profiles in two locations in Jordan. The first location is in the Quaternary sediments and sandstones of Al Quwayra in southern Jordan where the average rainfall is less than 70 mm per year. The study concluded that there is no modern recharge in the studied site in southern Jordan. The second location is in the Kurnub sandstone outcrop near to Jarash in northern Jordan. The average rainfall in the area is 500 mm per year and thus significant recharge is possible in that area. The study showed that the annual recharge to the aquifer in that area is about 28 mm per year. The third location consists of four cores is in the alluvium Mudflat deposits of Azraq Oasis. The average rainfall in this area is about 67 mm per year which occur as storms between January and March. (author)

  18. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli


    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  19. Possibilities for artificial recharge in Crestatx aquifer (Mallorca) using water surpluses from Ufanes de Gabelli springs; Posibilidades de recarga artificial del acuifero de Crestatx (Mallorca) con excedentes de las Ufanes de Gabelli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orden, J. A. de la; Murillo, J. M.; Sesmero, C.; Blasco, O.


    In this paper we show an study about the possibilities of artificially recharge the Crestatx aquifer, in Majorca, using water surpluses from Ufanes de Gabelli springs. These springs are typically karstic, characterized by a very quick response to intense precipitation. Water flows drained are very high in very short time periods. The discharge pattern is very variable, depending on the rainfall pattern, but we can say that, as an average, there are 6 or 7 drainage episodes per year. Recorded water flows have been up to 30 m3/s. Drained water is driven to the sea, a few kilometers downstream, by the Torrente de San Miguel. This makes very difficult to exploit the springs water resources, even more by the fact of in the river mouth there is a large wetland named Albufera de Alcudia, which is protected by the law. Nevertheless there is a possibility to use a part of the surpluses to make the artificial recharge of Crestatx aquifer. In this paper, the first results of the artificial recharge feasibility study are shown, and too the first design of the future artificial recharge plant. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production. (United States)

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P


    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of coexisting BDE-47 on the migration and biodegradation of BDE-99 in river-based aquifer media recharged with reclaimed water. (United States)

    Yan, Y; Li, Y; Ma, M; Ma, W; Cheng, X; Xu, K


    Two prominent polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners have been included in the persistent organic pollutant list, 2,2',4,4',5-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), which have been detected in treated municipal wastewater, river water, and sediments in China. A lab-scale column experiment was established to investigate the effects of the competitive sorption of BDE-47 on BDE-99 biodegradation and migration in two types of river-based aquifer soils during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. Two types of recharge columns were used, filled with either silty clay (SC) or black carbon-amended silty clay (BCA). The decay rate constants of BDE-99 in the BCA and SC systems were 0.186 and 0.13 m -1 in the single-solute system and 0.128 and 0.071 m -1 in the binary-solute system, respectively, showing that the decay of BDE-99 was inhibited by the coexistence of BDE-47. This was particularly evident in the SC system because the higher hydrophobicity of BDE-99 determined the higher affinity and competition for sorption sites onto black carbon. The biodegradation of BDE-99 was suppressed by the coexistence of BDE-47, especially in the SC system. Lesser-brominated congeners (BDE-47 and BDE-28) and higher-brominated congeners (BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) were generated in the four recharge systems, albeit at different ratios. Bacterial biodiversity was influenced by the presence of BDE-47 in the SC system, while it had no significant effect on the BCA system, because the high sorption capacity of black carbon on the hydrophobic PBDEs effectively reduced their toxicity. The ranking order of the most abundant classes changed markedly due to the coexistence of BDE-47 in both the SC and BCA systems. The ranking order of the most abundant genera changed from Azospira, Methylotenera, Desulfovibrio, Methylibium, and Bradyrhizobium to Halomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Pseudomonas, Methylophaga, and Shewanella, which could

  2. Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Composite Synthesized Using Microwave Water Plasma for Cathode Material in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Yajima


    Full Text Available Multivalent cation rechargeable batteries are expected to perform well as high-capacity storage devices. Rechargeable magnesium batteries have an advantage in terms of resource utilization and safety. Here, we report on sulfur-doped vanadium pentoxide (S-V2O5 as a potential material for the cathodes of such a battery; S-V2O5 showed a specific capacity of 300 mAh·g−1. S-V2O5 was prepared by a method using a low-temperature plasma generated by carbon felt and a 2.45 GHz microwave generator. This study investigates the ability of S-V2O5 to achieve high capacity when added to metal oxide. The highest recorded capacity (420 mAh·g−1 was reached with MnO2 added to composite SMn-V2O5, which has a higher proportion of included sulfur than found in S-V2O5. Results from transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the bulk of the SMn-V2O5 was the orthorhombic V2O5 structure; the surface was a xerogel-like V2O5 and a solid solution of MnO2 and sulfur.

  3. Water underground (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge


    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  4. Artificial recharge of the water-table aquifer in the latian volcano in Rome province; Ricarica artificiale dalla falda acquifera presente nel vulcano laziale in Provincia di Roma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersani, P.; Piotti, A. [Ambito Territoriale Ottimale, Lazio Centrale, Rome (Italy)


    The zone of the Latian Volcano extends in an area of about 1.500 km{sup 2} in the south-est of Rome. This area is thickly peopled, owing to the presence of many towns (Velletri, Frascati, Albano, etc.) in the central share of the volcanic edifice. Actually the volcanic edifice of Alban Hills shows in the central and higher area, a large caldera (Tuscolana-Artemisia). This caldera has a sub-circular form wide 10 km in diameter and 75 km{sup 2} in area. The excessive groundwater drawing by wells caused the depauperation of underground resources so to produce a real crisis since 1984. To restore of water balance of the aquifer of the Latian Volcano, an important contribution could be given by the artificial recharge of the higher aquifer. This recharge could be done by allowing to meteoric water to inflitrate as much as possible in the underground by realization of an artificial lake; otherwise by making a series of little infiltration-basins together with infiltration-wells. Besides the realization of the artificial lake could give back to the landscape a characteristic component present in the past centuries until very recent times. [Italian] L'area del Vulcano Laziale si estende su una superficie di circa 1500 km{sup 2} a sud-est di Roma in un'area densamente popolata per la presenza di numerosi centri urbani (Velletri, Frascati, Albano, ecc.), ubicati nella parte centrale dell'ufficio vulcanico. Attualmente l'edificio vulcanico dei Colli Albani presenta in posizione centrale un'ampia caldera sommitale con forma subcircolare, con diametro medio di circa 10 km ed estensione di circa 75 km{sup 2}. Gli eccessivi prelievi di acqua sotterranea hanno condotto ad un impoverimento della risorsa idrica fino a determinare una vera e propria crisi manifestatasi a partire dal 1984. Per riequilibrare il bilancio idrico dell'acquifero del Vulcano Laziale, un contributo significativo potrebbe provenire dalla ricarica artificiale dell

  5. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao


    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  6. Numerical simulation of flood inundation using a well-balanced kinetic scheme for the shallow water equations with bulk recharge and discharge (United States)

    Ersoy, Mehmet; Lakkis, Omar; Townsend, Philip


    The flow of water in rivers and oceans can, under general assumptions, be efficiently modelled using Saint-Venant's shallow water system of equations (SWE). SWE is a hyperbolic system of conservation laws (HSCL) which can be derived from a starting point of incompressible Navier-Stokes. A common difficulty in the numerical simulation of HSCLs is the conservation of physical entropy. Work by Audusse, Bristeau, Perthame (2000) and Perthame, Simeoni (2001), proposed numerical SWE solvers known as kinetic schemes (KSs), which can be shown to have desirable entropy-consistent properties, and are thus called well-balanced schemes. A KS is derived from kinetic equations that can be integrated into the SWE. In flood risk assessment models the SWE must be coupled with other equations describing interacting meteorological and hydrogeological phenomena such as rain and groundwater flows. The SWE must therefore be appropriately modified to accommodate source and sink terms, so kinetic schemes are no longer valid. While modifications of SWE in this direction have been recently proposed, e.g., Delestre (2010), we depart from the extant literature by proposing a novel model that is "entropy-consistent" and naturally extends the SWE by respecting its kinetic formulation connections. This allows us to derive a system of partial differential equations modelling flow of a one-dimensional river with both a precipitation term and a groundwater flow model to account for potential infiltration and recharge. We exhibit numerical simulations of the corresponding kinetic schemes. These simulations can be applied to both real world flood prediction and the tackling of wider issues on how climate and societal change are affecting flood risk.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty


    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  8. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703) (United States)

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.


    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  9. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05 (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, W. Scott; Berndt, Marian P.


    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  10. Water Reclamation and Reuse. (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.


    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the cardiovascular health effects of a managed aquifer recharge initiative to reduce drinking water salinity in southwest coastal Bangladesh: study design and rationale. (United States)

    Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Doza, Solaiman; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Rahman, Mahbubur; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Quraishi, Shamshad B; Selim, Shahjada; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Burgess, William; Chang, Howard H; Gribble, Matthew O; Clasen, Thomas F; Luby, Stephen P


    Saltwater intrusion and salinisation have contributed to drinking water scarcity in many coastal regions globally, leading to dependence on alternative sources for water supply. In southwest coastal Bangladesh, communities have few options but to drink brackish groundwater which has been associated with high blood pressure among the adult population, and pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension among pregnant women. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR), the purposeful recharge of surface water or rainwater to aquifers to bring hydrological equilibrium, is a potential solution for salinity problem in southwest coastal Bangladesh by creating a freshwater lens within the brackish aquifer. Our study aims to evaluate whether consumption of MAR water improves human health, particularly by reducing blood pressure among communities in coastal Bangladesh. The study employs a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled community trial design in 16 communities over five monthly visits. During each visit, we will collect data on participants' source of drinking and cooking water and measure the salinity level and electrical conductivity of household stored water. At each visit, we will also measure the blood pressure of participants ≥20 years of age and pregnant women and collect urine samples for urinary sodium and protein measurements. We will use generalised linear mixed models to determine the association of access to MAR water on blood pressure of the participants. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Informed written consent will be taken from all the participants. This study is funded by Wellcome Trust, UK. The study findings will be disseminated to the government partners, at research conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02746003; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  12. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju


    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  13. Analysis of water availability from Son Real and Binicaubell torrents (Mallorca-Spain) for use in the artificial recharge of the La Marineta aquifer; Analisis de las disponibilidades hidricas de los torrentes de Son Real y Binicaubell (Mallorca-Espana) para su utilizacion en la recarga artificial del acuifero de la Marineta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, J. M.; Orden, J. A. de la; Gavilan, C. J.


    The history of artificial recharge of groundwater in Majorca island is explained in this paper. Too, a brief description of the only experience now working is shown, and an overview of the proposal of the Hydrogeological Plan of the Demarcation of Baleares for the regulation of runoff by means of the artificial recharge of aquifers is presented. This should include Son Real and Binicaubell torrents; so, an assessment of their water surpluses to determine water availability for artificial recharge is analyzed. The methodology used is based on a climatic analysis in the studied basins, as well as on the Son Real y Binicaubell torrents water inflow.Water naturally infiltrated through these torrents' beds and surpluses flowing to the sea are also quantified. The statistical analysis involves methods such as autocorrelation. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Water Contamination (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  15. Water, Water, Everywhere. (United States)

    Selinger, Ben


    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  16. Assessing the recharge process and importance of montane water to adjacent tectonic valley-plain groundwater using a ternary end-member mixing analysis based on isotopic and chemical tracers (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Zhan, Wen-Jun; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chen, Chi-Tsun; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lu, Wan-Chung


    A study in eastern Taiwan evaluated the importance of montane water contribution (MC) to adjacent valley-plain groundwater (VPG) in a tectonic suture zone. The evaluation used a ternary natural-tracer-based end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). With this purpose, VPG and three end-member water samples of plain precipitation (PP), mountain-front recharge (MFR), and mountain-block recharge (MBR) were collected and analyzed for stable isotopic compositions (δ 2H and δ 18O) and chemical concentrations (electrical conductivity (EC) and Cl-). After evaluation, Cl- is deemed unsuitable for EMMA in this study, and the contribution fractions of respective end members derived by the δ 18O-EC pair are similar to those derived by the δ 2H-EC pair. EMMA results indicate that the MC, including MFR and MBR, contributes at least 70% (679 × 106 m3 water volume) of the VPG, significantly greater than the approximately 30% of PP contribution, and greater than the 20-50% in equivalent humid regions worldwide. The large MC is attributable to highly fractured strata and the steep topography of studied catchments caused by active tectonism. Furthermore, the contribution fractions derived by EMMA reflect the unique hydrogeological conditions in the respective study sub-regions. A region with a large MBR fraction is indicative of active lateral groundwater flow as a result of highly fractured strata in montane catchments. On the other hand, a region characterized by a large MFR fraction may possess high-permeability stream beds or high stream gradients. Those hydrogeological implications are helpful for water resource management and protection authorities of the studied regions.

  17. Water, water everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne


    Although there is an abundance of water in Lesotho, it is argued that future development of the Lesotho Highlands water project is not yet required. Lesotho exports water to arid regions in South Africa. However, some South Africans believe that further development of the scheme is unnecessary and they argue that Gauteng Province has enough water for the immediate future provided the demand is managed effectively - this being the case, there would be no urgency for completing what is termed phase 1B. It is argued that if 1B is completed before the water is required, then costs to the consumer would increase. It was also argued that proceeding with 1B would give South Africa greater flexibility in augmenting supply to the Vaal river system. Some disadvantages to Lesotho if 1B does not proceed would be loss of royalties and job opportunities and a curb on development of its infrastructure

  18. Water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The overall NRC program for the resolution of the water hammer issue is divided into four tasks: water hammer summary reports; revision of CP and OL review procedures; water hammer positions for operating reactors; and water hammer safety studies

  19. Streambed infiltration and ground-water flow from the trout creek drainage, an intermittent tributary to the Humboldt River, north-central Nevada: Chapter K in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703) (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.


    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 × 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 × 10–1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 × 10–3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent.Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while

  20. Using global analysis models of water resources as an initial measure in management proposals concerning the artificial recharge of aquifers; Empleo de modelos de analisis global de recursos hidricos como primera actuacion a emprender en propuestas de gestion que contemplen operaciones de recarga artificial de acuiferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, J. M.; Navarro, J. A.


    This paper discusses artificial recharge not as an individual component disconnected from the other elements that make up a system of water resources, but as an integrated part of such a system, one that is interrelated with all the others, such that any action affecting a given element may affect the recharge operation, and vice versa. The methodology applied throughout this study is based on the technique of systems analysis, and makes use of the AQUATOOL software package with respect to assessing guarantees, water availability for the artificial recharge operation and the suitability of the host aquifer. The results obtained show that it is necessary, in the first place, to draw up a global model of water resources, incorporating all the elements that constitute the system; then, taking into account the results obtained, a viability analysis should be made of the artificial recharge operation, by means of a numerical model of the relevant parameters for the aquifer(s) in question. This model should specify in detail the infiltration operation proposed. If deemed appropriate, and either before or after drawing up the parameter model, a pilot artificial recharge plant can be constructed, so that a small-scale assay may be made of specific aspects of the artificial recharge; in any case, such a pilot plant should always be constructed after obtaining the global analysis model of water resources. The practical application described in this paper refers to the Quiebrajano-Viboras water exploitation system, which is located in the province of Jaen (Spain). (Author) 43 refs.

  1. Analyzing and Improving the Water-Table Fluctuation Method of Estimating Groundwater Recharge: Field Considerations Patros, T.B. and Parkin, G.W., School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Patros, T.; Parkin, G. W.


    The focus of the project is on measuring and quantifying groundwater recharge (GWR) using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. This method requires measuring the change in water-table (WT) height (Δh) during recharge (R) events and volumetric soil specific yield water content (θsy), (&/or) perhaps more correctly volumetric soil fillable water content (θf). The rise in WT can also result from other non-precipitation-related WTF causes (e.g., Lisse effect, temperature variations, barometric, lateral flow, Reverse Wieringermeer effect, encapsulated air, pumping), which must be counted for. The measurement of the storativity (S) terms (θsy) and/or θf) is, indeed, not clear-cut and often they are taken as being constant with depth, time, WT movement (Drying-Wetting & Freezing-Thawing) history and heterogeneity. In fact, these two terms (θsy & θf) are controversial in their definition, thus in their use, in the literature and may either overestimate the R, when using θsy, or underestimate it, when using θf. To resolve some of these questions, a novel-automated method is under development, at the University of Guelph's Elora Research Station (ERS) and Arboretum, along with a novel multi-event time series model. The long-term expected outcomes and significance of this study are; 1. Establishing accuracy in defining and evaluating the θsy and θf and using them accordingly in estimating GWR with the WTF method in order to overcome some of the existing substantial gaps in our knowledge of groundwater (GW) storage variation. 2. Obtaining GWR measurements at the local scale on a year-round basis, which are currently scarce or even completely lacking for many regions of Ontario and thus would provide a valuable database for guiding development of any policy requiring GWR. 3. Using this database to calibrate and test estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale (watershed scale) GWR from approximate statistical techniques or deterministic

  2. Branding water


    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina


    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and ra...

  3. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.


    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  4. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck


    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  5. Recharge mechanism in karstic systems investigation through the correlation of chemical and isotopic composition of rain and spring-water (case study: Figeh and Barada springs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.


    Karst aquifers represents an important groundwater resources not only in Syria, but in the world-wide. The hydrological approaches for studying the karst system were developed in the last tow decade. One of the main approaches is the use of natural isotopes and hydrochemical traces for description the recharge and discharge and estimate the recharge rate of karst aquifer system. The main filed site tests are the Figeh and Barada karst aquifer, located in the carbonate rocks of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Environmental isotopes and chemical major ions (δ 18 Ο, δ 2 H and 3 H), in precipitation and groundwater were integrated for studying the isotope and hydrochemical characterization and the description of temporal variations of groundwater discharge from the karst springs of Figeh and Barada which are considered as the main large springs due to there huge discharge in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. The δ 18 O values are -8.9 and -7.7. for Figeh and Barada respectively. The regression line for both precipitation and groundwater discharge from Figeh and Barada is described by the equation: δD = 7.9δ 18 O + 19.7 wish shows no evaporation during precipitation and suggest that the groundwater are mainly from direct infiltration of precipitation. The altitude gradients in the precipitation were estimated to be -0.23./100 m for δ 18 O. The main recharge areas were estimated to be 2000±50 and 1350±50 m.a.s.l for Figeh and Barada springs.The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to quantify recharge rates of groundwater in the Mountain karst aquifer of Figeh spring. The recharge rate varies from 192 to 825 mm year-1, which corresponds to 43 and 67% of the total annual rainfall. Recharge rates estimated by CMB were compared with values obtained from other methods and were found to be in good agreement. The tritium concentrations in groundwater are low and very close to the rainfall value 4.5 Tu for meteoric stations. Adopting a model with exponential time

  6. Semi-rechargeable Aluminum-Air Battery with a TiO2 Internal Layer with Plain Salt Water as an Electrolyte (United States)

    Mori, Ryohei


    To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum-air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation-reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum-air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer.

  7. Coconut Water (United States)

    ... water because the immature coconuts are green in color. Coconut water is different than coconut milk. Coconut milk is produced from an emulsion of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly ...

  8. Water pollution


    Institute, Marine


    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  9. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.


    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  10. Water Safety (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  11. Fluoridated Water (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  12. Parasites: Water (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  13. Nutrients, Toxins, and Water in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Treated with Sewage Plant Effluents. Final Report of the Upland Recharge Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Ballard, J. T.; Clinton, J.; Pecan, E. V.


    The objective of this work was to appraise the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic plant communities for absorbing and retaining nutrients and organic matter in sewage and for releasing ''clean'' water. Experimental systems included a sere representative of the Eastern Deciduous Forest, a timothy field, two Phalaris arundinacea meadows, a freshwater marsh, a pond, and a marsh-pond complex. Sewage of two qualities was applied at the rate of 5 cm per week; one treatment was equivalent to the release from a primary treatment sewage plant, the second to that from a secondary treatment plant. Under normal circumstances, without the addition of water or nutrients in sewage, the flux of nutrients into the groundwater was greatest under the agricultural communities and least under the late successional forest communities. All the terrestrial communities were net sources of most elements. Because the agricultural communities were fertilized and a substantial fraction of the fertilizer applied remained after the first year, the agricultural communities appeared to be net sinks during the first year of the experiment. The highest concentrations of nutrients in the percolate of the untreated communities commonly occurred in the earliest stages of succession. This relationship was especially conspicuous for nitrogen. Phosphorus and iron appeared to be held tightly within most ecosystems.

  14. Reusing Water (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management System Environmental Outreach Feature Stories Individual Permit for Storm Water Public Reading Room Sustainability » Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by

  15. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.


    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation


    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael


    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  17. Water tight. (United States)

    Postel, S


    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  18. Branding water. (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina


    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Branding water (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina


    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  20. Water Pollution (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.


    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Water Pollution (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  2. Water Resilience (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  3. Effective removal of bromate in nitrate-reducing anoxic zones during managed aquifer recharge for drinking water treatment: Laboratory-scale simulations. (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Ding, Lei; Bai, Ying; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter


    The removal of bromate (BrO 3 - ) as a by-product of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, specifically in anoxic nitrate (NO 3 - )-reducing zones, has so far gained little attention. In this study, batch reactors and columns were used to explore the influence of NO 3 - and increased assimilable organic carbon (AOC) due to ozonation pre-treatment on BrO 3 - removal in MAR systems. 8 m column experiments were carried out for 10 months to investigate BrO 3 - behavior in anoxic NO 3 - -reducing zones of MAR systems. Anoxic batch experiments showed that an increase of AOC promoted microbial activity and corresponding BrO 3 - removal. A drastic increase of BrO 3 - biodegradation was observed in the sudden absence of NO 3 - in both batch reactors and columns, indicating that BrO 3 - and NO 3 - competed for biodegradation by denitrifying bacteria and NO 3 - was preferred as an electron acceptor under the simultaneous presence of NO 3 - and BrO 3 - . However, within 75 days' absence of NO 3 - in the anoxic column, BrO 3 - removal gradually decreased, indicating that the presence of NO 3 - is a precondition for denitrifying bacteria to reduce BrO 3 - in NO 3 - -reducing anoxic zones. In the 8 m anoxic column set-up (retention time 6 days), the BrO 3 - removal achieved levels as low as 1.3 μg/L, starting at 60 μg/L (98% removal). Taken together, BrO 3 - removal is likely to occur in vicinity of NO 3 - -reducing anoxic zones, so MAR systems following ozonation are potentially effective to remove BrO 3 - . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Social Water


    Krause, Franz; Salverda, Tijo; Hollington , Andrea; Tappe, Oliver; Kloß, Sinah; Schneider, Nina


    We encounter water every day. It is a vital substance biologically as much as socially. We may notice this in art exhibitions and university courses communicating submersed and subversive facts about water; the rhythms of floods and tides resonating with fishing techniques and conflict patterns; inundations carrying moral and political weight as much as water and pollution; and particular mixtures of water and land generating wealth, anxieties and memories. In short, wherever people deal with...

  5. Water Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Perreault, T.; Vos, J.M.C.


    Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate

  6. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.


    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  7. Water quality (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  8. Tritium enrichment and measurement of groundwater in western nile delta and greater cairo water stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, W.M.M.M.


    Water is the limiting factor for land reclamation plans and establishing new communities . Therefore water management policy and the exploitation of every possible water resources are very important in order to cope with the growing population. Groundwater is a very important water resource for agricultural and drinking purposes. However, the wise water management policy should take into consideration that groundwater could be either recharge able or not depending on the connection of the aquifer with surface water resources . If water is not recharged; then it is subject to be exhausted after a certain time period. Even if water is recharge able the rate of water pumping should not exceed the water recharge rate. Therefore, the basic questions of the water origin and recharge time should be answered before starting any land reclamation or drinking water project

  9. Water rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Yokomizo, Osamu; Orii, Akihito.


    In a reactor core of a BWR type reactor, the area of a flow channel in a lower portion of a downcoming pipe for downwardly releasing steams present at the top portion in a water rod is increased. Further, a third coolant flow channel (an inner water rod) is disposed in an uprising having an exit opened near the inlet of the water rod and an inlet opened at the outside near the top portion of the water and having an increase flow channel area in the upper portion. The downcoming pipe in the water rod is filled with steams, and the void ratio is increased by so much as the flow channel area of the downcoming pipe is increased. Since the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the inner water rod is greater than the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the water rod, most of water flown into the inner water rod is discharged out of the exit in the form of water as it is. Since the area of the flow channel is increased in the portion of the inner water rod, void efficiency in the upper portion of the reactor core is decreased by so much. Since the void ratio is thus increased in the lower portion and the void efficiency is decreased in the upper portion of the reactor core, axial void distribution can be flattened. (N.H.)

  10. Water-Quality Data (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  11. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    careful management of the artificial recharge and abstraction for balancing water levels. Water quality ... Challenges related to iron fouling of production boreholes are also described. ...... Chapter 9. In: National Engineering Handbook.

  12. Water curtain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.


    The patented water curtain is used to eliminate gas-oil gushers and is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify operation, the water-line collector is made out of two symmetrical parts installed with the possibility of relative rotation. The collector is equipped with at least one pipe arranged in the zone of the collector and has openings for the supply of water.

  13. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.


    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  14. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.


    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  15. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic composition of ground water in Helwan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Salem


    The environmental stable isotopes oxygen and hydrogen (18O, and deuterium were studied and used to identify the sources of recharge. The studied ground waters are enriched in D and 18O and the isotopic features suggest that most of the ground water recharged indirectly after evaporation prior to infiltration from irrigation return water as well as the contribution from Nile water.

  16. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T


    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  17. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  18. Drinking Water (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  19. Water Pollution (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  20. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg


    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  1. Estimation of the water volume to be managed in the infrastructure of phase II of the artificial recharge plant in the El Carracillo region, Segovia (western area); Determinacion de los volumenes de agua a gestionar en las infraestructuras de la fase II del proyecto de recarga artificial del acuifero cuaternario de la comarca de El Carracillo, Segovia (sector occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Antequera, C.; Martinez Gamo, R.; Martinez Rubio, J.


    The first hydrogeological investigation for the definition of the Carracillo aquifer (Segovia) was carried out in order to plan the best possible artificial recharge works provided for within the framework of the Royal Decree- Law 9/1998 El Carracillo Aquifer Recharge. Intake and Pipeline Work, Infiltration and Irrigation Adequacy (Segovia) These studies revealed the existence of two regions hydro geologically favourable for water storage from flows derived from the river Cega: the first known as the paleo-landform site located within the irrigation area, and the second area called the storage area located in the eastern sector of the district. In order to exactly estimate the minimum and maximum volume of water that has to be managed in the paleo-landform site over a period of five years, the Tragsa Group has carried out, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, some of the hydrogeological work, which included the exhaustive follow up of the piezometric behaviour of the aquifer and the detailed analysis of each of the external actions that have a direct influence upon it, such as the useful rain, the artificial recharge, the extraction by pumping, and the overland flow, amongst others. (Author)

  2. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.


    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  3. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Visualizing water (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.


    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  5. Water Purification (United States)


    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  6. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.


    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  7. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.


    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been technically responsible for technical assistance projects aimed at improving water management practices in the following developing Member States: Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Costa Rica, Egypt, Greece, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Republic of Korea, Romania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda and Zambia. The Division has also contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of water use through the implementation of three 5-year co-ordinated research programmes. Participants from eight to 15 countries have conducted research towards a common goal of improving nuclear techniques in water-use efficiency studies and developing practices to increase the food produced from a unit of irrigation water or rainfall. In many cases this was the first time such techniques have been used in the above countries. It was thus necessary to provide expert assistance to train local counterparts in the safe and efficient use of the equipment. Training courses have also been held in more advanced countries to familiarize young scientists from developing countries with the most modern techniques in soil/water research. Results obtained through the nuclear techniques aided research programmes will, when applied in farmers' fields on irrigated land, lead to increased yields, to reduced losses of nutrients through leaching below the rooting zone, and to conserving soil through avoiding the accumulation of salts close to the soil surface. Under rainfed agriculture, research results would help controlling erosion, conserving water, and ensuring sustained production at acceptable yield levels

  8. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.


    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  9. Water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Taylor, H.E.


    This is the twenty-first biennial review of the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review differs somewhat from previous reviews in this series - the most recent of which appeared in Analytical Chemistry in April 1983. Changes in format have occurred in the presentation of material concerning review articles and the inorganic analysis of water sections. Organic analysis of water sections are organized as in previous reviews. Review articles have been compiled and tabulated in an Appendix with respect to subject, title, author(s), citation, and number of references cited. The inorganic water analysis sections are now grouped by constituent using the periodic chart; for example, alkali, alkaline earth, 1st series transition metals, etc. Within these groupings the references are roughly grouped by instrumental technique; for example, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, etc. Multiconstituent methods for determining analytes that cannot be grouped in this manner are compiled into a separate section sorted by instrumental technique. References used in preparing this review were compiled from nearly 60 major journals published during the period from October 1982 through September 1984. Conference proceedings, most foreign journals, most trade journals, and most government publications are excluded. References cited were obtained using the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts for sections on inorganic analytical chemistry, organic analytical chemistry, water, and sewage waste. Cross-references of these sections were also included. 860 references

  10. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil


    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  11. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.


    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  12. Water Revisited (United States)

    Stillinger, Frank H.


    Liquid water consists of a macroscopically connected, random network of hydrogen bonds, with frequent strained and broken bonds, that is continually undergoing topological reformation. Anomalous properties of water arise from the competition between relatively bulky ways of connecting molecules into local patterns characterized by strong bonds and nearly tetrahedral angles and more compact arrangements characterized by more strain and bond breakage. However, these alternatives constitute virtually a continuum of architectural possibilities rather than a discrete pair of options. The singular behavior of supercooled water near -45 degrees C and the ``hydrophobic'' attraction between nonpolar entities are due to the same underlying phenomenon, namely, the clumping tendency of relatively strain-free convex cages or polyhedra.

  13. Water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Manitoba Hydro's efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs

  14. Water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Manitoba Hydro`s efforts to maximize production efficiency while meeting safety and environmental concerns regarding water management were discussed. The four-step dam safety program was outlined, consisting of inspection, repairs and improvements, flooding studies, and emergency preparedness plans. An oil spill which occurred in 1995 on the Nelson River after a transformer at the Kettle Generating Station failed, was described. A boom was used to contain the oil, and a skimmer unit was used to remove oil and soot from the surface of the water. Manitoba Hydro is also conducting studies to find ways to protect the generating stations from zebra mussels, and precautions are being taken to prevent old lead-based paint from reaching the Winnipeg River. It was noted that the drought which hit northern Manitoba during the spring and summer of 1995 reduced the water supplies to the lowest levels ever recorded at the Churchill River Diversion. 2 figs.

  15. Web-based global inventory of managed aquifer recharge applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, Catalin; Ansems, Nienke


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is being successfully implemented worldwide for various purposes: to increase groundwater storage, improve water quality, restore groundwater levels, prevent salt water intrusion, manage water distribution systems, and enhance ecological benefits. To better understand

  16. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  17. Ultrahydrophobic water (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.


    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  18. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.


    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  19. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.


    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  20. Water lettuce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive values, Mineral and Antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes (Water lettuce). 1R .S.U. Wasagu ... The use of plants as medicines predates written human history and some of ... used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose ...

  1. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil wastewater treatment ... on the performance of anaerobic treatment systems of municipal wastewater ... Comparison of the chemical quality of rainwater harvested from roof and ... pore water and surface sediment from uMngeni River, KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

  2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.


    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  3. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.


    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  4. Water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.


    Prior to the accident, the coolants in the primary and secondary systems were within normal chemistry specifications for an operating pressurized water reactor with once-through steam generators. During and immediately after the accident, additional boric acid and sodium hydroxide were added to the primary coolant for control of criticality and radioiodine solubility. A primary to secondary leak developed contaminating the water in one steam generator. For about 5 years after the accident, the primary coolant was maintained at 3800 +. 100 ppm boron and 1000 +. 100 ppm sodium concentrations. Dissolved oxygen was maintained 7.5, corrosion caused by increased dissolved oxygen levels (up to 8 ppm) and higher chloride ion content (up to 5 ppm) is minimized. Chemical control of dissolved oxygen was discontinued and the coolant was processed. Prior to removal of the reactor vessel head, the boron concentration in the coolant was increased to ≅ 5000 ppm to support future defueling operations. Decontamination of the accident generated water is described in terms of contaminated water management. In addition, the decontamination and chemical lay-up conditions for the secondary system are presented along with an overview of chemical management at TMI-2

  5. Water Play (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.


    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  6. Statewide Groundwater Recharge Modeling in New Mexico (United States)

    Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.


    It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET

  7. Electrodialysis and nanofiltration of surface water for subsequent use as infiltration water. (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Milis, R; Vandecasteele, C; Bielen, P; Van San, E; Huysman, K


    In order to achieve stable groundwater levels, an equilibrium between the use of groundwater for drinking water production and natural or artificial groundwater recharge by infiltration is needed. Local governments usually require that the composition of the water used for artificial recharge is similar to the surface water that is naturally present in the specific recharge area. In this paper, electrodialysis (ED) and nanofiltration were evaluated as possible treatment technologies for surface water from a canal in Flanders, the North of Belgium, in view of infiltration at critical places on heathlands. Both methods were evaluated on the basis of a comparison between the water composition after treatment and the composition of local surface waters. The treatment generally consists of a tuning of pH and the removal of contaminants originating from industrial and agricultural activity, e.g., nitrates and pesticides. Further evaluation of the influence of the composition of the water on the characteristics of the artificial recharge, however, was not envisaged. In a case study of water from the canal Schoten-Dessel, satisfactory concentration reductions of Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+) were obtained by ultrafiltration pretreatment followed by ED. Nanofiltration with UTC-20, N30F, Desal 51 HL, UTC-60 and Desal 5 DL membranes resulted in an insufficient removal level, especially for the monovalent ions.

  8. Age of underground waters: isotopes contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, L.; Olive, Ph.


    Does water has an age? The age of underground waters can be the duration of their underground travel between their infiltration inside the ground and their captation at a spring or a drilled well. The isotopic geochemistry comes to the support of classical geochemistry to estimate these residence times. Radio-isotopes, like tritium for young waters or carbon 14 for old waters, are used as chronometers to interpret the recharge ways, the flow mechanisms and the residence times of underground waters. Their use is presented in this article with some theoretical recalls and some examples of application. (J.S.)

  9. Water Pressure. Water in Africa. (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water…

  10. Primer on Water Quality (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  11. Water Pavilion


    Bentley, Katlin


    Architecture consists of parts that make a whole. These parts can be defined as decisions, details, joints, spaces, forms. But what if these parts are experiences, specific encounters woven together to create the whole? This project is a whole, assembled by episodic moments. The pavilion is designed on Daingerfield Island, located south of Ronald Reagan National Airport along the Potomac River in Alexandria, Virginia. The site offers a panoramic view across the water of the airport,...

  12. Water Technology Lecture 3: Water Distribution


    Gray, Nicholas Frederick


    This is the third lecture in the course Water Technology dealing with water distribution. This is a PowerPoint lecture which is free to use and modify. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the course text Gray, N.F. (2017) Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, published by CRC Press, Oxford. The basis of water distribution is explored including water pipe materials, distribution systems, leakage, water quality problems, pressure issue, water hydrants, effect of floods,...

  13. Water and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is material of the 18th world water day in 2010 which reports current situation of water resources such as water world, in water in Korea and water dispute, water and disaster like climate change, flood, drought, historical report about drought and flood, water resources facilities in Korea, disaster management system, development and management of eco-friendly water resources, eco-friendly water resources management and river maintenance, renovating four rivers and supply and procure of safe water.

  14. ICPP water inventory study progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, B.T.


    Recent data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) indicate that water is entering the sumps located in the bottom of Tank Firm Vaults in quantities that exceed expected levels. In addition, perched water body(s) exist beneath the northern portion of the ICPP. Questions have been raised concerning the origin of water entering the Tank Farm sumps and the recharge sources for the perched water bodies. Therefore, in an effort to determine the source of water, a project has been initiated to identify the source of water for Tank Farm sumps and the perched water bodies. In addition, an accurate water balance for the ICPP will be developed. The purpose of this report is to present the specific results and conclusions for the ICPP water balance portion of the study. In addition, the status of the other activities being conducted as part of study, along with the associated action plans, is provided

  15. ICPP water inventory study progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, B.T.


    Recent data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) indicate that water is entering the sumps located in the bottom of Tank Firm Vaults in quantities that exceed expected levels. In addition, perched water body(s) exist beneath the northern portion of the ICPP. Questions have been raised concerning the origin of water entering the Tank Farm sumps and the recharge sources for the perched water bodies. Therefore, in an effort to determine the source of water, a project has been initiated to identify the source of water for Tank Farm sumps and the perched water bodies. In addition, an accurate water balance for the ICPP will be developed. The purpose of this report is to present the specific results and conclusions for the ICPP water balance portion of the study. In addition, the status of the other activities being conducted as part of study, along with the associated action plans, is provided.

  16. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    isotopes methods to investigate groundwater recharge ... and isotopic characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a ..... Chloride concentrations in soil water extracted by lixiviation from.

  17. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ


    Full Text Available , and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I...

  18. Estimation of alluvial recharge in the semiarid


    Andrade,Tafnes S.; Montenegro,Suzana M. G. L.; Montenegro,Abelardo A. de A.; Rodrigues,Diogo F. B.


    In areas where there is irrigated agriculture, the recuperation of water reserves in alluvial aquifers may occur preferentially due to precipitation. Recharging can be evaluated from variation information of water depth measured in piezometers or observation wells. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the recharge in the alluvial aquifer formed by the Mimoso temporary stream in the semiarid region of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil, using the method of the fluctuation of the water level. This s...

  19. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.


    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  20. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  1. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  2. Iowa Water Center | Iowa Water Center (United States)

    Home Iowa State University Extension Iowa Water Center Submitted by mollyd on April 24, 2012 - 09 :42 Advancing the state of water knowledge and management The Iowa Water Center is a part of a nationwide network of university-based water centers created to encourage interdisciplinary water research

  3. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.


    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  4. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of 24 years of Rhine water infiltration in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, B.M.; Appelo, C.A.J.; Olsthoorn, T.N.


    Water quality changes were modelled along a flowpath in a plume of artificially recharged, pretreated Rhine water in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply, after 24 years of infiltration. The hydrogeochemical transport model PHREEQC was extended with dispersion/diffusion and kinetics for selected

  5. Modeled ground water age distributions (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.


    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  6. Effects of storm-water runoff on water quality of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Schertz, Terry L.; Slade, Raymond M.; Rawson, Jack


    Analyses of samples collected from Barton Springs at approximately weekly Intervals and from Barton Creek and five wells in the Austin area during selected storm-runoff periods generally show that recharge during storm runoff resulted in significant temporal and area! variations in the quality of ground water in the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer. Recharge during storm runoff resulted in significant increases of bacterial densities in the ground water. Densities of fecal coliform bacteria in samples collected from Barton Springs, the major point of ground-water discharge, ranged from less than 1 colony per 100 milliliters during dry weather in November 1981 and January and August 1982 to 6,100 colonies per 100 milliliters during a storm in May 1982. Densities of fecal streptococcal bacteria ranged from 1 colony per 100 miniliters during dry weather in December 1981 to 11,000 colonies per 100 miniliters during a storm in May 1982.

  7. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.


    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  8. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serejo, A.N.C.; Freire, C.; Siqueira, H.B. de; Frischkorn, H.; Torquato, J.R.F.; Santiago, M.M.F.; Barbosa, P.C.


    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18 O/ 16 O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18 O/ 16 O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.) [pt

  9. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem


    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  10. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María


    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  11. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.


    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  12. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.


    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  13. Water Sensors (United States)


    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  14. Bottled Water and Fluoride (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  15. About Body Water (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water? (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...


    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  18. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol during managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Park, Nosuk; Amy, Gary L.


    Managed aquifer recharge is a robust barrier in the multi-barrier approach to supply safe drinking water. The removal performance of gesomin and 2-methylisoborneol through managed aquifer recharge was investigated using batch and column experiments

  19. Application of isotopic techniques for study of ground water from karstic areas. 1. Origin of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia


    Environmental stable isotope method was used for study of ground water from karst of NE Dobrogea. Study area is in the vicinity of Danube Delta (declared in 1990 by UNESCO the Reserve of Biosphere) and presents scientific and ecological interest. Measurements of deuterium content of ground water show that waters are meteoric in origin, but at the same time the results showed that the water from two sampling points could not originate from local ground water and have their recharge area at high altitude and a considerable distance. According to the δD values the following categories of waters were established: - waters depleted in deuterium (δD 0 / 00 ) relative to δD values of surface and ground water in the geographic area from which they were collected. They represent most probably the intrusion of isotopically light water from high altitude sites (higher than 1000 m) through network of highly permeable karst channels. The discharge of this component of aquifer occurs both by conduct flow and by diffuse flow; - Waters tributaries to the Danube River (δD > -75 0 / 00 ) that have a small time variability of δD values; - Local infiltration waters, situated in the West side of the investigated area towards the continental platform of the Dobrogea (δD > -70 0 / 00 ). They present high time variability of δD values, due to distinct seasonal effects; - Waters originated in mixing processes between the waters with different isotopic content. The endmember one is heavier isotopic water that belongs to local recharged waters (local infiltration waters and waters tributary to Danube river) while the other endmember is the isotopically light water. (authors)

  20. Determination of heavy water in heavy water - light water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, A.


    A description about experimental methodology to determine isotopic composition of heavy water - light water mixtures is presented. The employed methods are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0 to 100% with intervals of 10% approx., and mass Spectrometry, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0.1 to 1% with intervals of 0.15% approx., by means of an indirect method of Dilution. (Author)

  1. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.


    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  2. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida (United States)

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel


    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  3. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments. (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman


    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioecological aspects in artificial groundwater recharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Inst. und Museum; Neumayr, V [Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)


    In increasing extent surface waters, especially those of rivers and streams, are contaminated by radionuclides. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the possibility of impairment of the quality of artificially recharged groundwater and drinking water by radionuclides. Hazards for man are possible by drinking water, that was affected by waste and during exposition to air, as well as indirectly by irrigation water and the food chain. In a model calculation using realistic conditions the order of magnitude of these hazards for man by incorporation of radioactively contaminated artificially recharged drinking water are to be assessed. Here the parameters are discussed which must be considered in such an assessment. The model includes the use of river water for artificial recharge. All models and assessments assume the most unfavourable preconditions, which may lead to an impact to man.

  5. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP. (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  6. Colorado Water Institute (United States)

    Colorado Water Institute Colorado State University header HomeMission StatementGRAD592NewslettersPublications/ReportsCSU Water ExpertsFunding OpportunitiesScholarshipsSubscribeEmploymentAdvisory BoardStaffContact UsCommentsLinks Water Center Logo Water Resources Archive Office of Engagement Ag Water

  7. Water Budget formulation for Ahmadu Bello University, main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    .info and Water Budget formulation for Ahmadu Bello University, main Campus as a Water. Resources ... fine/coarse Member, Older Alluvial aquifer .... calculated as rainfall recharge, at the depth of rainfall of 1,100 mm/a, ...

  8. Water Scarcity and Water Policy in Mexico


    Facchini, Gianluca


    This thesis addresses the possible solutions to control demand and supply of water for a sustainable environment in Mexico, along with a detailed analyses of economic implications related to the water sector. At the same time it focuses on the opportunities and constraints to improve the use of water and the allocation in the agricultural sector, by a system of transferable water-use permits. Actual examples are provided nationwide to the current situation in Mexico, focusing on problems rela...

  9. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert


    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  10. Hydrography - Water Resources (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  11. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu


    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  12. Sustainable Water Infrastructure (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  13. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  14. Water Budget Tool (United States)

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  15. Public Waters Inventory Maps (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  16. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra


    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  17. Water safety and drowning (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR . Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  18. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  19. Groundwater Recharge Process in the Morondava Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamifarananahary, E.; Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Rahobisoa, J.J.


    The groundwater recharge process in the Morondava Sedimentary basin was determined using chemical and isotopic tools. The results showed that the main recharge into shallow aquifer is from infiltration of evaporated water. Into deeper aquifer, it is done either from direct infiltration of rainfall from recharge areas on the top of the hill in the East towards the low-lying discharge areas in the West, or from vertical infiltration of evaporated shallow groundwater. The tritium contents suggest that recharge from shallow aquifers is from recent rainfall with short residence time while recharge into deeper aquifers is from older rainfall with longer residence time.

  20. Water Treatment Group (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  1. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.


    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  2. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V


    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  3. Global Water Issues and Insights


    Grafton, Quentin R.; Wyrwoll, Paul; White , Chris; Allendes, David


    This book brings together some of the world’s leading water researchers with an especially written collection of chapters on: water economics; transboundary water; water and development; water and energy; and water concepts.

  4. Isotope hydrogeochemical characteristics of water bodies in Munigou, Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongye; Yin Guan; Yang Junyi; Fan Xiao


    Munigou is a part of Huanglong -Jiuzhaigou national scenic in northern Sichuan province. By using isotope geochemistry technique of natural water to analyze the data of δ D, δ 18 O, tritium contents, deuterium excess parameters (d-excess) and element chemical analyses, we discusses the recharge, runoff, discharge and hydraulic relationship between the precipitation, terrain surface water, groundwater and main spring in the Munigou area. Pearl spring and Jadeite spring are major spring resources in this spot. Pearl spring is a hot spring that recharged by the precipitation that sourced from an elevation of more than 3700 m. The part of precipitation infiltrate underground and return the earth's surface after it exchanged quantity of heat with deep hot fluid. So the Pearl spring can be exploited as hot spring; The Jadeite spring is typical acidic karst water cold spring. The velocity of flow of the water in the Jadeite spring's aquifer is slower than the Pearl spring's and the water has long detained time. The spring water has a good quality and important economical value for natural mineral water; Most of runoff in Munigou recharged by precipitation and shallow groundwater. This recharge have seasonal variation and important for scenic spot. These discussed problems in article have far-reaching meaning on evaluation the exploited potential of the Pearl spring and Jadeite spring and is important to protecting and developing the precious natural resource in Munigou area. And provides reference for the similar researches too. (authors)

  5. China's water scarcity. (United States)

    Jiang, Yong


    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  6. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz


    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  7. Estimation of potential rainfall recharge in the pothwar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Yaseen, M.


    Groundwater recharge is complex phenomenon to understand and describe because it cannot be seen with open eyes. We have to depend some theoretical assumptions to understand this complicated hidden natural underground water movement process. There are many factors affecting and controlling the water movement in soil profile. Groundwater use in district chakwal is of a fundamental importance to meet the rapidly expanding drinking and agricultural water requirements. The man factors contributing to groundwater recharge in chakwal are rainfall, evapotranspiration and geology. due to the semi arid climatic conditions of the area, this resource is almost the only key to economic development. There are a number of dug wells in the area where water is getting stored during rainy season. source and processes of recharge in humid areas are different compared with semi-arid areas. Due to the main resource of available water in the area, the potential groundwater recharge estimation could be good exercise to visulize the amount of rainwater entering the ground. For groundwater recharge estimation there are a number of simple and advanced techniques available. In the present study simple methods were used to estimate potential recharge due to available limited resources. Rainfall runoff, gravimetric and water table fluctuation methods were used to quantify rainfall recharge during the monsoon season. The average potential recharge estimated was 60% of the rainfall of 148 mm. Rainfall runoff and gravimetric methods were found to be comparable for short period potential recharge estimation while water table fluctuation method gives actual recharge and require longer period data. Potential recharge values were higher for area having grassland type vegetation and low for area covering shrubs and tick vegetation. (author)

  8. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed


    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water

  9. Effect of different water management strategies on water and contaminant fluxes in Doncaster, United Kingdom. (United States)

    Rueedi, J; Cronin, A A; Moon, B; Wolf, L; Hoetzl, H


    In Europe, large volumes of public water supply come from urban aquifers and so efficient urban water management and decision tools are essential to maintain quality of life both in terms of health, personal freedom and environment. In the United Kingdom, this issue gained increased importance with the last year's low volumes of groundwater replenishment that resulted in increased water shortages all over the country. An urban water volume and quality model (UVQ) was applied to a suburb of Doncaster (United Kingdom) to assess the current water supply system and to compare it with new potential scenarios of water management. The initial results show considerable changes in both water and solute fluxes for some scenarios and rather limited changes for others. Changing impermeable roads and paved areas to permeable areas, for example, would lead to higher infiltration rates that may be welcome from a water resources viewpoint but less so from a water quality point of view due to high concentrations of heavy metals. The biggest impact on water quality and quantity leaving the system through sewer, storm water and infiltration system was clearly obtained by re-using grey water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry for irrigation and toilet flush. The testing of this strategy led to lower volumes and higher concentrations of sewerage, a considerable decrease in water consumption and an increase in groundwater recharge. The scenarios were tested neither in terms of costs nor social acceptance for either water supplier or user.

  10. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra


    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  11. Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prommer, H.; Stuijfzand, P.J.


    Artificial recharge is a technique used increasingly to supplement drinking water supplies. To assess the potential water quality changes that occur during subsurface passage, a comprehensive deep-well injection experiment was carried out for a recharge scheme, where pretreated, aerobic surface

  12. The Thermal Waters of Jordan (United States)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.


    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  13. Multiple recharge processes to heterogeneous Mediterranean coastal aquifers and implications on recharge rates evolution in time (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Celle-Jeanton, H.


    Climate change is nowadays widely considered to have major effects on groundwater resources. Climatic projections suggest a global increase in evaporation and higher frequency of strong rainfall events especially in Mediterranean context. Since evaporation is synonym of low recharge conditions whereas strong rainfall events are more favourable to recharge in heterogeneous subsurface contexts, a lack of knowledge remains then on the real ongoing and future drinking groundwater supply availability at aquifers scale. Due to low recharge potential and high inter-annual climate variability, this issue is strategic for the Mediterranean hydrosystems. This is especially the case for coastal aquifers because they are exposed to seawater intrusion, sea-level rise and overpumping risks. In this context, recharge processes and rates were investigated in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer with subsurface heterogeneity located in Southern Corsica (France). Aquifer recharge rates from combining ten physical and chemical methods were computed. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations were carried out through a monthly two years monitoring combining major ions and stable isotopes of water in rain, runoff and groundwater. Diffuse, focused, lateral mountain system and irrigation recharge processes were identified and characterized. A predominant focused recharge conditioned by subsurface heterogeneity is evidenced in agreement with variable but highly favourable recharge rates. The fast water transfer from the surface to the aquifer implied by this recharge process suggests less evaporation, which means higher groundwater renewal and availability in such Mediterranean coastal aquifers.

  14. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.


    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd


    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  16. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.


    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  17. Understanding Your Water Bill (United States)

    An easy to way to understand individual water use is to look at your water bill—not just the amount due, but how much water you used. Pull out your water bill and follow our steps to learn more about it.

  18. Managing water use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.


    This article addresses meeting and maintaining water pollution controls while keeping up with the new regulations. The topics discussed in the article include discharge regulations, stormwater discharges, wetlands regulation, water use, water-related programs, and keeping an inventory of water pollution regulations, especially those involving pre-approvals, permits or registrations

  19. Save Our Water Resources. (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  20. Potable water supply (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.


    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  1. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  2. Alabama Water Use, 2005 (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.


    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  3. Water and Pesticides (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Water and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Water Solubility Drinking Water and Pesticides Fact Sheet

  4. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske


    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  5. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de


    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski


    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  7. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.


    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  8. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.


    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  9. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas


    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  10. Water Technology Lecture 1: Introducing Water Technology


    Gray, Nicholas Frederick


    This is a full set of PowerPoint lectures for a course in Water Technology currently given at Trinity College, University of Dublin by professor N.F. Gray. The lectures cover all aspects of water and wastewater treatment and are available for use to lecturers or those interested in the subject. The lecture series is to be used in conjunction with the new textbook ?Water Science and Technology? (4th edition) published by CRC Press in 2017. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the water indust...

  11. World Water Day 2002: Water for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Agriculture consumes about 70 per cent of the world's available water but experts say that where there are competing demands for water use, and groundwater sources have been depleted, small farmers are the first to lose their supply. As a consequence farmers are displaced from their land and the landless, who help them, are made jobless. Environmental damage to wetlands and estuaries from upstream depletion, as well as an increase of water-borne disease, also occurs.There must be more emphasis towards increasing the efficiency of water management systems and increasing water productivity, getting more crops per drop, says the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Water stress leaves women the most vulnerable. Without a ready source of water they may have to walk for several hours every day to find it, or send their children to fetch it. Child nurturing and education suffer and the water available maybe unfit for human use. The U.N. estimates that 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water and about 2.5 billion are without access to proper sanitation. The absence of safe water translates into a tremendous burden of disease, linked to gastro-intestinal infection, making it a key water associated development issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) says. 'Access to sanitation facilities is a basic human right that safeguards health and human dignity,' said Sir Richard Jolly, Chair of the Geneva-based Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSCC). 'We know from experience that clean water alone leads only to minor health improvements. Sound hygiene behaviour must be recognized as a separate issue in its own right, with adequate sanitation and clean water as supporting components.' This year, water pollution, poor sanitation and water shortages will kill over 12 million people, said Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Millions more are in bad health and trapped in poverty, said Mr. Toepfer, much of

  12. Ground-Water Hydrology and Projected Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah


    United States Geological Survey


    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mount...

  13. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  14. Disinfection of grey water


    Winward, Gideon Paul


    The reuse of grey water, for applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation, represents a potential sustainable solution to water shortages experienced by regions worldwide. Although reused grey water is not intended for potable use, the potential for transmission of waterborne pathogens by aerosol inhalation, topical contact, or indirect ingestion is a key concern for grey water reuse. This thesis explores the pathogen content of grey water and investigates pathogen remov...

  15. Water availability and trachoma.


    West, S.; Lynch, M.; Turner, V.; Munoz, B.; Rapoza, P.; Mmbaga, B. B.; Taylor, H. R.


    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. H...

  16. Deuterium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, G.; Ursu, D.; Mihaila, A.; Szentgyorgyi, P.


    This bibliography on deuterium and heavy water contains 3763 references (1932-1974) from 43 sources of information. An author index and a subject index are given. The latter contains a list of 136 subjects, arranged in 13 main topics: abundance of deuterium , catalysts, catalytic exchange, chemical equilibria, chemical kinetics, deuterium and heavy water analysis, deuterium and heavy water properties, deuterium and heavy water separation, exchange reactions, general review, heavy water as moderator, isotope effects, synthesis of deuterium compounds

  17. Solvation in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D.; Cummings, P.T.; Karaborni, S.


    The aim of this work is to determine the solvation structure in supercritical water composed with that in ambient water and in simple supercritical solvents. Molecular dynamics studies have been undertaken of systems that model ionic sodium and chloride, atomic argon, and molecular methanol in supercritical aqueous solutions using the simple point charge model of Berendsen for water. Because of the strong interactions between water and ions, ionic solutes are strongly attractive in supercritical water, forming large clusters of water molecules around each ion. Methanol is found to be a weakly-attractive solute in supercritical water. The cluster of excess water molecules surrounding a dissolved ion or polar molecule in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to the solvent clusters surrounding attractive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. Likewise, the deficit of water molecules surrounding a dissolved argon atom in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to that surrounding repulsive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in supercritical water was found to be about one third the number in ambient water. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule surrounding a central particle in supercritical water was only mildly affected by the identify of the central particle--atom, molecule, or ion. These results should be helpful in developing a qualitative understanding of important processes that occur in supercritical water. 29 refs., 6 figs

  18. Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi


    Full Text Available Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

  19. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water. (United States)

    Cabral, João P S


    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  20. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.


    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  1. Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under ... model relating the water supply from a layered soil profile to water demand; the ... and management strategies to combat excessive water losses by deep drainage.

  2. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant


    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  3. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.


    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  4. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.


    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  5. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.


    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  6. Combined stable isotope trajectories for water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt


    The 'mixed' model of water-rock interaction (1980 Workshop) is explained in detail. Based on the magnitude of the oxygen isotope shifts of their recharge water, different geothermal systems can be placed in an evolutionary series, from incipient (large shift of water) to mature (small shift of water). Isotopes of different chemical elements may be combined, to yield a stringent test of whether or not a given change in rock composition may be ascribed to interaction with water (L-shaped trajectories). For the acidic eruptives of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, available strontium and oxygen isotope data practically rule out an origin by partial melting of greywacke basement

  7. Geochemistry of water in the Fort Union formation of the northern Powder River basin, southeastern Montana (United States)

    Lee, Roger W.


    Shallow water in the coal-bearing Paleocene Fort Union Formation of southeastern Montana was investigated to provide a better understanding of its geochemistry. Springs, wells less than 200 feet deep, and wells greater than 200 feet deep were observed to have different water qualities. Overall, the ground water exists as two systems: a mosaic of shallow, chemically dynamic, and localized recharge-discharge cells superimposed on a deeper, chemically static regional system. Water chemistry is highly variable in the shallow system; whereas, waters containing sodium and bicarbonate characterize the deeper system. Within the shallow system, springs and wells less than 200 feet deep show predominantly sodium and sulfate enrichment processes from recharge to discharge. These processes are consistent with the observed aquifer mineralogy and aqueous chemistry. However, intermittent mixing with downward moving recharge waters or upward moving deeper waters, and bacterially catalyzed sulfate reduction, may cause apparent reversals in these processes.

  8. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa. (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  9. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.


    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  10. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  11. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana


    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  12. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral


    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  13. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin. (United States)

    Adel, M M


    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  14. Water management for development of water quality in the Ruhr River basin. (United States)

    Klopp, R


    On the Ruhr, a small river running through hilly country and with a mean flow of 76 m3/s, 27 water works use the method of artificial groundwater recharge to produce 350 million m3 of drinking water annually. On the basis of a special act, the Ruhr River Association is responsible for water quality and water quantity management in the Ruhr basin. The present 94 municipal sewage treatment plants ensure that the raw water is sufficiently good to be turned into drinking water. In the Ruhr's lower reaches, where dry weather results in a 20% share of the entire water flow being treated wastewater, comparatively high concentration of substances of domestic or industrial origin are likely, including substances which municipal wastewater treatment measures cannot entirely remove. These substances include ammonium, coliform bacteria or pathogens, boron and organic trace substances. Although water treatment measures have greatly contributed to the considerable improvement of the Ruhr's water quality in the last few decades, it is desirable to continue to aim at a high standard of drinking water production technologies since the Ruhr is a surface water body influenced by anthropogenic factors. However, in the case of substances infiltrating into drinking water, legislation is required if a reduction of pollution appears to be necessary.

  15. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.


    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  16. Deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Steflea, Dumitru; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu


    Deuterium-depleted water represents water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Deuterium depleted water is produced by vacuum distillation in columns equipped with structured packing made from phosphor bronze or stainless steel. Deuterium-depleted water, the production technique and structured packing are patents of National Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies at Rm. Valcea. Researches made in the last few years showed the deuterium-depleted water is a biological active product that could have many applications in medicine and agriculture. (authors)

  17. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni


    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  18. The water almanac 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.


    The Water Almanac 1992 - a yearbook for the entire water field - presents contributions on current topics in water engineering and in water law and environmental law and information on FRG public authorities or institutions responsible for water resources management or water research, as well as on educational facilities in this field in the FRG, Austria and Switzerland, including independent scientific institutions. The contribution on the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the environment in western Europe has been analysed as a separate document for retrieval from the database. (BBR) [de

  19. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  20. Water: Too Precious to Waste. (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983


    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  1. Isotopes in hydrology of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, N.; C, O.


    Fundamental concepts on Radioactivity, Isotopes, Radioisotopes, Law of Nuclear Decay (Middle Life concept), Radioactivity units, Types of radiation, Absorption and dispersion of both Alfa and Beta particles and both gamma and X-rays attenuation are presented. A description on Environmental Isotopes (those that are presented in natural form in the environment and those that can't be controlled by the humans), both stables and unstable (radioisotopes) isotopes is made. Isotope hydrology applications in surface water investigations as: Stream flow measurements and Atmosphere - surface waters interrelationship is described. With relation to the groundwater investigations, different applications of the isotope hydrology, its theoretical base and its methodology are presented to each one of the substrates as: Unsaturated zone (soil cape), Saturated zone (aquifer cape), Surface waters - ground waters interrelationship (infiltration and recharge) and to hydrologic balance

  2. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  3. Water availability and trachoma. (United States)

    West, S; Lynch, M; Turner, V; Munoz, B; Rapoza, P; Mmbaga, B B; Taylor, H R


    As part of an epidemiological survey of risk factors for trachoma in 20 villages in the United Republic of Tanzania, we investigated the relationship of village water pumps, distance to water source, and quantity of household water to the risk of inflammatory trachoma. We also evaluated whether there was an association between the cleanliness of children's faces and these water variables. No association was found between the presence of a village water supply and the prevalence of trachoma. However, the risk of trachoma in the household increased with the distance to a water source--although there was no association with the estimated daily amount of water brought into the house. Likewise, children were more likely to have unclean faces if they lived more than 30 minutes from a water source, but whether they had clean faces was not associated with the daily quantity of water brought into the household. The effect of the distance to water supply on trachoma may well reflect the value placed on water within the family, and this determines the priority for its use for hygiene purposes. The results of the study suggest that changing the access to water per se may be insufficient to alter the prevalence of trachoma without also a concomitant effort to change the perception of how water should be utilized in the home.

  4. A spatial assessment of riverine ecosystems and water supply in a semi-arid environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith-Adao, LB


    Full Text Available -impact management areas (groundwater-surface water interaction and recharge areas) and river rehabilitation areas. The proposed river selections would achieve the biodiversity targets of 33 (66%) of the 50 river types; feasible rehabilitation would increase...

  5. Multivariate autoregressive modelling and conditional simulation of precipitation time series for urban water models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Matallana, J.A.; Leopold, U.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.


    Precipitation is the most active flux and major input of hydrological systems. Precipitation controls hydrological states (soil moisture and groundwater level), and fluxes (runoff, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge).
    Hence, precipitation plays a paramount role in urban water systems.

  6. Private Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  7. Drinking Water FAQ (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  8. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  9. Managing Water Demand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a public ... Initiated in June 2004, WaDImena promotes effective water governance by enhancing ..... In agriculture, the source of water and the costs of abstraction are key to valuation.

  10. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.


    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  11. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P


    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  13. Water Quality Protection Charges (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  14. Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  15. VT Water Classifications (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Water Quality Standards (VTWQS) are rules intended to achieve the goals of the Vermont Surface Water Strategy, as well as the objective of the federal...

  16. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  17. Drinking Water Distribution Systems (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  18. State Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  19. Cation Exchange Water Softeners (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  20. Water Management in Islam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 1995, the World Bank helped sponsor a conference on "Ethics and Spiritual ..... "that the strategy of water conservation communication must be global and interactive, and ...... 16 All environmental media have rights, including a right to water.

  1. Water Recovery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  2. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C


    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  3. Virginia Water Central


    Virginia Water Resources Research Center


    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  4. Urban Waters Partnership (United States)

    Includes information on 14 Federal member agencies for the Urban Waters Federal Partnership and 19 designated urban waters locations and the local stakeholder groups and activities. Content was formerly at

  5. Treating mine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlak, E S; Kochegarova, L V; Zaslavskaya, I Yu


    Taking into account the negative influence of mine waters with suspended matter on the natural environment on the surface, the maximum treatment of mine water underground, is proposed. It is noted that full treatment of mine water, using conventional filtration methods, would be rather expensive, but a limited treatment of mine water is possible. Such treated mine water can be used in dust suppression and fire fighting systems. Mine water treated underground should be free of any odor, with pH level ranging from 6 to 9.5, with suspended matter content not exceeding 50 mg/l and coli-titre not less than 300 cm$SUP$3. It is suggested that water treatment to produce water characterized by these parameters is possible and economical. Recommendations on construction of underground sedimentation tanks and channels, and a hydraulic system of cleaning sedimentation tanks are proposed. The settling would be stored underground in abandoned workings. (2 refs.) (In Russian)

  6. About water. Vol. 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The conference papers discuss the following subjects: pollution of soil and groundwater from landfills or agricultural fertilizers, waste water analysis and treatment, water treatment technology, analytical procedures. (EF) [de

  7. Water Safety (Recreational) (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  8. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  9. Water Flow Experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year undergraduate student at Ashoka University,. Sonipat, Haryana. This article studies how the height of water varies with time when water ... Experiment using a one-bottle system with a small bore tube at- tached to .... restricting free flow.

  10. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui


    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  11. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.


    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  12. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.


    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  13. Water Saving for Development (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos


    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  14. Virtual water: Virtuous impact? : the unsteady state of virtual water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.


    “Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes discussions on water scarcity, ecological


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The coastal dune aquifer providing drinking water for a large part of the population of the western Netherlands, is recharged by rainfall and artificial infiltration of Rhine water. Chernobyl fallout has been detected in both water sources. At the Castricum lysimeter station the rainfall-derived


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The coastal dune aquifer providing drinking water for a large part of the population of the western Netherlands, is recharged by rainfall and artificial infiltration of Rhine water. Chernobyl fallout has been detected in both water sources. At the Castricum lysimeter station the rainfall-derived

  17. Save water, save money (United States)

    ,; Fairfax County, VA


    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  18. Exploding Water Drops (United States)

    Reich, Gary


    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  19. Modeling Recharge - can it be Done? (United States)

    Verburg, K.; Bond, W. J.; Smith, C. J.; Dunin, F. X.


    In sub-humid areas where rainfall is relatively low and sporadic, recharge (defined as water movement beyond the active root zone) is the small difference between the much larger numbers rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is very difficult to measure and often modeling is resorted to instead. But is modeling this small number any less difficult than measurement? In Australia there is considerable debate over the magnitude of recharge under different agricultural systems because of its contribution to rising saline groundwater levels following the clearing of native vegetation in the last 100 years. Hence the adequacy of measured and modeled estimates of recharge is under close scrutiny. Results will be presented for the water balance of an intensively monitored 8 year sequence of crops and pastures. Measurements included meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration measured with a pair of weighing lysimeters, and soil water content was measured with TDR and neutron moisture meter. Recharge was estimated from the percolate removed from the lysimeters as well as, when conditions were suitable, from soil water measurements and combined soil water and evapotranspiration measurements. This data was simulated using a comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model (APSIM). Comparison with field measurements shows that the recharge can be simulated with an accuracy similar to that with which it can be measured. However, is either sufficiently accurate for the applications for which they are required?


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun KIR


    Full Text Available Swimming waters may be hazardous on human health. So, The physicians who work in the facilities, which include swimming areas, are responsible to prevent risks. To ensure hygiene of swimming water, European Swimming Water Directive offers microbiological, physical, and chemical criteria. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(5.000: 103-104

  1. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten


    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  2. Electrically excited liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wexler, A.D.


    Water is essential to a healthy and secure world. Developing new technologies which can take full advantage of the unique attributes of water is important for meeting the ever increasing global demand while reducing the production footprint. Water exhibits unexpected departures in more than 70

  3. Water Conservation Resource List. (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981


    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.


    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  5. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.


    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  6. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut


    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  7. Quality of Drinking Water (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  8. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  9. Total Water Management - Report (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  10. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.


    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  11. Water Reuse Reconsidered (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975


    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  12. Cooled Water Production System, (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.


    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  14. Water Resources Research Center (United States)

    Untitled Document  Search Welcome to the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Water Resources Research Center At WRRC we concentrate on addressing the unique water and wastewater management problems and issues elsewhere by researching water-related issues distinctive to these areas. We are Hawaii's link in a network

  15. Ohio Water Resources Council (United States) State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  16. The aquifer recharge: an overview of the legislative and planning aspect. (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Caggiano, G; Apollonio, F; Marzella, A; Brigida, S; Ranieri, E; Lucentini, L; Uricchio, V F; Montagna, M T


    In most regions of the world, safeguarding groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly in coastal areas where groundwater is the main water source for drinking, irrigation and industry. Water availability depends on climate, topography and geology. The aim of this paper is to evaluate aquifer recharge as a possible strategy to relieve water resource scarcity. Natural aquifer recharge is defined as the downward flow of water reaching the water table, increasing the groundwater reservoir. Hydro-meteorological factors (rainfall, evapotranspiration and runoff) may alter natural recharge processes. Artificial aquifer recharge is a process by which surface water is introduced with artificial systems underground to fill an aquifer. As a consequence of global warming that has increased the frequency and severity of natural disasters like the drought, the impacts of climate change and seasonality, the artificial recharge has been considered as a viable option. Different direct and indirect techniques can be used, and the choice depends on the hydrologic characteristics of a specific area. In Italy, Legislative Decree no. 152/06 plans artificial aquifer recharge as an additional measure in water management, and Decree no. 100/2016 establishes quantitative and qualitative conditions for recharge. Many projects examine aquifer recharge, such us WADIS-MAR in the southern Mediterranean region, WARBO in Italy and municipal wastewater treatment project in Apulia, a southern Italian region. However, aside from groundwater recharge, the community must foster a spirit of cooperation to manage groundwater as a sustainable resource.

  17. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003. (United States)

    Radcliffe, J C


    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options.

  18. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model, also known as the Rorabaugh Method. (Rorabaugh 1960; Daniel 1976; Rutledge 2007b), estimates groundwater recharges for each stream- flow peak using the recession-curve-displacement method. It is based on an analytical model that describes groundwater discharge subsequent to recharge to the water table ...

  19. NASA Water Resources Program (United States)

    Toll, David L.


    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  20. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  1. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  2. Water access, water scarcity, and climate change. (United States)

    Mukheibir, Pierre


    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  3. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ... (United States)


    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  4. Effect of seasonal and long-term changes in stress on sources of water to wells (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.


    The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system . In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the system is at the water table . The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the groundwater system. Water entering the system at the water table flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. Many State agencies are currently (1994) developing wellhead-protection programs. The thrust of some of these programs is to protect water supplies by determining the areas contributing recharge to water-supply wells and by specifying regulations to minimize the opportunity for contamination of the recharge water by activities at the land surface. In the analyses of ground-water flow systems, steady-state average conditions are frequently used to simplify the problem and make a solution tractable. Recharge is usually cyclic in nature, however, having seasonal cycles and longer term climatic cycles. A hypothetical system is quantitatively analyzed to show that, in many cases, these cyclic changes in the recharge rates apparently do not significantly affect the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells. The ratio of the mean travel time to the length of the cyclic stress period appears to indicate whether the transient effects of the cyclic stress must be explicitly represented in the analysis of contributing areas to wells. For the cases examined, if the ratio of the mean travel time to the period of the cyclic stress was much greater than one, then the transient area contributing recharge to wells was similar to the area calculated using an average steady-state condition. Noncyclic long-term transient changes in water use, however, and cyclic stresses on systems with ratios less than 1 can and do affect the

  5. Water environment and water preservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, M.; Ofuchi, M.; Tsuzuki, K. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Technologies on monitoring, purification, and simulation were described concerning water quality preservation, especially in closed water bodies such as lakes. In order to detect an increase in plankton bloom causing unpleasant taste and order, a water quality monitoring system using image analysis was developed. The main feature of this system is the use of a microscope to obtain images of plankton, coupled with a high speed image processor containing VLSI circuits used exclusively for image processing. The original gray image, obtained from the ITV in the microscope, is treated in the image processor, which extracts the features of isolated plankton, then classifies them, based on data previously input into the memory. As one of the water purification measures for lakes, a sprinkler system was developed. The sprinkler system has a pump in a boat-like structure set on a lake. It pumps up large quantities of cold water from depth of 10 m, then jets and sprays it from many nozzles after pressurization. In addition, a simulation technique was developed which can forecast the extent of water pollution and the effects of purification systems using the finite element method. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Virtual scarce water in China. (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang


    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  7. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel


    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  8. Infested ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, Leif


    Ballast water discharged into harbours and coastal waters often brings unwanted organisms from distant regions (non-indigenous species). Some of the species that have come this way and that are now threatening Norwegian coasts and rivers are red algae, ghost shrimps (Caprella linearis) and the Japanese alga Sargassum muticum. Norway receives between 15 and 30 million tonnes of ballast water each year. International regulations about ballast water will not appear for many years, and in the meantime Norway is evaluating national immediate measures. Some ship owners in some countries are purifying the ballast water. However, harmful non-indigenous species may also come from mariculture

  9. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders


    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  10. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.


    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  11. Water budget for SRP burial ground area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.


    Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  12. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.


    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  13. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Villadsen, Heidi


    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this study we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat- 2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions. The second,tsHydro, is a software package, that is implemented...... in the open source environment "R". The package enables the user to easily construct water level time series for lakes and rivers based on along-track altimetry data....

  14. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko


    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  15. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang


    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water...

  16. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  17. Water harvest via dewing. (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young


    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  18. The Mars water cycle (United States)

    Davies, D. W.


    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  19. Optimizing Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Systems for Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals (TOrCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a low-energy subsurface water treatment system with the potential of being an important component of sustainable water reuse schemes. Alongside common wastewater contaminants, MAR systems have been shown

  20. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.


    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions

  1. Changes of the water isotopic composition in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Victor; Feurdean, Lucia


    Based on the spatial and temporal variations of the stable isotope content in precipitation - as input in subsurface - and the mixing processes, the deuterium content in the water that moves in unsaturated zones was used to determine the most conducive season to recharge, the mechanisms for infiltration of snow or rain precipitation in humid, semi-arid or arid conditions, the episodic cycles of infiltration water mixing with the already present soil water and water vapor and whether infiltration water is or is not from local precipitation. Oscillations in the isotopic profiles of soil moisture can be used to estimate the following aspects: where piston or diffusive flow is the dominant mechanisms of water infiltration; the average velocities of the water movement in vadose zone; the influence of vegetation cover, soil type and slope exposure on the dynamics of water movement in soil; the conditions required for infiltration such as: the matrix, gravity, pressure and osmotic potentials during drainage in unsaturated soil. (authors)

  2. Water Quality Assessment and Management (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  3. Drinking water quality assessment. (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N


    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  4. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.


    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  5. Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.


    Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium

  6. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.


    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  7. Origin and residence time of water in the Lima Aquifer


    Montoya, Modesto; Mamani, Enoc


    The 8 million inhabitants of the coastal city Lima are supplied with water from the Rimac and Chillon rivers and water wells in the Lima aquifer. The history of the Rimac River flow and static level of water in its wells have been correlated to calculate the residence time of water in the aquifer it is recharged by the Rimac River until it reaches a well located 12 km away in the Miraflores District near the sea. The relative abundance of H-2 and O-18 are used to identify the origins of the w...

  8. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.


    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  9. Water resilient green cities in Africa Newsletter issue 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Fryd, Ole


    recharge and provide additional ecosystem services to the benefit of the citizens’ everyday life. Cities in Africa, like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salam, Tanzania, do not have adequate city-wide conventional urban water systems like centralized, pipe-based water supply, drainage and sanitation......Many cities around the world are exploring green infrastructures with landscape-based systems as solutions to complement the limited capacity or extend the conventional water systems. In addition to improving flood protection, these landscape-based systems can support water supply, groundwater...

  10. Enhancement of wadi recharge using dams coupled with aquifer storage and recovery wells

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M. M.; Missimer, Thomas M. M.; Guo, Weixing; Maliva, Robert G.; Rosas, Jorge; Jadoon, Khan


    . Anthropogenic lowering of the water table in many wadi aquifers has also reduced the potential recharge by increasing the thickness of the vadose zone, causing interflow water loss from surface emergence and evaporation. A method to enhance recharge is to slow

  11. Evaluation of Conceptual and Numerical Models for Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, V.E.A.; Prommer, H.; Wallis, I.; Simmons, C.T.; Stuijfzand, P.J.


    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is promoted as an attractive technique to meet growing water demands. An impediment to MAR applications, where oxygenated water is recharged into anoxic aquifers, is the potential mobilization of trace metals (e.g., arsenic). While conceptual models for arsenic

  12. Terrestrial water load and groundwater fluctuation in the Bengal Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, W.G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R.G.; Zahid, A.; Ahmed, K.M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bense, V.F.


    Groundwater-level fluctuations represent hydraulic responses to changes in groundwater storage due to aquifer recharge and drainage as well as to changes in stress that include water mass loading and unloading above the aquifer surface. The latter 'poroelastic' response of confined aquifers is a

  13. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.


    Outagamie County is in east-central Wisconsin. It has no serious groundwater problem at present, but the county is important as a recharge area for the principal aquifers supplying water to Brown County and industrial Green Bay to the east.

  14. Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF): Water Conservation (United States)

    The CWSRF can provide financial assistance for water conservation projects that reduce the demand for POTW capacity through reduced water consumption (i.e., water efficiency), as well as water reuse and precipitation harvesting.

  15. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.


    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  16. Waste water discharges into natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, P.; Barsanti, P.; Mione, A.; Posarelli, M.


    The aqueous discharges into natural waters is a very technical solution expecially for surface buoyant discharges. It is not only convenient to limit the concentration levels of the discharges, but also to improve the turbolent processes that diluite the discharge. Mostly these processes depend by some geometric parameters of the discharge and by some physical parameters of the effluent and of the receiving water body. An appropriate choice of some parameters, using also suitable mathematical models, allows to design discharges with a very high dilution; so the decreasing of the pollutant levels is improved and the environmental impact can be reduced versus a not diluted effluent. The simulations of a mathematical model, here described, prove that in some circumstances, expecially in case of discharges of fresh water into saline water bodies with a low velocity of the current, the dilution is poor; the effluent can be trapped in a narrow water surface layer where the pollutant concentrations remain high. also far away from the discharge point

  17. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  18. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young


    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  20. Super critical water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.


    Water is used as a calori-porter and moderator in the most major nuclear centers which are actually in function. In the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR), water is maintained under critical point of water (21 bar, 374 Centigrade) which limits the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion (yield gain of about 33%) Crossing the critical point, one can then use s upercritical water , the obtained pressure and temperature allow a significant yield gains. In addition, the supercritical water offers important properties. Particularly there is no more possible coexistence between vapor and liquid. Therefore, we don't have more boiling problem, one of the phenomena which limits the specific power of PWR and BWR. Since 1950s, the reactor of supercritical water was the subject of studies more or less detailed but neglected. From the early 1990s, this type of conception benefits of some additional interests. Therefore, in the international term G eneration IV , the supercritical water reactors had been considered as one of the big options for study as Generation IV reactors. In the CEA, an active city has engaged from 1930 with the participation to a European program: The HPWR (High Performance Light Water Reactor). In this contest, the R and D studies are focused on the fields of neutrons, thermodynamic and materials. The CEA intends to pursue a limited effort of R and D in this field, in the framework of international cooperation, preferring the study of versions of rapid spectrum. (author)